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Quality management II

Module 8

Specification limits
Upper and lower boundaries defining the limits of variation in a product characteristics such that the product is fit for use Output measuring outside these limits is unacceptable. Need to determine how much variation is acceptable to customer Goal is to reduce the variation in the process in order to conform the product requirements

Specifications
The range of acceptable values
May be given as Value Tolerance May be given as USL (upper specification limit) and LSL (lower specification limit)

Determined by the user, not by the process


Not calculated from process data

Product that does not meet specifications is termed off-spec

Statistical control limits


Certain amount of variability in a process is unavoidable The upper and lower control limits in a control chart refers to statistical control limits

Quality Control (QC)


Control the activity of ensuring conformance to requirements and taking corrective action when necessary to correct problems Importance
Daily management of processes Prerequisite to longer-term improvements

Process control
Controlling process
An imp function of process management

Process control includes


monitoring the accuracy and variability of equipment Operators knowledge and skills The accuracy of measurement results and data used

Data for process control are obtained by inspection/testing generally performed at 3 stages
At receipt of incoming materials During the manufacturing process And upon the completion of production (finished goods stage)

Quality Control vs. Process Control


Traditional quality control focuses on the product
Monitor product quality Rework or scrap off-spec product

Statistical process control focuses on the process


Monitor process behavior (including product quality) Adjust the process to eliminate off-spec production

What is Statistical Process Control?


Strategy for process improvement that uses statistics-based techniques to evaluate the process and identify opportunities for improvement Used primarily to detect
Production of defective products or services Indicate that production process has changed Product will vary from design specification

Based on the philosophy that making the right product in the first place is better than trying to rework the wrong product

Two Types of Variability


Common cause (Random)
Random, so its effect on the product is predictable. If only common cause variability is present, then product quality will only vary within a specified range.

Special cause (Assignable)


Non-random, so its effect on the product is Unpredictable until you identify the special cause. When special cause variability is present, but the cause has not been identified, product quality can change in any direction at any time.

Two Types of Variability


Common cause (Random)
Precision limits of instrumentation
Buy better instruments

Changes in ambient(surrounding) conditions


Relocate process to climate-controlled building

Special cause (Assignable)


Each operator has his own style
Retrain operators

Raw materials purchased from different suppliers


Stick with one supplier; buy higher-grade supplies

Equipment wear
Increase maintenance frequency

Control Charts
A graph that establishes control limits of a process Control limits upper and lower bands of a control chart

Types of charts
Attributes
p-chart c-chart

Variables
range (R-chart) mean (x bar chart)

Where to Use Control Charts


Process has a tendency to go out of control Process is particularly harmful and costly if it goes out of control
Examples at the beginning of a process because it is a waste of time and money to begin production process with bad supplies before a costly or irreversible point, after which product is difficult to rework or correct before and after assembly or painting operations that might cover defects before the outgoing final product or service is delivered

Are used mainly by production operators rather than by inspectors or quality control personnel

Process Control Chart


Out of control Upper control limit Process average Lower control limit

10

Sample number

Control charts for variable data


Variables are those that are measured along a continuous scale
E.g. for variable data are length, weight, speed

The charts commonly used for variables are:


1. Mean chart or X chart 2. R chart(Range chart)

The X chart is used to monitor the variation in the process The range is used as measure of variation simply for convenience for calculations while constructing control chart

Control Charts for Variables


Mean chart ( x -Chart )
uses average of a sample

Range chart ( R-Chart )


uses amount of dispersion in a sample

x-bar Chart Example


OBSERVATIONS (SLIP- RING DIAMETER, CM)

SAMPLE k
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1
5.02 5.01 4.99 5.03 4.95 4.97 5.05 5.09 5.14 5.01

2
5.01 5.03 5.00 4.91 4.92 5.06 5.01 5.10 5.10 4.98

3
4.94 5.07 4.93 5.01 5.03 5.06 5.10 5.00 4.99 5.08

4
4.99 4.95 4.92 4.98 5.05 4.96 4.96 4.99 5.08 5.07

5
4.96 4.96 4.99 4.89 5.01 5.03 4.99 5.08 5.09 4.99

x
4.98 5.00 4.97 4.96 4.99 5.01 5.02 5.05 5.08 5.03 50.09

R
0.08 0.12 0.08 0.14 0.13 0.10 0.14 0.11 0.15 0.10 1.15

x- bar Chart Example (cont.)


= x=

x 50.09 = = 5.01 cm k 10

= UCL = x + A2R = 5.01 + (0.58)(0.115) = 5.08 = LCL = x - A2R = 5.01 - (0.58)(0.115) = 4.94

Retrieve Factor Value A2

5.10 5.08 5.06 5.04 Mean 5.02 5.00 4.98 4.96 4.94 4.92 | 1 | 2 | 3 | | | | 4 5 6 7 Sample number | 8 | 9 | 10 LCL = 4.94 = x = 5.01

UCL = 5.08

x- bar Chart Example (cont.)

R- Chart
UCL = D4R R=
where
R = range of each sample k = number of samples

LCL = D3R R k

R-Chart Example
OBSERVATIONS (SLIP-RING DIAMETER, CM)

SAMPLE k
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1
5.02 5.01 4.99 5.03 4.95 4.97 5.05 5.09 5.14 5.01

2
5.01 5.03 5.00 4.91 4.92 5.06 5.01 5.10 5.10 4.98

3
4.94 5.07 4.93 5.01 5.03 5.06 5.10 5.00 4.99 5.08

4
4.99 4.95 4.92 4.98 5.05 4.96 4.96 4.99 5.08 5.07

5
4.96 4.96 4.99 4.89 5.01 5.03 4.99 5.08 5.09 4.99

x
4.98 5.00 4.97 4.96 4.99 5.01 5.02 5.05 5.08 5.03 50.09

R
0.08 0.12 0.08 0.14 0.13 0.10 0.14 0.11 0.15 0.10 1.15

R-Chart Example (cont.)

R=

R 1.15 = = 0.115 k 10

UCL = D4R = 2.11(0.115) = 0.243 LCL = D3R = 0(0.115) = 0

Retrieve Factor Values D3 and D4

R-Chart Example (cont.)


0.28
0.24 0.20 Range 0.16 0.12 0.08 0.04 0 LCL = 0 | | | 1 2 3 | | | | 4 5 6 7 Sample number | 8 | 9 | 10 UCL = 0.243 R = 0.115

Interpreting patterns in control charts


When a process is in statistical control, the points on a control chart fluctuate randomly between the control limits Checklist for determining whether a process is in control?
1. No points are outside the control limits 2. The no of points above and below the central line is about the same 3. The points to seem fall randomly above and below the central line 4. Most points, but not all, are near the central line, and only a few are close to the control limits

Control chart for attributes


Attributes assume only 2 values
Good or bad Defective or non- defective Acceptable or non acceptable Pass or fail and so on.

Attributes usually can not be measured, but they can be observed and counted and are useful in many practical situations
E.g.: printer ink quality and colour quality can be rated as acceptable or not acceptable

Control chart for attributes


Attributes data are easy to collect often by visual inspection

Drawback is large samples are necessary to


obtain valid statistical results Two major categories of attributes charts are
1. Those that measure the percent defectives in a sample number of defectives chart 2. Those that count the number of defects-number of defects chart

Defect
Is a single non-conforming quality characteristics of an item An item may have several defects

Defectives
Refers to items having one or more defects

Types of Number of defectives chart


Charts for defectives
P chart np chart

Charts for defects


c-chart u-chart

P chart
Monitors the proportion of non-conforming items produced in a lot Used for varying sample size or constant sample size Size of the sample should be large enough to have several non-conforming items When the number of units a produced in each sampling period varies then standard deviation is calculated

0.20 0.18 0.16 Proportion defective 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 p = 0.10 UCL = 0.190

p-Chart Example

LCL = 0.010 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Sample number 16 18 20

np chart for number non conforming for constant sample size


Is a control chart for the number of nonconforming items in a sample To use np chart size of the sample must be constant Often easier to understand for a production personnel that the number of non-conforming items is more meaningful than a fraction
Because In p chart,the fraction non-conforming or defective of the ith sample is given by pi= ci /n where ci is the number found non conforming and n is the sample size

Also the computations are simpler

Chart for defects- c chart


Situations where quality assurance personnel interested in identifying the number of defects with in an item Is used to control the total no of defects per unit when group size is constant
E.g.: missing connections in a printed circuit board of same size

Is based on Poisson probability distribution

24
UCL = 23.35 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 LCL = 1.99

Number of defects

c = 12.67

c-Chart (cont.)

10

12

14

16

Sample number

U chart
Used to control the average no of defects per unit , when the sub group size is variable
E.g.: missing connections in the printed circuit board of varying size

The variable u represents the average no of defects per unit of measurement That is u=c/n where n is the size of the subgroup

Application of c chart and u chart


Used in quality rating system for rating vendors When some defects considered to be more serious than other, the defects can be categorized into different classes
E.g.:
A-very serious defect B-serious defect C- moderately serious defect D- not serious defect

Operators role in quality assurance


Conform to product specifications(customer requirement) TEI(Total employee involvement) Ensuring corrective and preventive maintenance Focus on reducing errors Safety measures Workflow chart Wastage minimisation participant in Quality circle