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Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) EngineNeed for Society

06/05/2009

By Prof. Sanjay Harip Government Polytechnic, Nasik, India June, 16th ,2009
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Agenda

Necessity Vehicle Pollution Norms What is new in HCCI Engine? Methodology and Experiments Results Main Challenges Conclusion
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Diesel Engines Contribute to Multiple Air Pollutants


Greenhouse Gases
- CO2, methane

Ozone
( NOx)

Particles (PM)
(NOx, SOx, )

Toxics
- Diesel particles

Carbon monoxide
(CO)
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Annual Health Impacts of Diesel Emissions in the world

2,900 premature deaths 240,000 asthma attacks/ respiratory symptoms 600,000 lost work days

Source- WHO report 2007


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Diesels Account for Nearly Half of NOx Emissions


Area wide - 2%
Industrial - 21%

Passenger vehicles - 26%

Off road equipment - 2%

Diesel trucks - 24%


Trains- - 9%

Diesel equipment - 16%

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Need for Emission Reduction


Energy resources and reduction of CO2 will gain importance

Emission reduction and legislation focus

Emission % 100 80 60 40 20 1970

Diesel HDT PM, NOx Diesel


HC+NOx, CO

Energy

Green house Effect , Co2/NOX

Exhaust Emission HC, CO, NOx, PM


1980 2000 2005 2010 2012

To Meet Following Demands of the Society


Reduction in exhaust emission To achieve EURO5 norms by 2010 Higher Thermal efficiency Energy Economy

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Emission Legislation
Tier Date
CO Gm/KM HC Gm/K m HC +NOx Gm/KM NOx Gm/Km PM Gm/Km

Diesel Euro1 Euro2 Euro3 071996 012000 012005 2.73 1 0.64 0.1 0.97 0.7 0.56 0.5 0.14 0,08 0.05

Euro 4 Euro5
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012007 012010

0.5 0.5

0.1 0.05

0.300 0.3

0.25 0.25

0.025 0.01
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Demands

and

Engine, Transmission
POWER PLANT MANAGEMENT

specify

Addition al Needs

Legislation Emissions CO2/NOX

Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Customer Demands Driving Pleasure / Agility Consumption Comfort

Process Improvement ( HCCI) Recomanded by SAE


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so HOMOGENOUS CHARGE COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE


IS

THE EFFECTIVE WAY TO MEET THESE REQUIREMENTS


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Technologies to Make Diesel Cleaner


Fuel Injection Equipment
Exhaust Aftertreatment

Advanced Combustion System


1 mf Prod uct1 1/20 Scop e G ain 0.5 45 Dis play7

3. 426e+ 005 Dis play3

Bulk Tem p. Cyl. P res s . fair 0.0 14 eng ine s peed D is play12 m odot mf NO x and P articulate PM 5 PM NO x 4 NOx

3 1 u Math Function 3 EGRvalve 3.5 67e+0 05 P roduct P roduct2 AF

n n me grdot Trqc ntc mc dot Tic out Tc out Tcout me grairdot Tic out Te gr
405 .2

modot mf1 Pim mim mima ir fa ir Tim mf2 mf3 mf4 mf5 mf6 P im

mc dot1 P im

mc dot

Compre ss or

Inte rcooler

Inta ke Ma nifold
Dis play8

Trqc ntc Trqt


Dis play6

405. 2

Pex

Tim

V1 P1 Wc yc 1 T1 Ti1 V2 P2 Wc yc 2 T2 Ti2 V3 P3 Wc yc 3 T3 Ti3 V4 P4 Wc yc 4 T4 Ti4 V5 P5 Wc yc 5 T5 Ti5 V6 P6 Wc yc 6 T6 Ti6 ins ta nta ne ous tq. a v. ind. tq. a v. e x. t emp. a v. friction tq.

Dis play4 S cope4

S cope 1

me m me gra irdot me m Pex Te x Twa ll mexdot me ma ir me grdot EG Rcoolout EG Rcoolin Te gr me grdot me mair EG Rva lve Pe grd megrdildot Pe gru

modot mtdot me grdot a v. e x. te mp mfdot n fa ir

Exha ust Ma nifold


814. 1 Dis play9

EGR EGRc oole r

815 Dis pla y1 1

Turbine Ine rtia

Cyl-by-cyl combus tion

S cope3

0 2 VG Tvane Display 18 80 Dis play10

Ti
9. 213e+ 004 Dis play5

n Tfr
4

1 n

Pex Ttout Tloa d ntc Trqt Te x VG Tva ne mtdot


S cope2 Engine Lo ad

Tbr

2 Tbr

Engine Ine rtia

VGTurbine

Air & EGR Management

Courtesy of AVL

Control System

Why HCCI Engine ?


High efficiency and ultra low emission w.r.t conventional Diesel engine. To achieve near zero NOx and soot emission to achieve latest Euro Norms ( E5) To reduce fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emission.
Every one percent increase of diesel HCCI car saves 90 million liters of fuel per year. This corresponds to emission saving of some 210000 metric tones of Co2 )

(Law of Diesel HCCI

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What Is HCCI?
HCCI is a combustion process. HCCI is not an engine concept. HCCI must be incorporated in an engine concept. HCCI is a low temperature chemically controlled (flameless) combustion process. HCCI can be considered as a hybrid form between the diesel and Otto combustion process. However combustion process is different. So there is neither Diffusion flame (as in a diesel engine) nor a flame front traveling through a premixed charge ( as in SI engine).
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HISTORY OF HCCI

1979 Onishi et al who discovered HCCI and adopted in ATAC (Active Thermo Atmosphere Combustion) Engine. 1989- Experiments were made at Lund University on 4- stroke diesel engine and EGR concept were discovered to reduce NOx. After KYOTO Protocol (Dec-1997), it was decided that to pay attention towards diesel vehicles to reduce green house gas and NOx. ( Co2 up to 180 ppm)
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WORKING PRINCIPLE OF HCCI


1.

2.

Homogenous charge is drawn in to the cylinder during suction and compress to high enough temperature to achieve spontaneous ignition of the charge. As shown in the images by the camera( 20 images per CAD) it can be seen that. Combustion starts in almost whole volume of C.C Two degree before TDC (CAD- 02). After Combustion initiation the temperature rapidly increases and whole fuel burn simultaneously ( CAD0 to CAD +03). As whole mixture burns simultaneously and no flame propagation , combustion temp. can be controlled less than 700 deg Centigrade and thus NOx formation is avoided.

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PHOTO SEQUENCE OF HCCI COMBUSTION, BASED ON 20 FP CAD CAMERA

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Control of Combustion

Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Exhaust Gas Recirculation ( EGR) Injection Strategy Combination of all

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VCR Engine technology

Courtesy - MCE corporation, France


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Exhaust Gas Recirculation


Three important factors can be increases ignition delay lowers combustion temperature Dilution of Intake charge It has been proved to be an effective way to reduce NOx 30 to 35% reduction in Nox by using 5 to 20% EGR
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Injection Strategy

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Experimental Result of HCCI Engine


DI-DIESEL HCCI - 0% EGR HCCI - 10% EGR HCCI - 20% EGR HCCI - 30% EGR HCCI - 40% EGR

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NOx [GM/(kWH) ]

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

BSFC [ GM/(kWH) ]

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Experimental Setup At Government Polytechnic Ahmednagar by changing injection strategy

Four Cylinder Conventional DI Diesel engine converted in HCCI engine on Test Bed
Make Bore Stroke Compression Ratio Displacement Fuel Kirloskar 81 mm 92.3 mm 17 80cc Diesel Direct Injection

The main Challenges with Making HCCI Practically

Effective Control System for ignition timing . To achieve practically Variable Compression ratio. Injection strategy w.r.t load condition .

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Future scenario
Future Share of:
10 0 with CAI + supercharging + Starter/generator DI-Gasoline and VVA ? and/or VCR ? and combinations w/o CAI

Engines (Passenger Cars)

Fuels

80

Conventional (MPI)

Market Share (%)

Oil based fuels Improved fuels Clean fuels Designed fuels

GASOLINE 60
Internal Combustion Engine
starter / battery

Gasoline/Diesel Engine
with Starter/Generator

With HCCI
+ supercharging DI-Diesel Starter/generator and VVA / multiple

40

DIESEL 20
IDI

Gas based fuels CNG GTL fuels Bio-fuels Hydrogen Year 2020

injection? w/o HCCI 2000 2005 2010 2015

Hybrid Fuel Cell 2020

Model Year

Conclusion
HCCI engines are more efficient than SI and CI engines. Lower emission of PM and NOx to meet future norms (Euro 5 Norms ). It has fuel flexibility. HCCI engines will be cheaper than the presently used engines because of simplicity. But Control on Ignition timing is essential.

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References

Andr RAULT, General Secretary, Mid and Long Term Power trains Evolution, Presentation in EUCAR, 2002 Physics-based Modeling and Control of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines, G.M.Shavar, DDL, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University 2005. Variable Compression Ratio ( Technology 2008-2012, MCE5, France
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06/05/2009

Thank you

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