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Brenda Hoddinott

U07 ADVANCED: FACES & FIGURES


In this lesson, you draw the three-dimensional forms of a clothed, female figure, by first outlining with detailed lines, and then adding shading with crosshatching. Meet Claudette, an incredibly creative artist in both visual and literary arts! She kindly agreed to model for the photo on which this drawing is based. Find your drawing supplies and draw along with me as I take you step-by-step through the following three sections: SKETCHING PROPORTIONS: This project doesnt come with an actual model (sorry), so you will set up proportions by examining my sketches and drawings. REFINING THE SKETCH: You refine your rough sketch by adding more details, such as the outlines of some of the forms of the body, facial features, hair, hands, and feet. ADDING SHADING: The most important phase of drawing is seeing. When you can identify the values in your subject, you have a working plan to follow as you do your shading. Two light sources identify the light and shadow areas on the figures forms.

Suggested supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers, a pencil sharpener, a sandpaper block, and good quality drawing paper.

14 PAGES - 40 ILLUSTRATIONS
This lesson is recommended for artists with good drawing skills, especially graduated hatching and crosshatching techniques. The curriculum is easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments.

Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada 2002 (Revised 2007)

2 SKETCHING PROPORTIONS
This project doesnt come with an actual model (sorry), so you will be working from my sketches and drawings. My drawing is quite small (only 8 high). If I had the drawing to do over, I would render it much larger. Larger formats allow room for more anatomically correct details. I added a grid to help guide you through the important phase of setting up proportions. Of course, you also have the option of drawing freehand without a grid; simply ignore all instructional references to a grid. By the way, when you work from an actual model, using a grid simply isnt an option. If models see you about to draw lines all over them with a thick black marker, they may run for the hills! 1) Very lightly draw a simple grid of six squares, two across by three down. The size of each square determines the size of your drawing. Consider the following: 3 inch squares 6 by 9 inch drawing 4 inch squares 8 by 12 inch drawing 5 inch squares 10 by 15 inch drawing 2) Draw a light sketch of the figure using the grid squares as guidelines. Refer to Figures 7-01 to 7-06. Use an HB pencil, and keep your sketch lines light, so you can erase them later. I consider this to be the most important step. When you draw a flower or a tree, if the proportions are off, it really doesnt matter. Not so with a figure; if your proportions are wrong, your drawing just wont look right no matter how wonderful your shading is. As you work your way through this section, take note that her: Left shoulder is lower than her right. Head is tilted downwards and a little to the left. Hands and the lower section of her right leg and foot are drawn slightly larger, disproportionate to the rest of her body, because they are closer. Remember There is no right or wrong way to draw. I prefer to outline with detailed lines before adding shading; but whats right for me may not be right for you. You can draw a figure in oodles of different ways, such as: using mostly shading to define the various forms; using only lines (contour drawing); or focusing on only one specific area of interest on the figure rather than drawing the entire body. Take time to experiment with different techniques and styles of drawing, until you find those with which you are most comfortable.
Figure 7-01

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Remember You will be able to draw the threedimensional forms of a human body more accurately, when you have carefully observed and done drawings of real-life people, from several different perspectives.
Figure 7-02

Figure 7-03

Figure 7-04

Remember Draw people, either clothed or unclothed, every chance you can find. When you can draw people well, you can draw anything!
Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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Figure 7-05

Remember Dont press too hard with your pencils. Not only do these areas become impossible to touch up, but they also leave dents in your paper. When you try to draw over dents in the paper with a soft pencil (such as a 2B), they show up as light lines, spoiling the overall appearance of your drawing.
Figure 7-06

3)

Erase your grid lines. Some areas may need to be sketched back in, if they are accidentally erased.

4)

Use your kneaded eraser to pat your entire sketch until the lines are very faint.

REFINING THE SKETCH


In this section, you refine your rough sketch by adding more details, such as the outlines of some of the forms of the body, facial features, hair, hands, and feet. 5) Follow along with Figures 7-07 to 7-24 to outline the entire figure. Use a freshly sharpened HB pencil. Again, keep your lines very faint. You can either erase your sketch lines as you work, or wait until the outline is complete and then erase them.
Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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Figure 7-07 Figure 7-08 Figure 7-09

Figure 7-10

Figure 7-11

Figure 7-12

Figure 7-13

Take note that my detailed outlines are not drawn directly over the initial sketch lines. Rather, by constantly examining the photo as I worked, I continuously made adjustments. Remember I use just the weight of the pencil itself to draw my lines. The outlines on my actual drawing are so light that they are barely visible. Consequently, a regular scanned image simply would not show up well enough for you to see the details. Hence, all my outline drawings have been made darker in a photo imaging program so you can see them clearly.
Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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Figure 7-14 Figure 7-15 Figure 7-16

Figure 7-17

Figure 7-18

Hands and feet are the most difficult parts of the human body to draw. Yes, even harder than a face! However, to draw a figure without hands or feet is to miss out on some challenging fun. Dont worry if your drawings of hands and feet look all wrong at first. Just do your best and in time, you will get better!

Figure 7-19

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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Figure 7-20 Figure 7-21

Figure 7-22

Take note of some of the adjustments I made, such as making her left foot a little longer to make more room for her toes. Also, examine the various very lightly sketched circular shapes on her shoulders, arms and legs. These shapes identify the locations of a few anatomical forms that will need to be accentuated with shading.
Figure 7-23

6)

Check over your drawing and erase the original sketch lines. However, make sure you leave the circular shapes. Refer to Figure 7-24 on the next page.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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7) Gently pat your drawing with a kneaded eraser (again) to lighten your outlines. Before you get into the really fun stuff (the shading), you have one last chance to make any drastic changes. First, take a nice long break, then come back and have a fresh look at your drawing. Make final adjustments to any sections of your line drawing that you arent completely happy with.
Figure 7-24

ADDING SHADING
You need to plan your shading strategies before you begin shading. Examine the completed drawing in Figure 7-25. The shading is rendered according to two light sources. The dominant light source is from the upper left, so the overall shading is darker on the right. A secondary light source from the upper right is focused mostly on her face.
Figure 7-25

The light sources identify the light and shadow areas on the figures forms.

The most important phase of drawing is seeing. When you can identify the values in your subject, you have a working plan to follow as you do your shading. For example, the white of the paper is used to represent the lightest values, and the darkest shading can be found in the shadow areas. A full range of middle values, fall somewhere in between these two extremes. Many artists prefer to work from light to dark. By drawing your light values first, you can then layer your medium shading on top of your light shading. This layering creates a nice smooth transition between different values. The darkest values are then built in layers on top of the medium values. Your various pencils from light to dark can do a lot of the work in drawing values. You only need to decide where to place all your values.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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8) Add light and middle values to her face, body, arms, legs, hands, and feet. Add the light shading around the highlight sections first. The highlights should remain the white of your drawing paper. Draw the hatching lines lightly and far apart at first. Then gradually add more lines (closer together and darker), until you achieve the intended values. Remember to keep a sheet of clean paper under your drawing hand so you dont smudge your drawing. 9) Use hatching lines of various lengths and values to draw her hair. You need a full range of values from very light (the shiny sections) to almost black (the darkest shadow sections).
Figure 7-27 Figure 7-26

10) Add medium and dark shading to her face, body, and clothing with crosshatching. Examine Figures 7-28 to 7-40 closely. Concentrate on only one illustration at a time. The shading has been broken down into manageable chunks. Youll find that a few of your crosshatching lines will occasionally wander into other sections. When this happens, simply erase the stray lines.
Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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Figure 7-28

Visually locate the highlights first, and remember to keep these sections light. The darkest areas are usually pretty easy to identify; youll find them mostly in cast shadows. Medium values are usually in between the lightest and darkest values.

Figure 7-29

Figure 7-30

Figure 7-31

Transitions between values need to flow gently and smoothly into one another.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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Figure 7-32 Figure 7-33

Figure 7-34

Figure 7-35

Step back from your drawing from time to time and have a look at the overall values.
Figure 7-36

You may need to make some areas lighter by patting them gently with your kneaded eraser. You can darken sections by adding a few more hatching and crosshatching lines in between others.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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Figure 7-37

Dont forget; the primary light source is from the left, so the overall shading needs to be darker on the right. Darken or lighten values as needed. For example, you may need to adjust the overall contrast by making the darkest shadow sections a little darker, and the highlights brighter (especially if graphite has accidentally smudged into some of the highlights). 11) Use horizontal, parallel hatching lines to draw the cast shadows below the figure. Refer to Figure 7-39. 12) Make final adjustments to areas you arent happy with. Refer to Figure 7-40. Step back from your drawing and compare it to mine. Have a look at the overall values. 13) Sign your name, write todays date on the back of your drawing, and put a smile on your face!
Figure 7-38

Figure 7-39

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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I have made this illustration of the final drawing larger than my actual drawing, so you can better see the details.
Figure 7-40

CHALLENGE
Do a detailed drawing of a hand and foot feel free to use yourself as the model. Then, either choose a high quality photograph of a figure, or find a model (yourself maybe?), and render a highly detailed drawing. Make sure you include the entire figure dont leave out the fingers or toes just because you find them to be a challenge.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

14 Brenda Hoddinott
As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, cont crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable.
Brenda Hoddinott

Biography Born in St. Johns, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted Learn to Draw books. During Brendas twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brendas skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from Forensic Artists International. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her communitys recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several childrens art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. Learn-to-draw books Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiots Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com