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Cl ass c i G ene cs ti Gene interaction
Cl
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Gene interaction
How long have humans applied the principles of heredity 10,000 to 20,000 years ago Middle
How long have humans applied
the principles
of heredity
10,000 to 20,000 years ago
Middle East
Domestication of wheat, dogs, goats, sheep
Wheat Larger More seeds No shatter
Wheat
Larger
More
seeds
No shatter
Impact of the Green Revolution Norman Borlaug won a Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 Dwarf,
Impact of the Green Revolution
Norman Borlaug won a Nobel Peace Prize in 1970
Dwarf, photoperiod insensitivity, and disease
resistance…
Between 1966 and 1999 rice yield increased by 132%
and wheat 91% worldwide.
Nature Reviews Genetics 2, 815-822 (October 2001)
Breeding practices “a” pedigree breeding “b” hybrid A line is sterile B line is maintainer
Breeding practices
“a” pedigree breeding
“b” hybrid
A line is sterile
B line is maintainer
R line is restorer
“c” shuttle
Two different
growing
environments
Rice Tall conventional type Improved high- yielding and high-tillering “Super rice” low tillering but sturdy
Rice
Tall conventional
type
Improved high-
yielding and
high-tillering
“Super rice” low
tillering but
sturdy stems and
more grain per
panicle
Nature Reviews Genetics 2, 815-822 (October 2001)
Terminology Trait – any attribute under genetic control (a gene) Hair color Seed shape Alleles
Terminology Trait – any attribute under genetic control (a gene) Hair color Seed shape Alleles
Terminology
Trait – any attribute under genetic control (a gene)
Hair color
Seed shape
Alleles – form of a gene
Hair color (blonde, red, brown)
Seed shape (round, wrinkled)
Blood types (O, A, B, and AB)
Locus – location of gene on a chromosome
Terminology Genotype - genetic makeup of an individual TT, Tt, or tt for flower placement
Terminology
Genotype - genetic makeup of an individual
TT, Tt, or tt for flower placement
Phenotype - visual appearance of an individual
axial or terminal flower placement
Terminology Dominant – expressed when present Recessive – only expressed when homozygous Homozygous –genotype
Terminology
Dominant – expressed when present
Recessive – only expressed when homozygous
Homozygous –genotype for a trait are the same
TT or tt
Heterozygous –genotype for a trait are different
Tt
H y b idi r za ti on Progeny from crossing two individuals that are
H
y
b idi
r
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ti
on
Progeny from crossing two individuals
that are different in one or more traits
Hybridization F – derived from the word FILIAL, which is defined as the sequence of
Hybridization
F – derived from the word FILIAL, which is
defined as the sequence of generations after
the mating of two parents
F 1 – first generation
F 2 – second generation
Mendel’s principle of inheritance First – observable traits (i.e. seed color) were determined by independent
Mendel’s principle of inheritance
First – observable traits (i.e. seed color) were
determined by independent genes of
inheritance, and that different alleles are
associated with all genes.
Mendel’s principle of inheritance Second – Principle of uniformity of F 1 progeny Trait expressed
Mendel’s principle of inheritance
Second – Principle of uniformity of F 1 progeny
Trait expressed in F 1 is controlled by the
dominant allele
When two different, but homozygous
individuals are crossed their F 1 progeny will
be uniform. ( SS x ss = Ss)
Mendel’s principle of inheritance Third – Independent segregation If an individual contains a pair of
Mendel’s principle of inheritance Third – Independent segregation If an individual contains a pair of
Mendel’s principle of inheritance
Third – Independent segregation
If an individual contains a pair of unlike alleles
(i.e. heterozygous tall – Dd), then each gamete
has a 50 % chance of receiving the tall or dwarf
allele. (D or d)
Gametes and organization WWRRNN Wwrrnn WwRrnn WwRrNn
Gametes and organization
WWRRNN
Wwrrnn
WwRrnn
WwRrNn
Patterns in Heredity Axial flower placement x Terminal flower placement All Axial flowers = F
Patterns in Heredity
Axial flower placement x Terminal flower placement
All Axial flowers = F 1
What can we infer from this?
1. Dominance
2. Parental genotypes
3. Genomic notation
Punnett square Gametes of female parent typically written along the top and male gametes along
Punnett square
Gametes of female parent typically written along the top
and male gametes along the side.
All Axial flowers
Self the F1
What is F 2 genotypic and phenotypic ratio?
Gene expression in Hybridization Gene expression: Full or Complete Dominance Three genotypes but two phenotypes
Gene expression in Hybridization
Gene expression:
Full or Complete Dominance
Three genotypes but two phenotypes
Incomplete, Co-dominance, or Partial
dominance
Three genotypes and three phenotypes
M ono y h bi r d s One gene pair Note: you will not
M
ono y
h
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One gene pair
Note: you will not have enough room to
write notes on these handouts. Refer
slides to a sheet of note paper.
Monohybrid cross with Full Dominance Full or Complete Dominance –heterozygote is equal to dominant homozygote
Monohybrid cross with Full Dominance
Full or Complete Dominance –heterozygote
is equal to dominant homozygote
Comb in poultry
S_- Rose comb
ss - single comb
Monohybrid with Incomplete Dominance Incomplete, Co-dominance or Partial dominance - heterozygote express different
Monohybrid with Incomplete Dominance
Incomplete, Co-dominance or Partial
dominance - heterozygote express different
phenotype
Example: Flower Color
WW – red flowers
Ww – pink flowers
ww – white flowers
Monohybrid cross with Incomplete Shorthorn cattle WW – red Ww – roan (mix of white
Monohybrid cross with Incomplete
Shorthorn cattle
WW – red
Ww – roan (mix of white and red hair)
ww – white
Egg plant color In a cross between two egg plants, parent one has purple fruit
Egg plant color
In a cross between two egg plants, parent one
has purple fruit and parent two has white fruit.
The F 1 generation was all lavender. What is
the genotype of all fruit mentioned?
Melon seed color J. W. McKay crossed a tan seeded melon with a red seeded
Melon seed color
J. W. McKay crossed a tan seeded melon with
a red seeded melon and obtained 13 tan-
seeded melon in the F 1 and in the F 2 73 tan-
and 24 red-seeded melon. What is the
inheritance of tan- and red-seeded melon and
give genotypes to all phenotypes (parents, F 1
and F 2 ).
Corn kernels A purple-kernel corn plant was crossed with a yellow-kernel corn plant. The F
Corn kernels
A purple-kernel corn plant was crossed with a
yellow-kernel corn plant. The F 1 embryo
produced all purple-kernel corn. The seed
from 100 F 1 plants produced 66 purple-kernel
corn plant and 34 yellow-kernel corn plants.
Which trait is dependent on a dominant
factor? Show genotypes of all plants. How
many purple-kernel plants in the F 2 would be
homozygous? How many yellow-kernel
plants in the F 2 would be homozygous?
Dih b y r id s Two gene pairs
Dih b
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Two gene pairs
Dihybrid crosses Both full Dominance W_ - red flower ww – white flower Homozygous red
Dihybrid crosses
Both full Dominance
W_ - red flower
ww – white flower
Homozygous red dwarf cross with
D_ - Tall
dd - dwarf
homozygous white tall
1. What are phenotypes of parents?
2. What is F 1
3. What is F 2 genotypic ratio and phenotypic ratio.
4. What is probability of Red Tall in F 2 ?
Dihybrid Cross full and incomplete dominance WW – Red Ww – Pink ww – white
Dihybrid Cross
full and incomplete dominance
WW – Red
Ww – Pink
ww – white
Self a WwDd
D_ - Tall
dd - dwarf
1. What are phenotype of parents?
2. What is phenotype of F 1
3. What is probability of white tall progeny?
Dihybrid crosses Both incomplete dominance WW- red Ww - pink ww – white Parental cross
Dihybrid crosses
Both incomplete dominance
WW- red
Ww - pink
ww – white
Parental cross of a Red
dwarf x white Tall
DD – Tall
Dd - medium
dd - dwarf
1. What are genotypes of parents?
2. What is F 1 genotype and phenotype
3. What is F 2 genotypic ratio and phenotypic ratio.
4. What is probability of pink medium in F 2 ?
Dihybrid Cross both incomplete dominance Color of nose and hoof color WW – Black Ww
Dihybrid Cross
both incomplete dominance
Color of nose and hoof color
WW – Black
Ww – Pink
ww – white
Pink nosed white
hoofed x Black nosed
pink
PP - Black
Pp - white
pp - pink
1. What are genotype of parents
2. What are possible progeny?
3. What is probability of a pink nosed pink
hoofed individual
Chickens In fowl, feathered legs (C) are dominant over clean legs and rose comb (S)
Chickens
In fowl, feathered legs (C) are dominant over clean legs
and rose comb (S) is dominant over single comb. Two
males A and B are bred to two hens C and D. All four
birds are feather-legged and rose-combed. Male A with
hen C produced both feathered and clean but all rose-
combed offspring, but with hen D produced all feathered
but part rose-combed and part single combed offspring.
Male B produced offspring that were all feathered and
rose-combed with both hens. Determine the genotypes of
all four parents.
Watermelon A red fruited watermelon with green stripes was crossed with a red fruited watermelon
Watermelon
A red fruited watermelon with green stripes
was crossed with a red fruited watermelon
with solid green and produced 25, red fruited,
green stripped offspring; 10 red fruited solid
green; 9 yellow fruited green striped; and 3
yellow fruited solid green offspring. Develop
a workable legend and determine genotypes of
all plants mentioned
Muskmelons In melons, bitter fruit is dominant over sweet fruit, and yellow spots are dominant
Muskmelons
In melons, bitter fruit is dominant over sweet fruit, and
yellow spots are dominant over no spots. The genes for
these two characteristics assort independently. A
homozygous plant that has bitter fruit and yellow spots is
crossed with a homozygous plant that has sweet fruit and
not spots. The F 1 are intercrossed and produce the F 2 .
What will be the phenotypic ratio of the F ?
If an F 1 plant is backcrossed with the bitter, yellow-spotted
parent, what phenotypes and proportions are expected in the
offspring?
If an F 1 plant is backcrossed with the sweet, non-spotted
parent, what phenotypes and proportions are expected in the
offspring?
2
T r ih y b r id s Three gene pairs
T
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Three gene pairs
Trihybrid cross Full Dominance W_ - Red ww – white Parental cross of a Red,
Trihybrid cross
Full Dominance
W_ - Red
ww – white
Parental cross of a Red, dwarf,
narrow x white, tall, wide
D_ - Tall
dd – dwarf
1. In the F 2 , what is the probability of
Wwddnn
N_ - wide
nn – narrow
2. In the F 2 , what is the probability of a
Red dwarf narrow plant
See Trihybrid, Full Dominance.pdf
Cat coat color In cats, black coat color is dominant over gray. A female black
Cat coat color
In cats, black coat color is dominant over
gray. A female black cat whose mother is
gray mates with a gray male. If this female
has a litter of six kittens, what is the
probability that three will be black and three
will be gray?

Horse coat color

Horse coat color Palomino horses have a golden yellow coat, chestnut horses have a brown coat

Palomino horses have a golden yellow coat, chestnut horses have a brown coat, and cremello horses have a coat that is almost white. What are the genotypes of the parents?

Parents

Offspring

Palomino x palomino

13

palomino, 6 chestnut, 5

cremello

Chestnut x chestnut

16

chestnut

Cremello x cremello

13

cremello

Palomino x chestnut

8 palomino, 9 chestnut

Palomino x cremello

11

palomino, 11 cremello

Chestnut x cremello

23

palomino

8 palomino, 9 chestnut Palomino x cremello 11 palomino, 11 cremello Chestnut x cremello 23 palomino