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UNIT 7 TOOL GEOMETRY

Objectives

Tool Geometry

Classification of Cutting Tools Single-point Cutting Tools

7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 Single-point Cutting Tool Geometry System of Nomenclature of Cuttintg Tools American System (ASA)

7.4 7.5

Cutting Tools and Operations Performed on a Lathe Multi-point Cutting Tools

7.5.1 7.5.2 Twist Drills Milling Cutters

Summary Key Words Answers to SAQs Exercises

7.1 INTRODUCTION
A component (or part) shape can be produced by various methods, namely, machining, forming, casting etc. Machining is widely employed for generating surfaces. In generating technique, the required profile on the workpiece is obtained by manipulating the relative motion between the workpiece and the tool cutting edge. The primary motion of the workpiece and the secondary motion of the tool govern the shape and size of the machined component. For example, in turning the rotation of the workpiece and linear motion of the tool along the axis of the workpiece results in the generation of cylindrical surface (Figure 7.1) provided the feed rate is small. Thus, the machined surface profile is different from the shape of cutting tool edge. In forming, the shape of the cutting tool is impressed upon the workpiece (Figure 7.2). However, in some cases, the combination of these two methods can also be used depending upon the job requirements. Sometimes there would be a tertiary movement (depth of cut) in between the cuts for the production of specific types of surfaces. Thus, it becomes essential to know the shape and size of the cutting tools.

Figure 7.1 : Longitudinal Turning (a) External Surface, (b) Internal Surface

Figure 7.2 : (a) Generating, and (b) Forming of Surfaces

Objectives After studying this unit, you should be able to decide to which class (single-point or multi-point) a given tool belongs, identify different elements of a cutting tool (faces, nose radius, angles), identify the values of different angles if its specification is given, and recommend which type of cutting tool (or tool) be employed for a given type of work surface.

7.2 CLASSIFICATION OF CUTTING TOOLS

Cutting tools are usually classified based on the number of cutting edges it has, viz., single point cutting tool or multipoint cutting tool. Single-point cutting tools are used for turning operations (for producing internal and external cylindrical surfaces and sometimes flat surfaces (face turning) also), as well as for shaping and planning operations (for producing flat surfaces). Exactly which type of surface is produced depends upon the relationship between primary, secondary and tertiary motions. For example, if feed to the tool is not parallel to the axis of rotation of the workpiece, it would produce a conical or contoured surface (Figure 7.3). Multi-point cutting tools are also used for producing cylindrical surfaces as well as flat surfaces. A drill with two cutting edges produces internal cylindrical surfaces, while cylindrical grinding produces external cylindrical surfaces. Milling and surface grinding produce plane surfaces (Figure 7.4). However, grinding is mainly used for surface finishing purposes.

Figure 7.3 : Generation of a Conical Surface by a Single-point Tool

The machined surface characteristics mainly depend on the geometrical configuration of the cutting edge(s), and the magnitude and interrelationship between the motions (primary, secondary and tertiary). In this unit, the geometrical configuration of the cutting tools (cutting edge(s)) and a brief introduction to the basic machine tools used in conjunction with these cutting tools will be discussed.

Tool Geometry

Figure 7.4 : (a) Drilling of a Hole Using a Twist Drill, (b) Milling Process Producing a Flat Surface, (c) Surface Grinding Producing Flat Surface

7.3 SINGLE-POINT CUTTING TOOLS

Single-point cutting tools have one principal cutting edge. Such tools are classified into three categories : solid tool, brazed tool, and inserted bit type tool. The solid tool is a single piece tool (Figure 7.5(a)) having different faces, edges and nose radius, and is made from the tool materials, depending upon the work material and the machined surface requirements. In case of a brazed tool (Figure 7.5(b)), the shank is made of high strength steel and a bit of appropriate tool material (HSS, WC, or some other suitable material) is brazed to it. However, still more convenient way is to use a tool holder having an indexable insert (Figure 7.5(c)) (carbide or ceramic) mechanically clamped on it. Inserted bit type tools are economical to use, require less tool changing time, and there is no degradation of the tool material due to regrinding of tool. (Inserts are not reground. After their usage such tools are thrown away.) In addition, a few types of tool holders can be used for a large variety of inserts stored which will require lesser money for tool inventory. This reduces tool inventory cost.

7.3.1

Single-point Cutting Tool Geometry

Irrespective of the category to which (solid, brazed, or inserted) a tool belongs, it consists of parts as shown in Figure 7.6. A single-point tool has a side cutting edge (or major cutting edge) while end cutting edge (minor cutting edge) does not contribute to material removal. Face of the tool is the part over which the chip flows and suffers crater wear of the tool. Flank is the part of the tool, which comes in contact of the machined surface and slowly wears out. The wear of the flank is known as Flank wear and it affects the dimensional accuracy of the machined component. The end cutting edge and side cutting edge meet at a point (called the nose) and has certain radius (usually zero). The nose radius largely affects the roughness of
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Principles of Metal Cutting

the machined surface. Sometimes tool has a groove ground on the tool face, which acts as a chip breaker. The cross-section of the shank can be square, rectangular, or round. The tool

Figure 7.6 : Terminology for a Right-hand Cutting Tool for Turning

face and edges of the cutting tool have a definite relationship with each other, and it should be maintained during cutting. However, during cutting the tool undergoes wear, and this can alter the original tool geometry. Therefore, the tool must be reground periodically to restore its original shape (geometry). The interrelationship between the different elements of a cutting tool (single point) is discussed in the following paragraphs.

7.3.2

System of Nomenclature of Cutting Tools

Literature reports the existence of a number of systems for specifying tool geometry e.g., British maximum rake system, German system (or DIN system), ASA (American Standards Association) system and ISO (International Organisation for Standardization) system. However, before defining the geometry of a single-point tool, let us study the two systems of reference planes employed for defining the angles of a tool. (a) Tool in Hand (or Tool in Space) System In this system (Figure 7.7), a horizontal plane (Pr) containing the base of the tool shank is termed as base plane (or tool reference plane). The second plane (Pf) is

Figure 7.7 : Reference Planes in Tool in Hand (or Coordinate) System

perpendicular to the base plane but along the tool feed motion. It is known as the longitudinal plane. The third reference plane (Pp) is perpendicular to both the planes

(tool reference plane (Pr) and the working plane (Pf)), and is in the direction of primary motion. It is known as transverse plane. This system of reference planes is known as the coordinate system of planes. (b) Tools in Use (or the Orthogonal) System In this case, the reference planes are chosen based on the consideration of the cutting tool operating on the work on a machine tool. This system also employs three mutually perpendicular reference planes. The first reference plane known as the base plane (Pre) (Figure 7.8) is identified as the base plane in case of tool in hand system. The second reference plane (Ppe) is called cutting plane. It contains principal (or major) cutting edge and it is perpendicular to the base plane. The third reference plane (Pfe) is called orthogonal plane and is perpendicular to other two planes.

Tool Geometry

7.3.3

American System (ASA)

This system uses co-ordinate (tool in hand or tool in space) system of reference planes. Figure 7.6 shows a single-point cutting tool. Figure 7.9 shows a single-point turning tool geometry in the three orthographic views. Figure 7.10 shows three views of the same tool showing various angles and their interpretation while the tool is in cutting mode.

Figure 7.9 : Turning Tool Geometry

Different abbreviations have been used to express these angles. One of the popular system of abbreviations is given below. The tool specification in this case is stated in the following sequence. Back rake angle b; Side rake angle s,
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Principles of Metal Cutting

End relief (clearance) angle e,; End cutting edge angle e,; Nose radius r.

Side relief (clearance) angle s, Side cutting edge angle s,

A tool geometry specified as 7-8-5-6-9-5-1 would mean that : Back rake angle = 7o, side rake angle = 8o, end relief angle = 5o, side relief angle = 6o, end cutting edge angle = 9o, side cutting edge angle = 5o, and nose radius = 1mm. From the tool grinding point of view, this system of single-point cutting tool specification is easier to use because it is simpler to determine the reference coordinates.

Figure 7.10 : Tool Angles in Coordinate System

Tables 7.1 and 7.2 give the recommended tool angles for HSS cutting tools and carbide cutting tools, respectively. Table 7.1 : Recommended Tool Angles for High Speed Steel (HSS) Tool [Rao, 2000]
Work material Back rake angle (b) 8-20 8 0 4 8-20 Side rake Side relief angle angle (s) (s) 8-20 6 8 6 4 6 4 6 8-20 6 End relief angle (e) 6 6 6 6 6 Side cutting edge angle (s) 10 10 10 10 10 End cutting edge angle (e) 15 15 15 10 15.

Steel Cast Steel Cast Iron Bronze Stainless Steel

Table 7.2 : Recommended Tool Angles for Carbide Cutting Tool [Rao, 2000]
Work material Back rake angle (b) 0-10 0-4 0-5 7-0 7-0 7-0 7-0 5-6 Side rake angle (s) 10-20 15-20 5-8 7-6 7-6 7-6 7-6 5-0 Side relief angle (s) 6 6-8 6-8 5-8 5-8 5-8 5-8 5-8 End relief angle (e) 6 6-8 6-8 5-8 5-8 5-8 5-8 5-8

Aluminium Mangensium alloys Copper Brass and Bronze Cast Iron Plane Carbon steel Alloy Steel Stainless Steels Titanium alloys

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7.4 CUTTING TOOLS AND OPERATIONS PERFORMED ON A LATHE

Figure 7.11 shows a lathe machine in which rotary motion is given to the workpiece. The workpiece is held in a chuck (Figure 7.12) attached to the spindle. The rotary motion to the workpiece is provided by a complex gear arrangement driven by the motor which is located below head shock. The relative velocity with which the work material moves past the tool cutting edge is termed as the cutting speed.

Tool Geometry

Figure 7.12 : Motions while Turning

The cutting tool moves in the axial direction at an uniform rate with the help of a feed screw which is driven by gear arrangement in the head stock. This motion is called feed motion. The processes of machining or removing material from the outer surface of the workpiece are known as outside turning whereas the processes of removing material from inside of a hole are called inside turning. The workpiece can be provided with cylindrical shape by longitudinal turning, plane surfaces by facing, tapered surfaces by taper turning, profile by profile turning, and threads by thread cutting. Figure 7.13(a) shows different kinds of tools used on a lathe machine to achieve different external surfaces and Figure 7.13(b) shows the tools for internal surfaces. Tools are also available for the production of knurled surfaces
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Principles of Metal Cutting

(knurling operation), enlarging the diameter of a predrilled hole (boring operation), cut off or parting (parting operation), and drilling a hole by drilling operation on a lathe machine.

Figure 7.13(a) : Different Kinds of Tools for External Surfaces [Rao, 2000]

Figure 7.13(b) : Different Kinds of Tools Used for Generating Internal Surfaces

Rake angle is the angle between the rake face of the tool and the normal to the machining direction as shown in Figure 7.14. The value of rake angle to be used in the tool for a given operation is decided based on the combination of the value material and work material. It can be positive (Figure 7.14), zero (Figure 7.15(a)), or negative (Figure 7.15(b)). Larger the +ve rake angle, smaller the force acting on the tool but weaker will be the tool. In case of brittle tool material (carbide and ceramic), usually zero or negative rake angle is used to provide the strength to the tool tip.

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7.5 MULTI-POINT CUTTING TOOLS

A multi-point cutting tool is regarded as a series of two or more cutting elements (chip producing elements) secured to a common body. The term such as face, flank, and cutting edge, defined earlier for single-point tools, are applicable to multi-points tool as well. The cutting action on one of the cutting edges is the same as that of a single-point cutting tool. The commonly used multi-point cutting tools are drills, reamers, milling cutters, broaches, etc. The geometry of some of these cutting tools are discussed in this unit.

Tool Geometry

7.5.1

Twist Drills

When you examine the products used in daily life you would realize that a large number of them have holes either for assembly, riveting, or some other purpose. These holes are made by one or more than one kind of operations like drilling, boring, countersinking, etc. Figure 7.16 shows various kinds of drills and drilling operations. Drilling is the operation used to make a hole in the solid body. Drill is used as a cutting tool for drilling operation, and usually it is made of tool steel or high speed steel. For special applications, carbide tipped drills are used. There are various kinds of drills (Figure 7.17), viz twist drill, straight flute drill, gun drill, spade drill, drill with brazed carbide tip, and drill with indexable carbide inserts. Amongst all these drills, twist drill is the one that is most

Figure 7.17 : Various Types of Drills

commonly used. The salient features of the twist drill are shown in Figure 7.18. In case of twist drills, the normal rake angle and the velocity of the cutting vary with distance from the center of the drill. The chips are simultaneously produced by the two cutting edges, which have positive rake angle near the drill periphery, while the rake angle is highly negative near the center of the drill. The cutting near the drill center is also low. The chips produced due to drilling are guided upward by the two spiral grooves (flutes). Through these grooves, the
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Principles of Metal Cutting

cutting fluid also reaches to the cutting edges. Some drills have chip breaker ground along the cutting edge to break the long chips into small pieces to ease the disposal of chips

Figure 7.18 : Standard Chisel-point Drill Indicating Various Features [Timings, 2002]

without operators intervention. Some drills have internal longitudinal holes to force the cutting fluid upto the cutting edges to facilitate chips disposal and cooling. A twist drill consists of two helical grooves called flutes. The flutes perform multifarious functions like forming rake angle, forming cutting edge, providing passage to the coolant/lubricant and to provide passage for the swarf removal. The drill is tapered towards the shank so as to give clearance to the drilled hole (body clearance). This increases the drill life and its cutting efficiency.

Figure 7.19 : Twist Drill Cutting Angles : (a) Cutting Angles Applied to a Twist Drill, (b) Variation in Rake Angle Along Lip of the Drill. Note that the Rake Angle at the Periphery is Equal to the Helix Angle of the Flute

The rake angle in case of drills is formed by a helical groove (one of the flutes) which varies from point to point along the radius of the drill (from +ve to ve rake angle (Figure 7.19)). The rake angle in drilling depends upon the helix angle of the flutes, the point angle as well as the feed rate. The axial rake angle is the angle between the face and the line parallel to the drill axis. The helix angle (or spiral angle) is formed by the leading edge of the land and the axis of the drill. The surface on the drill, which extends behind the cutting tip to the following flute, is termed as the flank. The part of the flute surface adjacent to the cutting tip on which the chip moves is called face. The land is the cylindrically ground surface on the leading edge of the drill. The lead of the helix is the distance measured parallel to the drill axis, between the two corresponding points on the leading edge of the land in one complete revolution. The chisel edge is formed by the intersection of the two flanks. Various kinds of drilling operations can be performed on a drill machine (Figure 7.20).
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The cutting conditions at the chisel point of the drill are comparatively poor hence resist its penetration in the work. In the case of large hole drilling, it is usual to provide a pilot hole of smaller diameter to reduce the feed force. Afterwards, it can be easily enlarged by drilling the desired diameter hole.

Tool Geometry

Figure 7.20 : Main Parts of a Pillar Type Drilling Machine [Gerling, 1965]

The drill spindle holds the drill lightly during its operation. The rotary motion to the drill is transmitted from the main drive (electric motor and step pulleys or gear drive). When the drill starts rotating, it is manually fed (modern machines have automatic feed arrangement) using feed drive towards the workpiece to penetrate inside it till the desired depth of hole is achieved. The feed motion is provided by the rack and pinion arrangement. Many holes can be simultaneously drilled in a workpiece if multi-spindle drilling machine is available.

7.5.2

Milling Cutters

Milling cutters are used to produce parallel, perpendicular and inclined plain or formed surfaces using multi-tooth cutters. The cutter is rotated by the milling machine spindle (or arbor) and the workpiece is given feed. Figure 7.21(a) shows the angles of a single-point cutting tool and the corresponding angles on a milling cutter tooth while in action, (Figure 7.21(b)). There are various kinds of milling cutters. Some of them are shown in Figures 7.22 and 7.23 along with the kind of surface generated by them.

Figure 7.21 : Comparison of Angles (a) Single-point Cutting Tool, (b) Milling Cutter Tooth

Milling machine can perform a variety of cutting operations. They can be classified as horizontal type, vertical type or universal milling machine. Figure 7.24 shows a horizontal milling machine. In this machine, worktable has T slots to clamp the workpiece. This table can move longitudinally (with respect to saddle) and transversely. The knee is used to move the workpiece (along with table and saddle) up and down to adjust the depth of cut. Arbor holds and rotates the cutter. Over arm is adjustable to accommodate arbors of different lengths. This machine has three axes of movement, which can be achieved by power or manually.
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Principles of Metal Cutting

Figure 7.22 : Horizontal Milling Machine Cutters and the Surface they produce : (a) Slab Milling Cutter (Cylinder Mill); (b) Side and Face Cutter; (c) Single Angle Cutter; (d) Double Equal Angle Cutter; (e) Concave Cutter; (f) Convex Cutter [Timing, 2002]

Figure 7.23 : Vertical Milling Machine Cutter and the Surfaces they Produce : (a) End Milling Cutter; (b) Face Milling Cutter; (c) Dovetail (Angle) Cutter; (d) T-slot Cutter [Timing, 2002]

Figure 7.24 : Schematic Illustration of a Horizontal-Spindle Column-and-Knee Type Milling Machine [Kalpakjian, 1989]

SAQ 1
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Choose the correct answer from the given choices. (a) During the turning operation, the tertiary motion is given to achieve (i) cutting speed, (ii) feed rate, (iii) depth of cut, (iv) none of these.

Tool Geometry

(b)

In which case a surface can be generated without the tertiary motion: (i) turning, (ii) drilling, (iii) milling , (iv) none of these.

(c)

Face of a long cylindrical rod can be machined on (i) milling machine, (ii) lathe, (iii) drilling machine, (d) all of these.

(d)

Internal threads in a cylindrical block can be made on (i) lathe, (ii) drilling m/c, (iii) milling m/c, (iv) all of these.

(e)

Indexable inserts are usually made of (i) HSS, (ii) tool steel, (iii) diamond, (iv) carbide.

(f)

A chip breaker is provided on the tool (i) flank face, (ii) rake face, (iii) side face, (iv) shank.

(g)

During milling, chip flows on the (i) rake face, (ii) flank face, (iii) flute, (iv) none of these.

(h)

Lathe machine in general cannot be used for the machining of (i) internal thread, (ii) conical shape, (iii) trapezoidal block, (iv) all of these.

(i)

When using carbide cutting tool, the preferred rake angle is (i) positive, (ii) negative, (iii) zero, (iv) all of these.

(j)

A cutting tool for shaping operation is of (i) single point, (ii) multi-point, (iii) none of these.

(k)

A straight flute drill is normally provided with helix angle equal to (i) 15o, (ii) 20o, (iii) 30o, (iv) none of these.

7.6 SUMMARY
In this unit, the geometry of different types of cutting tools has been discussed at length. The family of cutting tools has been classified in two classes : single-point cutting tools and multi-point cutting tools. The angles in both cases have been compared. Various elements of a single point cutting tool like rake face, flank face, different angles (back rake angle, side clearance angle, end cutting edge angle, etc.) and their specifications have been elaborated. Reference planes (coordinate and orthogonal) used in tool nomenclature have been discussed. Various types of tools used on a lathe machine, milling machine and drilling machine have been illustrated. One machine each of these three types (lathe, drilling machine and milling machine) has been explained along with their major parts.

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Principles of Metal Cutting

Reference Planes Single Point Cutting Tool Multipoint Cutting Tool Twist Drills

: Employed for defining the angle of a tool. : Tool with single cutting edge. : Series of two or more cutting elements secured to a single body. : Consists of two helical grooves for forming of rake angle, cutting edge and providing passage to coolant. : Used to produce parallel, perpendicular and inclined plane or formed surface using multi-tooth cutters.

Milling Cutters

7.8 ANSWERS TO SAQs

SAQ 1 (a) (iii), (b) (ii), (c) (ii), (d) (i), (e) (iv), (f) (ii), (g) (i), (h) (iii), (i) (ii), (j) (i), (k) (i)

7.9 EXERCISES
Exercise 1 (a) (b) (c) Exercise 2 The specification of a turning tool is given by: 8, 8, 6, 6, 10, 15, 0.5 Write the names of the different angles indicated in the specification. Sketch a single point cutting tool showing its different parts. Draw three views of the above tool sketched in Exercise 1(a). Explain the advantages of an indexable insert as compared to solid tool.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
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Arshinov V. and Alekseev G. (1976), Metal Cutting Theory and Cutting Tool Design, Mir Publishers, Moscow. Boothroyd G. (1975), Fundamental of Metal Machining and Machine Tools, McGraw-Hills Kiogakusha Ltd., Tokyo. Gerling H. (1965), All About Machine Tools, Willey Eastern Ltd., New Delhi. Kalpakjian S. (1989), Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., New York. Lal G.K. (1996), Introduction to Machining Science, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi. Pandey P.C. and Singh C.K. (1998), Production Engineering Science, Standard Publishers Distributors, Delhi. Rao P.N. (2000), Manufacturing Technology : Metal Cutting and Machine Tools, Tata McGraw Hills Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi. Roger Timings, 2002, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, Wobum, MA.

Tool Geometry

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