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Acquired Immune Deficiency

Syndrome (AIDS)

Definition:
It is serious and fatal disease characterized by widespread damage to the immune
system of the body with susceptibility to usual cancers and severe infection caused by
human retrovirus. The Virus called HIV or H+ IV-I (formerly known as HLTV-III or
LAV).

Aetiology:
In 1981, the Task force Atlanta Georgia front reported this disease and coined the
name AIDS. It has been reported from all countries organism belong to the
immunodeficiency virus which is grouped to human retroviruses HIV or HIV-I. These
virus have one unique enzyme called reverse transcriptase which is RNA Directed DNA
polymerase and which replicate within the host cells.
Spread:
The Disease spreads by-

(a) Close sexual contact and by passive anal intercourse,


(b) Parenteral transmission through blood and plasma product,
(c) Transplacental , from pregnant mother to the baby,
(d) Milk of breast feeding mother ,
(e) Saliva
(f) Tears

Incubation Period:
It’s varies from 6 month to 6 years average being 2.5 years.

Pathogenesis
Immunodeficiency is the hall mark of HIV infection. Those cells which express T4
(CD4) antigen act as receptas of HIV and hence they are affected. After entering the
cell the virus replicates causing cell fusion or death of the cell by unknown
mechanism.

Signs:
- Fever
- Skin nodules
- Adenitis
- Spleenomegaly
- Oral candidacies
- Hairy leukoplakia
- Sarcomas
- Absent reflexes.

Differential diagnosis-

Idiopathic lymphadenopathy syn.


Viraemia fungaemia
Metastatic carcinoma
Other causes of reduced immunity

TEST-
GROUP ONE (Acute infection):

-S.HIV-3 (HTLV-3) antibodies (+)


-S.p24 antigen (+)
- S.p24 antibody (-)
- Hb (N)
- ESR (H or N)
- B.lymphocytes (H)
- B.neutrophils (N)
- B.platelets (N)
- S.immuunoglobulins (N)
- S.complement (N or H)

GROUP TWO (Asymptomatic):

-S.HIV-3 (HTLV-3) antibodies (+) S.p24antigen (-)


_ S.p24 antibody (+) Hb (N)
_ ESR (N)
_ B.lymphocytes (N)
_ B.neutrophils (N)
_ B.platelets (N)
_S.immuunoglobulins (H)
_ S.complement (H).

GROUP THREE (persistent generalized lymphadenopathy):

-S.HIV-3 (HTLV-3) antibodies (+)


_ S.p24 antigen (-)
_ S.p24 antibody (+)
_ Hb (N)
_ESR (N)
_ B.lymphocytes (N)
_ B.neutrophils (N)
_ B.platelets (N)
_ S.immunoglobulins (H)
_ S.complement (H).

GROUP FOUR - (AIDS related complex):

-S.HIV-3 (HTLV-3) antibodies (+)


_ S.p24 antigen (+)
_ S.p24 antibody (+)
_ Hb (L)
_ ESR (H)
_ B.lymphocytes (L)
_ B.neutrophils (L)
_ B.platelets (L)
_ S.immunoglobulins (H)
_ S.complement (H).
GROUPS FOUR (AIDS):
-S. HIV-3 (HTLV-3) antibodies (+) antigen (+)
_ S.p24 antibody (-)
_ Hb (VL)
_ ESR (VH)
_ B.lymphocytes (VL)
_ B.neutrophils (VL)
_ B.platelets (VL)
_ S.imm-
Immunoglobulin’s (H)
_ S.complement (VH).

Treatment:
Preventive:
Use Condom, avoid insecure sexual intercourse, do not use used injection,
Avoid multiple sexual partners at a time, Blood test before blood transfusion.
Homeopathic treatment:
Aconite, Arsenic alb, Asr-I, Baptesia, CARCINOSINUM, ECHINACEA ANGUSTIFOLIA, FERRUM
PHOSPHORICUM, GELSEMIUM SEMPERVIRENS, LYCOPODIUM CLAVATUM, MEDORRHINUM,
MERCURIUS SOLUBILIS, PHOSPHORICUM ACIDUM, PHOSPHORUS, PULSATILLA PRATENSIS,
PYROGENIUM, SILICEA TERRA, SULPHUR, SYPHILINUM, THUJA OCCIDENTALIS,
TUBERCULINUM BOVINUM KENT, X-RAY.