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Functional organization of Cardiovascular system

Learning Objectives:

Describe the functional organization of cardiovascular system

Describe the main function of arteries, capillaries and veins

Describe the flow of blood through the chambers of the heart and through the systemic and pulmonary circulations.

Compare and contrast the systemic

and pulmonary circulation.

Explain flow, pressure and resistance relationships

Describe

the

relationship

between

blood flow, pressure and resistance

List the functions of cardiovascular system.

flow, pressure and resistance  List the functions of cardiovascular system. Dr. Rasha El-Deeb MB BCh.,

Dr. Rasha El-Deeb MB BCh., MSc., MD.

Component of Cardiovascular System

The

system is

composed of the heart (pressure pump) and a group of blood vessels

(arteries, arterioles, capillaries,

venules and veins)

cardiovascular

(pressure pump) and a group of blood vessels (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins) cardiovascular

The heart is made up of two halves

right and left. Each half is made up of an atrium and a ventricle with an

atrioventricular (AV) valve in between

allowing blood to pass only in one

direction; from the ventricle

the

atrium

to

The main function of the atrium is an entry to the ventricles and to act as a reservoir that accommodates the blood

received from the veins

The main function of the ventricle is a pump, left ventricle pump to systemic circulation and right ventricle pump to pulmonary circulation.

Cont.,.

is a pump, left ventricle pump to systemic circulation and right ventricle pump to pulmonary circulation.

The valves of the heart

Any admixture between arterial and venous blood should be prevented.

This means that the circulation

must be strictly one way directed.

This is the action of valves.

There are four valves in the heart. The right atrioventricular

opening is guarded by tricuspid

valve (three cusps) and the left opening by the mitral or bicuspid valve (two cusps). The openings of the aorta and pulmonary

artery are guarded by semilunar valves (three cusps).

Cont.,.

valve (two cusps). The openings of the aorta and pulmonary artery are guarded by semilunar valves

To Understand How the Heart Perform its function as a Pump You should Know :Properties of cardiac muscle

Excitability

It is the ability of cardiac muscle to respond to appropriate stimulus by generating an action potential followed by contraction

Rhythmicity

It is the ability of the cardiac muscle to initiate its beats regularly and continuously. Cardiac rhythmicity is myogenic in origin

Conductivity

It is the ability to transmit the excitation wave (cardiac impulses) originated in the SA node to all parts of the heart

Cardiac Contractility

the excitation wave (cardiac impulses) originated in the SA node to all parts of the heart

Blood Vessels

Form a closed delivery system that begins and ends at the heart

There

are

three

types

of

blood

vessels:

 

o

carry away from the heart.

Arteries

which

blood

o

carry towards the heart.

Veins

which

blood

o Capillaries which carries blood from the arterioles to the venules

Cont.,.

towards the heart. Veins which blood o Capillaries which carries blood from the arterioles to the

The arteries

Are large-diameter vessels with thick walls composed mainly of circular

smooth muscles with a good

proportion of elastic tissue (i.e. highly elastic).

This permits stretching during systole

and recoil during diastole and

preventing systolic blood pressure from rising too much (as the elastic

elements will be stretched).

Also it prevents diastolic pressure

from decreasing too much (as the

elastic elements recoil during diastole).

Called Windkessel vessels

Function as pressure reservoir help propel blood forward while ventricles relax and Conduct blood to medium sized arteries

Cont.,.

as pressure reservoir help propel blood forward while ventricles relax and Conduct blood to medium sized

The arterioles

From small arteries the blood flows into the arterioles whose walls contain a

thick layer of smooth muscles and much

less elastic tissue than arteries.

This permits control of the diameter of

the arterioles and therefore, the

peripheral resistance to blood flow.

For this reason the arterioles have been called the resistance vessels.

Sympathetic tone controls this peripheral resistance as increased tone causes arteriolar constriction and rise the

arterial blood pressure

Local chemical mediators can alter diameter and thus blood flow

Cont.,.

and rise the arterial blood pressure  Local chemical mediators can alter diameter and thus blood
and rise the arterial blood pressure  Local chemical mediators can alter diameter and thus blood

Remember:

Remember:

The capillaries

Blood flows from the arteriole to the capillaries, which have thin walls, made of one layer of flat endothelial cells leaving pores in between and based on a basement membrane.

They are very permeable ,this favors the exchange of nutrients, water , O 2 and CO 2 to take place between the interstitial fluid and blood therefore the capillaries are called exchange vessels

Have

a

huge surface area . They have the largest

highly branched

network creating

total cross sectional and surface area.

3 types of capillaries:

o

Continuous (brain)

o

Fenestrated (Intestinal , Renal)

o

Discontinuous ( Liver, Spleen)

Cont.,.

o Continuous (brain) o Fenestrated (Intestinal , Renal) o Discontinuous ( Liver, Spleen) Cont.,.

The veins and venules

Are thin-walled vessels with much

less muscle coat than the arteries.

However they are still capable of a certain degree of contraction.

The venules and veins together hold more than 60% of the blood volume. This is why they are called

the capacitance vessels.

Has a low pressure , low resistant and it has valves that prevent the back flow of the blood.

Cont.,.

vessels .  Has a low pressure , low resistant and it has valves that prevent

Normally, the fluid leaving the capillaries is more than that returning to them.

The extra-fluid does not accumulate

because it is drained by the lymphatic.

Lymph flows back through the thoracic duct into the great veins in the thorax. The lymph is propelled by rhythmic contractions in the walls of the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct. The respiratory pump helps the flow of

lymph and by the muscle pump in

the same way they help the venous return. The lymph vessels and the large ducts also have valves, which prevent backflow

Cont.,.

way they help the venous return. The lymph vessels and the large ducts also have valves,

Distribution of blood in different parts of circulatory system

Distribution of blood in different parts of circulatory system
Pulmonary circulation Starts at right ventricle Ends at left atrium Receives blood from right side
Pulmonary circulation
Starts at right
ventricle
Ends at left atrium
Receives blood
from right side of
heart
Carries blood
between heart and
lungs
Blood perfusing the
lungs is partially
deoxygenated
All blood flows
through lungs
Low pressure, low
resistance
14

Systemic circulation

Starts at left ventricle Ends at right atrium Receives blood from left side of heart
Starts at left ventricle
Ends at right atrium
Receives blood from
left side of heart
Carries blood
between heart and
other organ systems
Blood perfusing the
organ systems is
oxygenated
Part of the blood go
to different organ
systems
High pressure, high
resistance

Cont.,.

Cont.,.

Relationship Between

Pressure, Flow, and Resistance

Blood flow through a blood vessel is determined by two factors:

Pressure difference of the blood between the two ends of the vessel, also sometimes called “pressure gradient” along the vessel, which is the force that pushes the blood through the vessel

Vascular resistance: resistance occurs as a result of

friction between the flowing blood and the intravascular endothelium all along the inside of the vessel.

 

∆P

 

F =

---------

 
 

R

Contraction of ventricles generates blood pressure

Systolic

BP

:

highest

pressure

attained

in

arteries

during systole

 

Diastolic BP : lowest arterial pressure during diastole

Diastolic BP : lowest arterial pressure during diastole

Blood pressure also depends on total volume of blood

Diastolic BP : lowest arterial pressure during diastole  Blood pressure also depends on total volume

Pressure profile in blood vessels

As blood flows through the

systemic circulation, pressure decreases progressively because of the resistance to blood flow.

Thus pressure is highest in the

aorta and large arteries and lowest in the vene cavae

The largest pressure decrease

occurs

across

the

arterioles

because

they

are

the

site

of

highest resistance

pressure decrease occurs across the arterioles because they are the site of highest resistance

Function of Cardiovascular System

Circulates blood throughout the body so;…

Transport of nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to cells throughout the body and removal of metabolic wastes (carbon

the body and removal of metabolic wastes (carbon dioxide, nitrogenous wastes, and heat).  Protection of

dioxide, nitrogenous wastes, and heat).

Protection of the body by white blood cells, antibodies, and complement proteins that circulate in the blood and defend the body

against foreign microbes and toxins.

Clotting mechanisms are also present that

protect the body from blood loss after injuries.

Regulation of body temperature, fluid pH,

and water content of cells.

Sources:

Guyton,

Arthur

C.

Textbook

of

medical physiology / Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall.11th ed.,

Ganong's Review of Medical Physiology/Kim E. Barrett, Susan M. barman, Scott Boitano and Heddwen L.Brooks,23 rd ed.,

Instructional Web Sites

E. Barrett, Susan M. barman, Scott Boitano and Heddwen L.Brooks,23 r d ed.,  Instructional Web