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MAGENIT

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Engineering Applications of Microsoft Excel 97 and 98 ASW Example


Copyright 1999 David M Hooper All Rights Reserved
Microsoft Excel is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

EMAGENIT provides consulting services and seminars on the engineering applications of Microsoft Excel. It also provides software development services for Excel. For further information, fax or phone EMAGENIT at (805) 499-9943 or email Dave Hooper at hooper@emagenit.com or visit our web site at www.emagenit.com.

Purpose: The purpose of this example is to demonstrate how to size an aircraft from a sketch using Excel. The equations and methodology used to size the aircraft were obtained from chapter 3 of Dan Raymer's book, Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach published by the AIAA. For a complete aircraft design software package, it is highly recommended that you purchase RDS by Dan Raymer. Information about Dan Raymer's book and RDS can be found on the Internet at www.aircraftdesign.com. Example Overview: The type of aircraft being sized in this example is an antisubmarine warfare (ASW) aircraft. The aircraft being sized is a high wing canard configuration with two high-bypass turbofan engines slung beneath the wing. The aircraft is expected to fly 1500 nm at M=.6 carrying 10000 lb of equipment and 4 crew members at 800 lb, loiter on station or 3 hrs then return. The aircraft's wing has an aspect ratio of about 11. When combined with the canard's area, the combined aspect ratio is about 8. Using the chart's from chapter 3 of

11. When combined with the canard's area, the combined aspect ratio is about 8. Using the chart's from chapter 3 of Raymer's book, it was determined that the wetted area ratio for the aircraft was about 5.5 which yields a wetted aspect ratio of 1.45 for the aircraft. Using this information and the charts and equations from chapter 3, an L/D for the aircraft was determined to be 15 for cruise and 16 for loiter. A SFC of .5 1/hr is assumed for the engines at cruise and a SFC of .4 1/hr is assumed for the engines at loiter. The example was constructed on the ASWDesign worksheet in this workbook. The equations used to calculate the mission segment weight fractions; the total fuel fraction and the design takeoff gross weight were constructed as formulas in cells in the area marked Output Information on the worksheet. These formulas obtain their input information by referencing the cells in the area of the worksheet named Input Information. Worksheet functions were also called in the formulas to perform value rounding and exponential operations. The graphics on the worksheet give an overview of the aircraft's mission profile and what it looks like. The parts of the graphic that display the calculated fraction values and the aircraft weight are dynamically linked to the ASW worksheet. When the formulas calculating these values calculate new values, the graphic values will update with the new values. Solver is used to perform the iteration that calculates the design gross takeoff weight of the aircraft on the worksheet. To learn more about Solver, activate Excel on-line help (Help / Contents and Index) and type the keyword Solver in the first box on the Index tab of the dialog box that is displayed. Double click on the desired topic displayed in the second box on that tab. Instructions: Refer to the ASWDesign worksheet for the instructions on how to use it. Note the instructions are located below the Output Information area on the worksheet.

Antisubmarine Warfare Aircraft Sizing from A Sketch Input Information Known Information equip 10000 crew 800 Rng32 9114000 Rng54 9114000 Endr43 10800 Endr65 1200 SFC32 0.0001389 SFC54 0.0001389 SFC43 0.0001111 SFC65 0.0001111 LD32 15 LD54 15 LD43 16 LD65 16 Vc32 569.9 Vc54 569.9 Wog 50000

lb lb ft ft s s 1/s 1/s 1/s 1/s

Antisubmarine Warfare Aircraft Mission Profile


Do not edit values unless you have read chapter 3 of Raymer's book. Cruise 1500 nm W4/W3 0.9278 Cruise 1500 nm W5/W4 0.8624

3
Loiter 3 Hours

2
climb W1/W0 0.97 W2/W1 0.985

W3/W2 0.8624

0
Warm-up & Takeoff

ft/s ft/s lb

1 Aircraft Type Evaluated: Antisubmarine warfare aircraft. Mission: Fly 1500 nm at M=.6 carrying 10000 lb of equipment and 4 crew members at 800 lb, loiter on station for 3 hrs then return. ASW Aircraft Sketch

Output Information Mission Segment Weight Fractions Do not edit formulas W1/W0 0.97 unless you have read W2/W1 0.985 chapter 3 of Raymer's W3/W2 0.8624 book. W4/W3 0.9278 W5/W4 0.8624 W6/W5 0.9917 W7/W6 0.995 Wf/W0 0.3705 Calculated Design Takeoff Gross Weight Woc 55834 lb

Fuel Tanks

Design Takeoff Gros Weight (lb): Avionics Bay

Instructions: 1. Click on cell B21 and type a guess value for the Design Takeoff Gross Weight of the aircraft (30000-100000 formula in cell B35 will use this guess value to return the calculated design takeoff gross weight of the aircraft 2. You can also change any of the cell values in the Input Information Range using the methodology just discussed for cell B21. Note be sure of what you are doing before changing these values (i.e. read Raymer's book, chapter 3). An explanation of the cell values in this range can be found by passing the mouse cursor over the cells in column B and reading the comment that appears. The same goes for the formulas in column B of the Output Information Range. 3. Proceed to the worksheet menu bar and select Tools / Solver.... 4. When the Solver dialog box appears, click the Solve button. Note the problem comes preloaded into Solver so do not alter it. When Solver runs, it will vary the value in cell B21 till it matches the value produced by the formula in cell B35. When these values match, the aircraft has been sized. 5. When the Results dialog box appears, it will inform you if Solver found an answer (i.e. cell B21 value = cell B35 value). Click the OK button to dismiss the dialog box and keep the answer Solver found (i.e. the value in cell B21). Click the Cancel button to discard the answer if Solver could not find the result. Note: Solver must be loaded into Excel before you can use it. Check Solvers on-line documentation in Excel help to find

Note: Solver must be loaded into Excel before you can use it. Check Solvers on-line documentation in Excel help to find out how to load it into Excel. Note this may also require setting up Excel again on your computer if you did not choose to load Solver when you initially loaded Excel. Note: Do not insert cells into this worksheet or move cells around on it. The VBA procedures that reload the values and the formulas into the cells will not operate correctly. Also the formulas may not operate correctly.

t Mission Profile
Cruise 1500

5
W5/W4 0.8624 W6/W5 0.9917 Loiter 20 Min

6
W7/W6 0.995

7
Land Wf/W0 0.3705

arine warfare aircraft. ing 10000 lb of equipment r on station for 3 hrs then

*Sketch and mission profile used with permission of Dan Raymer. Copyright Dan Raymer, All Rights Reserved

Fuel Tanks Design Takeoff Gross Weight (lb): 55834

-100000). The oss weight of the aircraft. hodology just discussed for cell book, chapter 3). An he cells in column B and ut Information Range.

preloaded into Solver so do ced by the formula in cell B35.

ell B21 value = cell B35 value). ue in cell B21). Click the

entation in Excel help to find

entation in Excel help to find uter if you did not choose to

that reload the values and the