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AM 20 MINE DETECTION AND MARKING ROBOT

PREPARED BY-

NYEIN CHANN

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE

SESSION 2006/2007

Landmine detection and marking robot Summary

Summary

The purpose of this project is to design a robot which is capable of detecting buried landmines and marking their locations, while enabling the operator to control the robot wirelessly from a distance. This is a collaboration project between DSTA and NUS.

This is a pioneer project in NUS and therefore the development of the robot had to be initiated from the very basic steps. The project was started from the brain storming phase together with the research phase and then proceeded into the conceptualization or designing phase. The ideas and concepts from the theoretical stages are shaped into the physical hardware components by fabrication of a prototype and then software programs are integrated into the system so as to test and experiment the concepts that had been developed.

The designed robot is capable of detecting a buried mine, marking the exact location of the buried mine, and controlling itself from stepping over it and detonating the mine. The detection of the buried mine is done by using metal detectors since most land mines contain metal components. The marking of the location of the possible buried mine area will be done by spraying distinctive colour paint onto that location. With the use of interchangeable four pairs of wheels, the avoiding of the possible buried mine location can be executed without requiring the robot to dodge around that spot.

Landmine detection and marking robot Summary

The robot will travel in a straight line path, marking the possible buried mine spots and clearing 1.2 meter wide lane in one pass. The system allows the operator to stay at a safe distance by enabling him to control the robot wirelessly or remotely. The robot travels at 0.3 km/h and therefore it can clear a distance of 100 meters (with a width of 1.2 meter) in approximately about 20 minutes.

The reliability of the robot depends upon the type of sensors or detectors being used. Therefore, the robot platform has been designed to be versatile enough to work with any detectors installed onto it. This project has opened up a new area of research to be explored.

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Landmine detection and marking robot Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Associate Professor Gerard Leng, for his invaluable guidance and advices. His guidance has paved me to handle the project professionally and his advices have been a great help in executing the project. I would like to thank sincerely to the stuff of Dynamics and Vibrations Lab for helping me in not only technical matters but also administrative matters. I would also thank DSTA (Defence Science & Technology Agency) for giving me a chance to participate in great research project and providing project funding. Last but not least, I would like to express my gratitude to my peers who have helped tremendously and the friendly postgraduates who had shared their opinions openly.

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Landmine detection and marking robot Table of contents

Table of Contents
Contents Page No

Summary Acknowledgement Table of content List of figures List of Tables List of Symbols

I III IV VI VIII IX

Chapter 1: Introduction..1 1.1 Purpose 1 1.2 Objectives1 1.3 Scope 2 1.4 Challenges 2 Chapter 2: Literature survey

....4

Chapter 3: Design conceptualization ....7 3.1 The detector 7 3.2 A carrying vehicle 9 3.3 Data processing unit 11 3.4 Designing location marking mechanism 14 3.5 Designing location marking mechanism 15 Chapter 4: Fabrication of the prototype ..18 4.1 The scanner 20 4.2 The location marking mechanism 21 4.3 The body 22 4.4 The processing unit 30 Chapter 5: Experimental results Chapter 6: Conclusion ....35

....37

Chapter 7: Recommendations ....38

References

....39

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Landmine detection and marking robot Table of contents

Appendices

....40 A

DC motor selection table

Recommendation on the use of infrared thermal imaging camera

Detecting the mine by sniffing for the explosive inside the mine G Off the shelf metal detector used in the prototype I Alternative detection system for the robot Engineering Drawings J

Landmine detection and marking robot List of figures

List of Figures

1. M14 Antipersonnel mine 2. M15 Anti-tank mine 3. Use of metal detector 4. Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) 5. Thermal image of buried landmines 6. Comet III, Landmine detecting walking robot 7. Landmine detection robot equipped with metal detector 8. Algorithm of processing unit 9. The sequence of detected mine avoiding mechanism 10. Four different views of the prototype 11. Top view of the prototype 12. General view of 3D model 13. General view of the prototype 14. Metal detectors on the prototype 15. Small vehicle that shuttle inside the scanner, carrying the detectors from end to end 16. Simplify circuit diagram of paint spraying unit 17. The base structure of the prototype 18. Support plate that carries one front wheel and one rear wheel 19. C-channel attached onto the supporting plate in order to prevent deflection 20. Mine avoiding mechanism

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Landmine detection and marking robot List of figures 21. Mine avoiding mechanism, Inside set of wheels are lifted up to avoid mine that might lies on their path 22. Front wheel motor with speed controller 23. Processing unit comprises of a 12-remotely controlled relays unit and a programmable micro-controller 24. Simplify connections of inputs and outputs at the micro-controller

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Landmine detection and marking robot List of Tables

List of Tables
1. Comparism of Thermal imaging cameras provided by two different companies

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Landmine detection and marking robot List of symbols

List of Symbols

W: F: g: I: L: m: P: r: v: : :

Weight Force Acceleration due to gravity Moment of inertia Length Mass Power Radius Linear velocity Angular velocity Static coefficient of friction

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 1

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Purpose

The landmine crisis is globally alarming since there are presently 500 millions unexploded, buried mines in about 70 countries. Governments are looking into this situation seriously since landmines are claiming the limbs and lives of civilians everyday. Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) is trying to explore this area and work jointly with National University of Singapore (NUS) to develop a land mine detection unit. The purpose of this project is to design a robot which is capable of detecting buried land mines and marking their locations, while enabling the operator to control the robot wirelessly from a distance.

1.2 Objectives

1. A land mine detection robot is needed to be designed to employ in peace support operations and in the clearance of contaminated areas. 2. The robot shall be able to detect 90% of landmines (Anti-personnel mines and Anti-tank mines) and mark the locations of the mines within a tolerance of 5cm. 3. For the safety of the operator, the designed robot must be able to operate remotely, moreover, must be equipped with wireless data transmitting capabilities.

Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 1 4. The robot shall not detonate the mines while scanning the area and marking the locations of the mines.

1.3 Scope

The information gathered through research is presented in chapter 2. The analysis and discussion upon the acquired data are also included. Based on the data accumulated, the sequence of conceptualization of the final design of the robot is articulated in chapter 3. After the final design had been decided and built on the 3D virtual CAD software, a prototype was built to represent the design concept of the finalized design. This process is explained in detail in chapter 4. It is followed by discussion and interpretation of experimental results in chapter 5. The chapter 6 presents the conclusion of this project, while chapter 7 offers recommendations for further improvement for this project.

1.4 Challenges

Not only is the presence of the mine is required to be discovered, it also needs the robot to mark the location of the mine with an accuracy of 5cm radius. Such accurate location marking system is needed to be designed and installed on the robot. The geographical nature of the mine field is expected to be a little rough with grass or gritty ground. Therefore, a minimum clearance height from the

Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 1 ground to the bottom of the vehicle is required and a suspension system is required in the vehicle. To avoid detonating the land mines, either the wheels must be lifted from the ground or the vehicle has to be driven around the mines. At the same time, the robot must be able to mark the locations of the detected mines. To enable a wireless communication system, places for radio transmitters and receivers will have to be incorporated. The budget is constrained to $4000 Singapore dollars to create a prototype mine detection and marking module.

In order to fulfill the objectives and overcome the challenges, the following steps are carried out carefully. A thorough research was carried out in order to gather information regarding the existing systems and other solutions relating to the problems. The accumulated data was analyzed thoroughly and ideas generated through brain storming. The generated ideas were filtered through the criteria required by the project objectives. After a series of reviewing and revising, a final design was produced as a 3 dimensional solid model on CAD software known as Pro-E. The components were fabricated according to the 3D model and equipments were purchased and installed according to the final design. Several tests were carried out at in-between stages to ensure the workability of each mechanism inside the robot. After a complete assembly of the robot, test runs were carried out to determine the reliability of the robot.

Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 2

Chapter 2 : Literature Survey

Landmines are easy-to-make, cheap and effective weapons that can be deployed easily over large areas to prevent enemy movements. Mines are often laid in groups, called mine fields, and are designed to prevent the enemy from passing through a certain area, or sometimes to force an enemy through a particular area. While more than 350 varieties of mines exist, they can be broken into two categories, namely, anti-personnel mines and anti-tank mines.

Anti-personnel mines are designed to kill or injure enemy combatants. They are usually buried 10mm to 40mm beneath the soil and it requires about 9 kg minimum pressures to detonate them. The face diameter of most the anti-personal mines ranges from 5.6cm to 13.3cm. Figure 1. M14 Antipersonnel Landmine

An anti-tank mine is a type of land mine designed to damage or destroy vehicles including tank and armored fighting vehicles. An applied pressure of 158 kg minimum is Figure 2. M15 Anti-tank Landmine required to detonate it; hence the footstep of a

Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 2 person won't detonate them. Most anti-tank mines possess a larger face diameter compare to anti-personal mines, usually around 33.7cm.

The landmine is eternally prepared to take victims. It is true that the forgotten landmines are taking the lives of civilians every now and then. Thus, different counties use different methods to deal with buried landmines which possess potential danger to the lives of its own civilians. The most commonly used methods are as followed.

Probing the ground ; For many years, the most sophisticated technology used for locating landmines was probing the ground with a stick or bayonet. Soldiers are trained to poke the ground lightly with a bayonet and search for buried mines. Metal Detectors ; The detectors try to discover a buried mine by sensing the metal components inside the mines. Ground Penetrating Radar ; This equipment detects the inconsistencies in the soil and tries to identify the differences in the densities of the soil and a buried mine. The use of trained dogs and rats ; They are trained to sniff out vapors coming from the explosive ingredients inside the landmine. Moreover, various on-going researches are being carried out around the world either trying to improve the existing methods of sniffing for buried mines or hoping to discover new methods of detecting buried mines with better accuracy.

Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 2 At the same time, landmine detection robots are created by various organizations trying to solve the forgotten landmines problems. Some of the above mentioned mine detection methods are installed onto uniquely designed robots to perform the desired jobs, finding the mines without detonating them. Wheeled robots are mainly used to dodge around the possible mine buried spots, while some tracked robots are designed to possess weight lighter than detonating pressure and then they roll over the mines after marking the possible spots. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are also deployed to scan the mine fields. The most advanced carrying vehicle is a walking robot with mechanical legs.

Different combinations of mine detecting unit and carrying vehicle are employed with the aim of detecting all the mines in the desired direction and precisely pin-pointing their locations, with efficiency.

The reliability on a landmine searching robot is highly dependent upon the performance of the detector with respect to the landmines, whereas, the purpose of the carrying vehicle is to provide the require pattern of movement in such a way that the detector can do its job. A data processing unit is needed on board, to process the input data from the operator and to send out output data to the specific mechanism to perform the necessary function.

Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 3

Chapter 3 : Design conceptualization

As mentioned in chapter 2, a land mine searching robot must comprise of three basic features, namely; the mine detector, a carrying vehicle and a data processing unit.

3.1 The detector

For the past decade, landmines, both anti-personnel and anti-tank mines, are made in metal casings. Therefore, the detection of landmine by using metal detectors is a simple and workable method. However, nowadays, the mines

manufacturers tend to use as little metal as possible to redundant the use of metal detectors and so that their landmines will serve their purpose. Figure 3. Use of Metal detector

Moreover, the metal detectors give out false signals upon sensing every presence of metal pieces instead of only when detecting the real mine. In statistical language, it can be said that 100 to 10,000 false signals are sent out before detecting a real landmine.

Due to the above reasons, using a metal detector as a mine detector in the robot has become an unfavorable option.

Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 3

Another proposal to search for a buried mine is the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR). This equipment detects the inconsistencies in the soil and tries to identify the differences in the densities of the soil and a buried mine. This concept is theoretically workable; however, it is not an absolute fool-proof

Figure 4. Ground Penetration Radar (GPR)

system since natural inconsistencies in the soil can trigger a false alarm. On going researches are carried out around the world in order to rectify the false alarms and to detect the buried mines without missing it.

The third concept comes with a simple physics theory. Each element or each material has their own thermal properties, such as thermal conductivity, rate of heat absorption and thermal radiation. A buried landmine comprises of different materials from the surrounding soil and they will react to the surrounding heat in a different manner from the soil. They will absorb the heat slower or faster than the surrounding soil and they will release or radiate the contained heat slower or faster than the surrounding soil. Therefore, at any point of time, the land mine will possess slightly different temperature form the surrounding, due to the constantly varying heat supply from day time and night time. Figure 5. Thermal image of buried landmines

Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 3

Therefore, thermal imaging Infra Red camera is the best option for this project. They provide us with thermal images whose displays enable us to differentiate objects with different temperature profiles. However, on the other hand, the prices of the thermal imaging cameras are expensive; they range from $40,000 and above. Due to budget constraints, the idea of employing and experimenting with the thermal imaging cameras is saved for the next stage of this project. The same applies for GPR (ground penetration radar) since the equipment is expensive and requires military clearance in order to purchase one. Hence, even though metal detectors may seem inferior in performance to thermal imaging cameras and GPR, they are the most suitable to be used in the first stage of this venturing project.

3.2 A carrying vehicle

A transport system is required to carry and transport the mine detection unit. The mine fields are expected to have plain, leveled but mildly rough terrains.

The very first proposal of transport unit is a walking robot, either four legged or six legged. Using legged robots will give great advantages in walking though rough terrain since it has the ability to balance itself and ability to avoid holes and small obstacles. Figure 6. Comet III Landmine detecting walking robot

Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 3 However, the draw back is the designing of the robot. It can cost nearly a million dollar to build a smart robot and will take more than a years time to do so. The robot idea had to be abandoned due to the financial constraint and time constraint. Moreover, the smarter the robot is, the more complex its mechanisms will be, and the main objective of designing a land mine detection unit might be sidetracked and instead more efforts will be put into designing the robot.

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was taken into consideration while brainstorming for the transporting unit for the system. It possesses attractive advantages over land vehicles such as; ability to fly over a mine field without having to worry about detonating the mines. However, the difficulty to maintain the air lift at a constant height and the difficulty to maneuver the vehicle at low speed have put negative weight from selecting it. Some UAVs can be as complex as a walking robot in their own way; more time might have to be spent on designing it rather than working on detection of land mines.

Therefore, the goal is a simple yet workable concept. A vehicle with tracks system or wheels hints as a correct choice. Since a decent design can give good fraction, enough torque to overcome obstacles and easy maneuvering ability, this idea seems promising. Moreover, the designing and fabricating a vehicle will be much Figure 7. Landmine detection robot equipped with metal detector

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 3 cheaper and less time consuming than making a robot. Choosing between tracks or wheels is not difficult since tracks system is usually more complex than wheels and they both serve nearly identical purposes in this case. Therefore, it was decided that the vehicle with wheels will be employed as a transporting unit for the mine detection system.

After wheeled vehicles are chosen, the next stage of the challenge is avoiding the mines. Dodging the robot around the mines in the mine field is not a smart option. Therefore, a new way of avoiding the suspected mine buried spots was thought of. The idea is to lift up the wheels on whose path lays a buried mine and another set of wheels will touch down on the ground without having to move the robot. In other words, there will be a mechanism to interchange between two sets of wheels, if there lays a mine on the original path.

3.3 The data processing unit or control unit

A processing unit, installed on the robot, will be transmitting data from the robot to the operator, such as images from the cameras, and it will receive and process the commands from the operator to the robot. These signals will be transmitted and received through radio channels and the command signals received by the robot will be redistributed to the respective mechanisms to carry out the required processes.

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 3 The aim of the processing unit is to synchronize the movements of the mechanisms to perform the desired job. This mine detection robot is intended to detect the buried mines, make a mark on their locations and then continue looking for another mine without disturbing the marked mine.

Firstly, the scanner which is located at the front of the robot processes a metal detector that will scan and clear the path of 1.2m width. The scanner will stop scanning if there is no detection of a mine, and the robot will advance one step forward by activating the forward motor for 5 seconds. After which, the scanner will restart its scanning sequence. The robot would move forward again with no detection of mine. This scanning loop will continue until the scanner detects a mine.

Once the scanner detects a mine, the robot comes to a standstill and sends out signals back to the operator by both illuminating the Light Emitting Diode (LED) as well as beeping. The operator will then have to decide if it is a false alarm or a real detection of a mine. If the operator takes the warning as a false alarm, he will ignore it and restart the scanning loop. If warning is taken as a real detection of the mine, the operator has to send a command to the robot to mark the location by spraying distinctive colour paint on that spot.

Another decision that has to be made by the operator is if the detected mine lies on the path of the wheels which are currently on the ground, he has to send out a command to the robot to interchange with the other set of wheels. The command will

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 3 set in motion the rolling down of the other set wheels and the lifting up of the set of wheels that were originally on the ground. Now, the location of the detected mine has been marked and the robot is ready to advance forward to search for another mine without having to detour from its path. Figure 8. Algorithm of the Processing Unit

POWER

START

STOP

Scanner moves from L-R or R-L Light up LED No detection Detection of possible mine

Change the direction of the scanner Keep scanning until the scanner hits the other end

Position switch has been triggered Stop the movement of the scanner Forward wheels activated for 5 sec

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 3

In conclusion, our robot comprises of three major components, namely; a carrying vehicle (wheels), a data processing unit and a mine detection unit.

3.4 Designing the location marking mechanism

After the location of a land mine has been exposed, it is required to mark the position of the mine in order to facilitate the follow up demining process or to warn the marching troops. The suggested ideas for mine location marking process will be as followed.

Use GPS (Global Positioning System) to mark the location digitally. Use Flags to indicate the location visibly. Use bright color paints to highlight the location of a buried mine.

The first idea of using GPS to mark the location digitally might have been a good idea if satellite communication system is easily accessible in any region of the world. Moreover, the complexity of communication device that the robot needs to carry will put some negative votes towards the idea. Demining will be difficult since there is no visual indication of the exact location of the mine.

Indicating the location of discovered mines by flagging will be the best way to warn the troops and the best way to initiate the demining. Nevertheless, the

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 3 mechanism that the robot might possess in order to set up a flag upon finding mine can be quite complicated and can cost a lot of time designing it.

The third idea of using paint to indicate the presence of a land mine could be a simple and workable idea. Droplets of bright color paint will be dispersed from a nozzle, right onto the soil that is covering a land mine. A simple mechanism comprises of an electric motor, paint container, a few pipes and a nozzle, could be able to perform the desired job. Paint will give out visual warning and indication of the presence of a buried land mine.

3.5 Designing the mine avoiding mechanism

The first priority of the land mine detection robot is to expose the location of the buried mines. Then it will be followed up by marking the location of the mine. However, in order to sweep the whole mine field at one travel, the robot need to avoid from detonating or stepping over the buried mines. In another words, the robot is expected to sweep the mine field without detonating the marked mines. It needs to avoid them, at the same time sweeping the mine field without leaving an undetected square inch. In order to perform so, the robot must be capable of dodging the mines or going over the mines without touching them.

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 3 Dodging around the mine wont be a good idea since it might lead to leaving some undetected spots. Moreover, there is high possibility of detonating the mines while trying to dodge around the mines.

The second option of the robot going over the mines without touching them seems a complicated idea comparing to the idea of going around the mines. However, a creative designing and careful consideration can give us a workable solution with reliable mechanism. The suggested idea is described as followed.

There will be eight wheels suspended from the frame of the robot. Four wheels at the front and four at the rare. Since the wheels are operating independently from each other, some wheels can be lifted up in order to avoid the buried mines while the rest will stay on the ground to support the robot.

At the start of the operation, only four outermost wheels will be placed on the ground. If the detector has found a mine which lies on the path of either most-left wheels or most-right wheels, the robot will stop from moving. It will put down the rest four wheels onto the ground and now all eight wheels are on the ground. Then, the robot will lift up the most outermost four wheels, leaving the center four wheels on the ground to continue the mine sweeping operation. In this way, the mine which lay on the path of either most-left or most-right wheels can be avoided. The robot will repeat the operation from inside wheels to outside wheels if the detector finds mines laying on the path of center wheels.

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 3

Buried mine

Shaded block Wheel touching the ground Unshaded block Wheel lifted up

Outmost wheels are lifted up and center wheels touch the ground.

Mine lies on the path of inside wheel.

Center wheels are lifted up and outmost wheels touch the ground.

Figure 9. The sequence of detected mine avoiding mechanism

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4

Chapter 4 : Fabrication of the Prototype

Due to the factors of financial limitations, fabrication facilities limitations and time constraints, the making of the actual robot has to be done in the later phase of the project. Instead, a prototype is developed to represent the performance of the actual robot. In the making of the prototype, care is taken to ensure that it closely resembles the intended actual robot. Therefore, the prototype is of the same size as the actual robot and the number of components is the same. The components in the prototype are chosen or made as their functions are capable of performing as close as possible to the real robot.

Figure 10. Four different views of the prototype

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4

Figure 11. Top view of the Prototype Components - The Scanner - The Location Marking Mechanism - The Body - The Processing Unit

Figure 12. General view of 3D model

Figure 13. General view of the prototype 19

Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4 4.1 The Scanner Two off-the-shelf metal

detectors are deployed to represent the detector on the actual robot. The metal detectors consist of metal coils which creates electric fields around the detector. These electric fields are used to detect any presence of conductive materials or metals nearby. The

scanning width of the path is 1.2meters and therefore by installing 2 metal detectors separated 50centimeters apart, instead of only one, will cut down the scanning time by half. There are position switches on both ends of the scanning mechanism which guides it to move from left to right and right to left as every time the scanning mechanism reaches the edge. Figure 14. Metal detectors on the prototype

Figure 15. Small vehicle that shuttle inside the scanner, carrying the detectors from end to end

The detector is in constant communication with the processing unit and upon sensing the metal in near proximity, the detector will alert the processor and it will

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4 stop the scanning process. Consecutively, the output from the detector will be used to light up the LED and activate the warning beep to inform the operator. The detector will stop all motion and awaits the command from the operator to resume the scanning sequence. 4.2 The Location Marking Mechanism

After the detector has sent out the warning signal, the operator has to decide whether to ignore the warning or to accept that a mine has been detected. If he decides that a mine has been detected, the location marking mechanism will come into use.

The location marking mechanism consists of a paint container, an electric pump and a hose with nozzle. The relay indicated in the figure is
PUMP

controlled wirelessly and once the operator sends out a command, the relay will close the circuit and activate the pump. The nozzle is attached right next to the metal detector which is now above the detected mine. Therefore, the nozzle is already positioned to mark the suspected area.
+ RELAY

Figure 16. Simplify circuit diagram of paint spraying unit

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4 4.3 The Body

The purpose of the body is to house the components or mechanisms which are required for the prototype to function.

The first concern in fabricating the body of the prototype is the material selection. This is due to the constraints of the fabricating facilities and the complexities of the components. It is necessary to choose materials which are easy to machine, cut and form. Thus, high strength materials such as steel, cast iron and certain types of alloys which cannot be selected for the fabrication of the prototype. At the same time, dimensionally unstable materials such as plastics and polymers are not a better option as well since some components in the body of the prototype requires near precise dimensional features. Hence, aluminium is the best choice. By using 3-dimensional CAD software (Pro-E), a solid model of the prototype is first created virtually. The engineering detailed drawings of the components are created from the 3-D model in order to facilitate the fabrication of the components. Please refer to the appendix for the detailed drawings of the machined components. The components are designed in such a way that they are simple enough to be fabricated with minimum requirement of machining facilities. The interference test and fitting test are also carried out virtually in the 3-D model.

The body consists of the base structure and 2 major mechanisms. The purpose of the base structure is to provide reliable support for the mechanisms and to

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4 accommodate different devices intended for different purposes. The first mechanism is the motor that lift up or roll down the legs for mine avoiding purposes. The other mechanism is the robot legs with motorized wheels.

The components for the structure of the robot are mainly fabricated with simple shearing machine, electric cutting saw and manual filing. Off-the-shelf

fasteners are used to assemble the components while not forgetting to consider the minimum strength requirements of the structure. Figure 17. The base structure of the prototype

However, adjustments had to be made to the design of the components according to the available raw material and components. The shaft of the rotating wheel is a good example in this case. Total weight of the vehicle, Wtotal = 16 kg There will always be minimal of 4 wheels on the ground at any time. Therefore, weight carried by each wheel or each shaft, Wshaft = 16 / 4 = 4 kg The yield strength of the Brass (copper alloy) rod, 110 MPa to 275 Mpa. yield = 110 Mpa The required diameter of the rod, R = ? By using the safety factor of 2,

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4 Lets consider failure by shear, shear = Safety factor * (weight / cross sectional area) yield / 2 = 2 * (4*9.81 / R2 ) R2 = 4 * (4*9.81 / yield ) R2 = (4 / ) * (4*9.81 / yield ) R = 6.739 x 10-4 m R 0.67 mm It can be safely concluded that a 1mm diameter rod is safe to use for this purpose. However, the available rim for the wheel possesses 2.5mm diameter through hole. Moreover, the minimum available size of the coupler which will connect the motor and shaft is also 3mm to 3mm. Hence, a 3mm rod is selected instead of 1mm diameter copper rod. Another good example to show the lack of reality of the modeled 3-D virtual structure will be the deflection of the plate connecting the front wheel and rear wheel.

Figure 18. The support plate that carries one front and one rear wheel

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4 3-D model did not indicate the possible deflection caused by the load from top. However, from the simplified free body diagram below, the deflection in the supporting plate will be analyzed. Assuming that the support at the wheel be simple, single point support and the load from the lifting screws also be simple, single point loads. Assuming the load is equally distributed due to symmetrical design.

There will always be two plates at anytime, supporting the weight of 11 kg (weight of the upper portion of the robot + weight of the lifted up two other plates with four wheels) Hence, W = 11 / 4 = 2.75 kg a = 140 mm = 0.14 m l = 600 mm = 0.6 m I = (b * h3) / 12 = (0.08 * 0.0033) / 12 = 1.8 x 10-10 m4 E = 73.1 GPa (63 GPa 73.1 GPa) [ Higher value is take because 3D model doesnt show any sign of deflection.] By using the formula from Mechanical Engineering Design, 7th edition_ Deflection at the center, y = {(Wa) * (3l2 4a2)} / (24*E*I) By substitution of the numerical values, y = 0.01198 m 12mm

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4 Above calculation has shown that there will be deflection in the supporting plate which in turn can cause the system to be unstable. Therefore, a C-channel is added to reinforce the supporting plate to prevent it from bending.

Figure 19. C-channel attached onto the supporting plate in order to prevent deflection As per the above careful considerations, selection and fabrication, other components are created as well. Components are created using materials available off the shelf without compromising the strength of the structure.

The first mechanism is the motor that lift up or roll down the legs for mine avoiding purposes. One front and one rear wheel are paired up and connected through a plate. Thus, there are four pairs of wheels. At any point of time, two pairs of wheels are on the ground while the other two are lifted up. When a mine is detected in the line of Figure 20. Mine avoiding mechanism 26

Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4 the laid-down wheels, the other two pairs of wheels will be rolled down and the previously laid ones will be lifted up. Each pair of wheels is lifted up by means of threading up the plate that connects them. The lifting of each plate is executed by two 200rpm DC motors. These motors will be activated by the wirelessly controlled relay. Figure 21. Mine avoiding mechanism Inside set of wheels are lifted up to avoid mine that might lies on their path

The selection of the motors for this purpose is done by the following calculation. Weight of each supporting plate with front and rear wheel at the edge, 2.5 kg. The height of the wheel needed to be lifted up, 4cm. Desired time spending on lifting up the wheels, 10seconds. Number of motors used to lift up one supporting plate, 2 motors.

Motor

Threaded shaft

Applied torque by the motor, T Angular velocity of the shaft,

Weight to be lifted

Exerted force on the weight, F Moving up velocity, v

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4 Power input equals output, T*=F*v F = weight carried by each motor = 2.5 kg / 2 = 1.25 kg = 12.2625 N v = moving up velocity of the weight = 4cm / 10 s = 0.4 cm/s = 4 x 10-3 m/s RPM of the shaft = v * 60 * no. of thread per cm = 0.4 * 60 * 8 = 192 rpm [ M8 , 1.25 thread is used.] Angular velocity of the shaft , = RPM * (2 / 60) = 20.1 rad/s Hence torque exerted by the motor, T = (F * v) / = (12.2625 * 4x10-3) / 20.1 = 2.44x10-3 Nm = 0.025 kg.cm Hence, the motor with 206 rpm and 1.3 kg.cm torque is selected. ( Refer to the appendix for the table of the selection of motors.)

The

front

wheels

are

motorized whereas the rear wheels are followers of the front ones. These 30rpm DC motors are controlled by the processing unit. The processing unit will close the circuits for the front wheels motors momentarily in order to move the robot one step forward between the Figure 22. Front wheel motor with speed controller

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4 scanning sequences. To turn the robot left and right, skid steer method is used. For this movement, it will be carried out separately by the remotely controlled relay and independent from the processing unit. The speed controller circuits are installed right before the motors to fine tune each rotational speed in order to synchronize with the other motors.

The selections of the motors were made after careful calculation and determination of the specifications required. The calculations are as follows. For the forward moving motorsTotal weight of the robot, WT 16 kg * 9.81 = 156.96 N Static fractional coefficient between the rubber and the concrete pavement is between 0.6 to 0.8 for the case of dragging motion, however, for the case of rolling motion the coefficient of friction doesnt reach to its max value and usually it is between 0.016 and 0.05, therefore = 0.05

Frictional force, F = W * Velocity of the robot, v Power required to move the robot, P = F * v There are always four wheels on the ground at any time, whereby only two is powered by motors. Hence, power required to be generated by each motor, P (F*v)/2 The relationship between the torque and the power is defined as, P = T * , where = the angular velocity of the wheel
motor

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4 Hence, (F*v) / 2 = T * T = (F*v) / ( * 2) = (F * r) / 2 , where r is the radius of the wheel

= (156.96 * 0.05 * 0.06) / 2 = 0.235 Nm = 2.4 Kg.cm

The required torque for the motor is decided as 6 kg.cm with the speed of 30 rpm. The free space on the body plate is used to accommodate the processing unit, electrical circuits and battery packs. Since aluminium is electrically conductive, insulating layers are installed in between the electrical components and the aluminium body plate.

4.4 The Processing Unit

The main components of the prototype processor are the 16 legs microprocessor and 12 channels remote control relay system. They combine together to process the input data and generate the output commands. Assembly

Remote control

Programmable micro-controller

12 remotecontrolled relays unit

Figure 23. Processing unit comprises of a 12 remotecontrolled relays unit and a programmable micro-controller

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4 language is used to write up the program according to the algorithm that had been generated. The input signals into the processor are as followed. The scanner activation command from the operator, signals from position switches of the scanner and feed back signals from the detectors. The output signals go to the scanning mechanism, the front wheels motors, the paint pumps and the lifting mechanisms.

4 input pins

3 output pins

From Left Side Push button From Right Side Push button From Main switch ( remote )
From Metal detector

Microcontroller

Rotate left Rotate right To wheel motor

Figure 24. Simplify connections of inputs and outputs at the microcontroller utpu

PINS Inputs ( excluding power supply pins ) 1. left side push button 2. right side push button 3. main switch from remote control 4. from metal detector

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4 Outputs 5. rotate left 6. rotate right 7. to wheel motor

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4 Algorithm when power up 1. initialize one direction ( either turn on P5 or P6 ) 2. check P3 until it is high, once high, go to step 2. no need to check again. 2. ( internal ) put a flag inside microcontroller to give direction. When initializing the direction, or whenever there is a change in P1 or P2, this flag will change to give the direction. The flag will be either high or low to give right or left to go. Set this direction flag ( DF ), to low if the first initialization is to left direction, or high if initialization is to right. Once P1 is set ( high voltage ), set DF to high, and if P2 is set, set DF to low. The flag should not be changed until the next change occurs at P1 or P2 ( it should hold its state until microcontroller is turned off ). 3. check the direction flag ( DF ) all the time ( by using some looping ),* if it is low ( say representing left ), then turn on P5 ( give a high voltage ) , and if it is high ( say representing right ), then turn on P6 ( give a high voltage ) . Either P5 or P6 will turn on at a time, not both. Important Once the flag

is detected with change in voltage, turn off both P5 and P6 for about 5 seconds ( lets call this wheel moving time ). ( need to use buffer to check the change in DF: store current state in something, when the loop checks the DF again, check that value with the previously stored value. If it does not change, then overwrite stored value with the currently checked one. Then loop again ) Do not check the flag during this time (wheel moving time). And during this time, turn on P7 ( which is connected to wheel

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 4 motor ). REASON : pause the scanner and move forward. Then turn off P7 and *do direction change. 4. check P4 all the time. Once it is set, stop everything, meaning : turn off P5, P6, P7. No need to check inputs, except P3. wait until P3 is set. If it is set, go to step 2.

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 5

Chapter 5: Experimental Results

The test runs carried out with the prototype assure us of the success of the actual robot, except for some minor problems. The first problem arises from the metal detectors. Since they are made of cheap components and thus the reliability is uncertain. They are only able to detect metals that are larger than M8 nut. Sometimes, false alarms are given out due to detecting its own metal component from the circuit. However, this problem is solved by separating the detecting coil from the circuit with the use of plastic plates.

Another problem arises from the detector is that after the location of the metal has been marked, the scanning mechanism is supposed to restart and continue looking for another buried metal, however, it detects back the marked metal which is still in its close proximity. The warning alarm keeps on signaling without the scanner moving away from the marked area. This is solved by temporarily switching off the detectors while the scanning mechanism moving away from the detected metal.

The third problem occurs in the DC motors. These motors are not precision displacement providing motors. They are made to provide speed and torque closest to their specifications, but not the exact amount. Therefore, the motors installed on the front wheels are rotating at slightly different speeds which cause the robot to sway towards the slower rotating wheels side. At the same time, the lifting up process of the wheels and interchanging process of the sets of wheel in order to avoid the mines,

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 5 are also disturbed by the misalignment caused by the different in speeds of the lifting motors. Thus, speed controller circuits are installed prior to the motors in order to synchronize their speeds before using them in the mine searching process.

However, these minor problems wont occur in the actual robot since they are caused by the poor quality of the equipments not due to the concept or design of the robot.

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 6

Chapter 6: Conclusion

It has been successfully proven through the prototype that the proposed theory and concepts for a landmine exploring platform works perfectly. The prototype is capable of detecting the buried metal pieces, marking the exact location with distinctive colour paint, and controlling itself from stepping over it. It is also able to clear the path with 1.2m width at one go. With the use of interchangeable four wheels, the marked locations can be avoided without requiring the prototype to dodge around that spot. And most importantly, the prototype is controlled wirelessly by the operator from a safe distance. The greatest advantage that this robot offers is the safety for the soldiers. Not only does it mark the possible locations of buried mines, it also rolls over the places that it deems as safe thus acting as a sacrificial object. This means that if the operator or the soldiers follow the tire tracks, they are perfectly safe since the robot has already rolled over it.

Thus, the proposed design for landmine detection and marking module had opened up a new area for the researchers to explore. Saving the lives and limbs of innocent civilians becomes one step closer.

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Landmine detection and marking robot Chapter 7

Chapter 7: Recommendations

This project has fulfilled most of its objectives and has even gone beyond in some aspects. The requirement whereby it states that the robot must detect 90% of the mines is beyond the limitations that are set by the circumstances of this project. Among all the detectors, metal detectors are the most unfavorable type as most of the mines are made with plastic bodies. The other options which are the use of GPR (ground penetration radar) and thermal imaging cameras are beyond this projects budget and moreover they require military clearance from the United States Government. Therefore, the research on the detection of mines and differentiation of false alarm versus real warning was unable to be carried out and that objective was compromised. However, the literature survey has been done on the performance of Infrared Thermal Imaging cameras and its results are promising. Thus, it is recommended that further research should be carried out on the performance of Infrared Thermal Imaging cameras relative to the landmines. The literature research information is attached in the appendix.

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Landmine detection and marking robot References

References
1. Making landmine detection and removal practical http://www.llnl.gov/str/Azevedo.html 2. Landmine detection in bare soils using thermal infrared sensors by Sung-ho Hong, Timothy W. Miller, Brian Borchers, and Jan M.H. Hendrickx New Mexico Tech, Socorro NM 87801 Henk A. Lensen, Piet B.W. Schwering and Sebastiaan P. van den Broek TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory, The Hague, The Netherlands. 3. Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for Land Mine Detection http://www.mondialogo.org/129.html 4. How stuff works. www.howstuffworks.com 5. Ugural, A.C, Mechanic of Materials , McGraw-Hill, 1993 6. Beer, Ferdinand P. and Johnston, E. Russel Jr., Vector Mechanics for Engineers Statics , McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1998 7. Beer, Ferdinand P. and Johnston, E. Russel Jr., Vector Mechanics for Engineers Dynamics , McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1999 8. Shigley, Mischke, Budynas., Mechanical Engineering Design. Seventh Ed, McGraw-Hill. 9. Serway, Beichner., Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics. Fifth ed, Saunders college Publishing.

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Landmine detection and marking robot Appendices

Appendices

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Landmine detection and marking robot Appendices

N37-GR GEARED MOTOR

MOTOR SPECIFICATION

D.C 6V

D.C 12V

D.C 24V

DESCRIPTION 6V NO LOAD 12V 24V 6V AT MAX.EFF 12V 24V 6V AT STALL 12V 24V

CURRENT A 0.20 0.12 0.06 0.79 0.47 0.212 3.50 2.20 0.9

SPEED RPM 6200 6200 6200 5140 5100 5000

TORQUE g-cm

OUTPUT Watt

EFF %

54.5 59.81 61.67 320 340 320

2.87 3.14 3.17

60.67 55.60 62.31

GEARED MOTOR SPECIFICATION Possible to producting for needs of ratio beside bellow chart.

RATIO

1/ 6

1/ 10

1/ 18

1/ 30

1/ 40

1/ 60

1/ 1/ 1/ 1/ 300 400 500 600 750 80 100 120 150 180 200 250

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

Landmine detection and marking robot Appendices


"L"-SIZE NO LOAD (RPM)
24.8 27.3 62 62 62 51 51 50 51 51 51 43 43 41 3.8 4.2 4.3 41 41 41 34 34 33 29.8 34 34 34 28 28 27 31 31 31 26 26 25 24 24 24 21 21 20 21 21 21 17 17 16 15 15 15 13 13 12 32.3 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 8

6 1033 620 344 206 155 103 78 12 1033 620 344 206 155 103 78 24 1033 620 344 206 155 103 78

AT MAX.EFF (RPM) TORQUE (Kg-cm)

856

514 285 171 128 85 510 283 170 128 85 500 277 166 125 83

64 66 63

8.6 6.8 8.5 6.8 8 6.5

12 850 24 833 6 12 24 0.2 0.3 0.3

0.4 0.7 1.2 1.4 2.1 2.8 3.5 0.5 0.8 1.3 1.5 2.3 3.1 3.9 0.5 0.8 1.3 1.6 2.4 3.2 4.0

4.8 5.8 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.3 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.4 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0

The selection of motors for the mine avoiding mechanism.

Landmine detection and marking robot Appendices

Specification and Selection of available Infra-red Thermal imaging camera

Different types of infra red cameras are manufactured around the world to serve different purposes. They can be categorized into four types according to their methods of capturing and portraying the thermal images.

Monochromatic; contain a single type of sensor responding to single wavelength range of infrared radiation. The captured images are represented as black, white or gray according to the intensity of the radiation of the objects. They are mostly used as night vision cameras.

Color cameras; complex construction of various sensors responding to various ranges of infrared radiation. However, these cameras display the colors in order to indicate the intensity of the radiation from the objects and hence different color represents different temperature range.

Cooled infrared detector; the sensors are contained in a vacuum-sealed case and cryogenically cooled. Since the temperature of the sensors are much lower than that of the object, their sensitivity is increased. However, they are expensive to produce and time consuming to use, since they are required to cool down before put to use.

Landmine detection and marking robot Appendices Uncooled infrared detector; uses the sensors operating at ambient temperature. These uncooled infrared sensors are capable of measuring the intensity of the thermal radiation of an object without being required to cool down with cryogenic cooler. This is done by using the Micro-Bolometer as sensor which is a form of particle detector. They are small in size and not expensive to produce.

In our case, we require a camera which possesses medium range sensitivity to differentiate the objects having a slight temperature difference.

Monochromatic cameras are used mainly as night vision cameras since their display cant provide clear differentiation of radiation intensities of the objects. Color infrared cameras are best at describing the differences in the thermal profiles of the objects since they indicate the warmest parts are customarily colored white, intermediate temperature objects as reds and yellows, and the coolest parts as blue. Cool infrared detector provides us with great sensitivity; however it comes together with higher cost and longer preparation time. While, uncooled infrared detector offers medium sensitivity at lower cost.

Therefore, it will be wise to choose color infrared camera with uncooled detector since this combination can provide us with good thermal profile display to identify land mine among surrounding soil and rubbish, at a cheap price.

Landmine detection and marking robot Appendices There are a few infrared camera suppliers in Singapore and the following is the comparison of two reputable infrared cameras available in Singapore.

NEC TS 9100 M

Electrophysics PV-320 T

Landmine detection and marking robot Appendices

Brand / Model

NEC / TS9100M

Electrophysics / PV 320 T

Measuring Range Resolution Accuracy Detector Spectral Range Frame Time Thermal Image Pixels Interface Operating Temperature

- 20C to 100C 0.06 C 2C or 2 % Uncooled Bolometer 8 to 14m 60 frames / sec 320 (H) x 240 (V) pixels RS-232C or Ethernet -15 to 50C 99 (W) x 112 (H) x 206 (D)

- 10C to 500C 0.08 C 2C or 2 % Uncooled BST 8 to 14m 30 Hz 320 (H) x 240 (V) pixels USB 2.0 High Speed -20 to 45C 140 (W) x 114 (H) x 114 (D) mm 1.2 kg

Dimensions mm Weight Price 2.6 kg

Table 1. Comparism of Thermal imaging cameras provided by two different companies From the above comparison, even though different camera models are produced by different manufacturers, their capabilities and services are tailored for certain range of application. Hence, we are only required to choose according to their availability, prices and compatibility with others equipments in our robots.

Landmine detection and marking robot Appendices

Detecting the mine by sniffing for the explosive inside the mine

Although up to 53% of minefields are unstructured terrain in uneasy accessible areas, often covered by thick vegetation, most of the machines proposed to be used in humanitarian demining are designed to operate on flat, regular terrain, already cleared from vegetation. Therefore, new means of crawling inside the thick vegetation have been considered and applied to the robots presented. The solutions proposed encompass two methods of locating landmines, both using sensors detecting traces of explosives escaping from mine casing into the soil and into the air over the landmine. One method consists in bringing the sensors to the minefield by carrying them on a suitable platform, while the other method consists in bringing air samples from the minefield to the sensors, located in a remote safe place. G

Landmine detection and marking robot Appendices This second method is called REST (Remote Explosive Scent Tracing); it is currently used by two demining agencies.

Landmine detection and marking robot Appendices

Off the shelf metal detector used in the Prototype

Landmine detection and marking robot Appendices

Alternative detection system for the robot

The robot equipped with infrared thermal imaging cameras

The basic structure of the robot without processing unit and detection unit

Landmine detection and marking robot Appendices