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Proceedings

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Engineering forum

Theme:
Engineering Technology & Economic Advancement Amidst National Security C h a l l e n g e s

School Of Engineering, The Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.


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Proceedings of 8th Engineering Forum School of Engineering The Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti

School of Engineering The Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti Nigeria

23rd 26th October, 2012

Warning

This proceedings is sold with the condition that it shall not by way of trade or otherwise resold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the prior consent, in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is purchased without a similar condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.

ISSN: 1974 9005

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ENGINEERING FORUM LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE


ENGR. F. I. ALUKO ENGR. J. J. MOMOH ENGR. K. D OLUBORODE ENGR. (MRS) C. O. OKEREKE MR. C. O. AYODELE MR. O. A. OYEDELE ENGR. O. A. AKINSANYA ENGR. D. O. OKE ENGR. OLADAPO ENGR. P. O. OBISESAN Chairman Technical Editor Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Secretary

EDITORIAL ADVERSARY BOARD ENGR. F. I. ALUKO Editor-in- Chief ENGR. J. J. MOMOH Technical / Production Editor ENGR. B. J. AGUN Agricultural Engineering ENGR. I. O. OLADIPO Agricultural Engineering ENGR. K. D. OLUBORODE Civil Engineering ENGR. O. A. AKINSANYA Electrical / Electronic Engineering ENGR. T. J. ALAKE Electrical / Electronic Engineering ENGR. Y. L. SHUAB BABATA Mechanical Engineering ENGR. O. N. A. AJUEYITSI Mechanical Engineering ENGR. DR. F. A. ISIFE Mineral Resources Engineering ENGR. R. A. ADEBIMPE Mineral Resources Engineering

HOST ENGR. D. H. OLADEBEYE


DEAN, SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING

CHIEF HOST
MRS. T. T. AKANDE
RECTOR, THE FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, ADO-EKITI

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NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND SECURITY CHALLENGES Adebayo, A. A., Osho, S. O. and Yusuf, B. M DESIGN OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR MOBILE USERS Bamisaye, A.J., Ekejiuba C.O and Ademiloye I.B DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A MANUALLY OPERATED DOMESTIC MULTI-PASTE MIXING MACHINE Olanrewaju, T. O. &Bello, K. I. AN ASSESSMENT OF LOSSES IN THE PRODUCTION OF LAFUN Oloko, S.A.; Idowu, D.O.O.& Ogueh Esther ESTIMATION OF INDUCED COMPACTION BY TRACTOR TYRES ON THE SOILS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH FARMS, THE FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, ADO-EKITI P. O. Ajewole & K. E. Elegbeleye OVERVIEW OF THE PREVIOUS STUDIES ON THE POTENTIAL DANGERS OF MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION FREQUENCIES AND MODULATIONS ON EXPOSED POPULATION Bamisaye A.J & Alake T.J DESIGN, FABRICATION AND TESTING OF A LOW-COST INTER-ROW WEEDER FOR RURAL FARMERS P. O. Ajewole & E. O. Adeosun TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA E.A Oluwasola, BLASTS DESIGN FOR IMPROVED FRAGMENTATION IN RAYCON QUARRY, ORE, ONDO STATE Nenuwa O.B., Jimoh B.O. and Obasi R.A. THE CHALLENGES AND THE SUSTAINABLE FUTURE FOR NIGERIAS URBAN ENVIRONMENT: A RAILWAY STRATEGY E.A Oluwasola IMPROVED TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT: EFFECTIVE PARKING OPTION IN ADO EKITI Sanmi Adeoti &Akintunde T B DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WEAR TEST JIG FOR ALUMINIUM ALLOY SUBSTRATE IN HYDRAULIC FLUID Ajibola O.O, Adewuyi B.O &Oloruntoba D.T INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECTS OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF HOT ROLLED LOW CARBON STEEL PRODUCTIONS AND OPERATIONS Omojogberun, Y. V. & Aluko, I. F.

Papers Presented

1-5 6 - 14

25 - 21

22 - 30 31 - 38

39 - 46

47 - 54

55 - 60

61 - 67

68 - 75

76 - 84

85 - 96 97 - 103

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A MANUALLY OPERATED PINEAPPLE SLICING MACHINE Olanrewaju, T. O. &Uthman, F. OCCURRENCE OF URANIUM-BEARING NIOBOTANTALATE (PETSCHECKITE) IN A LOKOJA PEGMATITE Rotimi I. A & Obasi R. A DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE FOR DETERMINING LATHES SENSITIVITY Ejiko, S.O. IMPROVED FOUNDRY TECHNOLOGY FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SUSTAINABILITY Adegbite, Dauda Alani AN ASSESSMENT OF INACHALO STREAM AS A SOURCE OF DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TO IDAH KOGI STATE Ahon, Jename Martins & Idenyi, Akowe Atulukwu RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR ECONOMIC STABILITY AND GROWTH IN NIGERIA Oloko, S.A.& Osho, S.O THE FUTURE OF PETROLEUM MARKET IN NIGERIA FOR ECONOMIC SECURITY&SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Ogbue M. C. and Ayodele C. O. DEPLETION OF PETROLEUM RESERVE IN NIGERIA-FEARS AND CONSOLATIONS Ayodele C. O. & Ogbue M. C. OPTIMIZATION OF POWER DELIVERY SYSTEM USING SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE CHALLENGES OF THE ST CENTURY Bamisaye, A.J, Adeoye O.S & Akinsanya O.A DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHING AID AIR BLAST FREEZER AND ANALYSIS OF ITS EFFECT ON FRUITS STORAGE Ajayi S.I., Ajueyitsi O.N.A. & Fatona S.A. ERRATIC POWER SUPPLY IN NIGERIA: BANE OF DEVELOPMENT (ADO-EKITI METROPOLIS AS A CASE STUDY) Adeoye. O .S, Akinsanya .O.A & Alake .T.J ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING TRADE T. J. Alake. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROTOTYPE PICO HYDRO POWER PLANT FOR RURAL POWER GENERATION E. K. Ojaomo, O. N. A.Ajueyitsi & J. O. Olumodeji

104 - 110

111 -119

120 - 128

129- 134

135 - 143

144 - 149

150 - 160

161 - 168

169 - 177

178 - 187

188 - 194

195 - 198

199 - 210

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BIOFUELS FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE, A GATEWAY TO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Akinola, M.O. & Oloko, S.A. POWER TRANSMISSION LINES IN NIGERIA: LOSSES AND METHODS OF REDUCTION Adeoye, O .S, Bamisaye, A.J & Ekejiuba, O.C DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF DUST COLLECTING MACHINE FOR COTTAGE MINERAL PROCESSING INDUSTRIES Obisesan P.O and Jimoh, B.O THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF GREY CASTIRON IN PAPER MAKING INDUSTRIES F. I. Aluko&A. G. F. Alabi ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ON WATER QUALITY IN ASA DAM INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, ILORIN, NIGERIA Shuaib-Babata, Y.L & Abdulqadir, B.L

211 - 215

216 - 222

223 - 231

232 - 241

242 - 252

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A WELCOME ADDRESS DELIVERED BY THE DEAN, SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, ENGR. D. H. OLADEBEYE, AT THE OPENING CEREMONY OF THE TH ENGINEERING FORUM HELD AT THE CONFERENCE CENTRE OF 8 THE FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC,ADO-EKITI ON WEDNESDAY, 24TH OCTOBER, 2012. PROTOCOLS I have a great pleasure and a sense of honour to, on behalf of the good staff, students and friends of the School of Engineering welcome you all to yet another annual National Engineering Conference organized by the School of Engineering, The Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti- the 8th Engineering Forum. It has always been a thing of joy to have in our midst the first female Rector in the annals of this great Polytechnic, Mrs. Theresa Taiwo Akande. Any success we may achieve in this exercise is attributed to her, first as the Chief Host of this National Conference and also an ardent/ addicted lover of anything engineering. You are welcome, Ma. Kindly join me in welcoming to our gathering one of our own, the keynote address presenter on this epoch-making occasion, who had been long with us, is now with and will continue to be with us, Engr. Professor Olugbenga Amu, Dean, Faculty of Engineering, The Federal University, Oye-Ekiti. The news of your recent elevation to the position of Professor of Civil Engineering was a great delight and a plus to the Alumni Association of the Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti where you are an activist. On behalf of the School of Engineering, I formally and openly congratulate you as you climb higher. Congratulations!!! I also warmly welcome the lead paper presenters. First is the Dean, Faculty of Engineering, the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB), Engr. Professor Samuel Babatope Adejuyigbe,a Professor of Computer-Aided Engineering (CAD, CADD,CAM,CIM,CAPP),Manufacturing Engineering and Management. You are quite familiar with the terrains of the Polytechnic System having gone through the nitty-gritty of technical education right from inception culminating in your attending and graduating from a Polytechnic. Your presence here today, as you present the first lead paper on this occasion, I assure this audience, will be an immense encouragement and succour to a great number of minds who hitherto had felt that Polytechinic Education is an arrant waste of time. Second on roll is one of our own who has also distinguished himself as a Chief Lecturer in Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering. This enigma and erudite academic in the person of Engr. Babatunde Jacobson Agun is as old as the Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti itself. Welcome, sirs!!! This address will be grossly incomplete if I do not acknowledge the immense and unquantifiable contributions and overwhelming support of all the staff (both at home and in the diaspora) and students of the School of Engineering to making this years conference a reality and an expected success as it has always been. It is my candid request that you keep the flag flying even as I bow out from the saddle. I will always be proud of you all!!!

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Over the years, the School of Engineering had built and fostered concrete relationship with people and great minds on the other side of the divide but we are not divided. This attests to the goodwill and great sense of neighbourliness and conviviality we have shared and enjoyed amongst us. I say thank you for gracing this occasion. God bless you real good!!! Distinguished audience, this years Forum which has as its theme Engineering Technology & Economic Advancement Amidst National Security Challenges could not have come up at any better time than now. This is the time when our nation is experiencing great security challenges in diverse areas. Terrorism, kidnapping, armed robbery attacks, natural and artificial disasters, lack of primary health care delivery etc are starring us in the face in Nigeria and are posing a great threat to the corporate existence of our dear nation. Apart from a number of factors, such as religious bigotry, insanity, corruption etc. that could be readily attributed to these social menace bedeviling the nation , one fundamental but yet very germane factor remains the issue of unemployment of a large junk of the citizens, especially our teeming youths. Two adages say, An idle hand is the devils workshop and A hungry man is an angry man . It ,then, is the main thrust of this conference to showcase how to turn, especially, our youths from the devils workshop and create enabling alternative workshops where they could be fully engaged each day through what Engineering Technology offers as it had become a success in the hitherto less-developed nations of the world such as Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea, Brazil, India and even our sister African nations- South Africa and surprisingly Ghana, just to mention but a few. It is no more news that Nigerian Students in Ghana contribute nothing less than 200billion annually to the growing economy of that small African nation. This surprisingly was a nation few years back whose well-educated citizens came hibernating in Nigeria, many of them shoe cobblers in major Nigerian cities like Ibadan, Lagos, Kano, Kaduna, Port-Harcourt, Enugu etc One may begin to ask what then is wrong with our nation that is endowed with so much natural, material and human resources? That reveals the essence of this national conference as questions of this nature are expected to be answered through various presentations and discourse. This is because Engineering has been defined by someone as the harnessing of all forces of nature, materials and human resources for the purpose of building machines, producing various tools, equipment and solving emerging problems for the benefit of the society. According to Ade Ajayi (1995), engineering is concerned with the fashioning of tools and the exploitation of available materials and energy. But Merril (1959) had indicated that professional engineers insist that engineering is the creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures , machines, apparatus or manufacturing processes However, the Chambers Encyclopaedia describes engineering as that branch of human endeavour by which the forces of nature are brought under human control and the properties of matter are made useful to man in structures and machines. The literal and root meaning of engineering is usually derived , that is from the Latin word ingenium (natural capacity, invention) , itself derived from gignere (to produce) or as R.J.Sin submits , from ingenerare meaning to create, better translated in English as to contrive. The foregoing definitions of engineering clearly show its

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significance and what the profession offers, though with a wide range of disciplines, to the overall development of any nation. The question of the ailing economy of the nation dates back to the 1986 commencement of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) instituted by the then Military Government headed by General Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida (Retired). According to Oladebeye (2009) in his Lead paper presented at the 5th Engineering Forum, Most people lambasted that programme as such that would never see the light of the day in Nigeria. Then, US $1 was still exchanging for about N1.80. (Before that time it was US $1 to about N0.80 Government then was of the view to run the programme for just few years in order to salvage (or call back) the Nigerian Economy which was already assuming the downward trend. The trend of the economy gradually and geometrically waned from an exchange rate of US $1 to N6 in 1986 to US $1 to about N 150 today. In Nigeria, the duo of economic meltdown and security lapses have become like two Siamese twins. If one analyses the situation carefully , the economic mishap of the nation has grown up to 26years counting from the time of the declaration of SAP; now the security calamity, which makes many innocent families to tell tales of woe, is also growing fast. The Boko Haram (Western education is sin) syndrome in the North-East, North-West and North-Central geo-political zones of the country took the heels of the Niger Delta militants insurgency in the South-South and South-East geo-political zones of Nigeria. Before the former took the central stage in Nigeria, the latter had held sway for more than 5years now, with few cases still being recorded. While the Niger Delta militants operate in kidnapping innocent Nigerians for monetary gains; the Boko Haramists concentrate on killing, maiming as well as destruction of both public and private properties. The South-West geo-political zone is not spared, however. It also witnesses spate of violent daylight and night armed robberies, ritual killings, kidnapping etc. It is could be clearly deduced from the events of the past and present in Nigeria that the safety and welfare of citizens could not be guaranteed by the government of the day. Though, looking around the world generally, in every society, there is a measure of insecurity in various dimensions, but it becomes a cause for concern when citizens experience palpable sense of lack of protection by all tiers of government. It has been pointed out that security and peace are two values that are fundamental pre-requisites for any germane development to occur in any nation. In the words of Imobigbe(2001), without security, individuals within a state will find it difficult to engage in productive activities. Similarly, without security, the state is bound to experience greater difficulty in harnessing its human and material resources towards meaningful development and the promotion of the general well-being of the people. For instance, general insecurity in Nigeria had forced many big industries, which could have provided ample employment for the restive youths, to relocate to other countries such as Ghana, South Africa, China, Brazil, Malaysia, United Arab Emirates (Dubai) etc. This is because security which, in its natural habitat connotes peace, was found in those places.

In light of the foregoing, it had become very imperative for those in the engineering family, who are known as proponents of change , to rise to the occasion of national security and economic challenges in order to nip them in the bud once and for all. That is reason for this conference, the thrust of which is considered achieveable since Nigeria is endowed with large deposits of human and material resources. The soaring unemployment rate in the nation, which is a major factor contributory to insecurity could be alleviated and reduced to the barest minimum with the employment of modernday engineering technological know-how in all of the sub-themes of this years Forum in areas such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Agricultural Technology, Health Security Systems, Defence and State Security, all forms of energy and natural resources development, commerce and industry ,etc. The Federal Government initiative through the Federal Ministry of Education (FME) and National Board for Technical Education in setting up vibrant Centres for Entrepreneurship Development (CED), launched at Yaba College of Technology, Lagos in September 2012, is expected to yield good results towards the economic advancement of the nation amidst National Security challenges. The programme will prepare our youths graduating from Universities, Polytechnics and Monotechnics, Colleges of Education for self-employment through acquisition of various skills while still in the academic environment. This is where our own Olusegun Obasanjo Centre for Engineering Innovation (OOCEI), amongst others, comes in. It is my belief that if all that would be discussed during this years conference are well garnished and implemented by the appropriate stakeholders in this nation, the dream of Nigeria to become one of the leading 20 economies of the world by the year 2020 in its vision 20:2020 could be realized. Once again, ladies and gentlemen, gentlemen of the press, I welcome you all to the 8 th Engineering Forum 2012. Thank you immensely for listening, God bless you. Amen ENGR. D. H. OLADEBEYE DEAN, SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING,

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BEING THE TEXT OF THE SPEECH DELIVERED BY THE RECTOR, MRS. T. T. AKANDE AT THE OPENING CEREMONY OF THE 8TH ANNUAL ENGINEERING FORUM OF THE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, THE FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, ADO-EKITI ON WEDNESDAY, 24TH OCTOBER, 2012.

Principal Officers of the Polytechnic, Deans of school, Staffs and Students of this Great Institution, Distinguished Guests, Gentlemen of the Press, Ladies and Gentlemen, PREAMBLE It gives me great pleasure in welcoming you all to this 8 th Engineering Forum. The theme chosen for this conference reflects the mood of the nation as it has to do with security issues and challenges. Usually, issues of security connote threat to national development, peace progress and retard a national greatly in its forward stride towards self-determination. The engineering as a body knowledge is to conceive, design, make, build and recycle materials with significant technical content for a specific purpose. On a very good day, in an atmosphere of peace and harmony. This should be the work of the engineer in all fields of human endeavor spanning railways, oil, airways factory and so on and so forth. Security Issues: The security issues and threat that are presently with us now have to do with the fact that working in all these afore mention areas has become challenging, difficult and dangerous . Recall the continuing killing of engineers in Lagos who went to repair damaged pipeline, further recall the killing of construction Engineer in Borno State about two months ago. Another killing of Chinese workers occurred in Potiskum about two weeks ago. How ca we carry on with the business of nation in the face of these threats? We must not leave out the issues of oil workers, construction workers whose work has been made very difficult by flood in all part of the country. A whole new gamut of creative ingenuity is required to surmount the challenges of creating diversion in Lokoja to avoid the flooded roads. Challenges: Harnessing engineering and technology for development is difficult enough in times of peace and harmony. Having to make strides in the times in which we are, is becoming a great challenge that will require more than our present efforts. therefore, the major challenges facing us now include the following: 1. Enhancing performance and adequate service delivery of engineering in a depress economy. 2. Ensuring economic advancement under such conditions. 3. Being proactive and creative in solving immediate and long term problem of national disaster and insecurity as professionals. 4. Ensuring continued survival in the face of the National Security threats. National Security: The problem of national security refers to threats to our collective existence as a nation. Anything that is a danger to persons existence is seen as threat. Nigeria as a country has gone through many security challenges that would have led to its disintegration such as the civil war. Having gone through it and survived, it is xii

thought that there may be no greater threat than that again. What we have now appears to be as great, if not greater than the civil war. They the three major security threat of religious extremism and violence, (kidnapping and armed robbery), corruption and attendant discipline and the so called natural disaster like flood. The ripple effect of these security threats have greatly weakened our economy as shown in food storage, loss of man power, displacement of persons who now becomes refugees and other form deprivation. These have taking a great toll on the ingenuity of our engineers who have to build new houses, construct new roads and generally rebuild the society to ensure economic advancement. The way forward: In spite of the enormous challenges confronting us as a nation, we have to chart a way forward to be able to advance as a nation. It is imperative that we consider the following recommendations. - There is a need to be proactive and creative in searching for solution to these myriads of problems. The search for solution must out of the ordinary and involve us looking beyond the bounds of our usual problem solving behaviour. - To ensure steady economic advancement, we must re-invigorate our activities within the school system so that through research, we will be able to find solutions to existing problems. We must improve our activities in entrepreneurial development, technology incubation, teaching and research, experimentation and so on. - We have to intensify the process of finding solutions through conferences and workshops such as this, in order to put heads together to exchange ideas that would lead us towards progress. Finally, as you deliver papers and exchange ideas, find such remedies and solutions that will be long term and durable. Discuss extensively and eventually bring out resolutions and communiqu which will serve as working papers that government will look into and implementing strategies for a healthy recovery of our comatose economy. Those of you from outside Ado Ekiti should take time off to see the scenery and enjoy the beautiful sights of the state. Most importantly, endeavour to savor our delicacy of pounded yam and vegetable soup. Thank you for listening. Mrs. T. T. Akande, RECTOR

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LEAD PAPER I
TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMIC ADVANCEMENT BEING A LEAD PAPER PRESENTED BY ENGR B. J. AGUN AT THE 8th ENGINEERING FORUM, SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, THE FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, ADOEKITI. 24th 26th OCTOBER, 2012 INTRODUCTION Since the inception of human race, man has been searching for ways of subduing his environment to enhance his living standard. This is not absurd since this was the mandate the creator had given man, according to the Holy Scripture, Genesis (1:26). As man overcomes one problem, another one emerges. This has led to continued quest for knowledge which had yielded many fruits as can be seen by many technological innovations which abound, in all facets of human endeavours. More than half of the people of the world are living in miserable conditions. Their food is inadequate; they live in squalor and are ravaged by diseases. Their worsened economy is occasioned by extreme poverty and this poses insecurity and hinders development. Humanity possesses the knowledge and the skill to relieve the suffering of these vast people living and wallowing in abject poverty. It is my humble belief that enormous knowledge and skills at the finger tips of a man should be harnessed to the benefit mankind. In this, they would be able to realise their live aspirations and therefore able to live a better life. And the key to greater production is a wider and more vigorous application of modern scientific and technical knowledge. We are living in an age of remarkable technological changes that is forcing us to think very deeply about the linkages between technology and economic development. The more deeply we think about it, the more we realize that technological innovation is the key to long-term economic growth. Hence, the world has progressively relied on technology in its efforts to move towards more sustainable living. At the same time, the contribution of innovation in addressing a wide range of sustainable development challenges has also been increasingly recognized. Developed countries had greater technological capabilities, this has paved the way for more effective cooperation. There are many problems plaguing the Nigeria economy. Despite all efforts by governments and its institution to stimulate economy growth, the economy is largely underdeveloped. This has invariably imposed a limitation on the income generating capacity of the nation. Twenty years after the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro 1992, the international community is taking stock of progress made and setting new goals for the future of sustainable development. Technology and technological knowledge have been identified as factors to economic growth (Okwuesa, (1976); Justman and Tuebal (1991); Bell and Plavitt (1993)). Available evidence based on the Third National Development Plan (1970-1975) showed that there is high capital investment which is import dependent. The local, state and federal governments between 1970s and 1980s spent a lot on importation of machines and machinery which has led to serious capital flight in the country and underdevelopment of our local industries. The trend then was accumulation of machines and machinery and establishment of various vehicle assembly plants all over the country. But it was soon realized that this was not the solution since there was no transfer of technology through this means. This was more glaring when the structural adjustment programme (SAP) was introduced in 1986. The result of SAP was naira devaluation which compelled several firms including assembling firms to source for raw materials locally (Nbebbio and Ekpo 1991), xiv

there was a rise in local material sourcing from 24% in 1985 to 51% in 1988, but the technological capability to transform the these raw materials efficiently was absent. In a bid to reduce poverty and build a just and equitable society, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs were signed by 189 nations in September 2000, with the aim of building an enabling environment at the national and global level that will stimulate economic and social development (UNDP, 2003). All member countries were challenged to allow these goals to reflect in their respective national policies. The goals include commitment to education, health, environmental sustainability and global partnership for development (Salami and Ujunwa, 2008). Amongst the MDGs targets is making available benefits of technology, with special emphasis on information and communication technology (ICT) by working in tandem with the private sector. INVENTION From my view, invention may be defined as a conception of an idea and/or production of new thing(s). This is quite different from discovery, which occurs whenever something that is present in nature is seen or known about for the first time (Twiss 1990). In case of invention, it is the making of something that has never being present in nature before. Invention, which cannot be divorced from creativity according to Twiss, (1990), has given man, power over his environment and thus enables him to have a better, easier and happier life. A successful invention is offering the market something new for which the customer is ready to pay for. The quality of an invention results from the originality or creativity without which invention is very difficult to come-by. From the forgoing, to invent is to see anew. New ideas can arise when the conscious mind of an inventor turns away from the subject, but focuses on something. INNOVATION Innovation is concerned with changing circumstances, making them more efficient in terms of output quality and quantity and time saving (Ilori et al, 2000). This may also tell on its cost effectiveness. Technology is the key to Green Innovation. Whenever an invention gained a wide spread market acceptability, it becomes innovation (Twiss 1990). Translating an idea into economic reality is in other words for an innovation. Before an innovation can gain widespread acceptance and use, it has technical, economical and social hurdles to cross. If those hurdles are not crossed, introduction to market will not be easy. In developed nations, the public and private sectors engage in significant technology joint ventures. For innovation to thrive, the enabling environment should aim at removing all barriers to technology transfer and adaptability that is consistent and in harmony with the relevant local and international obligations. A key consideration for governments, therefore, should be to create a right balance of risk and reward in innovation markets to enable private sector participation. Three different forms of innovation are particularly relevant, these are incremental innovation, disruptive innovation and adaptive innovation. Incremental innovation improves existing technologies and systems; in contrast, disruptive innovation is the development of an entirely new technology. The ability for disruptive innovations to penetrate the market is significantly influenced by market structures and regulations. Restrictive regulations and markets dominated by large incumbents or network monopolies (e.g. power grids) can make it difficult for disruptive innovations to be successful, and can deter potential innovators from investing in these areas. Innovation initiation can be considered under three schools of thought (Faborode 1990); technology push, demand (or market) pull and interactive. The technology push innovations are based on science, and research and development (RD). It is a function of creativity of the scientists and engineers. It enables a firm, in most cases, to have a xv

competitive edge or promote product differentiation and this helps in reducing risk and uncertainty in a new environment. The demand-pull innovation emphases are on the end users and market. The product is market oriented and thus has a higher acceptance index because of this, it is more profitable. The third is a bridge between the two mentioned above. Thus the blend of the two is known as interactive innovation. The fact that market pull initiated innovations are prone to profit does not mean that radical and indigenous inventions are undesirable. What must be considered in the design of machines and machineries are the environmental and socio-cultural needs and constraints that would make the innovation receptive and easily diffused. An engineer may reject a new product ideas originating within market function on the grounds of poorly substantial technical objectives while marketer may reject product ideas from R&D on insufficient evidence or because it does not fit short-term product market policies. A meaningful linkage between technology and the market is required; this can only be achieved by a close relationship between the people who have the expertise in the two fields, the engineers, scientists, technologists and the marketer. According to Kotler (1991), new products which can be termed research results or innovation, cover original products; improved products, modified products and new brands. Stanton et al, (1994) classified new product into three distinct categories: those that are really innovative, satisfying unsatisfied needs, replacement products that are significantly different from the existing one in form, function and/or benefits provided; and imitative products new to the organization but not new to the consumers. From my perspective, the potential of technological innovation in institutions of higher learning, though may be many, is not properly harnessed and indeed governments are not interested in harnessing the potential due to reasons best known to them. CREATIVITY Creativity is not confined to R&D only; ideas can come from anywhere and should be encouraged although many may be of little value. From within a firm, an idea can come from top management, marketing and product units apart from the R&D, while from outside it can be from the competitors, suppliers and consumers. Technology transfer Technology transfer is the process of transferring discoveries and innovations resulting from public (University, Polytechnic, Research Institutes, and Monotechnics) and private sectors to the commercial sector and typically comprises several steps. The process starts when an inventor submits an invention disclosure to the office of technology licensing (OTL) which should be the new paradigm. The OTL typically evaluates the inventions economic prospects and decides whether to protect the inventor by securing a patent, copyright or trademark or by keeping the invention a trade secret. Patenting is often done concurrently with the publication of the research results. The next step occurs when an individual or organization, usually a commercial company, secures a license to commercialize the technology. A license does not technically grant a company the right to make, use or sell the invention, but it is an agreement to protect a company from patent infringement. Technology Transfer also called Technology Commercialisation, is the process of transferring skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing, samples of manufacturing and facilities among governments or public institutions and private institutions to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users who can then further develop and exploit the technology into new products, processes, applications, materials or services. This is closely related to knowledge transfer. Some also consider technology transfer as a process of moving promising research topics into a level of maturity ready for bulk manufacturing or production. Technology brokers xvi

are people who discovered how to bridge the disparate worlds and apply scientific concepts or processes to new situations or circumstances according to Hargadon (2003) Technology transfer should be the responsibility of an office within the institution, or may be performed by a separate entity. The core activities of a technology transfer office that is not actively engaged in the creation of start-up companies will typically include most or all of the following: Monitor the activities of investigators and maintain awareness of new technologies, Maintain industry contacts and awareness of potential product applications, Evaluate new technologies for patentability and commercial potential, Evaluate the need for patents, both foreign and domestic, Prepare, or facilitate preparation of, patent applications, Market inventions Negotiate the sale or licensing of inventions, Administer licensing agreements, Monitor and collect revenue, Calculate and remit the inventors' and institution's shares, and Track invention progress and maintain a record of the entire process. Technology transfer in the context of International Investment Agreements (IIAs) is an issue that has generated debate for many years. Given the centrality of technology to development, and the necessity of technology acquisition by developing countries as a means of furthering development, it is desirable that such countries should be able to benefit from the generation, transfer and diffusion of the best available technology. Unfortunately, this has not always been the case. In particular, the fact that most of the worlds advanced technology is generated privately by Transnational Corporations (TNCs), whose principal research and development (R&D) activity is located in developed countries, creates an asymmetry between technology possession and the location of technological need. The result is a gap between the technology developed and owned by firms in developed countries and that which can be obtained and utilized by developing countries. The encouragement of technology transfer cannot be seen in isolation. It is a policy that is closely related to the broader treatment of proprietary knowledge through intellectual property laws; to the structure of the market, and the conduct of transactions, which may impact on the competitive process in relation to the generation, transfer and dissemination of technology; and to host country measures designed to control the process of technology generation, transfer and diffusion through performance. Technology transfer is the process by which commercial technology is disseminated. This takes the form of a technology transfer transaction, which may or may not be covered by a legally binding contract (Blakele, 1989), but which involves the communication, by the transfer of the relevant knowledge to the recipient. Among the types of transfer transactions that may be used, the draft TOT Code has listed the following: (a) The assignment, sale and licensing of all forms of industrial property, except for trademarks, service marks and trade names when they are not part of transfer of technology transactions; (b) The provision of know-how and technical expertise in the form of feasibility studies, plans, diagrams, models, instructions, guides, formulae, basic or detailed engineering designs, specifications and equipment for training, services involving technical advisory and managerial personnel, and personnel training; (c) The provision of technological knowledge necessary for the installation, operation and functioning of plant and equipment, and turnkey projects;

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(d) The provision of technological knowledge necessary to acquire, install and use machinery, equipment, intermediate goods and/or raw materials which have been acquired by purchase, lease or other means. FINDING AND ACCESSING EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY There are several approaches for identifying appropriate tertiary institutions technology. A frequent example comprises company R&D staff that happens to be familiar with the work of a particular research group and finds the involved technology suitable for product development. A survey of industry licensing executives identifies personal contacts between tertiary institution inventors and industry as the most important source of successful institutional technological transfer, usually between an industrys R&D staff and institution personnel. Thus, establishing contacts in the institutions (either with inventors themselves or through alumni who may now be working in industry) represents a significant starting point for successful technology transfer. By establishing and nurturing such a relationship, a company may develop an ongoing awareness of the research activities while the research group gains an efficient channel for marketing new results. Patent searches and a routine canvassing (or advertising) of available technologies present another important source for technological transfer leads. Some tertiary institutions have licensed their new technologies to a broad spectrum of organizations and individuals ranging from large for-profit corporations to small nonprofit research institutes and early stage firms whose sole founding purpose is to commercialize and gain profit from new inventions. While the latter class of licensee sounds the most risky in terms of eventual payoff, early-stage firms have proved to be the most effective in transferring technology for public benefit and have been fairly successful in generating income because of their strong desire to make the technology a success and, sometimes, because of entrepreneurial inventors involvement in all stages of product development and licensing process. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Research has many and different meanings to different people. Asika (1991) defined research as any organized enquiry that aims at providing information for solving identified problems. This definition is incomplete in the sense that gathering information is not an end in itself but as components in a total process whose ultimate aim is to reveal new insights into the world around us and assist in the discovery of truth. Research is the manner in which we solve knotty problems in our attempt to push back the frontiers of human ignorance. From this, research can be seen as an integral part of science. Being a science it is an original investigation directed to the discovery of new scientific knowledge. There is slight difference between research and development. Development is the technical activity concerned with non-routing problems encountered in translating research findings into products and processes; whereas, research is conducted to obtain new knowledge. Development is required to reduce the knowledge to practice, Mansfield (1968). Research entails question(s) in mind, identification of a problem, plan, braking of main problem to sub-problems, use of hypothesis, dealing with facts and their meanings. In other hands, development deals with making of various types of experiments, the design and development of prototypes and the construction of pilot plants. World over, of recent, there have been a tremendous growth in the amount of money committed to research and development. Fundamentally research and development is a learning process. Research can witness failure or success but no amount spent on it is a waste. The level of a firms research and development expenditures can be explained by a simple model which assumes that; xviii

(i) (ii) (iii)

The expected rates of return from promising R&D projects are distributed according to enabling laws, The distribution of expected rates of returns from R&D projects, together with a firms size, determines the firms desired level of R&D expenditure and The firms speed of response on the extent to which the desired level differs from last years spending and the percent of its profits spent last year on R&D. If the aggregate product of rural farmers is to meet the countrys demand, they must be encouraged to adopt improved and new technologies.

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH Pronouncement year in year out from the present and past regimes showed that government has a well-articulated agricultural research policy. The rural farmers who produce the bulk of the nations food constitute its focus. The Ministry of Science and Technology has developed a well-tailored national policy on science and technology which include enhancement of agricultural production. These policies define priorities and strategies for the nations agricultural development. Nigerias small scale farmers are the centre-piece of the countrys agricultural production strategy. If the nations increasing population is to be well catered for by these small-scale farmers, a way of encouraging them to embrace and adopt new technologies especially farm machinery must be fashioned out. To accomplish its objective, agricultural research must be appropriately linked to farm production. For a new agricultural machinery therefore to be acceptable, it must be linked to farm production and must start from the farm. The cultural background of the farmers must be well understood and taken into consideration. To accomplish its objective the linkage must involve all the stake holders in the sector. These are; The farmers who must be ready and able to adopt and use the new technologies, The researchers (or inventors) who must be mindful of what is in existence, to produce a more superior one, The government who must provide the enabling environment to reach the farmers and produce what is needed at a minimum hindrance. The capacity to develop and manage technology in a manner consistent with a nations physical, human and cultural endowments is the single most important variable accounting for differences in agricultural productivity among nations. The development of this capacity, (Ahmed and Ruttan 1988), depends on: capacity to organize and sustain the institutions that generate and transmit scientific and technical knowledge; the ability to embody new technology in equipment and materials; the level of husbandry skill; the educational level of local people; the efficiency of input and product market, and the effectiveness of social; and political institutions. The problem of agricultural development in developing nations is not that of transforming a static agricultural sector into a modern dynamic sector alone. It also involves accelerating the rate of growth of agricultural output, productivity and employment generation consistent with the growth of other sectors of modern economy. Evidently, the levels of knowledge and experience needed by each of the above tasks will be different. What separates mature firms from the infant one may be their relative core competence or the core capabilities. Firms at the frontier of technological knowledge for instance are very likely to possess, in addition to the minor capabilities, core competencies for major innovation. Industries in which technological innovation is important need a set of core capabilities in R&D. These capabilities will be defined and constrained by the skills, experience and knowledge of the personnel in the R&D department and the nature of the extant terms and the procedure for forming new ones (Nelson 1991). xix

Firms do not operate in isolation but rather within a network with other firms and supporting institutions. Linkage capabilities are therefore those skills by which firms establish and build technical and economic links with other enterprises and institutions. Linkages cut across industries contrary to the marshallian industrial branches. According to Bell and Pavitt (1993), individual enterprises are not isolated actors in the process of technology accumulation; technical change is generated out of complex interactions between firms. The weakness of inter-firm linkages in most developing country industries constitutes a major source of industrial disarticulation (Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, et al. 1995). This weakness can be weak capital goods sectors for dynamic technical change. Fostering industrial linkages may, like development of firm-level capabilities, require explicit state policy. Policy makers and community developers are increasingly interested in alternative models for local businesses that will be both responsive to community needs as well as stimulate local economic growth. The cooperative form of business should be an obvious choice. Cooperatives have the potential to foster economic growth at the community and regional level, building on the spirit of cooperation that is already prevalent in rural areas. With local ownership and control, and net profits distributed to those who use the cooperative, cooperatives are considered by some to be an ideal model for local economic development. The structure and objectives of cooperatives compel them to behave differently in their communities than businesses with other organizational structures. In addition, cooperatives offer a way for a group of individuals to pool their limited resources to achieve a critical mass. Cooperatives combine people, resources, and capital into larger, more viable and economically competitive units. In the narrowest sense, community development involves increasing the number or quality of jobs so that individual and aggregate income expands. In recent years it has become common to use an expanded definition of economic development that includes various quality of life measures of residents over time. The use of a broader economic development definition has lead to a shift in development strategies. A creative process yields an outcome that is novel for the individual, not merely remembers or perceived and not constructed by vote or by a single deterministic procedure. The result of the creative process may not be truly original; a mental process can be creative even if other people have had the same idea. What is valuable about a creative process is that its results are judged as striking, brilliant and not banal. These judgments depend on the mental processes of many people and they might be explicable in general terms by cognitive science. They do, however, depend on historical, cultural and scientific events. A cognitive process resulting in a product will said to be creative when the product satisfies certain kinds of properties or exhibits certain kinds of symptoms. Identification of these symptoms relies on the notion of a knowledge body, i.e. an integrated and organized collection of facts, theories, rules, models, beliefs, metaphysical commitments, and values pertaining to a particular subject matter or domain. A product is said to be psychological novel if there is no product that exist that is similar or identical or if it adds significantly to knowledge. It is thus clear that this is limited so far as such notions as is identical to and add significantly to are left unspecified. Economic Development The scope of economic development includes according to, O'Sullivan, and Sheffrin, (2003), the process and policies by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people whereas economic growth is one aspect of the process of economic development, Sen (1983). Economic development can also be considered as a static theory that documents the state of an economy at a certain time. Thus, generally, economic development refers to the sustained, concerted actions of policy makers and communities that promote the standard living and economic health of a specific area. xx

Economic development can also be referred to as the quantitative and qualitative changes in the economy. Such actions can involve multiple areas including development of human capita, critical infrastructure, regional competitiveness, environmental sustainability, social inclusion, health, safety, literacy, and other initiatives. Economic development differs from economic growth. Whereas economic development is a policy intervention endeavor with aims of economic and social well-being of people, economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in GDP. Consequently, Economic development originated in the post war period of reconstruction initiated by the US. During his 1949 inaugural speech President Harry Truman identified the development of undeveloped areas, where food is inadequate and disease abound, as a priority for the west. There have been several major phases of development theory since 1945. From the 1940s to the 1960s the state played a large role in promoting industrialization in developing countries, following the idea of modernization theory. This period was followed by a brief period of basic needs development focusing on human capital development and redistribution in the 1970s. Neo-liberalism emerged in the 1980s pushing an agenda of free trade and Import Substitution, emphasizing comparative advantage. More recently Post development theory has emerged to challenge the ideas of western-based development by arguing against reductionism, universalism, and euro centricity. PostDevelopment Theory is rooted in the experiences of Latin America, Africa and India (Kiely,1999 and Ahorro, 2008). Growth causes development because some of the increase in income would definitely be spent on human development such as education and health. According to Ranis et al. (2000), economic growth and human development is a two-way relationship. Specifically, GNP increases human development by expenditure from families, government and organizations such as NGOs. Concisely, the relationship between human development and economic development can be explained in three ways. First, increase in average income leads to improvement in health and nutrition (known as Capability Expansion through Economic Growth). Second, it is believed that social outcomes can only be improved by reducing income poverty (known as Capability Expansion through Poverty Reduction). Lastly, social outcomes can also be improved with essential services such as education, healthcare, and clean drinking water (known as Capability Expansion through social services) Anand, S. & Ravallion, M. (1993). In its broadest sense, policies of economic development encompass three major areas: Governments undertaking to meet broad economic objectives such as price stability, high employment, and sustainable growth. Such efforts include monetary and fiscal policies, regulation of financial institution, trade and tax policies. Programs that provide infrastructure and services such as highways, parks, affordable housing, crime prevention and education. Job creation and retention through specific efforts in business finance, marketing, neighborhood development, small business development, workforce development, business retention and expansion, technology transfer and real estate development. This third category is a primary focus of economic development professionals. One growing understanding in economic development is the promotion of regional clusters and a thriving metropolitan economy. In todays global landscape, location is vitally important and becomes a key in competitive advantage. The cluster of similar industries, specialties, skilled labour force, and technologies help lower transaction costs and foster a growing environment of commerce, entrepreneurship, exports and other market productive activities. Even the U.S.s Economic Development Administration recognizes the importance of clusters with their continued Regional Innovation Clusters initiative which aims to create jobs and grow the economy through the geographic xxi

concentrations of industries and firms in their need for talent, technology, and infrastructure. (http://www.eda.gov/AboutEDA/RIC). The economic development organizations can function as individual entities and in some cases as departments of local governments. Their role is to seek out new economic opportunities and retain their existing business wealth. There are numerous other organizations whose primary function is not economic development work in partnership with economic developers. They include polytechnics, universities, other education or research institutions, the news media, foundations, utilities, health care providers, etc Economic growth Economic growth (study of how countries can advance their economies) is the increase in the amount of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP. Growth is usually calculated in real terms, i.e. inflation-adjusted terms, in order to obviate the distorting effect of inflation on the price of the goods and services produced. In economics, "economic growth" or "economic growth theory" typically refers to growth of potential output, i.e., production at "full employment," which is caused by growth in aggregate demand or observed output. Economic growth has traditionally been attributed to increases in population, accumulation of capital, and increased productivity (Lucas, 1988). Increases in productivity are a major factor responsible for per capita economic growth, especially since the mid-19th century. Most of the economic growth in the 20th century was due to reduced inputs of labor, materials, energy, and land per unit of economic output (less input per widget) (Kendrick, 1961). During colonial times, what ultimately mattered for economic growth was the institutions and systems of government imported through colonization. There is a clear reversal of fortune between the poor and wealthy countries, which is evident when comparing the method of colonization in a region. Geography and endowments of natural resources are not the sole determinants of GDP. During the Industrial Revolution, mechanization began to replace hand methods in manufacturing and new processes were developed to make chemicals, iron, steel and other products. Since the Industrial Revolution, a major factor of productivity was the substitution of energy from, human and animal labour, water and wind power to electric power and internal combustion. Since that replacement, the great expansion of total power was driven by continuous improvements in energy conversion efficiency. Other majors are; transportation infrastructures, new materials, power and mechanized agriculture. Economic growth in Western nations slowed after 1973, but growth in Asia has been strong since then, starting with Japan and spreading to Korea, China, the and other parts of Asia. In 1957 South Korea had a lower per capita GDP than Ghana, and by 2008 it was 17 times as high as Ghana's (The Independent, 2006 and IMF (2008). Often, the concern about economic growth focuses on the desire to improve a country's standard of living the level of goods and services that, on average, individuals purchase or otherwise gain access to. Economic growth can also be of interest without reference to per capita changes in standard of living. An example of this is the economic growth in England during the Industrial Revolution. Certainly, per capita increases in productivity occurred due to the replacement of hand labour by machines. However, economic growth during this period was in large part so dramatic because England's population simultaneously increased very rapidly (1700 1860). The two factors together, more production per worker combined with many more workers, resulted in a six fold increase in production between 1700 and 1860 Gregory Clark, (2007). According to Solow (1956) technological change became crucial, even more important than the accumulation of capital. They were of the opinion that increasing capital relative to labour creates economic growth, since people can be more productive given xxii

more capital. Also, poor countries with less capital per person will grow faster because each investment in capital will produce a higher return than rich countries with ample capital. Third, because of diminishing returns to capital, economies will eventually reach a point at which any increase in capital will no longer create economic growth (steady state). The process by which countries continue growing despite the diminishing returns is "exogenous" and represents the creation of new technology that allows production with fewer resources. Technology improves, the steady state level of capital increases, and the country invests and grows. Factors Affecting Economic Development and Growth Economics factors that affect an entire industry can impact individual businesses. Industries experience cycles of economic growth and contraction based on many factors. These include the overall health of the markets, consumer preferences and even seemingly unrelated world news and events. Although some companies perform better than others in their industry, the global factors that affect the industry as a whole must be contemplated when planning to start or grow a business. Some of these factors are interest rate, currency strength, government intervention, economic health, environmental impact. Technology and Competitiveness Technological advancement in U.S. industry often has been supported by congressional initiatives over the past 25 or more years. This approach has involved both direct measures that concern budget outlays and the provision of services by government agencies (such as the now terminated Advanced Technology Program (ATP) and the Technology Innovation Program (TIP), as well as the existing Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology) and indirect measures that include financial incentives and legal changes. Many of these efforts, however, have been revisited over the past several congresses. Indirect strategies such as tax policies, intellectual property right protection, and antitrust laws to promote technological advancement and increased government support for basic research appear to have been favoured over direct federal funding for private sector technology commercialization initiatives. Interest in technology development and industrial innovation increased as concern mounted over the economic strength of the nation and over competition from abroad. Technological advancement is important because the commercialization of inventions provides economic benefits from the sale of new products or services; from new ways to provide a service; or from new processes that increase productivity and efficiency. It is widely accepted that technological progress is responsible for up to one-half the growth of the U.S. economy, and is one principal driving force in long-term growth and increases in living standards. Technological advances can further economic growth because they contribute to the creation of new goods, new services, new jobs, and new capital. The application of technology can improve productivity and the quality of products. It can expand the range of services that can be offered as well as extend the geographic distribution of these services. The development and use of technology also plays a major role in determining patterns of international trade by affecting the comparative advantages of industrial sectors. Since technological progress is not necessarily determined by economic conditionsit also can be influenced by advances in science, the organization and management of firms, government activity, or serendipityit can have effects on trade independent of shifts in macroeconomic factors. New technologies also can help compensate for possible disadvantages in the cost of capital and labor faced by firms.

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CONCLUSION It is my belief that Nigeria could be among the top twenty economies in the world by 2020 if we put the right people (who have innovative mind) in the right places. These people should be given the following mandates: Assessment of the technological needs of the country; Assessment of impact of these technologies on the nation; Sustainability of the acquired technologies and focus on areas of comparative advantage; As matter of urgency, overhaul our educational system, to inject skill-based education blended with entrepreneurial education Also, there is the need to: Increase talent pool by vastly improving engineering, technological and scientific education; strengthen innovation system infrastructure (synergy, coordination and knowledge based); Make the country the most attractive setting in which to study and undertake research, so as to recruit and retain the best and brightest scientists and engineers from all over the world; Ensure that the country is the premier innovation place in the world by proper funding and tax policies; Target selected industries for innovation (comparative advantage); Ensure that the country is rid of egocentric and dubious individuals who see collective money vis--vis, government money as their private money. THOUGHT PROVOKING FACTS TOP 200 COMPANIES IN AFRICA No Nigerian company in the top 30 In the top 30, South African has over 20 The top 10 companies from South Africa are all wealth creators The first Nigerian company is at number 34 and it is a bank Among the top ten companies from Nigeria, 8 are banks TOP 100 UNIVERSITIES IN AFRICA Note Nigeria has about 95 Universities Only 3 are in the list UniBen (32), OAU (55),U.I (81) South Africa (about 20 Universities) Egypt and Morocco (full present) TOP 500 UNIVERSITIES IN THE WORLD No African in the top 300! Only South Africa present with only one university (university of Cape Town) This is at No 359!

HOW CAN WE GROW TECHNOLOGICALLY WITH THESE

?
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REFERENCES Ahorro, J. (2008) The Waves of Post Development Theory and a Consideration of the Philippine. http://www.cpsa-acsp.ca/papers-2008/Ahorro.pdf. Anand, S. & Ravallion, M., (1993): Human Development in Poor Countries: On the Role of Private Incomes and Public Services. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7(1), 133-150. Ayres, Robert U.; Warr, Benjamin (2004). Accounting for growth: The Role of Physical Work. http://www.abundancedebunked.com/dowloads/AyresTheRoleOfPhysicalWork.pdf Berg, A. G. and J. D. Ostry (2011): Inequality and Unsustainable Growth: Two Sides of the Same Coin? IMF STAFF DISCUSSION NOTE | April 8, 2011 Gregory Clark, (2007): A Farewell to Alms, A Brief Economic History of the World, Princeton University Press, pp 245246 Hargadon, Andrew (2003): Harvard Business School Working Knowledge for Business Leaders. IMF (2008): Word Economic outlook Database October 2008 International Monetary Fund Justman, M. and M. Tueball (1991): A Structural Perspective on the Role of Technology in Economic Growth and Development World Development Vol 19. No 9 Pp 1167 1183 Kendrick, J. W. 1961 "peoductivity trends in the United States," Princeton University Press Kiely, R. (1999). "The Last Refuge of the Noble Savage? A Critical Assessment of Post-Development Theory". European Journal Of Development Research 11 (1). Lucas, R. E. 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development Journal of Monetary economics, 22(1), 3-42 Melamed, C; Hartwig, R. and Grant, U. (2011): Jobs, growth and poverty; What do we know, what dont we know, what should we know; London: Overseas Development Institute Noah, T. (2011): Is Inequality Necessary The New Republic December 2011 O'Sullivan, A. and Sheffrin, S. M. (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. 471pgs. Ranis, G., Stewart, F. & Ramirez, A.,( 2000): Economic Growth and Human Development. World Development, 28(2), 197-219. http://www.eda.gov/AboutEDA/RIC Solow, R. M. (1956), "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth," Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70(1), pp 65 94. Salami, P.O. and Ujunwa, A. (2008), Millennium Development Goals and National Development in Nigeria: The Role of Microfinance Banks, Journal of Association for the Advancement of Vocational Education in Nigeria Forthcoming). Sen, A. (1983). Development: Which Way Now? Economic Journal, Vol. 93 Issue 372. Pp.745-762. The Cato institute (2007): In Pursuit of Happiness Research. Is it reliable? What Does it imply for Policy Record, 32, pp. 33461.April 11 The Independent (2006): Leading Article: Africa has to spend carefully July 13, 2006 Trevor W. Swan (1956). "Economic Growth and Capital Accumulation', Economic Twiss, B. (1990): Managing Technological Innovation. 3rd Ed. Longman UK.

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LEAD PAPER II
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMIC ADVANCEMENT AMIDST NATIONAL SECURITY CHALLENGES Sam. B. ADEJUYIGBE, PhD, MNSE, MGhIE, MNIEM, COREN Regd. Professor of Computer Aided Engineering (CAD, CAM, CIM, CAPP), Manufacturing Engineering and Management. Dean, College of Engineering, FUNAAB Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State of Nigeria. E-Mail: samueladejuyigbe@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Engineering and Technology in Nigeria are looked at as the bedrock for productivity, sustainability and development in a growing economy. The paper also looked at the trends of Engineering and Technological development in Nigerian industries. The Overview and the Trends of Engineering Technology and Economic Advancement amidst National Security Challenges were looked at and proffer solution to a problems identified areas. We need to note that there are security treats everywhere. On Thursday 13th September, 2012 the US embassy in Abuja issues warning to Americans living in Nigeria after Libya and Egypt killings, urging extra caution. From the CNN News of 17th September, 2012 it was reported that Suicide bomb targeted van carrying foreigners, killing 9 people on main road near Kabuls international airport. Also reported same day by CNN, that Floods in northern Cameroon kill dozens; displace thousands. This paper also revealed that the Engineering and Technology which is so vital in our educational and industrial development had, for long, not been given due emphasis. The little attention paid to technical vocational and engineering is on paper and where policies are made they are shabbily implemented. And also the pace of industrial development is nothing to write home about, since some are already closing down their industry in Nigeria. Therefore, a clarion call on our policy makers on science, technical and engineering education and practice in Nigeria to think beyond where they are and look for a way of improving science, engineering and technology, so as to make it attractive to the younger ones. If we refused to check the present unprogressive/unpractical trends in science, engineering and technical education and practice in Nigeria will make the profession to die a natural death. INTRODUCTION Since the introduction of Western Education in Nigeria around the year 1840, technological education has always been treated as relatively insignificant aspect of the Countrys educational system. In Nigeria today the production of the required science and technical personal is not appropriate or adequate to the need of our growth. Even the growth of the Universities, Polytechnics, Colleges of Education, Research Institute are not commensurate with the rate of the production of appropriate and seasoned technological personnel needed to man various aspects of our developments. Professional Technologist and Engineer Everyone hopes to get a job that he will find interesting, enjoyable, and rewarding. A profession one chooses for himself may offer adventure, challenge, and accomplishment.

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Sometimes, it is also possible that a career chosen for one self can also present uncertainty, difficulty, and disappointment. It is necessary therefore to plan yourself for the career having the following in mind. Knowing yourself; knowing your capability; your interests; Needs; Desires; Attitude; and the jobs that are available and the opportunities they offer. Knowing the above points will lead you to a success and happiness in your chosen career Engineering is the profession that puts power and materials to work for man. Once a scientific principle is understood, the next is engineering which translate the scientific discoveries into software for facilitating concrete products or goods for mans comfort. It is the oldest professions in the world, dating back to ancient times, are for example, the pyramids of an ancient Egypt. Is the profession that harnesses mathematical and scientific knowledge, gained through experience, study and practice and applies it to the efficient use of materials and forces of nature. Technology is the study, mastery and utilization of manufacturing and industrial methods, systematic application of knowledge to practical tasks in industry. It is the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, the employment of tools, machines, materials and processes to do work, produce goods, perform services, or carry out other useful activities. It also refers to all the ways man uses his inventions and discoveries to satisfy his needs and desires. It also refers to all the ways man uses his inventions and discoveries to satisfy his needs and desires. Ever since man appeared on the earth, he has had to work to obtain food, clothing and shelter. The Nigerian economy The Nigerian economy is going worse in their contribution to Gross Domestic Products (GDP) growth. Collins Nweze in his write up on the FDC Economic report for September, 2012 said The total amount of government debt outstanding in Nigeria is N6.89 trillion, representing a mere 17.9 percent of Nigerias debt to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Adejuyigbe (2010) and Ibhadode (2006) looked at the contribution of manufacturing to the growth of GDP in Nigeria which was about 4% compared to some advanced countries (G7) which had 19% contribution. Although, comparing Nigerias debt-to-GDP ratio of 17.9% is comparatively low, relative to the debt to GDP ratio of Ghana (41.2 percent) or South Africa (38.8 percent). ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY AS THE BEDROCK OF ECONOMY, PRODUCTIVITY AND DEVELOPMENT Agricultural Mechanisation -Mechanisation can be achieved by the use of the Agricultural Engineers Iron and Steel Industry -The products obtained from Iron and Steel industry should be the function of Mechanical Engineers Small Scale Industries- With the phenomena of transfer of technology, small-scale industrial entrepreneur must play an important role in revitalising a depressed economy Health Equipment and Accessories -It is the responsibility of the machine tools industry to be saddled with the manufacture of modern health equipment and accessories used in our hospitals. Defence and National Security Equipment and Artillery - Developed countries place great emphasis on the tools industry to provide the equipment and artillery used for their defence and security. xxvii

Printing Industry for Educational Books -Appropriate textbooks for the educational system is lacking seriously Automobile Industry and Spare Parts for Maintenance -The non-availability of spare parts for maintenance of vehicles and even the inability to purchase the new one is at increase. To actually attain total dependence in Automobile Industry is the function of Automobile Engineers. Change in the Trend and Operations of Manufacturing Industries and Springing up of other Industries Stoppage or Gradual Elimination for Imported Machines The Trends of Engineering and Technology for Productivity and Development in the Nigeria Industry. Foundry/Casting Industry in Nigeria- It is unfortunate that despite the early start of foundry, which is the oldest engineering industry in Nigeria, starting over twenty countries ago, it stills very much lag behind. (Inuwa, 1995). The state of Nigerian foundry industries is only at Jobbing and captive level Industrial Automation and Communication - An appraisal of Industrial Automation and Communication in Nigeria Manufacturing Industries was conducted. Using nine major industries in Osun State, the study revealed that the major industries in Osun State were confronted with the problems of under utilization of industrial automation and communication. This is caused by the problem relating to lack of a well-developed industrial community, lack of allocation and mismanagement of funds; and inadequate availability of automated machines and communication Table 1: Textile Companies that Have Closed Down within the last 10 Years S/N LAGOS STATE 16 Nigeria Synthetic KAANO STATE Fabrics Ltd. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 Afprint Nig. Plc. Western Textile Mills Ltd 17 Reliance Ltd. Textile 1 2 Bagauda Textile Mills Kano Kano Textile Printers Ltd Dangote Textiles

18 First Spinner Plc.

President Industries Nig. 19 Specomill Ltd Ltd. Pacific Weaving Coy. Ltd Vinkay Industries Nig. Ltd Nibeltex Industries Ltd. Abel Abu Industries Ltd. 1 2

Textile 3

KADUNA STATE United Nigerian 1 Textile Ltd SRC Industries 2 L:td Arewa Textiles Matex Nig. Ltd Supertex Limited Blanket Manufacturing Co. Ltd Finetex Ltd 3 4 5 6 7

OTHER SATES Asaba Textiles Mills Asaba Stretch Fibres Industries Ltd Horison Fibres Industries Ltd Aba Textile Mills Ltd, Aba Dorji Textile Mills Ltd, Benin Edo Textile Mills Ltd, Edo Odua Textile Industries Ltd, Ado Ekiti xxviii

Jay Bee Industries Nig. 3 Ltd. Aswani Industries Nig. 4 Ltd. Kay Industries Nig. Ltd. Diamond Ltd. Spinner 5

Nig. 6 7

Texlon Nig. Ltd.

14 15

Bhojray Industries Plc. Textile Ltd. Specialities

Kaduna Ltd Unitex Ltd

Textile

Nig. 9

ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY AMIDST NATIONAL SECURITY CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA Challenges in Engineering and Technology should as a matter of urgency leave the territory of theories and move to practical values. Some of the research conducted by our learned Engineers and Scientist died in their shelves. Quoting just very few research done in our tertiary institution and some practical work carried out in Nigeria thus; Olatunbosun and Abimbola, (2005) developed an Expert System, to carry out diagnostic operation on equipment. Agunwamba (2000) worked on the optimal maintenance of rural borehole scheme, in Enugu State of Nigeria, using a mathematical model of maintenance for boreholes in rural communities, relating cost to preventive and co-ordinated corrective maintenance frequency and down time. Most of the shallow boreholes sunk in Anambra and Enugu States stopped production after a short period of operation. One of major causes was pump failure. In 1987, out of total number of 787 standpipes in Isiala-Ngwa area in the present Abia State, only 219 were functional. The 219 pipes cannot supply water for more than 24 hours in a week. Five hundred and sixty four stand pipes had been nonfunctional for 1 to 18 years (Chima, 1989). Similarly, in Katsina State alone, over 1000 boreholes have been abandoned due to mere breakage of the connecting rod and or rising main of the mono- pump system (Adegoke-Anthony, 1990). Sodiki (2001) worked on the planning for manpower employment for scheduled maintenance work in Nigeria industries. The research underscore the importance of manpower planning in our industries Igboanugo and Aigbe (2003) researched into a case study of maintenance practice in production firm using a Markovian method of study. The result of a stochastic study of current maintenance practice aimed at examining ways of reducing occurrence of equipment failure in a Lagos Based on a soft drink bottling company Ikpo (2000) provide a model for a comparative economic analysis of repairable components in a building. The repaired components were compiled of a University staff quarters over a period of twenty years (1980 2000). The results show that repairs are particularly cheaper than replacement for most items. Adejuyigbe (2011 etc.), in various publications has worked in the areas of mechatronics, Computer Aided Engineering, Antropometry and Ergonomics, Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge Based Expert System, Automation, Robotics, which are the modern challenges in engineering that Nigeria needs to imbibed. Challenges in the Midst of Security Threats in Nigeria According to Kevin Nengia in the Nigerian newspaper of Thursday 13 th September, 2012, on Why Nigeria May Break Up he emphasized about the security problems of Nigeria. He looked at the breaking up of Nigeria into five different countries thus; Arewa Republic; Niger Middle Belt: Oduduwa Republic; United Niger Delta; and Biafra Republic. He was looking at this because of some recent happening in Nigeria, and feels sorry for the future of Nigeria, for example;

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He looked at hope of the poor masses Governance; Corruption Lack of basic amenities for people; Boko Aram bombing churches, for example the latest one at Deeper Life Bible Church at Kogi State, and Plateau State. For some unexplainable reasons, Boko Haram has besmirched all security measure put in place by the Government to track the faceless terrorist behind callous mayhem threatening the very foundation of the country. He also looked at some personality in Nigeria like Ogboni leader, Goodluck Diigbo who declared in far away Netherland that the Ogonis had seceded, meaning the Ogonis were no longer part of Nigeria Bakassi people also declared self-determination. For them, the ceding of their father land is not only sacrilegious, it is devious and inhuman. Until today, they are yet to come to terms with the reality that they had been hounded out of their ancestral home by few judges, who sat in the Hague and decided their fate. But, he concluded that all these are not the end for Nigeria He said that all these strange happenings, violence and bombing by Boko Haram in the North, are mere faade put up by phony power mongers. It is simply the quest for power control and once they are settled we will see the elastic spring returning back to size. I was in Israel recently. The country operates amidst tight security challenges. But the country is up to the task. When you are inside the country you are safe. Israel developed a technology to sense if there are missiles or enemy attack coming to attack them. The missile when it is about to attack and blast Israel their sensor will sense it and immediately the machine already developed will catch the missile. If they discovered that the missile is going to land where it is free they will allow it to land. That is the level of security measures they have in Israel. I hope that we too can develop our security to a level that it can be depended upon in Nigeria. If not both our technology and economy will be going down the drain as to what is happening to us now as a Country. Something urgent needs to be done here, so that life and properties can be protected. Dayo Adebowale on Saturday, September 15, 2012 looked at the Technology, politics and global security done an analysis on the killing of the US Ambassador in Benghazi, Libya that week over the alleged blasphemy on Islam in the film- Desert Warriors said to be about life 2000 years ago, bring the fore the good, the bad and ugly side of the internet as a fast and speedy generator of information and ideas. The presence of objectionable scenes on the Holy Prophet and Islam sparked off murderous protests in the Middle East with protesters looking Americans to kill maim or skin alive. In Cairo the situation was similar to that of in Benghazi. Just as in Senaa the Yemeni capital where protesters besieged the US embassy and tried to enter it. He also emphasized the use of internet by the Boko Haram in manufacturing bombs from the local raw materials from the knowledge gained from the internet. Then he concluded by saying that one is tempted to ask if there has not been a mistake somewhere on expected use of information on an unfettered internet and totally free social networks and on-line information sharing systems Most of the foundry industries in Nigeria still adopt sand casting technique of Jobbing or captive type. This type lack the modern day Computer-Aided high mechanized production type of foundry like mechanized squeezes and flask less moulds mechanical lines In order to keep the planning process close to satisfying market needs, todays strategists emphasize the importance of interacting frequently with key customer and suppliers. To remain internationally competitive, the Nigeria firms must sustain a xxx

high rate of internal learning that both refines current practices and leads to the adoption of better procedures in the workplace. Suggestions A Technique Developed by Japanese A technique developed by Japanese manufacturers is being used extensively by US Manufacturing today. This technique is called Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM) by Maynard. In this approach, machine operators in production are trained to perform preventive maintenance on the machines that they operate. The approach has accounted for 50% increases in productivity, a 99% reduction in of equipment failure rates, and a 90% reduction in product defects. Cluster Initiatives in Nigeria I attended a workshop and exhibition of RMRDC Corporate Headquarters, No 17, Aguiyi Ironsi Street, Maitama, Abuja, Nigeria, in February, 2011 and the bane of their discussion was in the papers presented by Prof. O. Bamiro (Keynote Address) and Prof. B. A. Adewumi (Invited Paper) which centres on the cluster initiative, which is a tool for industrial development. It was emphasized that there is need for Government, Industry and Academia to come together in their research and developmental effort. This is what is obtainable in a globalised and technologically advanced world, because businesses are increasingly gathering together to generate competitive advantage. This phenomenon Clustering therefore can be seen around the world, but not yet in Nigeria. The need to integrate the low level manpower who are not a University graduate to form the cluster like Artisan, Craftsman, and Technicians who are already turned to Motorcycle (Ocada) riders in the scheme of things were also emphasized. Nollywood Model Ibhadode (2011) in his presentation suggested that as the Nigeria business environment is currently not very friendly, it will be advisable for such entrepreneurs and indeed all manufacturers to get out of the box and apply the Nollywood model for success which entails ingenuity, inventiveness, innovativeness, hard work and putting your- fate- into- your hands without looking up to governments. Appeal to Government There should be a stoppage into insecurity in Nigeria. If not the few industries presently in place will find their way out of the country. We can never witness any technological development and evolution under threat to life and properties, since our technological advancement is not up to the level of advanced countries (G7). The foreign partners cannot invest their hard earned money in an unsafe environment, in a developing economy like that of Nigeria.

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SOME WORK DONE BY ENGINEERS AND TECHNOLOGISTS I N THE PAST GOING BEYOUND THEORIES

Channel Tunnel Drill

Clifton Suspension Bridge

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Assembling an Aeroplane

THANK YOU FOR LISTENING AND GOD BLESS YOU ALL.

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