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SPOKEN WORLD

COMPLETE COURSE
FOR BEGINNERS

written by

Elpida Argyrakopoulos
edited by

Christopher . Warnasch, Shaina Malkin,


and Katerina Zombolou1 Ph.D.

LIVING LANGUAGE

DEDICATION
my brother Constantinos, to whom always look up !

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Copyright 2009 by Living Language, an imprint of Random House, Inc.
Living Language is a member of the Random House Information Group
Living Language and colophon .are registered trademarks of Random
House, Inc.
Map Fodor's Travel, a division of Random House, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Published in the U nited States by Living Language, an imprint of Random
House, Inc.
www.livinglanguage.com
Editors: Christopher Warnasch , Shaina Malkin
Production Editor: Carolyn Roth
Production Man.a ger: Tom Marshall
Interior Design: Sophie Ye Chin
First Edition
ISBN: 978-1-4000-2459-9
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data available upon request.

This book is available at special discounts for bulk purchases for sales
promotions or premiums. Special editions, including personalized covers,
excerpts of existing books, and corporate imprints, can be created in large
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PRINTED
10

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Thanks to the Living Language team: Tom Russell, Nicole Benhabib, Christopher Warnasch, Zviezdana Verzich, Suzanne McQuade, Shaina Malkin,
Elham Shabahat, Sophie Chin, Linda Schmidt, Alison Skrabek, Carolyn
Roth, and Tom Marshall. Special thanks to Alexandra Ioannidou.

Course Outline
Introduction

How to use this course

The Greek alphabet and pronunciation

VOCABULARY

GRAM MAR

Saying hello and good-bye, and other


greetings and courtesy expressions.

1.

Subject pronouns

2.

The verb (I-me) (to be)

3 Asking yesjno questions

4. Gender and articles

Basic vocabulary and structure for


talking about family and friends.

The simple present of


I
(E-kho) (to have)
1.

2.

The plural of masculine nouns

3 Negative sentences
4 Numbers

Everyday objects around the home


and descri ptive terms.

1 - 20

1.

Indefinite articles

2.

Plural of feminine nouns

3 Plural of neuter nouns


4 Using adjectives
5. Possessives

Talking about your daily routine


and asking questions.

1.

Present tense of - verbs

2.

Present tense of - verbs- the

passve voce

3 Questions
4 Numbers

a~d

question words

20- 100

VOCABULARY

tJ

c....,
n

L~.
$SON
.

.::::;::

5 LH'S GO.

t'D

s(Hqo)

;.

Talking about school, courses, and


studying.

Going to the doctor' s office and the


pharmacy. Important vocabulary
and expressions for talking about
sickness, health, and the human
body.

Days of the week, months, and


seasons
1.

More negation

2.

3 Demonstratives

Genitive case of nouns and


articles
1.

2.

-+

Adjectives in the genitive

3 Indirect objects

4 Present tense conjugation of


Group 2 verbs
Talking about computers,
hardware and software, and using
the internet.

The comparative and


superlative of adjectives
1.

Vocabulary and expressions for


buying things.

The simple future tense

2.

Simple future of irregular verbs

1.

The use

2.

Modals

Common irregular verbs

2.

3 Quantity expressions

Vocabulary and expressions related


to ordering food and eating.
Expressing likes and dislikes.

1.

Expressing and in
the past

Vocabulary and expressions for


taking care of everyday needs
and obligations.

3 The subjunctive

1.

2.

,he simple past of other verbs

..

Jobs, professions, workplaces


and companies.

3 Object pronouns and the


accusative case

1.

Word order

2.

Two-word prepositions

3 Reflexive verbs and pronouns

4 Expressing likes and dislikes


Hobbies

5 Ordinal numbers

free time, and recreational

activities.
Vocabulary related to towns and
cities. Getting around and asking
directions.

1.

The imperative

2.

The accusative case

1.

More the p~ssive voice

2.

Relative clauses

3 Strong and weak pronoun


forms

3 Accusative adjective agreement


4 Accusative prepositions

Sports

the outdoors nature1 and


the weather.

1.

The weather

2.

The past continuous tense

3 The conditional
Speaking on the phone, making
appointments, telling tir.e, and
giving dates.

1.

Numbers above

2.

Telling time

100

3 Polite requests

Greek- English glossary

277

English-Greek glossary

305

4 Dates

-.....

..............................-..............

________

Greek

---------,--

_._ ............._.............................. .................................................-..-...


,

- - - - -..----.... ................. ........................._


,

Course outline

lntroduction

This course is designed to provide you with an easy and practical introduction to the language. t will help you learn the basics of Greek vocabulary,
structure, and conversation, so that you'll be able to take part in everyday conversations, find your way around, and make yourself understood
in a range of situations in Greek. Of course, learning a language is not a
simple thing; it takes tim~, patience, and commitment, but it can be a lot
of fun and very rewarding. This program doesn't assume that you have
any knowledge of Greek, or that you're a whiz with grammatical concepts.
Everything is explained in plain English, grammatical concepts are put in
simple language, and there are plenty of examples to help you understand
each point as you progress through the course. You'll probably find that
with this course, Greek comes to you far more painlessly than you would
have imagined! But before you begin, take a moment to read the 'w to
Use This Course" section, so that you can get the most out of Spoken World:
Greek by Living Language.

HOW

USE THIS COURSE

This beginner-level course is designed to use both audio and visual instruction to help you master the basics of Greek. previous knowledge of
Greek is assumed.
Following this introduction, you'll find a section that teaches you everything you need to know about the Greek alphabet and pronunciation. Use it
in conjunction with the audio to become fully acquainted with the sounds
of Greek. Imitate the native speakers that you hear, but don't be worried if
you don't sound quite native yourself; after all, you're not. Good proriunciation will come in time. Just use the pronunciation section enough to
familiarize yourself with the sounds and spelling of Greek. Then you can
begin the fifteen lessons, each of which is dedicated to a particular topic
and to specific structural points.
As a general piece of advice, fight the urge to skip ahead or rush over any
part of this course. It's designed in a careful sequence, and each section rep-

resents a building block that adds to everything bef~re it while at the same
time preparing you for everything that comes after t. Always move ahead
at your own pace; if you don't understand somethi.ng, : if you .don't feel
quite comfortable with some point, si~ply ~ ov:r t agan. That ~ the best
way to make sure your learning expeence s panless and effectve.
Each lesson of this course contains the following sections:

Vocabulary warm-up
The vocabulary warm-up kicks off the lesson with key words you'll hear in
the dialogue. Many will be related to the topic of the lesson; some will be
related to the grammar you'll be learning in that particular lesson.

Dialogue

manners, and etiquette, and they also give you a chance to "tour the different regions of Greece.

...,

I Q..

c:

~
-

Grammar

::J

Each lesson contains a number of notes on particular aspects of Greek


grammar. These notes are introduced in a careful sequence, so that they
bulld on one another, and they explain the key structures you encounter in
the lesson- particularly, in the dialogue. Each topic is explained in plain
and simple language, and there are plenty of examples to help you understand. Grammar can be tricky for many beginning language learners, so
take your time on the grammar notes. Grammar is tl1e nuts-and-bolts of
any language learning; without it, you wouldn't know how to put words
together !

Exercises

The dialogue in each lesson serves the double purpose of allowing you to
read and hear natural Greek at work and introducing you to Greek culture. Read these dialogues carefully; they'll contain the grammar and key
phrases that you will be learning later in the lesson. Don't be afraid to
read them several times, and listen to them on the recordings a few times,
as well. Always go at your own pace, and stick with a section until you're
comfortable with it.

Vocabulary
The vocabulary list contains new words from the dialogue as well as other
words related to the overall topic of the lesson. You can refer to this list
while reading through the dialogue, but, of course, the translation of the
dialogue is provided as well. Use the vocabulary lists as a chance to build
a good foundation for your Greek vocabulary, one topic at a time. Ex?eriment with different methods of learning vocabulary-spoken or wtten
repetition, flash cards, practice sentences, w~b searches ... Be creative, and
find what-works for you.

The exercises in each lesson will give you more opportunities to practice
the grammar and vocabulary you've learned in each lesson. Each lesson
includes an answer key at the end, so you can check yonr progress.

lndependent challenge
The most important part of learning a language is practice. These challenge activ:ities are designed to give you ideas for finding contexts in your
life where you can practice your Greek. They're meant as a guide; if you
feel inspired to create your own independent challenge activities, go right
ahead. The more contact you have with a language, the better you'lllearn
it. And don't forget about the internet. Language learners now have an
incredible tool at their disposal- they can find newspapers, blogs, online
references, travel and tourism sites, and much, much more, all of which can
be used to add depth and color to language lessons.

Audio
The audio portion of this course is divided into two sets: Set and Set .

Key phrases
The key phrases section contains more practical words or phrases related
to the lesson topic. Don't worry if you don't grasp the grammar behind
each phrase right away. Treat the phrases as extended vocabulary lists; the
grammar will be filled in as you progress, and the idiomatic and practical
expressions you learn in the key phrases will come in handy.

Culture notes
Each lesson contains two culture notes. These notes are intended to give
you a window Greek culture. They cover topics such as food, clothing,

--

.....................................................,...

Greek

---------

--

---

--~-----

Set includes the vocabulary warm-up, dialogue, vocabulary, key phrases,


and grammar examples from each lesson. English translations are not included. This part of the audio course should be used along with the book,
following the order of each lesson, to allow you to hear the words on the
page in spoken Greek. good approach is to read each section first without
the audio so that you're prepared to get the most out of the audio when you
do listen to it. Then, take it step-by-step and listen to each section at a time,
always allowing yourself the time and repetition that you need.

*Helpful Hint: Once you've listened to the dialogue several times while
reading along in the book, try listening to it without the help of the book.
- - - ---- - - -..-..

.......................................................

-~------

- -....-...................................--- - - - . . . . . . . .... .. . . . . . . . .I ntrod uction

This will help tune your ear to Greek, and it will make understanding the
spoken language easier down the line.
Set is intended to be used on the go to supplement your studies. It cn
tains the dialgue from each lessn., broken dwn int easily digestible sentences. Yu'll hear pauses after each sentence, phrase, r line f dialgue;
use the pause t repeat- what yu heard ad practice yur pruciati.
Set als icludes several audi-oly exercises that d t appear i the
bk but are based the dialgue ad exactly the same grammar tpics.
The exercises i Set d iclude Eglish. gd way to make use f Set
is t liste t it fllwig each less, ce yu've cmfrtably fiished
readig the text ad listeig to the Set audi. Use Set wherever it's
cnveiet fr yu-i the car, the trai, at the gym, while you d the
dishes, i the garde ... It's up t yu. u ca also use Set as a review f
lesss yu've lg sice cmpleted t keep yu yur tes!

The Greel< alphabet and


pronunciation

GREEK ALPHABET

Let's start by loking at the entire Greek alphabet, alog with the ames
of the letters and their apprximate prounciatio. Notice that the ames
of the letters in Mder Greek are't quite the same as the names of the
letters in Ancient Greek. fr example, VI-ta instead f beta.

Glossary
At the ed f this bok yu'll fid a Greek-Eglish/Eglish-Greek glssary.
t icludes all f the wrds frm the vcabulary lists, plus ay imprtat
vcabulary that's taught i the grammar tpics. It als icludes a wide
rage of commo ad practical wrds that may t cme up i the co
text of this course. It' s t meat as a cmplete dictioriary, but it certaily
icludes eough t be a valuable re~erece tool for the begiig studet
of Greek.

........................................................

~.

LffiER

GREEK

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . U ' # > - - ~---

. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ._ _ _ __

'C

---

............................-..--

--

............................... --;

APPROXI

TRANSLITERAON i

PRONUNCIAiON

As yu use this course keep this i mid: Laguage learing is ~ gradual prcess; it wo't happen overnight. Still, with repeated expsur-e ad
practice, you'll find yourself becoming a better ad better Greek speaker
each time you pick up this course. But laguages are't just used in books;
they're used by people. So, if you can, seek out speakers of Greek where
yu live or the iternet. That way, you can practice the language ad
discover new people while you do.

............................._-;

! (ka-LI e-pi-ti-KHI-a!) Best of luck!


YO-ta
l"''"'''

"'"""""""""'' '.,..,._ -

! ,

-----~~~-~ ~~

~N-''11N,V'WWW'.'-'""'"'"""'"<1Voo"''''"''''''''' "' '"''"'""'"'"'"'"" """""''\'.""'.........~,......-~ ..... ""

m i n me

mi
- - " " " " " " " . """""""""'"'''''' - _"_ _ _ _ _ _"''

n
.., ..........._ _ _ _,,,,,..,,,,,,..,,_,,,.,.,,,,.,_. .. ,.._,,.,...,.,._,...., _ _ _ _

-.........................

..........................................._,

xii

_ _ ____

-----............................................

....,_.........,,.,,,,,,,,,.................

Greek

- -....._.....................................

___

.................................

___

--..

____ _ _
..

'' " ' ' " ' " ' ' " " " " " f ' ' " " ' " 'n

- - ""'""'"'"""-"""""""""""""""" - - - - - -

-- !

,_...,~'<'-,,., ,,,,,,,,, . .,,,,.,. .. ,,.,,.,., ....,,......._ < o V . o.............,..,_,,,,,,,,.,,.

ks in sticks

ksi

.......................................

~ .... _.

n i n no

t"'"''''' ,.~ . . ,,,.,,,,,,~,.,,,.,,,,,,,,,.,,,.,.,,,,,,,.,,,

-~~~~k -- ----; --..--]!

- ..._..,,,.,,,.,..,.,,,,, ..............................,..,,._
.,.,.-.._._ _

W - - - * " - ' " " ' "''-

; ,

. . . . . . ---.. . . . ~ i~ ~;~~- :----.. . . .~. .k. . . . . . . . . . . .__~u~

t; ~~ ---~~~-~~~
r", ..........., ......................_.,....,u.v....-

ee in see

. . .,. ~---;~-..-------.. . . . . ........... . .,!

----..,.,. . . . . . . . . .....................-.. . . .__, - . . .--........ ---..........<


~.....

..
!'"'"'

- ................... -_ _ _ .,.,.....,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,..,..,...

! ,

r- . . . .

'

ro

rich

- .........

. --,.---- ---. -- --.. . . . . . . . . -------y

! (final)
!

z zoo

..... ...................... ...................

~ ~ ~-: _ _~
,

_.............................................

_ __..,,,_ .......... - - - - - - .....

- ..

ee

~i

see

,................

______

______

. ., .............. . ....______ w~ter

------.

f i fa r
....... .... ... ----~h i ...,.. __.........................-----h j-;~~-~-~:

fi

... .

.. ,

------~~fi>;kh;:"""

. . . . . .,.:. . . . . . . . .'!

- --- . .

__

:~::-

I
..__..............J

. . . . . . . . -._..____

~.~-m-~__ hour ...................--.....

..............................__,

________

_______ ..._

......................

..,

.............

~-~-- ......-............................

-------

......

------............-"'~-

ke

--~-...

'

and

------

___ ____

..

.............................

..........

___
1-me

r -;-

. . . . . . . -------..

-~

. . . . . . . . . . . . . ___

~~~~ -

_ ------

. . . . . . . ._.___

r~ ~--

--...........-

__

'

..

1-e

_. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .-----!
I

...

GHA-Ii

............................ ........ .

Greek

-----~---

-------------vo"" . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,.._. ______.,

'""'"""""""1

he/shelit is
'''''""'''~~..."""""""''NNM.',,~ ................................. . . . . . ...,..........._ _,..., _

_..................

.
i

who?

French (m.)

-- -...................._

........................................................... - - -............................................ ___. . . ___,

yo-the-ti-ME-os

adopted (m.)
;~-the-TO___ ........,............................______.............................

---.. .

--.----~~~~&;

-1

adopt- ----.-.........................................

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___,_

pyos?

.--'.....
)'1......0
. . . .
.

__ ........-

...-

......_

. . , ...............

...........

"~-.

----

,, ........ , ............. ,, ... .._ ... .-..-.....--....,~,".,..''""'''''""

who? .............,. ~::~, ..~--.,-...................,~.

yos .............. -----...............................

'''' '"''''''''''.""""'"'"'.............,.~..........,...,.......:~:"'-.~~------..,..;,.,,.,,.,,,,.,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,~

son

: -.... - ....................................._ _ _ _ _ _ _,....................................................


!

,__

----

.-i

then, afterwards
.............-...
..........................................1
lam
1

--~-

pyos?

j y
_

-i

Note that the vowels ad vowel cmbiatios , , , , and are pr


ouced like i es whe they're ustressed ad immediately befre a
other vowel.

......... ........

--;;nder --------

. . . . . . . . ._,._, . ___,.__-- ;----- - --' . ----- - --1

i
.......__. . . . ............."'".......................................... ~.--.J

____

th~ ~~-=--=~ j
house
l

~---

..................................- " ' " \

..

1-me

''"' .,.,_,..,,"t--.;_,.,,.,.,,_,.,~~.,... _ .............. ,. ..,,..., ....,,.,...."""'""'>"".,....>>)"'""""''""' ..,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"''''"'''''--.-

1-ste-ra

Jather.

mre

_ __

................................................~-

.............................,...,,_,.,.,,..<~.-.........._..,,":'"'':~-~"""""'--"~---- . . . . . ,............,....................... ............................... _

Now le(s lok mre c1sely at Greek vwels, icludig bth sigle vowels ad vwel cmbiatis. Remember that , has the sud f i

are proouced like i not. But the sud is


ruded, closer t the vwel i talk (if yu distiguish it from tock).

. .. .........

.....................................

""'""""'""""""""->""""""''"'

, ad ,

.......

student (m.)

.................................

~~------ ___ _ tis __

SPI-ti
-~;6.. .
----- i-~;

. . . _.....--...................... ""'. . . . . . . . . . . ._. . . . _... .~..............................................................

from

_______ I

...~~;;~;~~-~~- .....................

..-.................

ma-thi-s

1---------.. . . . . . . . . _.._. ,.___. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . --1

VOWELS

a-PO

..........................}

..................................

~ti

r---....
---------..-.. . . . . . . . . ~. .-------.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _-t

~----

........................................................_..:...................................... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,"..............................................,.,..........#NU...,_.....,....,....,_...........................,..............,.,..-.......:......-

am

'f

t
..
i
i!""""'""W""""'W------""""''"'""""'"""""'""""Wo_______ ""'-"'""""""""'"'""""-o"""'"'"'"""'"""" '"' "" ''"""'"'"'~...,.,........,,..,.....,....,.,.....;.~,,~;;;\..,,,..,,,,..... , .... .,,,,,....._.~.......,....~'"'-'"'-...;. ....,,,,,,,,,..,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,!

American

---

..... ,_ ....

. . . ..............................._ _ . ..- ........................." ....." " ' ' ,

a-me-ri-ka-NOS
.. .... . . . . . . . . . . -~__. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .----
__.. . . .... . . . . . .. .. . ------

___

................ ------- ...................._...

t '"'~" ''' ''' ' '''''''''''W"'"'"'" ' " ................._"'~--. , ....,,,, ,,,,,., ,, , ,, ,., ,~,._,.,...,.,..,,'WNNo'"""'--.-wNNno.lo ..... ,,

.. _

.. .....j

There are six differet ways of spellig the soud of ee i see i Greek: the
simple vwels /, 1/, ad /, ad the combiatis , , ad .

that wrd stress is idicated i trasliterati with capital


letters. For example, the wrd (Greece) is represeted as e-LA-dha,
with the stress the secd syllable.

......... ............................., . . _

wa n-;. ~............................................1

................._______ .. - ...................................................._ _ _............... .. ....................______.._ ...................... ..

............

. ......... ......~-.,--;~~ ;~~;;~; ~~--(;.)-

TH~ ._;~ --~---- . . ~ ......._........w


/

r,, - - - - -..........- ............... .......... ............ ......._ . . _..............._

Fially, ote

r-- . . . . . . . . . . . .-----.. . . . . . . . . . .-..---..----- . . . . . . . ___. ._. _.

QJ

! c:r

. .,

ME-e-te

---..................................... _....._ _ _,.......... ..........

prouced.

Both

::

' t'D
,......

:::J
Cl.

w .................................. .

The trasliterati used i the first tw lesss f this curse is meat


to be ituitive ad simple t use, but it is ly a apprximati f the
actual Greek suds. May Greek suds are similar, but t identical, to
Eglish suds, s eve though the transliteratio willlk like a familiar
Eglish letter, the actual quality f that letter will be slightly differet from
Eglish. Als, may Greek souds do't exist i Eglish, ad vice versa,
so it's impssible t completely capture them i a trasliterati system
based Eglish. It is therefre very important t make use f the recordigs (r f ative speakers of Greek) to hear how these souds shuld be

_- - ........

'

r--.. . . . . . . . . ,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. . . . . . . . . .,. . . . . . . . . . ._,______,_, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

TRANSLITERATION

!!

____]

-----

,
. . . . . . . . . . . . .~. . . . ___

....

get.

.__.................-...

____

QJ

The single vowel , and the vowel cmbiation both sound like e

~-~:- : ~---------iM-e-g-h_a_____ - :-~-~n-n:set ---:--s- - -


-----...........- ...........----

t'D
t'D

QJ

ch in /och

~.....................

G)

I.

1-

stay/live
............
.. ..

--- . . . . . . . . . . . . . ----. --. ___. . . . . . . . . ---..----~- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __,________. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -..!

..................................................

-~-~
_ _i

0-ra

,,,,~

W - . . - - - - - - -...,,,...,,,,,,,,,

......................._.

..............,.........,._,_,.,.._........._.._.,,__

. t'D

...... ...... ............ .

--,-

.......................

-----..- ................._

._.................!

............................. ___

- ~ -~ ............................._____,_........~~-d
~-~ ~

..................

----~-

: ,

-------!

__. . . . . . . _ _

..--- .... -......_............. ..

_ _ _ ._.................................. -..

_ t~! ___ --- . . . . .~~~.!ake


1-psi-lon

.....

""{

s/z

s see,

SIGH-ma

....,..........

....

., ,

~~;~ :~--~----~-~-:~ ~
_

., ,,..,.,,_, __,_ _~...,. ""' "' ... "'''_'"_ _ _~"'' _,.,,,.,,,,,,,,-._.. ..,

...,..,,,,,.,_,_.-.,....,-.,.--

-- ...

-~--

- - - -................................_....

............................. _....._____________..........

------~

i-ko-YE-ya

..................., ......__.,.,

___

.,. ...

-----...-

.............._ _._..._ _ _ _

family
....................... ~----

""1

:::J

:::J

! c:
! n

,......

I
:::3

The combination is pronounced like

. '-- .....____,__,. . . . . . . . . ---- ---"" --..- ....-.. -.. . . . . . . . . . . . _..

in soon.

___. _. . _. . . . .............. . . . . . . . . .- - . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _,___. ............................... . .. . . . .

~-----........ ................................ ...........

_~

____ _-----~~~

! . . . . - --"-'""

.........._ .._ _ _

_____ __.1!1 u ____ . . . _. . .._._. . . . . . . . ~y,

__

~-~-~

... . .......... .

I , ()

. . . . . . . ... -~

- - ...................- ....._._.., _

-~"""'"""""''"'-'''''''''''''''''''''''""''''"-~ ----<.<<<.

1i:--~(~;------------. --.. . . . . . . . . ~~. -~---.................

_.

~~6

___. . . . . . . . . . ..

. . .__. . . . . . . . .......

;(~~~ ~-'""''"''''"""'---- h ~

1. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .~...-__,. _,. . ,..... ....... ___. . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . - - ----

~..,.~""~''~..._,,"""''"''v".o'"''"'''''''''''''''''''''''''''"'"..- -

af-STRI-a

""~-,->'"'"""""""-

' ,....-....,.

~'"''' < ........,.,..,.~--.. "-~ "'""''''>........-

I-----

--

-- -

fo-to-ghra-FI-a

=l,
'

,.,1

I ~

/'1)

r-+

QJ

::3

.......... , ,.,,.,.,,,c

coffee

__.,

, ::::J

The consonant 1 is written when it occurs at the end of a word. It


has two pronunciations: s in see and z in zoo. The z sound is heard before
(), (gh, y), (z), (m), (), (r}, (dh), or (1), and the s sound is
heard elsewhere.

-.. . . . . . . . . . . . _______ - .-.. -.. . . . . . . . . ____

: ,

, (=s)

.-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .---------. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .___

::::J

-~

you, to you (/.)

sas

i n
! Qj.

~'V'MA''W,'.>---"'"f'.,..,.....,,,._~, .. ,,~,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ......._~_.......,~...., , ... _,__,_,,,p,...,,,,,,.,,,.,,.,,,.,,,,...,.o,y,__ _HIN-1"-"HH(oo<~~...." ' " '......" ' ' " ' "......."""''>)''"'""~"'"''"'"''''' ,,,,,,,,,,,,,._,,,,,,,,,....,,,..,.,..,.,_~"""""-"'"ooooOooooooooooooooooooo""i

!
~

I
r..........,.,.,.,.. . ".......,_,.,.,... . . . . . . . .

1-ste

.................................,............................._..__ ............................................ ...

~. """' ""

-~o ...ooooooooooooooooooooooo oon-~oo>~ ......... -~-IWO.--ooooooo~;,,........_,,,,..,,,--M'"""'"'"'"''""'""""'""""'""---"''' "'1

I ~ --------~" -~-:-:-~-~~. ..-:~~~~=~i=~-15.--;:::::~~

i ::::J

'

happiness

QJ

.......................

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,..,,......,,...,""'''"'"'"''""'",.......'''"'""

;.::-

! C:

I
_ _,,,,,,,, ,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ....

/'1)
/'1)

. . .j

photograph

ka-FES

1 --n,..- -.................. - - - -........ .,,.., ...................................... ._..,__.._

...................................

'

___
.__

:..........._...,...._.'......i<.;..;.,,,,.,,,,,.,,~,..._.,.._...., , ,,,... '''''''''''''' '

yes, of course

___

...., ............. ....,........... ...

tomorrow

...

-li-sta

myp

G\

---------~;i;~-

,, .,,, .........,

,,:,..~,;;,:.,.:,\:;, ;;,,,,,,,.,,,_,__,,..,,.""'.'"'_ _,_.,,............... ,... ,,.,,,,,,,,,,.,,.,,,,,~-....,,...,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,.,,,1

~t.:ti-=-;=~ -

- ---.

~~."......,.., , ~,

--i~~~~--!----";i~~--ri--ST-0!- ;::;;~=:_-j_,
-----

, (f)

--1

--

-........ ,,,.,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,..__.._ _...........,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,., ,,,,,,, ,,,,,"";-1...,_'#,'"#.'~~ "''' '''''''' ''''''''''''' ' 0 ' '''' " '' '""""'"

~----- -----------~;;---

father

-----

Austria .

AV-ryo

a-TE-ras

__

:
/'1)

'"""""_ _ _"'""-"-"""''"""''""'' ""'"''' ' ' ' " " " ' ' " ' - - " " " ' i

~;~~--

-- ....................................-----......................................_..

Finally, the co~binations and may sound like af and ef before the
(voiceless) consonants (p), (s), (t), (k), (f), (th), (kh), (ps), or
(ks). Otherwise they sound like and ev.

- --

.... . .

--t

' . '' . ._. . . _. _______. . . . . . . . . . . . . .,_. _____. .-.. . . . . . . . . _,_. __ ............ .--.........._. . . . . . . _, ___ --""""'"' . . . . ______.

r~; -

""' '"""'0000'"""'' " - -

where?

............................._ ._ _ _...................................................- - ......................-

-1

---'""'" ~~ ~~;~"""'----

, , (=z)

r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-~j

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .__.

~~

: -

1...........................-.-~-....~ ....,.......... ................... ~---"""'""""""""''""'''""___.,.,............................................................~----- ............................,.... _._ _

~{l____

--

you are {pl.)

...............................,....

~---

.....- ....,_... _. .......

. ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ................ _ _ . . . -...........,.......... . . . , _. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . (

o-zmos

world
............,. _~-

ZVER ~~~~

-u-

-~

..

-~ e~k~ ~~~e
--

- --zv;-no-- ---,~;~;~. . . . . _
. __

..... ,
,,j.

'

,,.,...,,..., ,,,,,, ,~''~'""~'--"'''-""'"""'~""--"'"" ""'''''"'' ''""'..'"''"'_ _ _ _ _ _ ,,.,,_....".,.,.,,,.,,., ,~,. ,~~<'-":"~~---............. ,~,,,,,,,~ , , :,,,:: ::<< '-'' '.,.,... , , ,.,..._.V."--> ...., """"'"...,._ _ _

'
!

CONSONANTS

..........

- - - ...... .

' i-zlan-DH 2a

~~{;;---.......

lceland
d i=~.z-D 1-: :....................................;; nflltr~~e........ ........_..___.,,
i

r------.. . -. --..
f

Now let's look at consonants. We'll start with the consonants that are similar to sounds in English and that don't require any special comment.

I
-

.. . . . . ~~ ---~--&~. . . . . . . . . ... . -~--- ~~~~~------ jar~~~

~ (~)

'''""'"'"''"'-"~'''(~,,,....._,....,,.,.,,., ,,,,,.,,,,,,_,,Nio'H(NN;NN"':"("'" '''' '(~''' "./'1'>HO'"'"'' ''''''' ''''''''''''''"'""~-'"'-''"''I"'" '''"''''''''""'''""''''""".......... '''....~':'=""":""'"'\"''"''~"'""'W'"'...cy'oo.,,,,.,.,, _

..

--

! _._ .................... - ......- - -........

!
1

..

, . (z)

_____

.......................................
_..
. ....

h~
"""

kre-VA-tl

zo-1

................................- -..---.................................._____,..................................................

i
y
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~.~....;.~~-"""'"-~q-.-~n~"-""'""""""""""""'""""""""'"'
I , (k)
'
I

......................... ...............................,,"1'...... -.......-

-~

-~-................................................. ------

' , (I)

,';

..

:~ (~)"'

}-.. . . . . . . . . -.. . . . - . . . . . ..

~ .............................

\ , (r)

spouse

fine
. . . . . ._ _.....................................................................- -

Good morning!

__ .. ,........................................-------""'"""'

........-----1

minute

me LE-ne . . .

My name is. . .

~--; -~~. ~~~ ...,.. ,;,~~~" ---..~-;~~;~ ~......................,.._..__ j

-- ---~;;.+~~--

--~f} -

-;,-;;;;~- --

----

.............. ~...:..... ,.~....wn.~-........, .,.................................,,.,....- - -- , ...........................................................H.-.,.,_............,...._,_................................-~---.......................:

c~~--_::~-~=-i;!::~- - -~ ~:-=~-~~~---=-~::~---= :-~ -~J

-----

. - - ; - - - -......................

xvi

Greek

---

-...

.....................

'

--.- --.................................................
i

..............

~.--

''

--..--....................................._________ __

..........

____

-----:-

......................

"'''''''"''"''''"''" 'Hi>IJ...NoNU-"IN><'I<,.ooooooooooooooo""' ' '"""''_'..............W"..~v:

KO-res

____

daughters
~-

.....................................,

.....................

--"'

Both th sounds exist in Greek, voiced (as in ths, there1 the) and voiceless (as
in think, with, thorough), but they are written differently: 1 is voiced, and
1 is voiceless. ln the transliteration system used in the first two lessons,
voiced th is wri tten dh.
-.-.................................................. ...._...
......- - .-...................................................- -.........
r:. . . . . . . . . .------- . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
,

. . . . . . . . ..

"'&e~---

chickpea

............................11

'"""""""'"""''"''''""''._,,,.....,,,.,_,,.......,.,~.,.,;.,_._...,,,,~,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,.,,,......,..,,,...,,,,'-..,-""'""""'"'""'""''"""''""'''''""'-w,--t

re-VI-thi .

'' '' ''''''~~0 '''''''""-~'V'>........................................-,,'o, ,.,,.,,,.,,,.,.,., ,...,,_ _IY~--~~.~(oooooooooooooooooooo<"\O"'"'"'"'"''("-~"'..............""-V"'''''''''''' ''' ''''"' ''

~,

.......-::"~'>

ka-li-ME-ra!

'
'

.. .

[ " " - " "'''''''' ' ' '''''' ' ' "

le-PTO

'

The Greek 1 is slightly trilled or tapped.


r-.. . . . . . . . . . . _______. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . _____. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- - - -.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- - - -.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- -.. . . . . 1

_ _.........................................- - - -............

ka-LA

_ ...._ .......................----

~-~- . ..... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . --~~. . ~...~ ~-- ~

..

____....................- ..

- ..----

.." " - ......_ .................................. .................- - - - - ............................_ _ . .___..

-....~"-...- - - - - -...~- ....-

. - " .._ .............................- .

....................

--.................................

-:

life

Sl-z-ghos

!
;.

bed

---..----"""'"""'' ....................-----

.............1

-~~p----- zg~-~~ -R~-..-.."'.............................;~-~~y -_

'

__..,I'N##~Y'WoH ''U 'N'''" '''''-' ' '' ' '''''''''''''''''' "'''' "'' ....-"'~

....,.......................

--~

: ,

(dh)

!r----.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . _. . . ------

__)_.- - '". . . . -

''
~~--

. . . .. . . . . . . . . .

__

not

meaning . . .
1
_,..........-.. . . . .; ..~~~~-- ------................

___

_. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .___
-~
-

L _ " _ ' ' ' " ' ' - " ' - " ' - - ' - " " '''"'""'""'"'"""""'

..........,

dhen

----.. . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . .
_. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._.. _ - . . . . . . . .... . . . . . .-.. ; ;.,_,.,_. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- - - j
1

dh:-la-DHI .
that's to say . .. ,

e:e(th

. ...;.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . "..

__

... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . __.a.-=T....H.

~-~~-- h """"""'

___

. . .a....................- ..-----..A
......t. .h. . . e. . .n. . .s..........

~.I-=n

_..

.....................

' ' " ' " '_ _ _ _ _ _

____

!
---~-,.,............

f,,

<~ "'' ' ' ' " ' ' ' ' ' "' ' ."-'"' " . . . . . , _ .V. < ' ' ' ' ' ' " 1"'-"'#I
.......

___

...........................

......................- - +-.........................

The Greek alphabet and pronunciation

xvii

The letter , has two different sounds. Before the sounds ee and e- or, in
Greek, , , , , , , or -the pronunciation of is like y in yes.
r: --

: ,

....

' "'""""

---~---

(=y)

<

- - -

sas.
~ .. ----

..

. . . . . . ..

_
-.

......

grandmother

..................................

~-------

--~--

(___ ~--. . . -. _-__. . . _. . . . . . . . . . . &

-j

__ -
.

........_..........._. ...........
,

....

~---"' '"'": ' "'' ' ' '"'''"''"''''''''''''''""'''''"~

______

S-

-- ................--~----- .."................__ -

you (pl.).

ya-YA

-&&~------. ~-~ -~~~ ~~hel -flos- -~~~-sin-(m.--) - . - ...............

-----...................------..........................................................

--- . . . ---~-__!~~ --, -----. - - -~~~----- -- --..----~0~--..........................


tt
_.._ .................................

..

t ..........- ......._ _ _

I
........................- - - - -..-.............. _,

_____

-- --

..------------- ... -~.......__... _............................................

~---

--'-""-1
Hello/Good-bye to !

_ _,__, _______' " ' ' ' " ' " ' " ' " ' ' ' " " ' - ' " " " - - ' " " ' ' ' "' ' " '

. ... . . . . . .__

........................_,___

.........................................

,~--

-----... -

........... ....................

-...........

_____

(D
(D

----

JI

:
:::u

..,,.,...._................. ....... _.,._

(D
-+

_____

:::u

::;]

Cl.

DOUBLE CONSONANTS
ln other positions (before other vowels or any consonant sound), the pronunciation is similar to the Spanish 9 in la9o, which is pronounced with
more friction in the back of the mouth than the English 9 in 90. (If you like
phonetic terminology, this is a velar fricative.)
,............._

---~----...... .................

...

, ___.............._____ . . _. . . . . ...... . .... . .".

yp

GHRA-ma

'

::;]

::;]

! n
j

:::IJ

! .....

[ ::;]

~-~

i:

-----------........ ................

letter

L.....................................-----------""""""""""""~--- ......................................,.. _..,___ ~_...,._.........:...............-

....,

The pairs , , , , , , , , and are pronounced like their


single counterparts.

~~r, ~-_=~~~---=-----~-:-_.~==--~~---~~.-~)__-_8,-_R-_s_.-----~,t~~~~j

c:

.......................................!

--~.,........

;;'

:::u

___..................-.......

..--.......................--'--

! ....,

a-ni-PSYOS
nephew
~~A~ri--..~........................~ fish ........................................___

. -.. .-.. . . . . . . . . . . .

____

___

...........

wood

.. .. .. .............. .........

t'D
~

.......................

_.~------

__

_ _ _...........................-.-

But ' is pronounced like n9 in En9lish or jin9er.


The letter , has two pronunciations as well. Before the ee and e sounds
of , , , ,, , or , the consonant has a pronunciation similar to the
English hy in hu9e or human, or the ch in German ch. We'll represent this
sound as h in transliteration.

r-~--=h):-:-- ~!~~==---~ h~-~ t~----~--:= ;ou hove:)_=l

- h ----- ....._._

no _................... ______

c=-~=~~-==: -. ~~~~~-~-- as ar=~~=~~~-me _e~s_b_e~~~

_j

Otherwise, the pronunciation of is closer to the Scottish ch in loch, the


Spanish j in jota, or the German ch in Bach; we'll represent this sound as

kh.
r..........................

...._. . . . . . . . . . . . _.,.... . . . ..............-... .- -.. -..... . . .,.,.,... .,.,. ..........................."'... . ,._ _


~

, (=kh)

____

.........-..........._.....

........,_.....................

~----

..

...........................

'

_____

....

~ "

..,.__,.,-------. . . ........................----........
~

ef-kha-ri-STO!
...

_..

'"''''"""'""-""

___

Thank you!
l'm g/ad

___,. . . . . . . . . . . . . .--..--------_....,.. . . . .________,. ,.,. . . . . . . . . . _..

! _ _ _.............................- .. -----~ .......................... - ..... --..

----...............................

KHA-ri-ka

:~---~--------

~-

ka-li-NI-khta!
- - - : - - - - ...................-....

...-....................

. . ---..------1.!

'

~----........

.......... .... -~------ ......._.._______ ,,.,....-.. ........... ....... -------------..-............................. "'1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .__________:!!!!_~~-. . . . . . . _. ___

(elsewhere)

bou-FE-dhes

t----N-----. . . . . . . . . . . . . :. . ... . .. ,. '"~--~~--'. . . .- . . .-..... . . .. . ....,...,.. . . . . . ~..

..-. ..............

Greek

buffets

............................................,,____,..............................!!

-------:--.....,...,~~--

. EM-bo-rs

merchant

~--~----~~-'""'''"""""'"'"""WoNNN-N<--..,.~~~M ...............,..,.....,,_ _~.;.:...,,,.,,._,,,,.o,,.,,... ,,,,,,,,~ ..........._~._.,:,..~~,;,~-~'""'"-"'... ""''''"'''""''''~""<'"''"'-1-.'f"''"''

, ....- -..

(initial) . .

:. . . ... .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .

______

JI

--.. . . -.. . . . .~h~(~)=~-~~~------""''""" . . ~;~~-~er-;~~ ,~-~................1

............,..

......_......-...,,,,,.).

do-MA-ta

. ......... _ ......, .......w-.............., ..............- .......~ ................................. y.~----............................

.........

............................................_..

.,.......,,__ ...~--~

~-(".~~~ -- =-~;;- ~~---- e~R~b~~=-~~ -~~-~nce >__

;-----

__ I

grandchildren

--......................

y---............... _.,,_ __

~-;.,.. .................................~.. - - - -... - - - -.....,_., .. ...........................-......

...........

en-GO-nya

. ................. ~

There are a few combinations of two consonants that have special pronunciations. The pronunciation often depends the position of the combination, either word-initial or elsewhere. The combinations , , and c are
pronounced b, d, and 9 (as in 90) respectively at the beginning of a word.
Otherwise they may be pronounced b or mb, d or nd, or 9 or n9 respectively.
However, you'll notice that the addition of m and n in the middle of a word
is often very subtle, and may vary from word to word and from speaker to
speaker. The combination only has one pronunciation, like dz in adze.
You'll also see the combination , which is pronounced as it looks, ts.

.. - - -

The consonants , and , are pronounced as consonant clusters rather


than as single consonant sounds. , is like the ks in sticks or the in box,
and , is like the ps in upstars. Both of these letters may come at the
beginning of a word or syllable.

an-GLJ-a
England
............................................--------.........,_..:. ... . . .
...._,..

...... ...... . .. . . . .~----~----- I . . . . . . . . . . .

CONSONANT COMBINATIONS

Good night!
-...........

-- ..............,.... ---------~-

. : tomato

... . .,.. . . .,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .._.._.""""""""'"'-. . ................... .................._.


,~

--.. . . . . . . ...~~ ..........................................................


dou-ZI-na
-- --.........................................
...

-- ----...........

______

___

dozen - ..........

.............._

- -- --

. .r

1
_._.....(

________

..................

The Greek alphabet and pronunciation

..............

--

xix

......................................

------

~---

--- "'

A(N}-dras
man
(elsewhere)
I". " . .. .,. . . . . . . . .. ....................-..... ____. . . . .. . . .,
--- - -- . . -- - -- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....................... -~-. -

PEN-de
five
1

! ;(i~w;,)

---

.y;;6 -

.....................-

---

Notice that these combination sunds are similar to the cns nant combi-

--~--

....., .....

- -----;re-M~~ -

- - - -cliff- -

-~

_.. ._._..........

.................. .

___

"

~......,. ..............-

-..---

- '"'"''"' ""'""""'"'"""'"'"'"""'""'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'" "'- -" -

thorn

an-GA-thi
......_,.__................................~

...........................................

1
;. .

.. _

....

--..., . . - -

-I ..........................................-..

........................_

- ------.......................................................

......__

". . . . _.!

QJ

"

::r

___,.~

QJ

..................._ - - """"""". . '''""'''........................................~ .............................................. . . . . . . . . ._~- .........,...,. ______ .... ~ ....................................._


.........:.._........."--"'-"""''"'"'' ' :~......-...........................

t'D

r-+

::3

..-.................

-:

arms (embrace)

........ .................... ........................................._ _ _____

d~a.;.DZI-ki

"

- -...........................

the coffee

ton ga-FE

t'D
t'D

QJ

..................................................,.- , . - .

an-ga-LYA .
-----~..----~--

--

am whining

~
~----''''''''''''' '''''''''''''~"""~-~W""'""'''''"''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''"'''"''~''-~"''"''"'''""'.,.'''''''''''''"'''''''""'~--~''~''''''''''''''''''''''''' ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''"''""''"___ _.._..,.... ,_.._..,.,~

: (elsewhere)

. . . . . . . . . . . . ------~. . . . .~. ;-~. . ~-~=-~;~~~;----------. - -. . . . . . . . . . .~~~:;;;~;(~;)..

~~
.

i}......, ...

gri-NYA-zo

C'\
...,

....... ........... ............


i ~;

... --- ~ ..-- - ..........,.,. ...............................- -

t'D

natins mentined abve.

. ..... . -..-!I

--

::r

............

11

::

::3

--------- ---

---..

(yogurt dip)

................................................

~--

QJ

......._...........................______,

r-+
r

.....-......

"
...,

; 0
i ::::J

............. !_

tzatziki

..

i ::::J

............................

--~--~

--<''~""'._. ,....,,,,,,...,..,,. ., , . . ,..., . . .~-

)..,.,.

tea

TSA-i

-..--'""{' 0, 0 00'0 0"''''"'"''"

_ _ _ ........... _ , , , , . , . , , , , , , . , . . , ,. . . , , , , , , , . , , . , . , , . , . , , ....._ _ _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., , . , ,. ., , , ,, , , , . ,, , , , , . , , ,. . ., . . . . ,..,....., . . . . .

. ..,._ _ _ _................ ,,,,,,,.,.,,.,,,.. .,, .. ,,,.,,.,.,,,.;

WORD STRESS
Stress is shown in Greek with an accent mark the (main) vowel f the
stressed syllable. (Remember that i the transliteratin system used in this
curse, stress is shwn with capitalletters.) If the stress falls a capital
letter, the accent mark appears in type right befre the capitalletter. Stress
usually isn't indicated in ne-syllable words unless it distinguishes tw
wrds with differet meanings.
--'''''"'''"''"'"' '''"'''''''' '

,-,

"'-""V ' V~'0' ' '~0'

, .,. ., ..., _ . " " '...

~~~

' ' '

IH.olooNNI-HNrn; "''"O'"'''"''''""""'""""''"'""'""'ooOooo.-.;,o-~~~'"'''"'' ''''" '''"'''''"" ',...,........,.,,___.__.,..,.,,"""'''' ' '' 0''

e-li-n i- <A
Greek (language)
a-~~-~-;i--~~=~;=~~~--- American-{f.- .

-----

:......,:~'':~:- -"'"---::....,-~.....:"'<':'.-:-_""--.'~~~--"'"""'''" ...............................................-,..........".......

I
I

: '

.. .....

E-he-te . . .

._ . ._ .......................... ~.............................................,._.. _ ....................................................-

.- -........... _ ........... -

!!". . ,....

You have . .. (pl.)

II

... -~..........- ......,..,.......~~-"""'''""'"'"'"'''"'""""'"'""'"'"'""""'"'..'--"''"""..-..,._, ... ;

~ ~' ' ' '" ' ""--;~;~"-'"'-'"'"""'''-'''

. . . ...........-- -- ----- . .
!
how ... ?

pos ... ?

_ .. _ ..........................................--------....,......._ _ ..... ....................-

. . .. . ;. . - . . . - - . . . ~.~~----- --- . . ... . . . . . . .--------~h~~

~~

am

......................................................-...--~---- ..--~ ~-- ...-....~..---.........................---"'1

--~-

!............... ..
i

-~

.. ............................w~...........,,.....,,""""'"~"............................-...~,~~,.,.,...,............................................. ~.........................J

1-me

-~-

.................. .............................--

-----..- ................----!

................ ...

the (!.)

, , , , , , , ,, ~ ~ ~--._.,,.,.,..,,.,,.,,., .,,, ,, , , ., , ,. , , . , ,., ,. .,.

...,.,,.,,...., ,...,.....

i
!

1....................

. . . .-_,....

__

":"'" ' ':.'"'- '~'"'''""' ' '"' ' ' ' ' "' N o<N HM('(N" .(i,;~

or
....................... ...

LINKING SOUNDS WITH

-~-~"-"' "'"'""--...............- ........----~-- -- -- ... - - - -'

If a wrd that ends in cmes before a word that begins with :, , , , r


, the cnsnant sud at the beginning of the second wrd chages. The
k sund f and becmes g, the p f ad becmes b, and becomes d.

x~t - --G-re- e-1<_._. . . . . . . . . . . - - - - 1

________ __

.. ......................_.

____ _ _

- - -------- -- - -- - --------- - -

_____

............................

The Greek alphabet and pronunciation

LESSO

(l<a-LOS IL-tha-te sto


MA-thi-ma ton e-li-ni-<ON!)

Welcome to Gree/( class!

ln this first lesson, you'lllearn how to greet someone in Greek and how
to make simple introductions. Youllearn some very basic vocabulary, as
well as some essentials of Greek grammar. This lesson als.o includes basic
cultural information Greece and the Greek language. But first, let' s get
started with a vocabulary warm-up!

1.

VOCABULARY WARM-UP

sas.

ello.jGood-bye.

e-LA-dha

Greece

e-li-ni-KA

Greek (language)

ef-kha-ri-STO!

Thank you!

:'

ka-LA

fine

ka-li-ME-ra!

Good morning!

ka-LOS IL-tha-te!

Welcome!

I
'v ;

pos sas LE-ne?

What's your name?

(frmal)

'v .
I

:;
I

: y
I

y!

me LE-ne ron.

My name's Ron.

ti

How are yoi? (frmal)

A-ne-te?

KHA-ri-ka ya ti
ghno-ri-MI-a!

J'm glad to have met


you!

Note
Notice that while periods and exclamation points are written the same in
Greek and in English, question marks are written like semicolons (;) in
Greek.

You may also ask someone's name with the phrase



.
,
,
,
; (pyo 1-ne to 0 -no-MA sas? ). h e response 1s ...
(to 0 -no-MA mou 1-ne . . . ).

ka-LOS IL-tha-te stin e-LA-dha! as ar-HI-soume to MA-thi-ma.

/'t)

( )

/'t)

-+

18. DIALOGUE

~
~
e,

\1)

..:;j,

c:>

J
;

e
~

Mrs. Stavrak: What's your name?

..:::3

s,"'
~

Ron: My name's Ron Peacock.


Mrs. Stavrak: Where are you Jrom?

: J.lv q.

Ron: J'm from the Unted States ofAmerca. m


Amercan.

me LE-ne ron PI-kok.

Mrs. Stavrak: Do you lve n Greece?

Ron: Yes, I'm lvng n Greece temporarly, and


want to leam Greek.

a-PO pou I-ste?

Mrs. Stavrak: Welcome to Greece I Let's begn the lesson.

. .

(At the end of the lesson)

1-me a-PO tis -no-ME-nes po-li-TI-es tis a-meri-KIS. I-me a-me-ri-ka-NOS.

Mrs. Stavrak: I'm gl d t h ave met you, Ron. Our next lesson
s tomorrow.

. : ;

Ron: Thank you. Good-bye

ME-ne-te stin e-LA-dha?

: , ,
.
ne, IYIE-no stin e-LA-dha pro-so-ri-NA, ke THElo na MA-tho e-li-ni-KA.

. : 1 !

'

Ron: Yes.

pos sas LE-ne?

Mrs. Stavrak: Are you the new student?

ke-NOUR-yos ma-thi-TIS?

Ron: m well, thank you.

1::::
~'
~

Mrs. Stavrak: Good mornng l How are you?

. : J.lv;

~ .
-2- ----~............................ - - - - - - - -......................... - - - - - - - - - -..-.................................- - - -

OJ

, .

MA-li-sta.

Greek

sas ef-kha-ri-STO. sas!

: .

I-ste

. :

;:

: . !

! ;

KHA-ri-ka ya ti ghno-ri-MI-a, ron. to e-PO-meno MA-thi-ma I-ne AV-ryo.

ron: I-me ka-LA, sas ef-kha-ri-STO.


. :

/'t)
/'t)

V\
V\

ki-RI-a sta-VRA-ki: ka-li-ME-ra sas! ti KA-ne-te?


:

...,

G)

. : , .

Listen in as Ron Peacock, an American photographer living in Glyfada, a


vibrant suburb of Athens, greets Mrs. Stavraki, his Greek teacher..

. :

(sto TE-los tou ma-THI-ma-tos)

1C. VOCABULARY
follo.w~ng abbreviations will be used in this course: (m.) = masculine,
([} = ~emnne, (n.) = neuter, (sg.) =singular, (pl.) =plural, (fml.) =formal/po-

The

lite, (nfml.) = informal.

___- - - - - - - - -..............................._-----------..------ -

........ ..

...

Lesson

a-me-ri-ka-NOS/
a-me-ri-ka-NI -dha

American (m./f)

Note

a-PO

from

as ar-HI-sou-me.

Let's begn.

The words , , and all mean the in Greek. You'lllearn more about the
distinction between them, as well as other variations of the word the, later.
For now, just learn to recognize the different forms.

AV-ryo

tomorrow

1-me

I-ne

he/she/it is

1-ste

you re (pl./fml.}

e-PO-me-no

next

i-no-ME-nes po-liTI-es tis a-me-ri-KIS

United Sttes of

10.

Americ

sas.

Hello./Good-bye. (fml.)

sou.

Hello.jGood-bye. (infml.)

e-PI-sis.

lso,

too/fhe sme
to you.

'
~.

ef-kha-ri-STO po-Ll.

Thnk

ef-kha-ri-STO.

Thnk

ka-LES dhya-ko-PES!

Hve nce vcton!

ka-LI dhya-mo-NI!

Hve

ka-li-ME-ra sas!

Good momng! (fml.)

~!

ka-li-ME-ra!

Good mornng! {nfml.)

ka-li-NI-khta sas!

Good nght! (fml.)

ka-li-NI-khta!

Good night! (infml.)

ka-li-SPE-ra sas!

Good evenng! (fml.)

ka-li-SPE-ra!

Good evening! {infml.)

ka-LO
sa-va-to-KI-rya-ko!

Hve

Iwnt

. ()

ki-Rl-a

Mrs.

ke

nd

ke-NOUR-yos

new (m.)

MA-thi-ma

lesson

ma-THI-ma-tos

of the lesson

ma-thi-TIS

student (m.)

MA-li-sta

yes, of course

ME-ne-te

you sty/live (pl./fml.)

sty/live

mou

my, to me

na MA-tho

to

ne

yes

-!

jj

o/to/tis

the

ka-LO ta-KSI-dhi!

Hve nce trp!

pou?

where?

ka-LOS IL-tha-te!

Welcome! (pl./fml.)

pro-so-ri-NA

temporrily

pa-ra-ka-LO.

You're welcome./Plese.

sas

you, to you (pl./fml.)

Thnk

j ; ;

sti/stin/sto/ston

to/injt

sas ef-kha-ri-STO
po-LI.
sas ef-kha-ri-STO.

Thnk

;
I

____. . . ._. ..\". . . . . . .-.-..... Gre ek

Here are some more expressions that will come in handy when you're
greeting someone. Note that there are both formal and informal versions
of several greetings, and in most cases the formal form involves .

THE-lo

PHRASES

lern

the

end

tou

ofj to the

~--------

.
.

TE-los

-----

---------

.................................................

you very much.


{infml.)
you. {infml.)

good sty!

good weekend!

you very much.

(fml.)
you. (fml.)

. . . . . . . . . ______,. . __,. . . . _____, ,_ _ _ _1. .5. ... . . . . . . .......


Lesson

KHA-ri-ka ya ti
ghno-ri-MI-a.

y.

I'm gld to hve met


you.jlt's plesure to
hve met you.

~-.....................

I'

m>

,-~--

~.

................., _ . .

:
't

The word (good) ad its variats (, , ~ ,


) tur up i a lot of wishes that are used i Greek. For example, i
the morig you could say ! (ka-li-ME-ra!) (good morning!), or
the first day of the moth you might greet someoe by wishig
! (ka-LO -a!) (Have good month!). Durig exams, you could wish
a studet m (ka-LI e-pi-ti-HI-a) (SuccessjGood luck on your
test). a recet graduate eterig the workforce, you could say
(ka-LI sta-dhyo-dhro-MI-a) (Best wishes for good career).
You could eve say (ka-LI le-fte-RYA) (Good delivery) to
a woma who's goig to have a baby, (ka-lo-TA-ksi-dho) (
good road life) to someoe with a brad ew car, or (ka-LO
hi-MO-a) (Good winter) at the begiig of witer. The perso the receivig ed of the well-wishig will say (ef-kha-ri-STO) (Thank
you) or , (ef-kha-ri-STO, e-PI-sis) (Thank you, the same

,!---..

-----~

Greek

..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

..................

fD
-+

. ...,. ..................,._::i

~~

, ....... , ... . ..

-~-...- ...- ...................................--~

, ('D

.
..........................f

............._.,.,.................................

QJ
V'l
V'l

-!

____

;;::;-

.. . ... . . . . . . . .... . . . . . .:....

--~-~
w; ~-~

,,,.,,.~

you {pl./fml.)

....

af-TES
.~--

!. ~~~..

---~- ..------..

af-

-~-~
if.) . . . . . . . . . ,.--.. ~----

they(m.)
...... . . . . . they

.....-......-.......- .............................................-. ...-................. ................................... .......... ................................ ...................j.

__,,.,.............,.,....,,

............................,. .._,,....... ,(,.........,..,,........"''"''"'""''''"'""'"""""''""'"'"'''""'""'"'"-''........'""-""'""'-""............."'"'"""'"~ .................

they (n.)

I
.

, , ,, ,_,.,.,.,,N,>,,.,,,,.,....~,ww........ -w,.,..... ,.,,.,,.,,,,,,,..,,,~,CMM.--..,..,,.,,.,.,., ., ........

~ ca fi~re out how most of these proous are used just by lookig at
ther E~glsh traslatios. ~ote that the form (e-SIS) is both plural
ad polte/ so you can use t to mea you i the sese of all of you or you
guys, or you wh~ you're talkig to someoe to whom you wat to show
respect." Also otce that there are three forms of they. The prooun
(af-TI) s used to refer to groups of me, ad (af-TES) is used to refer
to ~roups of wom~n. If there' s a mixed group of me ad wome, the masculie for~, (af-TI)J is used. Furthermore, as you'lllear i just a bit,
all us Greek have grammatical geder-either masculie femiie
'
or euter. S (af-TI) refers to plural masculie us,
(af-TES)'
refers to p~ural femiie us, and (af-TA) refers to plural euter
us. We 11 come back to the issue of geder i a momet.

. .... ....

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1'11. . . . . . . . .,. ... . . . . .. . . .. . . . . ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .---.. .:,. . . . .

. ,..::: : ~.~ :

'-' .,

KO-stas ke

:::
'u "

Nl-kos

...

-..,,..;.......;............... ~...

.................. _ _ _

..-.....-..........._ _ _ __


l'i a-le-<SAN-dhra
J
! Alexandra
1

................................... .

........................

they (m.)

..........."' ,.;;,;,.-....,.. ......

~ ~-
- - -.......-

af-

Kostas and Nikos

1.~.

................ .........-...

. . . . .- . ,:t

--~

e-SIS

r .....................

13

............. ......1

... . . ~ . . . . .~ ....~...... . . . . . . . . _ . . . ____,.,. . . . . -. . . . . . . -.. . . . . ....................-.. ....................................................................................................... .......................,.__..,............................... . . . ...

~~~t_______________ af~____

............................... .........

. . . . -. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

.............................................-

n-

she

,_r~

to keep i mid is that there are both lformal


ad formal (or polite) forms of address. You've already see may examples of greetigs that ca be made formal by addig (sas) (you, to you
[pl.jfml.]). d, i fact, Greek, like may laguages, has differet ways of
sayig you-a formal or polite form ad a iformal or familiar form.
We'll tur to the proous i a momet, but for w, get used to the idea
that you should use the familiar form whe you're addressig a perso you
kow well or whe talkig to someoe who has a similar status to yours.

You probably kow that a u is a word that refers to a perso, place,


thig, or idea, like woman, Thessalonk, column, or democracy. proou
is a word that ca stad i for a ou: -she i the case of woman, ad it i
our three other examples. subject proou is simply a proou that ca
fuctio as the subject of a setece. Here are the Greek subject proous.
Later, you'll lear that these proous are usually dropped i Greek se
teces, but it's importat to be able to recogize them.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~~~~

--~.

Aother importat thig

1: Subject pronouns

af-
- - - ..---------~----....---~af-..

.~....................-.............................................................. ...................................................................... ..................................... .......................... ............ ....................... ....

to you).

Grammar topic

he

af-s

. . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
i

i fD

....................................................................... ............................,.......,.,.............. ....,......,.....,.........,.........,....~...................,........~..,.........1.

. . . . . ._. . . .,., ..~~~,. . . . . . . . . ...._... . ..._. . ,. . .,. ,.,. . . .,. , . . . . . ..". . . ,. . . . . . . . ._____~-- . . . . . . . ;.,_. , .,.,. . . . . . . . . . .,. . ._ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-- ..................... - .. ........-.......................................................-..............................~~ u

1F. GRAMMAR

e- sI

;~(,.,.,.,.,....,,,.,._,.,,,,_,~ ""~~~..........,..,,.,......................,, .,, ,,~.. . .. :--

CULTURE

---..

-~-----~---..

e-GHO
t.........

1.

.. .. ...

----------.. . _J

af-

. . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .

q '){

.she
.................................................._,_,.,,

'

-- -~-

- ................-... . . ,.-................._..,...,,,;.,,,.._ -.~4

j i kon-sta-DI-na ke e~GHO
f Konstantina and

e-MIS

t"'~"'"'""'"''"."'"':",>~..-,...'""'''"'"'~"""'"'''"""'''''':::::::>><:;"'''''''''';"'''' "'''''"~"'
m avp

we
''' ''''''''''''''''''''' ' ' '

'''''''''''"''''''''''''''''''''''''""" ''

. . . . . . . . . . . . .,. .~.. . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. ._.. . ~. . . ".-----~

KO-stas ke

i a-le-KSAN-dhra
af-
Kostas anq Alexandra
they (m.)
~....................... ..,..
_...................... ... -................ --.................... ..............................................................................
..
....................................................................-...... .... _._., ..............,_

..,, ...............

-.

,-,,"'""''"'

-.-

_ ___ - - - - - - - - -- - -

...........................................................................................................................

...............................

...

----.....................-.................................,.................................

...................

Lesson 1

--- -- ______ _________.......- ..........................................................................................................................................................................................


,.

-..-.-~--

Grammar topic 3: Asking yeslno questions

It's easy t ask a yes/n questin in Greek. u use the same wrd rder
as yu d in a statement, but with rising questin intnatin, just as in
Eglish. Als, dn't forget that in writte Greek, the semicl is used t
mark questins.

\ a-le-KSAN-dhra ,ke kon-sta-DH-na

af-TES

I Alexandra and <onstantina

they (!.)

'

................ ~-................---- --

---

___ _____
...

_ _______

.........

_._.

...

...,.._.;

'

_ _ _ _ _. . ._ __

Grammar topic :: The verb (1-me) (to be)

w, let's lk at the very cmm ad useful verb (I-me_} (to be).

.
e-S S -ste ka-LA.

Greek verbs chage frm depedig the subject i what's called a c

jugati; Here's the cnj~g~ti~-~. ~.:...~-~~~---. - ______.....-..-- _______

\ J ~--'i\-

e-GHO 1-me

~~~ --

- -

--

...... ....................................

------~

r-~m;d~; : -:i~~~:~:-~~------------~
h;~~J
.
. ------,_. ___. . . . . . .. . . . . ...

-------~-

f'"'"""""' .............................. - .... ............... ..,......,........ . -

. ..........- -

af-t 1-ne

~------

Are you finejwell? (pl./fml.)


.
e-SI I-se el-ve-TOS.

she is

~~ ~~~- --~-~~=-=-~=~~=-~~~:~-=;=\

___ __

You're Swiss.
;
e-SI I-se el-ve-TOS?

I i .......--,."__ :-~~~ ~~~~=s~=


--=-~--,---;::"-c-~
; '.. . ,: ::
;
l! ~ ~~- _,. . . . ~~=~s=s~= __
__________!~-~r~~~.) ~
~............w. .....~......................~~~-w.-.....----W'-

~ f _ ;~

~
~~

.
.

_
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
~
.
.
.
_
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
~a
:f. .-_~E.S~-~n-ene
"~
...

,u

...

..-

. . . .----

1.....~~&--i~~--
i
..
. --..-""""""".....,_..........-""""'-''.................,- ...._....

af-TA 1-ne
--"-

:::~:

a~e

...........- - - they
(m.)
. they are (!.)

.:.

Are you Swiss?

- -~-.

___... ___.

.,.._..-~---.0-.'

.,....,._..,,..

they are (n.) "

__.__.._,... . . . . . . . -.. . . . . . . ."... . . . ...,.............,. . . ... _._ ......,.................................................................................................{

'

' ' .

af-TOS I-ne ma-thi-TIS.


He's student.
;
af-TOS I-ne ma-thi-TIS?

Is he student?

'
'
'

.
e-GHO I-me a-me-ri-ka-NOS.
J'm Americn.

Grammar topic : Gender and artictes

~
v 1.
af-TI I-ne apo tin a-THI-na.
Shes from Athens.

'
'
'

let's lk more clsely at nuns. Greek nous have gender, which


means that they ca be masculine, feminine, r neuter. Smetimes grammatical gender matches natural gender, but this is nt always the case.
Basically, yu shuld just think f geder as a grammatical categry; all
Greek nuns fall it e f these three categries.

t .
i kon-sta-DHI-na ke i a-le-KSAN-dhra I-ne e-li-NI-dhes.
Konstntin nd Alexndr re Greek.

...

"'-'"'"""'' '~" -..,,.-

'.\s

e-MIS 1-ma-ste GHA-li.


We re French.

.--,.,.,...,,..,...,...,...

...,.......,.....,..-..........,,...______. ._.. . . . . . ,.__.,. ,. ._,. . .

1
:.,_. . . ,. . . ~:....,. . ,". :. . .,. ~.. . . . ..,~::.,. . -.. . . . . .___~. . ,. ,. . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. .,. . ,_. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _. . . __. . . . .,_. . . ._._. .___ . . . . . . . . .,. .,_., . i

:"-""~ ~""-""'))'

'
'
.!..
'1
UJ\/W.

,.,,.,,,,,,

-~~--

" """"' . '"'""" -

~,..-

ma-thi-s

.
i ma-THI-trya
' "~'"""'"---:~"'""""'''"""'"-'"'-""'"""'"""'"""""'""""'"""""""""'
::
to o-no-ma

..~

_th~ st~~~~t.(m.)

the student{f.)
""'""'""'""""'"'"' ,""""'""'"" ''""""

.,___.__

'" ~.: '"""""""""'''""'"'.'"'".'""''..~'"'""""''''""""'~


"'

th'e' name (i.)

_ ,,..,,_...--.......,...,.....,_,.,.,.,._,,..,, ,, .,, ~.. ,.,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,..................,. ,,,.,.,.,,_~~-'"Vo.-.,,,,.,, ,.. , _,,,.., ,, ,.. ,, ,,,..,,. , ,~,.--..,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,, ,,,,.,,,,.,,..,,,,,,.,,,,,, ..,., ,,,,,,.,,,,, ,, ,.,,,,., ,., ~,..,, , ,.,.,,,....,...,..,.__,.ooN, , ..,-~, ,,,,;,,...,;i, ~.~fN.-HN-;NN,.H""'N"'t""""-Noo~NNo-- .-..----1.

Keep in mind that in Greek, the subject pronoun is typically dropped be-

cause the verb frm gives yu eough ifrmati t kw wh the sub

ld . 1
ject is. S, rather tha sayig y , yu wu smp

(pl./fml.)

;
e-SIS I-ste ka-LA?

~..a~~-------.-------J
you ore

You re finejwell.

Ntice

in these examples that the wrd fr the, als knwn as the definite
article, changes depending geder: is the masculine definite article,
is the feminine defiite article, and is the neuter definite article. All three

say .

_______________________

--ay- - ---G-;eek

..........----"'""''"__....-----'"

Lesson 1

ell

come back to the plurals later. Again, keep


of these forms are sng~ a~' w nder and natural gender are often the same
in mind that grammatcafe;~o male humans or male animals, they are of
thing.
preceded by the article
Nouns that refer
.

1 .

~, whe~ noun~ ~~ey're

~~::~~eh~:a:: :;female animals are feminine and are preceded ,b~ t~e
.
ut sometimes there are exceptions. For examp1e,
(?
a~~~:i;(t~e boy) and ~ (to ko-RI-tsi) (the gir~ are both grammat
,

16. READING
:

m
n

build your vocabu1ary, it ~ill behcome enaosue~ :i~~ci~;~~~~~:~;;;c~::;\~at


b
try to memorze eac new
h
its gender. You'll see the definite article with new nouns in t e
vocabu1ary list, so you'l1 know the gender.

. ' ; '}
. . c. .
! .

lx-

Here are a few more examples of masculine nouns. Notice that these
amp1es a11 en d -. This is a very h elpfu1 hint that gives away the gen er
of masculine nouns.
f,_

~ -~;; -

>.,,.............,. ...... ...

'''''''" ' "'""''"""

- -

~~~=;~~=~s

'

. .-0--..~
:. -"~~.~-- --.. .. .~ ~=k~~~~~~~ =~ s
i

'

1----,------,0

- ~~:

"'.

....

... . ... . . . . . . . .:. -. '7:~ ' - : .,;


the

,_,~..,....,HHfW<H'"'''''''~,...._,__N~'<<NoNI'NN"---"--..-- --....- . . . . .---~

ar-hi--kto-nas

lC't
f - - ---;;___ -'--- ----;;-;_-;_-6
0

'""" .."" 11".


mt'wwn

trq~e/er~~--------1

tl]e archtect

:<

i
........ --~.-~::......-..,..,.~-~-- .. ~, ---..- ,
7
~A=-ios - - -- the p~otoapher
J
- - - - - . ._----~-- . -~~ . --~-

And here are a few examp1es of feminine nouns. Notice that there isn't a
single typical feminine ending.

...

---
~-.,

. ,,. ... . . . . --_.. . .. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .- -...... . ~;~

- .,

~~ ;
f-

---------- ----------- ------th e ife

_ , - -.... - . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .

~-. -- 1

the music

~___
1C
i mou-si-KI
.......... .................... ........... . . ,~,.-....,............
____:_____ - -- ---- - the chai,
.

QJ

V)
V)

ka-li-ME-ra SOU-zan!
I-me stin e-LA-dha ke ME-no pro-so-ri-NA sti ghli-FA-dha. ti KA-nis? e-GHO
I-me ka-LA. ma-THE-no e-li-ni-KA. ki-RI-a sta-VRA-ki mou KA-ni MA-thima. I-me PA-li ma-thi-iS! to e-PO-me-no MA-thi-ma I-ne AV-ryo. THE-Io na
MA-tho ka-LA ta e-li-ni-KA.

sou ke ka-LO sa-ba-to-KI-rya-ko!


ron

Good mornng, Susan!

..

m
m

-~

--------~..- ;he ;J~;-. _,_':"~'"""?T- #-l

ti-MI

C)

-,

... . . . . ""-""'" . . . . .- . . . . .......................... ---t h..e~. . c.o.i.~ff..e,.e. . . . -.. .__.... -~. ...._... . . . . _........ ,:,
ka-FES
..... . ......

""' ..

" ~

the student

,....

... "'...,. ._.,. . ............. ,.......''1

~. :: ::~ : -' ' ' " ' '' " ' '"' '

. . . . . ,. . ...... . . . . . . .. ... . .

~ !<
.
j

......,................... ,...................... v.:, ...........,.. ..,.........

a 11
t r -v:ou might assume that all inanimate obJects are neuter, too,
ca y neu e "
.
f e As you
but that's not the case. They can be neuter, masculne~ or emnn .
he

:~~~~~;~

Before he left the United States, Ron promised his colleague Susan that
he 'd write to her in Greek, because she's Jearning Greek as well and would
like to visit the country. Try to read Ron's first letter, and see how much you
can understand before you look at the translation.

ka-RE-kl~--

......... .........................................................................................................................................................................

6 :,.............. ... . " .......

______ ----------

__ ____

~- ~. . .. 1

_ _

J'm in Greece and I'm living in Glyfada temporarily. How are you? I'm fine.
I'm learning Greek. Mrs. Stavraki gives me lessons. J'm student again! The
next lesson s tomorrow. want to learn Greek well.
Good-bye, and have good weekend I
Ron

And here are a few more examples of neuter nouns. Again, notice that they .

- ----

vary in ending.

I y
~.~. ta-KSI-dhi
~. . . . . . . . . . . ..~.. . . . . . . . . -~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........~~the
. . . . . . . . . . ,. .-~. . ~, . . . . ~-~--. . . . . ..........-.. . I
1--- -- ' - -- -- - .to
trip
.
,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ I
~
~--------------;;;~_.ticket
- i-

-e-ro-PLA-no

'

- -----------

~- ~~~;

- ----- -- --
- ~~

., .

-- -

the airplane

to -s
.........
...... .....-.
..

. ~~~"""'""......-~~"''';"'"""'"'"'"'""-.-- ~

to SPI-ti

---- -- ----- - - - "" . . . . --........ . . . . . !


~

the house .

_____ j

,........,.,,,.-_,...,....-~--~-"'

...-... ......,,.,,..,_,..,,.,.,,,,,,v.,... ,.,......,, . -... .... ,Noo ......... ..... ,..,....,..,._,,,,.,._,,..........,,.,,,,,__,,.,,,,.,,_.-._..

--...-...- ......~............- ..............-......................- ......................................................................................._....................................................

10

I
!

Greek

---....- ...........

.......... ............................................................................. ...................................- .....................................

1. CULTURE 2
Greece is a small country located on the southeastern tip of Europe. It has a
population of about eleven million, and almost half of aiJ Greeks live in the
capital city of Athens. In 1981, Greece became part of the European Union,
and in 2002 it changed its currency to the euro. The official language is
Greek, but most Greek people also speak English.
Greece is divided into thirteen administrative regions caiJed districts. The
biggest cities in Greece are Athens, Thessaloniki, and Patra. big part of

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .___, . ._. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . .-.. . . . .. . ... . . . . . . ... .1. . . . . .,_. . . . . . . . .

----------~-----"-

lesson 1

11

Use t~e following words to complete the dialogue in the famili~r form
You don t need to use all of the words, but you may use a word twice.
.

Greece's economic activity is concentrated in Athens, where the stock exchange and the head offices of local and international banks are located.
Only some kilometers southwest of Athens lies the biggest and most important port in Greece, Piraeus. Shipping plays a major role in Greece's
economy, as do the exports of textiles, clothing, food, and oil products.

~~, ~ , y , , ,

_ "'"7"""""'"<"''_ .._. __.... _ ...................... - ..... ;--........_ _,_........_._.....

Hellenic Ministry of Culture

t. ..'.............. ...... .... . . . .' ".,:ll:.Niii........."......... ('.

, , ""' .

~-

.............. . ""

.:.;.~-~"~~--.-.... ... '""' ..

.. . .........

~;,,,.',"'

........-

1
i

,,;<' .... -~ ........................... , ......... ' ..... ' ................. '............................................................. .......................... ........................................~

I www.tane.a.gr!

Greek newspapers

t ____ _..,.,,_..,_,_,.J........_._., _ __,......... .,.,.,._ _ _ _ _ ..,....."""""........__."':"...,.........~..- .....~........................ ...~........................~..............................................-..-.......................- .............................. .........................................- ..~
f

www.ekathimerini.com/

....- . _,.,. . . .....-...-..-..


j

. .

--- -~, ~- ----.---.

Greek newspaper in English

Greek radio stations

. . ...,. _. . ,. . , . _,,.,_,,. ., -.,__"'"'-------------- - - -,;

Www~e-radio.gr/

.:-.;

-----------'

Complete the following sentences with the appropriate conjugation of


I
the verb to be ().

'

'
3

5 '
6.

'

'

(t)

'

,......

-,

; (ka-li-ME-ra. ti ___ ?)

(t)
(t)
;

__

___,

- - -)

QJ

"'
"'
-

(4)___
'
' ; (pio
to 0 -no-MA sou?)
.
()
p .
'
- --5
(to 0 -no-MA mou
ron PI-kok.)

---

. ; (I-se a-me-ri-ka-NOS ?)

.,

(6)

:
.
(8)
. (ne,
a-me-ri-ka-

N
_ _O_S_k_ (7)
e ME-no pro-so-ri-NA stin

.,

.m
- a--T-H
- E--no

(9) _ __ . (ef-kha-ri-STO,

__

__

.)

.)

Cf ~ve the a~propriate Greek pronoun that would be used to replace each

t e following English words or phrases. Then form sentences with the


correct form of to be, aiong with the word r-~!.. h' h .
'f
,
UU, w IC means fine For
examp e, you see Helen (), you'd write: .
.
1.

he ()

2.

fohn and ()

3 they (femnne)
4 you (sngular)

()

()

()

6. she ()

EXERCISES

2.

(1)

. _ _ _ (2) _ ___,, _ _ _(3 )_ _ _. (I-me

5 you (formal)

'
1.

G)

. .

..- ... - ..................................: ............ - ......................................................._ ..............................................................................,

i www.culture.gr/

'

, , , ,

Naturally, archaeology and history are two important reasons why people
visit Greece. But with abundant sun, mild winters, and dry, hot summers,
many people visit Greece for the climate, the clear blue seas, and beautiful
beaches. With 227 inhabited islands, there is never a shortage of places to
visit. And the land is only one of the charms that attract so many tourists
to Greece. The Greek people, in general, are easy to get along with, enjoy
their encounters with tourists, and feel honored when tourists make attempts to speak the Greek language. You may have already experienced
Greece yourself, or you may be planning a trip now. Either way, the internet has some wonderful resources that are of great interest to tourists and
language learners alike:
--------------- -----...-....-----.
vvww..gnto.gr/ ' .
Greek National Tourism Organization
I

.,. ,_... .

Greek literature, art, philosophy, and politics have made significant contributions to Western civilization. Plato, Socrates, Homer, Alexander the
Great, and Hippocrates are some of the best known Greeks o.f ancient
times, and they have shaped both the Greek experience and the history
and culture of the Western world.

t---~--

(t)

'
.

(e-GHO

. (e-SI
. (e-MIS

E-li-nas.)

_ _ (MA-thi-ma)
'
, (0-no-MA)
2. _ __
1.

. (e-SIS

'

D. Give the correct articie for each of the following .nouns. Then t

your answers.
rans ate

ma-thi-TIS.)

(af-TOS

. (

7. Peter and elen ()

ka-LA.)
ron

a-me-ri-ka-NOS.)

ka-LA.)
ka-LA.)

'
3 - -
(fo-to-GHRA-fos)

4 _ _ (ka-RE-kla)
' (ka-FES)
5 _ _

_..___________--..------..-..-..---..----..-..-..--~-------....-...-----....

-------~------------..--..----...................

12 !

Greek

__..___

-----.-...-.......-......_...

___

------............-.....................................,................................
lesson 1

13

6. _ __ (ta-KSI-dhi)

LESSON

(a-e-ro-PLA-no)

INDEPENDENT CHALLEN.GE: GREEK JOURNAL

(i i-ko-YE-nya)

Now that you've completed your first lesson, it's time to practice some
more. Starta G:reek journal, which you can use to keep track of new
vocabulary or interesting websites and other J:esourc~s. Yon ca, and
should, also use it to practice. begin, write a short dialogue in Greek
introducing yourself to someone you've just met. Use the dialogue
and other expressions from this lesson as a model. Your challenge is to
use as much of the vocabulary as you can in a creative way.

The family
..

No.w that you know how to say hello and introduce yourself it's time to
'
bu1Id your vocabulary a littie more In th'
d
.
.
Is secon 1esson, you'II Iearn basic
nlou~s and expres~ns. that will allow you to talk about your family. You'll
a so earn the COJugation of the verb to have in the .
h
f
.
s1mp e present tense

For more practice atuning yur ear" to Greek, you may also want to
check out tne website for Greek radio that was listed in the culture
note, www.e-radio.gr/. Listen carefully for five or ten .;minutes, a11d .
see if you can pick out any words or phrases. Of conrse, you won't
understand all, .or even most, of what you're. hearing, but see if you
do understand anything at all, even if it's just a word here and there.
This exercise will help your listeriing comprehens1on grow, so as you
complete each lesson, tune in again and see if you understand just a
1ittle bit more each time.

ow to ?rm negat~ve sentences, and how to form the piurai of masculin:


nouns. Finally, you 1 Iearn how to count from 1 to 20. But first t' d
vocabuiary warm-up.
' e s a

2. VOCABULARY WARM-UP
I

ANSWER
I

.1. , 2. ,

3 , 4

'
1. ,
2. '
, 3 , 4
8. , 9
I

c. 1.
4

.
'

.
I

2.

5 , 6.
I ,

'

.
I

6.

letter from abroad

dhi-la-DHI

namel, meanng,

6.

'
,

'
,

'
,

'

.
I

'

D. 1. (the lesson), 2. (the name), 3 (the photographer), 4 (the chair),


5 (the coffee), 6. (the trip), 7 (the a,irplane)

twn

e-pi-TE-lous!

Fnally!

~.

E-he-te MI-a po-LI


o-RE-a i-ko-YE-nya.

You have vey nce

na ti HE-re-ste!

How wonderful for


you!

i-ko-ye-nya-KI
fo-to-ghra-FI-a

famly pcture

o-RI-ste!

Here you aref/At our


servce! {fml.)

o-RI-ste?

What did you say?j


Pardon? {fml.)

pos LE-ne ... ?

How do you say ... ?/


What do you call ... ?

~!,..

~v

14

_____________ _______

-...- .............._............._.

Greek

...

...........................................- .......................................................

daughters

famly.

~
.

to say

DHI-dhi-mes KO-res

that

'
.

.............................. ............................... ........

. 3 .
I

GHRA-ma a-PO to
e-kso-te-ri-KO

... ;

Thank you, the same to


you. (fml.)

sas ef-kha-ri-STO
e-PI-sis.

. : ' ~ ...
;

is an expression that is used very often by Greek speak-

ers in situations where a positive reaction is called for. For example, if you
see the picture of someone's five-year-old daughter, you could respond in
English by saying Oh, she's beautiful! or How wonderful for u! In Greek,
the same polite sentiment is expressed as . The expression
changes slightly depending who or what you're talking about:
(na ton HE-re-ste) for masculine singular, (na
to HE-re-ste) for neuter singular, (na tous HE-re-ste) for
masculine plural, (na tis HE-re-ste) for feminine plural,
and (na ta HE-re-ste) for neuter plural. Don't worry about
the grammar for the time being. We'll come back to it in detaillater.

DIALOGUE

his way

. :

, .

,
,
,
, .
y

... l.v 'i


~

'

'}'V. !

ton LE-ne 'pa-POU'. i yi-NE-ka tou pa-POU sas


I-ne i ya-YA sas. E-he-te MI-a po-LI o-RE-a i-koYE-ni-a. na ti KHE-re-ste!

r.

: .

E-he-te E-na GHRA-ma a-PO to e-kso-te-ri-KO.


o-RI-ste!
,
,
,
,
y . (

,
.
,

sas ef-kha-ri-STO.

.) '}'V

, ,
,

y .

1-ne a-PO ti yi-NE-ka mou. ( ron a-NI-yi to


GHRA-ma.) E-hi ke Ml-a i-ko-ye-nya-KI fo-toghra-FI-a. ki-TAKS-te, af-TI 1-ne i yi-NE-ka mou.
-----..-...............................................................

dhi-la-DHI mi-LA-i me ton pe-the-RO sas. i pethe-RA sas I-ne sti fo-to-ghra-FI-a?
,

,
,

, y
. '
,
,

sas ef-kha-ri-STO, e-PI-sis.

Greek

. :
,
, .
,

't;
~ !.. .
' ' y
'
: ~
.,., : ~v

: , .

I-ne yos mou. E-kho ke DHI-dhi-mes KO-res.


I-ne DHI-pla a-PO ti mi-TE-ra mou. e-DHO,
pa-TE-ras mou mi-LA-i me ton pa-TE-ra tis yiNE-kas mou.

ne, I-ne. kra-TA-i an-ga-LYA ton a-ni-PSYO


mou, dhi-la-DHI to yo tis a-dhel-FIS mou. DHIpla a-PO to gha(m)-BRO mou I-ne ... pos
LE-ne ton pa-TE-ra tou pa-TE-ra mou?

,
,
. . .
~~ .

ka-li-ME-ra ron. ka-LO Ml-na!

. : . !

16

ka-li-ME-ra sas ki-RI-a ka-TI-na.

_,_....

ar

: . ' .
~ . ,

Now listen in as Ron runs into Mrs. Katina, his doorkeeper,


out.

...............................~.......

t'D

E-na le-PTO na fo-RE-so ta ya-LYA mou ...


pyos 1-ne DHI-pla a-PO ti yi-NE-ka sas?

Note

2.

--t

::r

-- - - - - - - -

Ron: Good morning, Mrs. Ktin.


Mrs. Ktin: Good mo111:ing, Ron. Hve good month!
Ron: Thnk you, the sme to you. too.
Mrs. tn: You hve letter from brod. Here you go!
Ron: It's from my wife. (Ron opens the letter.) There's
lso fmly pcture. Look, ths s my wife.
----- ....-..-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . .- --------.................................................._........._.

___
lesson 2

...-................................................
..

17

Mrs.

tn:

Wit

minute:I'll put on my glsses . . . Who


next to your wife?

yos

son

a-dhel-FI

sster

a-dhel-FOS

brother

pa-POUS

grandfather

tt

ya-YA

grndmother

THI-a

aunt

THI-os

uncle

e-KSA-dhel-fos

cousn

(m.)

e-ksa-DHEL-fi

cousn

{f)

Ron: He's my son. hve twn dughters1 too. They're


next to my mother. ere my fther s tlkng
with my wife's fther.
Mrs.

Ktin:

. .. He's tlking with your fther-in


Is your mother- in-lw in the picture?

Yes

she is. She's holding my nephew, meaning


my sster 's son, in her rms. Next to my brotherin-lw is my ... Wht do you cll the fther 's
fther?

Mrs.

tn:

Ron:

'

Mening
lw.

Ron:

'

He's clled " grndfther. " Your grndfther 's


wife is your grndmother. You hve very nice
fmily. How lovely Jor you!
Thnk

you!

'

brother-n-law, groom

pe-the-ROS

father-in-lw

a-NI-yi

hejshe/it opens

DHI-pla tis

beside her, next to her

DHI-o

two

e-DHO

here

E-na/ MI-a

one ,

E-hi

(hejshe/t) has

'

2C. VOCABULARY
You'll notice the article , , or with each noun in the vocabulary lists.
The article is given to show you the gender of that noun.

'
,

'
j

E-he-te

'

'

'

i-ko-GHE-nya
pa-TE-ras
mi-TE-ra
KO-ri

fmly

Jther

mother
dughter

---..----!---- - - - - ----------------- _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-- -- - - 18 1


I

Greek

an (m./f)

you have (pl.lfml.)

E-kho

i pe-the-RA sas

your mother-n-lw

ki-TAKS-te!

Look! (pl.lfml.)

le-PTO

()

me

wth

mi-LA-i

(hejshe) talksjs talking

na fo-RE-so

to wear, to put on

ne

yes

pyos?

who?

ta ya-LYA

eyeglasses

'
:y

nece

gha(m)-BROS

Did you notice that nouns and articles change form slightly in the dialogue?
For example) Ron used both and to mean the wife.
Later he used both the forms and , meaning the father. Remember that Greek nouns fall into one of three genders, and their
definite articles change accordingly: is masculine, is feminine 1 and
is neuter. Well, that's only part of the story! Greek nouns and articles also
change form depending their case, which is a grammatical term that
basically relates to how a noun functions in a sentence- as subject, direct
object, possessive, and so on. Don't worry about that too much yet. We'l~
come back to it and go over all of it in easy-to-follow detail. For now, just
keep an eye out for slight changes in form of the articles and nouns.

nephew

a-ni-PSYA

Note

a-ni-PSYOS

--- ................................................................ -----.........................................._

have

minute

(nfml.)

____

...................................................................

lesson

,,,.-..................................................

19

20. PHRASES

, ;,

r.

i THI-a/o THI-os mou My auntjuncle


E-hi ho-RI -si.
divorced.

Here are some expressions that you may find useful when talking about

ta e-ksa-DHEL-fya
mou 1-ne
si-no-MI-li-KA mou.

family.
1

E-his me-GHA-li
i-ko-YE-nya?

;
I

I '\,

/\,.
I

' ;

'

E-his a-DHEL-fya?

Do you have brothers/


sisters (siblings}?

my husband

A-dras mou

my wife

Sl-zi-ghos

the husband (fml.)

i SI-zi-ghos

the wife (fml.)

'

i mi-TE-ra mou

my mother

my father

pa-TE-ras mou

oA-dras

the man

i gho-NIS

the parents

ta pe-DHYA

the children

ta en-GO-nya

the grandchildren

i Sl-zi-yi

the couple (fml.)

to an-:D HRO-yi-no

the couple (infml.}

'

'

! 1-ste pa-ntre-ME-nos/
I

pa-ntre-ME-ni?

1-me a-NI-pa-ntros/
a-NI -pa-ntri.

I'm single. (m./f)

1-me pa-ntre-ME-nos/
pa-ntre-ME-ni.

I'm married. (m.jf)

I-ne mo-na-kho-YOS.

He's the only boy in the


family.

'

'

'

'

y.

Grammar topic 1: The simple present


of (E-kho) (to he)
As you learned in Lesson 1, Greek verbs are conjugated so that different
forms are used with different subjects. You've already learned (to be),
so now let's look at another very common and useful verb, (to have).
Pay close attention to the different endings of the verb , as in later
lessons you'll see that many other verbs also follow the same conjugation
pattern.

. ., .,. . . . . _,. . .
~iri7~--~~-- ~=~~-his--
.

_____.................. -..............

20

- - - -
Greek

e- G

~ ~

- kh~

. ,--..,~:~.-. _--~ '' ., . ~~------...:~...........................................


I . ''\'
af-TOS E-hi
.-- - - -
--.. .
r-~

Sh(/s the only grl in


the family.

! I-ne yo-the-ti-ME-nos/ He's adopted./She's


.
yo-the-ti-ME-ni.
adopted.
-------- ---------"""''"""""''"'

2F. GRAMMAR

f:~:u ; ..

'

I-ne mo-na-kho-KO-ri.

______

---------

cousns

The etymology of some of the Greek family terms is interesting as well.


Take as an example the formal word for husband and wfe, or spouse:
,u (SI-zi-ghos). This word is made up of (), which means wth
or together, and ')U, which means beam or yoke. These words together
. refer to the couple's equal rights, weight, worth, and responsibility in maintaining stability in the family.

Are you married?


(m.jf )

CULTURE

and are
close in age.

My

Greek families tend to be tightly knit, and the Greek language provides an
extensive vocabulary to describe every possible relationship. For example,
the word brother-n-law translates as (kou-NYA-dhos) if it refers to a spouse's brother, but as z (gha[mJ-BROS) in reference to
a sister's husband. Similarly, sster-n-law will translate as (kouNYA-dha) to refer to a spouse's sister, while it will translate as (NI-fi)
to refer to a brother's wife.

i yi-NE-ka mou

'

2.

My family is small.

. i i-ko-YE-nya mou
1-ne mi-KRI.

My family is big.

i i-ko-YE-nya mou
1-ne me-GHA-li.

Do you have big


family?

h~-~~

. . . . . . . . . . ,. . .._N---:---..". . .

~1

--- ~~ ;~~ ---. --


.......-..........................---~~""'~-'-~-------- ..--"~- .........1

-~f=~-; ~=~-;---------

he has
~h~- h as

. . . -. . .........

---.. ...........___ _

... --~--- ............................................... , ... .......,,........ _ _

I'

. . . . . .. . . . . . - _ ..._, ..._ _ _ _ _.... _ _ . . . .._ . . . . .. ...... - - - - - - -

'

e-MS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .

~ .. - - --

E-khou-me

... . ....... . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . , .., , . . . . .#

*"

. . . .- - "

. . . . . .-......

~~----

we have

-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -- . .-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._____. ,_,______.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ------"!1

r--.. . . ,. . .. ' .

I t .
- - - - ..

it has

af-TO E-hi


j '

. . ..........................~---~-..-,..-

' ' ' ' ' ' ' '0"'00 . . 0

______

- - ..- ...............

e-SIS ~ hete

_ _ _ _ _.......... , . . ., , , . . , , , , , _ , , .,. _ , , . , . . _, , . . .

. you have (l.lfml.)

oo-ooOooo oOoooOOOOOOOOoOO'''.,.,.....,.._ . . . . , _ ..... _ _, . . , _ , __ _ _.,.. , , _ , . , , , , , , , , ., , , ,., , , . _ , , , , , , . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... YO#-....w......-~

________ _______
,

...............,

- - - - - - - -..- ; - - - - -

...................

Lesson

21

........

'

-,.

--,. ..... . . . .

I -

.................................

.._.._.._

"'

. ......

------,

...................

...........~.-._,.,. .,.. .

- ___af-~~~=~~n -~-----

~~ ~-- -

aHA

....,.---- ...........#..... ........... ....... .....,.......................................--...-...-......

' (

ka-FES) (the coffee). As you can see, they end in -, -, -,


-, and - respectively. Now look at their plural forms, paying careful attention to the different endings. .

they have (m.)

af- E-khoun

E-kh_~ ---

_ _

---"- . .~---~

_ ~~e:_~~~:!) ___

---~h:!~av~(n}___

. _____ \
____j

~ (~ y~;)(h-;~~~)""'"''"'
. . .-

,...._

ron E-hi DHI-o KO-res.

__

..... ~ ,.._--.......

one ct. .

..

If the singular noun ends in -/-, drop -/- and add -.

You hve three cousins.


I

y r r .

e-GHO E-kho E-nan o-RE-o PI-na-ka.

__

,.............................

painting.

............................ ................................

..............................................,_

~...........

Agai,

remember that Greek us s?metimes chage for_ grammatical


he last example the noun is the accusatve case form
t
In
e
cas .
'
'll
of . Again, we'll come back to cases later, but you come across

. ... _

.......... ...

""''"''"''''''.'.,.,_
I

.........

)' (

..

---

- ---- -

'

.._,..__.....

...

""" ..,. ..... ..,..

--.- - -

Greek

- ,

.. ...................

,..,.......... m.>....-......., ,.~... ~...-..~............ .

( a-me-ri-ka-NOS)

......

........

. ..

- ...- ..- ............ ........- ......... -1,_j


~

a-GHO-nes) (the races)

.......... '""'..
, ..................
.....
- -..................................................j

._.._ _ _,.,. _,... ,.., .,.....,.,..

(i a-me-ri-ka-N)

................................................

I (the human being)

_...

(the Americans)

--~

- -.............

...................................... _--~

( AN-thro-pi)

(the human beings)

You already kow that is the masculie (sigular) defiite arti_cle, ad


that masculine singular nouns end in -. In the plural, the masculne definite article is . But that's not all that changes in the plural. Greek nouns,
Jike Eglish oes, take a edig to show that th~y're plural. The plural
edig of masculie us varies slightly depedng the :owel that
comes before - in the singular. Take a look at these masculn~ nouns:
0 "ff.O ( yos) (the son), ( A-dras) (the man), ( paPOUS) (the grandfather), ( ma-thi-iS) (the student), ad

-- - -............................................... ....---.,

............................................................._ .
.

( AN-thro-pos)

The plural of masculine nouns

'y (i-;N_-;;}. "(;h~- ~~-~;~;;;en)-1

a-GHO-nas) (the race)

"""~''''"'"''"''"'''''''''' '''''' ' ''' '''''''' '"''"'"''

. _ - .....,.......................................... - -

I 'y ( AN-glos) (the Englishman)


_._.

------- ~

(the American)
........... .. ---" ................. .......................

many changes like this one.

......................................

-.

---- ..............................------.....................................

sNGuAR

---............-....

and add

There are some exceptions to these rules; for example, certain nouns that
end in -- behave like ones that end in --, forming their plurals
with -. You don't need to worry about these exceptions, though. You'll
pick them up as you proceed through the course. Now, let's look at several
other examples. See if you can practice by checking out the singular and
trying to form the plural without looking, or vice versa.

e-SIS E-he-te TRI-a e-ksa-DHEL-fya.

......i....................-

3 If the singular noun ends in --, add -- before the final -.

2:

........................~

2.

Grammar topic

_ I

..... ~...........

...... ~...................._ . ~,.,,....,.,,,,,,,,,,................................................ ,._......................................--..............,..,~ ~....................... ,.,............"""" _ _ _. ,....... ............:

I
~Jw'} ,
I
11
-- rv." y.

hve beutiful

(the grandfathers)

If the singular noun ends in -, drop

(i pa-POU-dhes)

1.

As you can probably see, the rules for forming the masculine plural are :

We hve big family.

22 \

~~~ec~f!~=~> -~---

Yannis nd Petros hve one sister.

'''"'''''"'''"'"''~~N*Hh<oooooooi

~~ ~~(i~~=;~~dh~--

--

I (the grandfather)
. -~. "-~. . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..~ . . . . . . . . . . . . .~--

e-MIS E-khou-me Ml-a me-GHA-li i-ko-YE-nya.

__ ,

.."''''''"''.\' ..........."'"-"""""..,..''"''"'''''''"'''''"''

'

YA-nis ke PE-tros E-khoun MI-a a-dhel-FI.

a.

----""'""""' ""'' "'"j

(i A-dres) (the men)

( pa-POUS)

.
0

~ ~

(the students)

i e-LE-ni E-hi MI-a GHA-ta.


hs

'NN~~"f<'' '''''-''"

........

Helen

..,_~""'" ""'V>""'.-o"""''''""'n">i-Y''''"V"~','N~:''IVN;.,,_~""""'"~''',.:.~;...:..._'

!~~ ~ ka-FES)(~~~ ~~;;;~)


-- . - --- -------

Ron hs two daughters.


I

:::

:i;~&~'(~~~lt~ii~)(~e ~~d~--~~-~~ !i ma-fui=~~S) -----~

. . . . . .~~---~~~ (i yii) (the sons)

-.,-----~

'

-..

( A-dras) (th~ man)

Let's look at some examples of this verb in action.

-
ft)

PLURAL

- -.-....................................................

!~; ~-~~~ ---~

'

----

.........................................

'

~:...,.,.,...~n;....,.,..f""'''""''nn;.>-.,y.,n,,fol'oooo~,,,o,,(""'"'_.,....................,.......,..,.....,,.,,,.;,,""''''~'~(,,,,,,-.,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,'NNo>J',".,._"_.,..,....,~,_.,.,, ....,, '''''''''"'''''''''''''''''"''''''''''~'''"""""'-"''NNo---..,..,.,.,,.,.,,, ... ,,,.,,,.,,,,,,.,,..,... _ _ _ _NtfffttN"''''''''''''''


'

( ka-THRE-ptis)

'

(i ka-THRE-ptes)

1
!

(the mirror)

.... . . . ___

--..

._-

(the mirrors)

-~...

. ----.--................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . --..-.. . . . . .,. . . . . . . . .-- -----.. . . . . . . . . . . _____. . . .!i

I y ( ka-na-PES) (the couch) (i ka-na-PE-dhes)


couches) ..
.11--......._..,___ - .---...... .................._, ---"- ...........-...........,....________(the
,............-..........................................._,__............- ..................................................................
!

'

( a-ni-PSYOS) (the nehew)

...................

. . . ._

~-.....

......................................

..

'

y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " ..,..,._..,

( fi-LES) (the net)


~

.............................

...-~-.-.

-- --

______

..,_....................._..... _..

,,......., ...., . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .

....

_______

;
.
~- --!
~
' (i a-ni-PSYI) (the nehews) I

( fi-LE-dhes) (the nets)


................

,.............................. .....

....................

__ ___

.........................

...................................

.. .. .....,........,... _

- - ....

. ...... _.

.._,.,.._,.;,

___

........................ ............._..

.................................................

Lesson

23

The word for one in Greek is actually the same as the word used for the
indefinite article (/n) . We'll take a closer look at indefinite articles in
'
' and
'
the next lesson. For now, note t h at the numbers ,
,
change form according to gender, just as Greek articles, nouns, and adjectives do. For one, is masculine, isfeminine, and is neuter. For
three and Jour, and are both masculine and feminine, and
' and
'

are neuter.

Grammar topic 3: Negative sentences


Lesson 1 you learned how to ask yes/no questions in Greek.. answ er
a yes/no question in the negative, simply put ,!dhe~) (not) r~g~t before

the verb. These answers never need any kind of helpng verb lke do or
does, which is also true of yesjno questions in Greek.

---..........._,

! MASCUL.INE

' ~
'
' .
; '(),
.
ron E-hi PE-de pe-DHYA? 0-hi, ron dhen E-kh PE-de pe-DHYA.
0

~-----

____ --__ -

.......... ----

................_.

........

,_~

Does Ron have five children? , Ron does not have five children.

- - .-...................

--------.................__

FEMININE

..................................... _

e::..nas A-dras

NEUTER

Ml-a yi-NE-ka

y; ',

~~~~ -"--'~~lone w~m~~

=~Yos sou 1-ne me-GHA-los? 0 -hi, a-ni-PSYOS mou dhen


Itfis A-dres

three men

I-ne me-GHA-los.

Is your nephew old? , my nephew is not old.

Is Ron Swiss? , Ron is not Swiss.

. ; '(), .

.~

./

E-na an-DHRO-yi-no

_____:!j{~~-e ~~up':c:__ :______ j

'


tris yi - NE-kes

'

'


TR-a an-DHRO-yi-na

f:f1.r.ee cp,up~es .

three women

-..--.> '>. --'"-1"'""'"-~----



j TE-se-ris A-dres

ron I-ne el-ve-TOS? 0-hi, ron dhen I-ne el-ve-TOS.

..

~-- --~

.. ,. ,__,_,,,W,,.>>'"''"'"''''''''''""~-~..--~..- .............- ...... ,.,.,.,,,,.,.,.,


,,~,'-----"'"-""""""""'/'

; ', .
0

'

___

,.--...----............_________
_..........................
yu

/'1)

----..-...-...-........

...................................

,..,.,

-i

::r

four men

TE-se-ris yi-NE-kes

TE-se-ra an-DHRO-yi-na j

four women

four couples .

,,._..,,,,.,.MOJWY-~wW~;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,~,,,,,.,.~~"NW.""''~'. .;. .;,; '~~ .,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,._,.Jvv ~

.,....,,,,,...,.

""-----~~-~~~c~c.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,;,:.,: ,,,,,,....,,"~.--"-'"'''''''~' ~~VJ

26. READING

.
i ki-RI-a ka-TI-na 1-ne THI-a tou ron? 0-hi, i ki-RI-a ka-TI-na dhen 1-ne

Now try to read the short text below, which is an excerpt from a newspaper
article. See how much you can understand from context, but don't worry if
you don't know every single word.

THI-a tou ron.

Js Mrs. Katina Ron's aunt? , Mrs. Katina s not Ron's aunt.


Grammar topic : Numbers 1-20

m', y t . 1CJ1!
I

Now let's look at the numbers

----

~-'

1- 20

........................................

-~-----~

\ 1-=~~l (E-nasM~aE- na)


r..;:&G~ (DHI-o) . ...... . .........

in Greek:

.,,,..

_............... ..............----~-............--------:

'

:c.

~'("''''"''''''"'''''''~'~'~'''"''~"',.,...,._..-,,~"'-"''....,.~~"'"'"''"'''''''''''''"'.....'"""'-''

~--~=~~p~~~~ .
\ (TE.;.se.; . ris/1E..::se~ra)

..

.,....,...

14- (dhe-ka-TE-se-ra) 1

______

------_j

~-;~; (e=~~~) ---.- ...

...

--::---;{- ~~~~:~ ~
(
I8
r~-- ~~ - ~=~~= ;;-~-~::. . . .,. . . . .~

10

.... . .

'

11- (d h e-..~~.~-~-~ ~~--~~.................. .........~

--;s-&~~~ ;~e-ka-o-o)
\
"'... . . . .. . ... . . . .. . . .,. . .
-.. .,. . . . . . . . .-~
19 - (dh e- ka- e- - a)
I

... - ----..~... _ ..... ........................................-

<

_ ___

--""""""""""""_._

---j

~_. ..........................................---

~ ~b1 {~~-~~. . . . .. . . .. .:. c~:~. -~.---,----~ . . 2- (1-ko-si)


\.... ............
............................-.._
.............----- .... --- .

. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................._.__ - - 24
Greek
1

----1
_ . ....:. :._... . . . . . . . . . . ...-----~~~~~ (dhe:!~- ~ ~~ksi~----- 1

... . . _. . . . . . . . . -

_._................... --..

---'

____ .....................................-

..... . .... .. ... . . ..

~L

. .
<p . . ~
, . .
y, <p!

""=~~; (PE~ct-~)_. ....... ..-- ....-... . i . . . . 15- (dhe-ka-PE-de)


5
. __...............- .....______.. _____.....................- - .................................

\ ;;=-~\ i=ks!) .-

y . KUU."

_ _..............................~............ -....

. 101 .
' pt1CJ1.
' 'u ttt*:
'

11- (E-de-ka) ___................... . . . . . . . . . - . .-.........,


___ .......... -.-..,.....- 12-~~~ (-;;-HO-dhe-ka)
j
,

\;=~~~-t~~m~-a. ----: - . 3~&~~~p;he~~=~~=


~

*ttt (LE-i): shejhe says

e-pi-TE-lous, GHRA-ma a-PO to e-kso-te-ri-KO ya tin ki-RI-a ksan-THA-ki!

e-kse-rev-ni-TIS KI-ryos a-LE-ksan-dros ksan-THA-kis 1-ne ka-LA. 1-ne proso-ri-NA stin a-ntar-kti-KI. i Sl-zi-ghos tou LE-i: 'A-r:i-ka m e to GHRA-ma
a-PO ton A-ntra mou. 1-ne ka-LA." i pe-the-RA ke pe-the-ROS tou ki-RI-ou
a-LE-ksan-drou 1-ne DHI-pla a-PO tin KO-ri tous. E-houn MI-a fo-to-ghra-

._

____

......................

.................

_____

.........................................

- ---..........................

___

___

..................................

......................................

~-

. . . . . . . . . . . . _. _----1-:_. . . . . . . . .

Lesson 2

! 25

FI-a tou ki-RI-ou a-LE-ksan-drou. kra-TA-i a-ga-LYA tis DHI-dhi-mes KO-res


tou ke DHI-pla tou I-ne i a-dhel-FI tou, gha(m)-BROS tou ke ta pe-DHYA
tous. KI-ryos a-LE-ksan-dros E-khi MI-a o-RE-a i-ko-YE-nya, LE-i dhi-mosyo-GHRA-fos!

Fnll,

letter from

brod for

Mrs.

On the slopes of the Acropolis sit the ancient theater of Dionysos, dating
from the fifth century BCE, and the Odeon of Herodes Atticus, a theater built
in the second century CE. The Athens Festival and other major art performances still take place at the Odeon. Beyond the Acropolis, pedestrian-only
pathways take you through the old part of the city, where nineteenth century
neoclassical buildings slowly give way to ancient sites and structures.

Ksnthkis!

CULTURE

In Lesson , you learned that Greece is divided into thirteen administrative


regions, or districts. t seems logical, then, to explore Greece on,e district at
a time, starting with (a-ti-KI) (Attic) and its capital, (a-THIna) (Athens). Imagine your trip ...
The plane lands at Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport. From there,
you head to the city. Although most museums, trendy shops, and nightclubs are at the city center, there are also many attractions on the outskirts
of Athens. The suburbs of y (vou-lya-GHME-ni) (Vouligmeni)
and (VAR-ki-za) (Vrkiz), for example, each offer the attractive combination of boutique hotels and sandy beaches with proximity to
downtown Athens.

t'D

Q1'
3

Still in the old part of town, but within walking distance of Iuxury hotels
and fashion boutiques, the (pla- -a mo-na-stira-KI-ou) (Monstrk Squre) is the best place to buy folk art souvenirs
I
and worry beads. (ko-bo-LI) (worry beds) are strings of beads
that you can hold or play with to help with stress, boredom, or just for
something to do. At the y (pla--a si-DA-ghma-tos)
(Syntagma Square), the following are a must-see: the Parliament Building,
the Tomb of the U nknown Soldier, the changing of the guard, and the
National Gardens. However, there are of course many more things to do
in the area, with its extensive list of museums and numerous other sites
and activities. Most of the museums are located within walking distance
of each other, so it's simple for the tourist to visit a number of them in just
one outing.

The explorer, Mr. Alexndros Ksnthkis, s doing well! He s temporrl


in Antrctc. s wife ss, ''m hpp bout the letter from m husbnd.
He's well.'' Mr. Alexndros's mother-n-lw nd fther-in-lw re beside their
dughter. The hve Mr. Alexndros 's picture. He hs hs twn dughters n
his rms, nd beside hm re hs sister, hs brother-n-lw, nd ther children.
Mr. Alexndros hs beutiful fmil, ss the reporter!

2.

-i

::r

visit to ~he city would be complete without stopping at the

(LO-fos li-ka-vi-TOU) (hll ofLycbettus) to take in the breathtak_ing views of the city. And if, after a long day of sightseeing, taking the
stars to get to the top of the hill is just not an option, the funicular will get
you there quickly and painlessly.

On the following websites, you'll find short videos, useful information,


and more details ab<;>ut the attractions mentioned above. They'll give you
plenty of ideas to help you plan your next visit to Athens.
"'''''\."':'I'......_.,,

'''"'''''''''''"""~_ _ , , _,,,,..,-.,,,,,, ,,, ,,,,,,,,.,,,,, , ,.....,..,,.,..,, ................~..........-"'W'.....,..~\'


"'''"'''~ ' V.'' "''"'.... '\\V.o\','.'., ,,,,.....,._... ~ ,.,,,.,,,.,,, .,,,.,.,,.,,.,.,,~~H-MH-.<o'N, ,, ,, .. ,.,,.,,.,, , , ,., .. ,,.,.,,,,,.,,.,.,_.,"""'f

In addition, a wide range of nautical activities, as well as beautiful promenades, can be found at the marinas in (ka-la-MA-ki) (lmk),
z (ZE-a) (e), and (ghli-FA-dha) (Glfd). Once there, you
can also relax at one of the many open-air restaurants and cafes that serve
cold drinks, coffees, or (OU-zo) (ouzo, an anise liqueur) and
(me-ZE-dhes) (ppetzers).
When you reach the center of Athens, you'll see what is by far the most
imposing attraction in the city: the (LO-fos tis
a-KRO-po-lis) (hill of the Acropolis), with its monuments and Archaeological Park. t was Pericles, the Athenian general, who commissioned the construction of the monuments in the fifth century BCE. The best known, the
(par-the-NO-nas) (Prthenon) was built as a place of worship in honor of the goddess Athena the namesake and protector of the
city. If you're traveling around the city by public transportation, you'll be
happy to know that the metro station for this part of the city is also called
Acropolis--easy enough to remember!

_..............--.-+---
................,__,_____..............................._ _ _ .......................,_ __
I

26 1

Greek

- - ....................................._...

........................-...............

___

...................... ..

www.holidayshop.gr/
.,.""'-'""h""-"'-H<"-v.ow.f'fVn.....,.... , .... , , , ,

Guide for holidays in Greece


~

""""'"""~~ ....~~.....

- -......................~..- ......~..~.,.,.......................................... _ .. ,~.- ..""".........................................."'"""""'"~-

http://menoumeellada.ert.gr/en/

F~: ~;~~r;;h~~~-;~;

!
I
.............."......................+

Video clips and pictures of different

Greek locations

... .. ---- ---- """ ~;ty of Ath ~-~~ ~~b~te (En~i~h: ~~; i~ft)-1

"'"-----. . . . . . . . . . .~---. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __,~.-. . . . ..:. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..,.._,,__.,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~

-..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,....~.J

EXERCISES
. Give the plural form of the following masculine nouns, including the
articles. This is a great chance to review your vocabulary and also to add
a few new words.

'
1.
2.

(pa-TE-ras) (fther)

(pe-the-ROS) (fther-n-lw)

3 (a-dhel-FOS) (brother)

. . . . .-...____,. ,. . . . . . . . ..._ __. .,. . . . . . . . .-

. . . . . . . . . . _., ., _____. . . .... . . . . . - -.. . . . . . .... -.--+. . . . . . . . .


lesson 2

27

1 4.

4. 0 (a-GHO-nas) (race)

0 (ni-ki-TIS) (winner)

6. (yos) (son)

. (fo-to-GHRA-fos) (photographer)
7
8. (arkhi-TE-kto-nas) (architect)

5. (po-li-TES) (vendors)

1 6.

(stra-TYO-tes) (soldiers)

1 7.

(ta-ksi-DHYO-tes) (travelers)

C. In this exercise, use to make the following sentences negative. Begin


your sentence with: ' ... . ( ... )

9. 0 (GHA-los) (Frenchman)
10.

(YI-to-nas) (neighbor)

11.

)' (YE-ros)

12.

(DHA-ska-los) (techer)

(po-LI-tes) (citzens)

1.

(old ma.n)

. (i a-le-KSAN-dhra 1-ne a-me-ri-ka-NI-

dha.)
2.

13. (dhi-mo-syo-GHRA-fos) (journalist)

. ( ron E-khi DHI-o a-dhel-FES.)

3 . . (i ki-RI-a ka-TI-na E-khi DHI-dhi-mes


KO-res.)

14. (e-the-lo-NTIS} (volunteer)

4 . ( NAF-tis E-khi GHRA-

15. 1 (E-li-nas) (Greek)

ma a-PO tin i-ko-YE-nya tou.)

16. (EM-bo-ros) (merchant)

5 'J( . (i pe-the-RA tou ron


kra-TA-i a-ga-LYA to yo tou ron.)

17 . (e-kse-rev-ni-TIS} (explorer)
18. (THI-os) (uncle)
19 . (kou-NYA-dhos) (brother-in-law)

D. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate conjugation of


I
the verb to have: .

. This time, you'll see the plural form of masculine nouns, and you have

1.

E-nan PI-na-ka tou pi-A-so.)

to give the singular form.

1.

(ka-na-PE-dhes) (couches)

2.

(A-dres) (men)

5 (ka-THRE-ptes) (mirrors)

Each of the following five sentences has one mistake. Identify the mistake, and then rewrite the sentence correctly.
1.

:y . ( ron E-khis MI-a i-ko-ye-

nya-KI fo-to-ghra-FI-a.)
2.

. : /{ ." (i ki-RI-a ka-

TI-na LE-i: /{e-SIS E-hou-me MI-a o-RE-a i-ko-YE-nya.")

13. (pe-the-RI) (fathers-in-law)

____

................................

Greek

. (i gho-NIS mou _ _ _ DHI-o pe-

1 . (bou-FE-dhes) (buffets)

--t------ - - """""""""""""'"

. (af-TES _ __ GHRA-ma

DHYA.)

9 (lo-yi-STES) (accountants)

(pa-TE-res) (fathers)

MI-a THI-a.)

a-PO to e-kso-te-ri-KO.)

7. (pa-POU-dhes) (grandfathers)
8. (FI -li) (friends)

12.

(e-GHO ke e-SI

GO-nya.)

(ni-ki-TES) (winners)

3 . _ _ _ y. (i ki-RI-a ka-TI-na dhen _ _ _ en-

6. (PI-na-kes) (paintings)

28 \

2.

3. (kou-NYA-di) (brothers-in-law)
4 (NAF-tes) (sailors)

11.

. ( pa-na-YO-tis _ _ _

____

...................................-

- - - '" ""'""""'"

__

..............................

.......................................

--

............................................

________ ..............................____

_..........................

__

..,_..,_..................

Lesson

29

3 . . ( pa-POU-dhes tou
ron dhen 1-ne sti fo-to-ghra-FI-a.)

LESSON

4 . . ( ron E-khi fo-to-GHRA-fos.)


5 . 0 . ( ron ke NI-kos 1-ne ma-thi-TIS.)

INDEPENDENT CHALLENGE
this lesson, you learned many new vocabulary words for talki~g
about the family, so now it's time to use them! First, find a famly
photo. It can be the picture your family took at yo~r high school.grad- .
uation, at your cousin's wedding, or at your first brtliday. Any pcture
will do. If you don't have one hq_ndy, you may wan~ to l~ok for

the internet or in a magazine. Describe the photo, JUSt lke Ron d~ at


~he beginning of the lesson. In your journal, write out a conversaton
that you could have with a fellow passenger on a plane, on your way
to Greece.

Welcome to our house!

on:

ANSWER
.

I
I
I
6
, 2. , 3~ ~, 4 ~, 5 ~,
, 7 . , 8. , 9 ~, 10. ~,
11 . , 12. , 13. , 14. ~,
15 . , 16. , 17. , 18. , 19.

1.

3. VOCABULARY WARM-UP
!

Welcomel (sg.)

Welcome I (pl./fml.)

, 2. , 3 , 4 J, 5 J,
6. 0 , 7 . , 8. ~ 9 ;tl, 10. ~,
11. , 12. , 13. , 14. , 15. ,
16. , 17.

1.

house, home

c. 1 . ,. 2. ? ; .
I

3. . . 4 ~ ~
. 5 :
1

my house

I
I

.
l

1.

2.

, 3 , 4 , 5

1.

2.

, 3 , 4 , 5

Come nf/Go rght nl


furnshed apartment

J.O !

y!

D.

In Lesson 3 you'll learn a lot of basic vocabulary for talking about the
home, including the names of many everyday objects. You'll also learn how
to form the plural of feminine and neuter nouns, how to describe things
with adjectives, and how to express my, your, and so on. This lesson also
covers the forms of the indefinite article. But first, let's get started with a
vocabulary warm-up. You'll notice that starting with Lesson 3, transliteration will not be provided. But that's okay! By now you 've had plenty of
practice reading Greek 1

Your apartment s beautiful I


The decoraton s nce.

The vew s wonderful I

...

lke

them

J'm lookng for ...

...... ..........................

30

-- - - ...........................____
Greek

---""""'"""'""""

- - - - ---""'"""""---- - - - - --..-------- - - - -

we go, let's go

38. DIALOGUE

Ron: m ~oo~ng for bgger partment because my


fmly s co:rzing to Greece. Is there bgger
aprtment n the buldng tht can rent?

Ron's wife and children will be coming to Greece to stay with him during
the summer vacation. Since Ron's apar~ment is too small to accommodate
the entire family, he asks Mrs. Katina whether there is a bigger apartment
in the building available for rent.

Mrs.

tn:

; n

i O

13

! rt>

: I"'+

Mmmm ... ~es, there )s fumshed prtment.


Would you lke to see t?

-,

::r
c:

Ron: Yes, let's go see t.


:

y ~
I

t y t
~.lv'}

'. -U\.
I

n;
I

l'a"'\ll~t
... , ~

'}

. ;
:

, .

Ron: It's ncely decorted. Let's go see the kitchen, too.


Mrs. tn: The ktchen hs lot of cupbords. The
refrge.rtor nd the electrc rnge re new.

.)
I

! it
, , ,

Ron: Where's the bthroom?


Mrs. tn: Over the~e. Look, the bthroom s very clen!
And here s the wshing mchne.

11~'},
'
I
'\ .'
~'}
--r." , 1 Ui\AJ

. J4!

I
'
I
r tyo .

,
. :

lttle nrrow.

( . . )t
. :

V\
([)

Mrs. tn: Go rght n! ~~ prtment hs two bg


b~drooms, lvng room, dning room, bg
ktch~n, bthroom, nd very bg blcony.
Th~ vew s wonderful! The hllwy, however, s

ttl t

. :

(In front of the prtment, Mrs. tn opens


the door.)

lo
' C:

Ron: ~ke the bedr~oms becuse they hve bg


wndows. Aren t there ny curtns?

.
.

Mrs. tn: They're n the closet.

, U
'\'\!.
'\!..

'
w,m.

Ron: think tht my wife wlllike the prtment.


Thnk you.

L.
I

S:./.,

Mrs. tn: You 're welcome


I

uw.

. :

, !

.
:

S:,.....

w y
~. '} I'V
I
I
I
-."" . ;

. : . .

:
I

3C. VOCABULARY

. . .

house, home

prtment

prtment bulding

door

. :

.-.'\ ,/.,

UW!

--+---

32 1

wndow

lvng room

kitchen
dnng room

. - - - - ------ - - ------ - - --- - - -

Greek

--------.. --~--

------ - - -

lesson 3

-"

.........................._.

33

'

hllwy

'

'

blcony

chir

'

television

1et
, tj

computer

( 1et
)

refrigertor

kitchen sink
cupbord

bed

,
,
j
,

,

,

,

bookcse, librry

bedsheetjbedsheets
towel,

yjy;

becusejwhy?

very, much

where?

closet

::

c:

m
""
-

there is, there exists

In the vocabulary list, big is listed as ). But if you look back in


the dialogue, you probably noticed (big bedrooms),
y (big kitchen), and (big blcony).. Notice that took the forms ), ), and . This
is called adjective agreement; it's when an adjective changes form slightly
to agree with the noun that it's describing. It's very similar to the different
forms of the that you learned in Lesson 1. You'll learn all about adjective
agreement in this lesson.

Where is the letter?

npkin

.. .

rmchir

The woman who is talking .. .

curtain, drape
bathroom sink

wshing

You'll learn more about questions and question words in Lesson 4, and
about relative clauses in Lesson 14.

machine

3D.

PHRASES

roof

Do you lve in .house or n


aprtment? {fml.)

Do you live in house or n


apartment? (infml.)

floor

ceiling

new

----\-----"-- - - - - --

Greek

blnket

................................................-............................

34

c:

frame, pcture (on wll)

Be careful not to confuse the words and . The word , with an


accent, means where?The word , without an accent, means tht, which
or who, and is used to form relative clauses:

lmp

vase

m
,.....

Note

stove, rnge, ki tchen

more

,

,

smll

telephone

,
't.
,

big

tble

couch, sof

m
n

bthroom, bthtub

old

bedroom

--------- -----------------

Lesson 3

35

single{mily

'
.

It's

'
'
'

It hs two prkng

'

house.

go?d h~alth. This expression is a fitting way to say thank you for th
osty dsplayed by the host family.
e gener-

t'D

spces.

t'D

I"+

'

The courtyrd s big.

~~.
1\'
'

'
.
'
The apartment build ing has an

'
' /\
1\ ' .
'
'tt

b .
.

elevtor.

The neighborhood is very lvely.


The staircase is extremely clean.

3F. GRAMMAR

Grammar topic

't.
'
' '
~.h'l n
.c. JU\IV

.
'
'
'
y

c:
V')

ln Lesson 1f you learned


that every Greek noun h as one f t h ree genders:
masculin

e, emd~ne, or euter. You als 1eared that the defiite articles


th )
( e vary accor _g t geder:
- - - ,..._,,,,,,_.""'....''"''''''' ''"'''" ''''''''' '''.:: ~ "' ' ''~'' '' '''-'-~"'-;~ ......,... ,..:~: -~----

____

..., - "

-~-

,,...,,,,,,,,._,,,,,,,,,,,

live in two-story house.

My apartment is on the ground


jloor.
The penthouse is bigjspcious.
The mttress is not soft.
The bsement is small.

Note
The prefix - is added at the beginning of some words to augment or
.
'
enhance the meaning
of that word. So,
means extremely
clen.

3. CULTURE 1
Hospitality has played an important role in Greek households since ancient
times. The Olympian god Zeus was not only the king of the gods, but also
the protector of guests and anyone else in need of hospitality, and being
hospitable to someone need was thought to bring a special blessing to
the entire household. On the other hand, a person who betrayed someone's
hospitality, or refused to offer it, ran the risk of divine punishment.
Modern Greek households have retained this ancient obligation to offer
hospitality. The expression (welcome to our
housejhome) is widely used, as is the simple (welcome).
The informal forms of those expressions are

......

....................

---.......................... ......../
.
......

,.,.;",,..

t ,~

the television (!.)

_ _ _ _ __.- - ............. ................................................ ..

-.........................................................._
:

...............;..

--

---~-----

the apartment (n.)

..

..

_. --

........................................................................................

----~

D~'t fo~get

__j

...

~~- --

---~

that defiite articles a1s vary accrdig t number The mas


becomes
in the plural. We'lllook a;
and e~ter p1ura1s a mmet. But first, 1et's 1k at idefinite artic1es
vary
The d fi
. 1 .
( '
'fi
.
.
e nte artc
e s used to
talk about a
. spec c pers, bJect, r animal, much as i lish Th
forms of the
article are
the
th
g b . e
th t

d.
e num er one
. a yu eare Less 2, but the femiie frm ca be written withut
ts accet. The accet is used if you wat r an t be em
.

culne sngular for~

n), whch a1s

feminin~

accrdig t geder

definite

idetica1 t

-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .:: . . . . . . . . . . . -~----

frms f

phaszed.

w ....... ~-~--.. - - .............................................................................._ _. _ _ _ _,

-:- ... .........,------------- - -

~::::::~--

._______________ ___

_ .....

son (m.)

~~~;;if.J-----~--===::J
-~n-~~~~me~t (.)
.I
---

~:~~~ are1 pl~ral forms of the indefini te articles. speak about an in-

te ural,

smply

use a

oun

its

w,

just as

i Eglish.

.
'm watching child.
.
'm watching children.

2:

and .

Grammar topic

Don't be surprised if you hear these expressions again and again-when


you're first welcomed into the home, when you're offered a drink, and
when you're seated at the table for a meal. An appropriate response is
, which expresses happiness to see that the family is in

~:r~esson 2 you lea~ned that masculine plurals are formed in slightly dif-

. . ._. . . . .3'~-r-. . . . . . . . . ...---G


- r_e_ek_ _ _. . . . ._... .... . .. . ... . . . . ... . .------ _________. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._. . .

Plural of feminine nouns

alt

ways, .de~edg the endig f the masculie singular. Femiie


.1r s are sm1ar Take a 1 k a t t h e L 11wg
. examp1es ntig both the
sgu1ar ad plural edigs:
'

____ _________ ____


..

1: lndefinite articles

t'D

. The kitchen sink is made of marble.


c:
....,

..........................................................................._..

_ _________

______

,,.,...,

Lesson 3

.............................................

,,,....,_.__

3?

- .......
..,_.......
..
I (the kitchen)
~---

..., ...............~.....

..... . . ............... ........

,.

............

...

--~

'"

-~

......................

...

.......

.......... -,.--

,.,---~

-----~

...............

................................ -

(the kitchens)

...- ...........,

.. _.......................................

. . . . . . ................ . . . - --- -

-!

~ ;o(ligh;>- t~-~..,~~~-~~-~~~-=-~~=-~

(the daughters)

- ____. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. . . . . . . . . . .-.. . . . . .-...... .

r;~ (m~~t) ---- -- - --- .- --- -- -- - - ~~ ~~(I~~~s) - ---- --- - ,

.. ..............................................................,_.....................- -..

. .... . .
. .:. . . . . . . . . . . "(the
. . . . ..,. . exit)
.-.. . . . .,. ... ..-..-~,. ~-,----_-----.
. . ,. ... . . . . . . . . . .(.the
. . . . . . . .exits)
. . . . . . . . . . . - -- -----..

(the daughter) .

---:

,........ ~..--4

I (the fox) . . __.. ._. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


(the foxes)
- .... -- - - ..........____....._.....................1
As you can see, the feminine plural definite article is the same as th e masculine pltJ.ral article: . Here are the rules for forming feminine plurals:
If the singular noun ends in -, drop the

2.

If the singular noun ends in -, drop the - and add -.

- - ;;

t'D

,......

...................................................................................................... ......... -.....................~

c::

1.

- ~ ;k;;.(/ights> - -- -- - /
~~~;;, (~~~s) .. . . .. . . .. ..

""''"'"''""'""-'"'"'"'-...................~.-~........ ""''"'"'--

...................................,.,........

!..-....---~----"_

~ ~

ro

and add -.

As you can see, the neuter plural definite article is


ing the plural of neuter nouns are:

::

. The rules for form-

c::

t'D
-

1.

If the singular noun ends in -, add -.

2.

If the singular noun ends in -, drop the - and add -.

3 If the singular noun ends in -, drop the - and add -.

3 If the singular noun ends in -, drop the - and add -.

4 If the singular noun ends in - or in -, drop the - and add -.

4 If the singular noun ends in -, add -.

5 If the singular noun ends in -, add -.

noteworthy exception to these rules is the noun (grandmother),


the plural of which is (grandmothers). Another exception th~t
Youl come across is that some nouns ending in - have a more . archac
I
plural form, where they drop the ending - and add -: j
(place/s spotjs), / (decsonjs), ,j ?
(ctyjcties), j (explanatonjs), j
(solutonjs), yj y (brth/s), j
(sunsetjs), / (appettejs).

.
Vasls has two cars.

'}'.
The wndows are bg.

.
The bedrooms are clean.

Now let's look at some examples of feminine plural nouns used in sentences.

? adjective is a word that is used to describe or qualify a noun, such as


bg, old, new, interesting, or beautiful in English. In Greek adjectives are
~lace~ immediately before the noun, or between the noun they modify and

.
I

The stairs are clean.

ts artcle, and they change form to "agree" with those nouns. That means if

.
I

the ~~un is masculine and singular, the adjective will be, too. If the nou; is
femnne plural, the adjective will be, too. Take a Iook at these examples:

have two apartment buildings.

.
Helen has three aunts.

~~&-(~h;~~d ;~~)

Grammar topic 3: Plural of neuter nouns

~ ~(~;;d)

. . . .,-. .

~........

~~-;~& (~;;;d;e~}

. . . . . . . . . . . . -.. . -.. . . _.. .

- (end)

~oooC# ~>\'><'

. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..-

...............

-~-

(waier)

(ends)

'"

-'"'"""""'--'OY,V----..

y_..... . . . " " '' ' ' ' ' '' ' ' "

~ - ,,,,.,...,,,.,,,,

(waters)
. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ._,_. . . . . . . . .~----~~. -. . ~..;. . . . __,. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . !............................... ................,..,_
.........................................__.......___....._
.......- ............-~......- .........

38 1

Greek

1 1 i~~-~t;;~~~-~~;,;;-;) - - ~~-- ~~;;~i~ -

' .

_:~~-~~~(th~ good child)


---.... --- ............. . . .

_,. .,~----

c (the good-;-:ire~ 1
-

................ ............... . ......................................................... ......................................................................_ .... _,.,_

i. . . .. . . . . . . . . ,. . . .... . . . . . ... :. . . . . . . . . . ------. . . . . . . . . . . .---~--~---. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . -.. . . . . . . ._. . . . .. . . .. . ......_. . . . . '1


f

~c;{~~ ;~;;; m~---~

.
_..
( the good women)
,--;--------.., . . . . .~--------,-~>~--- ...,.,.. . . . . . .~-. . . . .,,;~'-. ,. .,~.. . . .~--. ------ . . , . . . . . . . . . . .". .-.. . . . . . _

Now let's look at the plural of neuter nouns. Take a look at these examples,
noting the endings in the singular and the plural:

G~ammar toic ,.: Using adjectives

.....__..........~
........._.................

As y~u can se~, ~he masculine singular form of the adjective given above
ends _ -. Ths s the form that you'd see in a dictionary, as it's considered
the basc form. Most Greek adjecties end in - in their basic form so we'II
focus them first. Let's start with the singular:
'

___ ......________ -- -- - - - -- -- --

...........................................................................

---------- - ------ ~ -
Lesson 3

39

----..............................................

f"'''N_ O _' _ _O_ _.......,...........,..,-

'

..

------

MASCULINE SINGULAR

~--~ ~--

----------

I true

FEMININE SINGULAR

;.,_._................................___,......................................................................
.................... ......... ...........................
I

g~~~-~--- :~-~6.

- .............................................,................. ........................................... . ................................- ........

...........................

NEUTER SINGULAR
..-'\

f...

~-"''"" ----~\.U\.J
- --~-

---------<

Voula s rch.

-~:vil~- --~~:
--

- -~ich ------- ~~~~ ---------;~~ ..

...... _____.......... . .~....- ...... .. . . ._. . . . ..__.-.,. . ,~" "' ,,. ,, _,.,. . . . . . . . .,\"""' _,.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . ---..~
1

_:~~~----

- ................_.......-...............,

--

The rooms are comfortable.

'

nice

'----------- -------'"".." """'-'""'-' '"" ~'~'~. .. . ....... ...:. . .. .. . .. .. . . -.. . . . ... . .......... . . ... . . . . . ... . ...___ _
1

The apartments are brght.

Can you see the pattern? When an adjective ends in - in the masc~l~ne
sin ular form, then the neuter form always ends in -. But the femnne
g may end - or This depends
the letter that comes before
f orm
in the masculine singular form:

..................... -- ........

_.___ -................

~~wel +-= (r~~~ "- "'-"-- -(~~~

c-

!'..... .................................................~~~~~-~~~~~PLUR;~-~..- -;;M


- IN-IN_,_E...,..P-LU_R_,_
A..,.,
L~

-- --------- ..--'"-:_........ ..............,:

....
.;..-

_ _ __

i"~;~;

~~~

.
~------'--

~-

..- - - -. . .

! rich

. .... . ......_ . . . ,....- -

- - - - -..- - -

_.................,....................................................................

'~-- ..................................

...

-- -

... ....... . . . . . . ........... ....... . . . . ....... . . . .

! nice

.. .. ..

'

NEUTER PLURAL

................................t.

[ ,_ =------ --- - ~~~~~~~ - __


c - -

-~~...,...,....;...-.. ;.,. . . .........

--"-~~ -~-------_: _ _~ (afte ~ a vowe )

Neuter

!......-----------~---

L_

And here are the plural forms of the same adjecties:

(]st-coored

_. .. ..... _~~; -~

-.

........

\. .-.-. . . . . . . . .. -

-----

I ,.,
golden

_J

...

~-- ----------~

n.-....................

--.----~;;;&---------~-;;~---- ---1~
. . .-..;._....,_.,._,___.____

--........-.-----~~---

- (after a consonant)

F
-e. -m
-:,""n-.:,-n-..e. . ...,. . . .

~. :,~= - --~~~~

~~ --- ----- j

'

I Masculine . _
L
.. . :... . . . . . . .... .... . . . . . . .... . -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . -""-.. . . .,_., . . . .-----. , . . -~1;..

- ~~&:- ---~--

---~-- :.:-.
..-...-~. . . . ... .---.-------1.i

Let' s put a\1 of that together in a table to s~~~~~i~= t~= ~~!~~~~=-:~~~g~


.......,............_................" .." ....................,......................................... ......

-j

11

!....................................................................................................................................................................-....................................-..........-.................,.-............_...._ ,.,___...

- -----

Jeavy

__, - --" ~

~~--:----,~~~~~~~~--- - -------- "~;-------~--- ~;~~~~ --------

.. _... ... . ;

................ ................... ............. .......

..

~~~=--,-=~-!~~~~:::= ----------~-c

-----.---------..- -............,..___1

. ---
....................... ~~

~;~d --- -----~

------MA~L-;;;;NGULAR ---;;;, sm;,A-R - N~;~G~~~"I

- ---------

Now let's look at the plural form s of the adjectives given abo~e. As you
can see, the plural form is simpler, because there's only one endng for the
feminine:

.--"-.. {_____

that end in - or -
In _the~r mascul~ne singular form, and the rules for agreement with these
adecties are slightly differen Take a look at these singular examples.

r~les and examples pertain to adjectives that end in - in their

~ascule singular form. There are also adjecties

. . ._........ _....... ..

----------..--- ---- - --~

~~SC"
~
~;~~s;NG~~~O~M
FEMININE sNGULA~~-- __ _ --- ----- --
1--~---~.. .,. . --~---.....,_......,.------;-- -~. ---~---~~- - ()!Lconsonant______
+ -
. . .. ()
~------~--~--..,--~ ~-- ~. . . . ... ... ..... . . .. ....... ........ ..... . . . . . . ..-.-.. . . . . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
....,..._.....__

The ab~ve

~~

.,. . ,

---------"----~-------"

/J

~an you see the rules of agreement? Here's a table summarizing the endIngs:

.)

-~ ___ , _~-- :!
.

..
--~----i

. -

- - -~--___................ . ,..__.__.... . .. . . .... _........ ... . .. . . . . . . . . .. .... . . .. .... .... . . . . . .... . .. .... . .................... .. . . ........-1

V.

Ron has nice famil.


I

' .

N?tice that _the distinction between - and - in the masculine singular


WIII determe the neuter singular. If an adjective ends in - in the mascu-

You have good children.

. - Greek- -- - --

---~t---

- - - - - - - - - - - - - ----- - ----.......... ........................


,_

---..-----------. --- ----. . ...__. . . . . ___,__. . . . . . . . . .._.. . _.... . .__. _,_,_. ,_,__,_,... . . . . . . . .t __, _,__, ..
Lesson 3

41

100. .
have red flowers n the vase.

.
d If an adjective ends in -
line singular, the neuter singular w11 en - . .
. I
in the masculine singular, the neuter singular wll end -.

s:

.
The heavy book belongs to Petros.
I

",/'}_ 1'\

~ .,V\11\V

____.__

The brownish cupboard s bg.

()

Possessives

- ------- ---

r;
~~-- (;;)

c:
....,

---------~-- (~~-;)---------------------------------------------------- -------------

....... . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- . . . ------ - - - - - - - - - - - - ------- - ~- - - --. . . . . . - - - - . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --- . . . . . . . . . . - ---- - - - - ----- ------------------------------------------------------1


(your, sg.)
(your, pl.!fml.)
--~-- - ............. ........ "---~- .... - ...............................................................................................................................................................................................1

It is

r-+

the dialogue, you heard Rn say :, (my family). The


word is a possessive. As yu ca see from this example, there are
two importat differences be.twee Greek and Eglish when it comes t
pssessives. First, i Greek, they come after the u they modify. d secd, they're usually used with defiite articles. Luckily, thugh, they have
ivariable frms! Here are all the psse ssives:

The gold dress is nice.

("'\

I ~
Grammar topic

rD

deep river.

(his/its),. (her)

L ________ ------ -..... . . - ~ __. -----~ .

(their)

- -- . . . . . . . . ------------------------M-J

.
I

Their chldren are small.

.
I

Her apartment s bright.


I
y
I .

h 1e is mre formal, so the


Notice that there are t~o ways to s~y w te.b , bUt if your room is
White House in Washngton, D.C;' s .' ' The term for light
ainted white, you'd say m: . .
..
. -

Your wife is hospitable.

which meas that its femie sgular wll ed


blue s fJ)Jx ,
(".~ /.) There are also sme clor
istead f - because f the vwe1 - fU"\UI

terms that are - adjectives:


-~-- ----1
.

~~~;a-~;~e) -~-;~~(.sky~C~~i\~-a~-\
\~{caff; brow~)----~~~vf\ (purple)

:~:;~
- -

....................,......................~~. . ............ ~.........~ .................... ........... ...............

L. . . ...""'"''"''"'"'"'"''""""'""". . . .... ."....:.."......... . . . --.......... . .......;.,"...............""'""''.-.-.................................,..........................

, ;w...- ,

d' t' es-i other words, adjec1e co1or a JeC


.
ally
there
are
a
few
ivanab
b
b
d
Fl
'
d th t have ee rrwe
tives whose frm ever chages. These are wor s a
d
into Greek: (blue), (brown), (gry), (mauve), an

(pink).

. .

y ;

Do you have brown shoes?

____________
Greek

Take a lok at the fllowing ads fr apartmets, ad see hw much yu ca


understad. Dn't wrry if you ca't uderstad every single wrd; the
translatio is there t help yu. Ca yu see examples of adjective agreement?

I
.

42

36. READING

Mrs. Katina has an orange dress.


I

example abve. Dn't wrry abut this; it's just somethig that happes
to a oun that has a stress its atepeultimate (third-to-last) syllable
when it's used befre a pssessive. But yu may come acrss it. u may
als come across pssessives used with idefinite articles, as i:
(Yesterday, saw an acquantance of mne). But the most
cmm usage f pssessives is with defiite articles .

- ---...-

u may have nticed that there are tw accets in the

..- ---...-- --..------..- -...-

.............,_........~-

u:
I

_,'\_ /

------------------------------------------------

------

----Lesson 3

-+--
j 43

, y .
. .
'
'
.

tually dug in the nineteenth century and tod


b .d

h.
'
ay
a
ge connects the two
d 1stncts w 1e also a11owing for the passa
f
b
ge oats un d erneath.

'

'\ . . .

'

'

'

'

Th~ (Peloponnese) takes its name from Pelops (or Pelopas)

. y
. '1
t, ~t '
.

rD

a kng who conquered the area in Greek mythol

Th

'

rD
r-+

(h
'
ogy.
e name translates
as t .e slnd) of (Pelops/Pelops). The re ion has

'

c:
...,

made a consderab1e contribution to Greece's history th


h h g
t
h

.
,
roug t e ages. For
t )
. h . f
1ns ance, t e ancent c1ty of (S
1
d
pr , Wlt Its amous warriors
was ocate the Pe1oponnese. The cities of ' '
(
. '
h) and ' (Epidurus)
Ancent
Cornt

.
.
.
.
'
were a so very promnent not to
menton the ancent cty of 1r (
) h

. .. .
--
ycene t e center of the Bronze
ge ycenean CIVIlizaton and the seat of Home '

d
r s ng gamemnon Toay, every corner of the Peioponnese has monuments '
d
.1
p G k d
re cs an temp es
or .ree
rama enthusiasts the summer festivai at the ancient theate;
of Ep~aurus offers Sophocles's tragedies or Aristophanes's comedies to
name ust two of the ancient Greek playwrights).
(

. }
.
'
'
' .
!

. & . .
y .
y . .
. .
.
! ; !

::

c:

1./)

rD

A~other i~portant stopover is the port city of (Najj lio or Naf


plon), whch was the first capitai of modern Greece . .1

f '
s or may a so
e cty 0
(lmt) in the south of the Peio?onne,se . or ~ taste of the worid-renowned Kalamata olives. And finall
f you re nterested in architecture the Peloponnes h
.
d

e as many appealng
an pcturesque architectural sites. For example the 11.co fi d
.
'
(

r e towers
. ystrs) or the medieval fortress walls in
(Monemvasa), are certainly worth a visit.
want to see th

REAL ESTATE

Do you wnt to rent n prtment in nice prtment building wth


wonderful view? The prtment hs good floor pln. t hs one bedroom,
nice living room, nd big dinng room. Also, t hs two bthrooms. The
kitchen hs lots of cupbords. However, the prtment building does not
hve n elevtor.

Although monuments, architecture and local specialties may ch


thin d
h h
. .
ange} one
g oes n?t- t e ~sptalty of the people. Invariably, the tourist will
be greeted wth a genune smile and a heartfeit Kr/1 1.-v- '
.
'

The penthouse prtment is n new prtment building wth big elev


tor. The prtment s not furnished, but hs refrigertor, stove, nd wsh
ing mchine. lt hs comfortble recepton res nd very big bedroom. It
hs big windows nd very big blcony with views ofAthens. The prtment
shines! The entry is clen.

VW'\U\,

Some interesting websites to expiore inciude:

[h~;:,;;~~~;~~d~~;;~~-~~7 ---- - ----~-:::. t;~ver~ fu ___


___

C. Furnished, ground-floor-level prtment. Ncely decorted. It hs clen


bthroom nd new kitchen. It hs two bedrooms nd big closet. Also, t
hs mny cupbords in the kitchen. The stirwell s well-lit. The courtyrd is
clen. The prtment lso hs two prking. spces. The prtment building
s very clen. Would you like to see it? We hve the keys!

_:::~~~:~~; . .. --- --::;.kor~~h ~~-~~~--- - .. .......... . --

..........

- - - ----"/
.
......., _______~."'"" ''""~~-~

-;----~-

EXERCISES
3.

CULTURE

Let's continue our exploration of Greece, heading west of Attica to the district of (Peloponnese). This geographical area would have
been an island if not for the s mall stretch of land, or isthmus, that connects the Peloponnese to the mainland. Located near the city of
(Cornth), this isthmus was very problematic for ancient ships, which had
to either go all the way around the Peloponnese or be wheeled on great
platforms across the isthmus to the sea on the other side. canal was even----- -4---- ------ ------1

44 !

Greek

~- Rewrite the following sentences using the appropriate indefinite article


the place _of t?e underlined definite article. If you see a plural article d 0

- - - --- - - - - - -

not replace t wth anything.


1

3.

. . 1
door.)
rs.

'

Katna opens the big

' . (Ron s lookng for hs book.)

m ?"
e partment n the prtment bulding where Ron lives is very big.)

____ _________

.............. ..................................................................

---------------e-s-son 3

---t-5- ,

4 y . (I'm looking for the gray pants.)

3 (/rest)

5 _
' .
(My rich friend will come
I

to Greece.)

(body)

I'D

5.

6. . (They're the old shoes.)

,...
I'D

6. (water)

7. ; (Do you have the books ?)

::

(light)

::

8. (bcycle)

Give the plural of each of these feminine nouns. This is a great chance to
expand your vocabulary, too!

10.

2.

(courtyard)

11.

(vase)

12.

(book)

(kitchen)

-y-y

(doorkeeper)

13 .. (night)

(grandmother)

5 (Greek woman)
6. (tap)

15.

7. (flowerpot)

16. (tree)

1 7

8. (line)

(gm)

(theater)

18. (desk)

9. (entrance)
10.

(heat, warmth)

19. (frame, pcture)

11.

(stockpot)

2.

12.

(blanket)

2 1.

(spoon)

13. (ladle)

2 2.

(bed)

14. (bedroom)

15. (monkey)

2 4

(flower)

2 5

(mother)

(summer)

3 (bus)
I

(car)

14. (office) desk)

I'D

(aftemoon)

1.

16.

(dress)

(lesson)

17. (night)
18.

D. The following list contai

two singular forms, as well:: ~~~~u ne lsnglu}ar adjectives. Give the other
I
ree ura IOrms, for each adjective.

(towel)

19. (apartment building)


I

20.

(roo.f)

(bad)

(poor)

3 (ugly)
C. Now try the same thing with neuter nouns.
1.

(notebook)

2.

(alarm clock)

_. . . . . . . . . . . . . . +. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .---.. . . -.. . _.
46 \

Greek

4 (happy)

s. (hot)

_____

.......................-..........................................................................

6 (hosptable)

----------- - - - - - - - --...

__

............................................................................... . . ................................

--.

- - - - ------............... ~- ........!............................... _

Lesson 3

47

INDEPEND.ENT CHALLENGE

7. (big)

10.

By now, you've learned how to describe an apartment, and you've also


had the cbance to read some sample ads for apartment rentals. Now
it's your turn to do something;. similar. In your language journal, write
a description of your own house or apartment, just as if you were planning to sell it or to rent it out. For inspiration, you can refer to the websites of the newspapers that were m entioned in Lesson : www.tanea.
gr/ and www.enet.gr/. Look under the heading :<
(real estate). By reading some of the ads, you'll get more practice and
see more vocabulary. Then, you can try to write your own.

11 .

(bright)

12.

13.

(young)

14.

15.

(famous}

16.

(tall}

17.

(short)

18.

(fat)

(ancient)

(funny)

(intelligent)

2 . (sad}
(coarse)

2 3

(fat)

24.

(wide}

C.

(its} . (Its courtyard is clean.)

(my) . (My house is new.)

(her) . (Her children are big.)

(their) . (Their pants are long.)

(his) . (His Jamily is small.)


(your) . (Your daughter is nicejbeautiful.)
(your, Jn

'

. (Your son is good kid.)

' _ __ (our} . (Our apartment is

48 \

.~-----------------

Greek

2.

20.

, 3 , 4 , 5

I
I
6. ,
7 ,
8. '
, 9 , 10 .

, 11. , 12. , 13. , 14. ,


15. , 16. , 17. , 18. :t , 19.
, 2 0 . , 21. , 22. , 23.
, 2 4. , 25.

. , , , , , 2 . , , , ,
I

3 , , , , , 4 ,

, , , , 5
,
,
, , , 6. , , , ,
,
I

, 7 , , , , , 8. ,

, , , ,

, ,

,
I

11. , ,

,
I

, , , , , 10.

, ,

,
I

1 2 . , , , ,
I

'

'

'

13. , , , , , 14. , , ,

, , 15 . , , , , ,
/
'
I

'

I
I
I
1 6.
, , ,
, , 1 7 . , , , ,

, 1 8 . , , , , , 19.

'

, , , 2 0. , , , ,

very clean.}

-------r--

1.

19.

8.

. . 2.
. 3
1.

sives.

.
6
7.

"""

, 2 . , 3 , 4 , 5
, 6. , 7 , 8. , 9 , 10.
, 11 . , 12. , 13. , 14.
, 15. , 16. , 17. , 18.

. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the correct posses-

2.

c:

1.

5. (long)

1.

. 4 . 5
. 6. . 7 ;

(slim}

2 2.

ANSWER

(Zast)

I'D

9. (cold)

2 1.

8. (small)

19.

I'D

- - - - - - - - - - -----

--..-

-----

-----------

------

Lesson 3

----- -------

49


22 .

21

'.

'. '., '., '.?', ~ ~,

LESSON

;&, ,

~i~~~:i~:~~~:~~:.~~~~~;;.
;::~~&,
24.
,
;
'

, ,

, , ,

1.

, 2. , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6. , 7 , 8.

Daily life

In this lesson, you'll learn how to talk about your daily routine, which
means you'll have a formal introduction to using verbs in Greek. You'll also
focus asking questions and using question words, and you'lllearn how
to count from 20 to 100. But let's get started with a vocabulary warm-up.

VOCABULARY WARM-UP
I

;j'f ;

What are you doing?/How are you


doing? (infml./fml.)

Tell me how your day starts.

.
I

;j'f

What time do you wake up?


(infml.lfml.)

wake

up very early.

take short break.

. do the housework.
.
I

y .
I

\)

...

take the bus.


go

to sleep.

around ... (when talking about


tme)

For sure!/Of course!

DIALOGUE

Ron wants to practice his Greek by asking Mrs. Katina about her daily
routine. Listen in as she tells him about a typical day..

-------.......................................- ..-

---;~--
I

- - - - - - - -------

Greek

.
I

. :

'

. ,

Ron: How do you come to the prtment buldng


men ... to your work?

;
I

,
I
I
n'
5 : I
.
, ~v,
I

Mrs. tn: work untl1o:oo, nd then tke smll


brek. Work finshes t 3:30 nd go bck
home to et my lunch. tke lttle np nd
after that do my housework.

yp)Q.

:
I

. :

; ;

'l!...

~v

Ron: Wht tme do you et supper?

I
.

'i, ,

Mrs. tn: et supper around 8:Jo, nd fter tht, tke


shower nd go to bed.

y.

I
'

Ron: Thank you for the nformaton (lt.1


inform?tons), Mrs. tn. It's (lt., They are)
very useful.

... ;
I

. : .
I
7 : .

:
I

. :

I
I
'

tC.

VOCABULARY

.
t')Q
I
.

You'll see several examples of verbs in this vocabulary list. Remember


that Greek verbs take endings that make the subject clear, so pronouns are
usually dropped. The English translations, though, include the understood
pronouns.

~;

I \)
8:3

'
I
3:3 \)

y 11.

'

. :

'

y .

Ron: Mrs. Katina, tell me, how does your day start?
What time do you wake up?
Mrs. Katina: Every morning wake up very early, around
5 :, and get up immediately. go to the
bathroom, wash, comb my hair, get dressed
fast, and m ready.
Ron: Do you eat breakfast? What do you eat?
Mrs. Katina: Of course! drink some coffee and eat slice
of bread with butter and jam, and then brush
rny teeth. Afterwards, wash the dishes, make
my bed, and leave.

52

Greek

------------

nght evenng

--------

fternoon

. .

--~---

. mornng

y .

day

----

nght

brekfast, mornng

lunch
dnner
job

work

ready (f)
every

'Q

fter,

then

untl,

up to

--

; '<

i -

~.

Ron: Wht tme do you work untl?

'

'l!...

Mrs. tn: tke the bus. hve to be t work t 7:.

little

- - -- ----------

Lesson 4

f-

~
_;::s,

QJ

'J.l

~very dy

-
~

wsh

toothbrush

toothpste

comb

tke bth.

dishes

shmpoo

clothes

shve.

lrm

clock

ry .

tke

my fce.

"'(::)

buy bred from the


the

I ~'

my hir.

i
bkery.

trin for s

stops.

sop

brush

clock, wristwtch

my teeth

ry.

wlk five

blocks.

return, go bck

y.

The subwy s fst.

Iwork

My schedule t work s good.

you work (pl.jfml.}

you come (pl.jfml.)

do

sleep

Iwke

you wke up {pl.jfml.)

up

wsh myself, get wshed

get up

spred,

'

mke

cover

the bed

it finishes

et

you et (pl./fml.)

leve

r
uyro

...

_______

comb my hir

it must ..., it ought to ..., it's


necessry tht .. .
right wy

Greek

'\,.,.1

.
I

work until 5 : in the fternoon.

wtch televson

red

I
'\,.,
I

book.

use the computer.

.
.

in the evenng.

I'm

lernng

Greek.

drink

wsh (something)

'J.l

y.

dress myself, get dressed

RASES

'<

---5~"'1"""'""""""'""

D.

shower

............................-.. - - ---"'"'"'""_,......

---~""'"'"'""'''''''''""''''''----"""""""""""'''''"""''''""''"""'-

CULTURE

Simply put, the weather in Greece is hot, with the sun shining most of
the year. This means that, in the summer, it's already very hot by 1: in
the morning. make use of the cooler hours, a typical Greek day starts
very early. The public sector and many private organizations start their day
around 7:00 in the morning, while sch.ols start at 8:. This gives workers
and students enough time to get things done before it gets too warm.
Around noon until about 3 : in the afternoon, activities come to a halt,
window shutters go down, noise stops, and many people take a midday
nap, which allows them to reenergize. t' s considered very rude to make
house calls during this midday bre.ak, except for an emergency. School is
dismissed for the day at 1 :, and shops close at 2: 3<? and reopen at 5 :.
Afterwards, thanks to the little afternoon nap, people are alert and active
well into the evening, whether doing work, enjoying extracurricular activities, or attending social gatherings. In the evening, you may see people
............................

____

__

............................................

---

............................................ ......

..

......................................

- - --......................................

- - -.....................................-

Lesson 4

55

in their neighborhood (coffeehouse) ' /


(pastry sliopjcafe), where they can enjoy good food or drinks and good
conversation (or perhaps a good debate!) .
School-aged children, the other hand, may have private lessons in foreign languages, dance, or music at this time of day. Teenagers and young
adults might spend time with their friends at the (movies), at (internet cafes), or they might hang out on the terraces of trendy (lounges). Since activities are shifted into the
evening to avoid the heat of the day, it's really not unusual to have dinner
with friends at 11 : at night, even during the week. This is especially true
in the summer.
Just as North Americans do, Greeks have three meals a day, but they take
them at different times. Breakfast, which is usually a hearty meal, is early
in the day. Lunch is around 3 :, and dinner is around 8 : at night. Dinner is a very important meal because the entire family is at home and can
sit around the table talking about the day.
As a student of Greek, you may notice that the words for meals are related
to the time of day when they're eaten. From (moming) comes
(breakfast, meal ofthe moming), from (noon) comes
(lunch, meal of noon), and from (night) comes (dnner,
meal of the night). These words also have adjectival uses-for example:
(/'m drnkng my momng coffee) or
(J'm drinkng my noontime coffee).

F.

GRAM MAR

Grammar topic

1: Present tense of - verbs

Let's look at how to use verbs in Greek. When a verb changes form to
agree with a subject, like the English speak but she speak~, this is called
a conjugation. Greek verbs have a richer conjugation than English verbs,
so pronouns are usually dropped altogether because the verb forms make
them clear. English and in many o~her languages, verbs are introduced
in their infinitive (to) form. But in Greek, verbs are introduced and listed in
dictionaries in their (y) form in the present tense, because there isn't an
infinitive form. There are actually two groups of verbs, with different sets
of endings, but we'll start with the first group, which is characterized by the
ending - in the y form. Group 1 includes the majority of Greek verbs.
Let's look at an example: ( do, make). Remember that the pronouns
are usually dropped. They're used here only to indicate the forms.

. _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -- -~ci ~~;-- (~~ . ~~ -~~-~-;~. -~~-in~) -1

~ ~ (;:d~: ~-:;;, -~oi~-~)

~ ;~-,----

............ -- ___. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- . . . . -~--- .....,

....... . . . . . . . ----- -:.................


(you do, you're doing)

(you do, you're doing)

t. . . . . . . . .--.
56

(pl.!fml.)

1
!...............-..

.- ..

_ _....,_ .._ ...._ ................. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _....

.. .... - -...-

..-

--

...............- ...... _ ...- - - - - - - ........................ ............_ _

---.. . . . _____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-..- - _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .____. . . . . . . . . . . . . ...,..-.---.. .-..... ... . . . . .


Greek

'<~

b ...:. . . ..,.J;.,_

You can notice a few important things about the present tense conjugation
~ - verbs ~rom the above example. First, this tense can be translated as
ether the smp~e present ( do) or the present continuous ( am doing).
Second, the endngs of - verbs are not stressed; instead, the penultimate
?r second-to-last, syllable is stressed. And finally, you can see that the end~
1ngs for - verbs are:
;--<"
.

~,.

....

~~----,--

. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .

..-_.....................__.........~..

-~----"

-.

. .

.........................
.,._,..~
~.

~-''''"'~ '"'

.:
L.... . ;: .. .:. . . . . ....___

. . . . . . . . . . ._. . .. . .

..

:: .. ,~~::>

......

'

'

....

,,, ,,.,,...,,,.,.,,.,......._~,,.....,.,.., """-"'~j.,;~,, . .,, '" ,,,,,,,w.._.___ VN _

.... -.,...................

.----------.................. .......

..

--------.. . . . . . . . . --------.. . . . . . . . . . . . --/


-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-..
:

i
i

_,

~--

-..................................._._..

-~.--.

'

I
;
!

-.. . . . . . . . . . . . .... __!

................ ~ .......................... ~:........~.:~......................


-

. -

-------

__

.. .~--....................................__.

"---~--.--

. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .

'

-.. . . . . . . . .... . . . .__ - -.. . . . . . . . . . . ..1

_____ ___
.................

- -.............1

The~e endings should look ve;y familiar to you. They're exactly the same
end1ngs that you learned for ( have) in Lesson 2 . Here are some ex-

ample sentences with - verbs:

'}{ .

wnt furnshed partment.

y .
You open the door.
.
Ron s lookng for n prtment.
. .

Mrs. tn knows somethng.

. ~~ .
There s nce aprtment n the prtment buldng.

'

. .
I

We thnk tht the prtment has good jloor pln.

.
You lve n Greece.
1.> .
They're (m.) washng the dshes.
..............

___

___

-................................

___

..................................

..............................

--

............-

. . . . . . . . . . .--t-.. . . . . . . .
lesson 4

/ 57

.
Anastasa

and

Chrstna

~-~~~(; ~~~;;,ys~/f)

They're (n.)

playng

. . ... ---;J~~~~~~:-s;;-- /

j ~- (you
. -wash . yourself)
. -

are wrtng.

ball.

. . ~.~~~=-~v~s:_ ~-.................-.. -- . . . . . . . . . . . . . .}

J t

Grammar topic 2: Present tense of

verbs-the passve
voce

(you (pl.lfml.) wash

yourselves}

-~~6 ;~~~~he-~ash~s hi~se;f) . .... ~ ~~ (th~y-(~~~~-;;;-

r .

If you look back at the dialogue or the vocabulary list, you'll see plety of
examples of verbs that ed i - in the form: (J go back), .~
(J drink); (J wash). ~ut you'll als tice several ,verbs that ed
- i the same frm: 'i (J wash myselj), (J get up),
(J get dressed). These verbs are examples f the passive voice.

themselves}
-~-~
'i (s.he washes herself}
'i (they (!.) wash

I .... . . --,--..... ., . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ". .~. -- __;;__ ..

'"'VW'"'

...................,

.........................,

.______

--

---

.. -

........................

l--- ,--~z::----- . . ---------- t~e~se/ve:>__

.
____ _ __ __ .I
(they (n.) wash

~~.~;;v (it washes itself)

..............,_.......................... .................

Before we g further, it's imprtant t defie exact.l~ wh~t is mea~t ~ "~he


passive vice}} i Greek. u might already be famlar wth the dstct
betwee a Eglish active vice sentece (Ron wrote the letter) ad a p.assive vice sentece (The letter was wrtten by Ron) . Greek, the pas sve
vice is used t express this kid of {{true passive}} meanig, but it's als
used t express a range of ther meaigs. t ca als, fr example, express
a reflexive (J wash myselj) r a reciprcal (we see each other). But may
verbs that are passive i frm i Greek are t passive i meaig. You
may cme acrss the term i(depoet}} t describe these verbs, and they ca
have a variety of meaigs.

,.,.,.;;;,~ ........,.....~....,........

themselves}

.................. , ....,"'"'""'"--"""""'""''""'''""''"

..--.........,.."' ,-.....,........ ... ................

- -............

.............,.............................._,.,..,,,,,......;

Just like in the active voice, there is one conjugation pattern for Group 1
verbs i the passive vice. The stress i the passive cjugatin of these
verbs is the antepeultimate, r third-t-last, syllable. That puts it the
verb stem i mst cases, except i the form.
-

......,.........

____
----- ____
-----.--.. -.. . .-.. . . . . .__- __:._?.~~~~- -~------. . ._____

_ "''--~

---~--..................

..........................,

........................

"

...............................................~

...........

. ....
....,..

"''"'"""""'"'.......

~~~-

...............

__

__.........____
/ ~
...........................

...,..

................_..

... -..........

.L....--.............................................._ _

.......

... -................................ ....

j
'

__.....

......_.....-....

- - -....................................................""'.........._ ...._ _ - ........<{

-
...................................~.....................................~..~-..,.......

-........
"'" . ,.,.,,.,,... ..._,,.,.......,.._............,""'"'''''"' " .. -.... ,_.....,.......,...,"~

To ~&~~;&~~~. - ~~------. . . . i~~-~etter is-~~-~d . ~; R~n~ (true ~-ssive) l

f. .

I .

____ _____

L ...~-...-------.......- ...~........................................-...~.--..-----.....
'
.

~~-

--:-.. . . . . . .,. . ,.., . . . . ,~~. . . . . . . . . . .,~. ~---. . . ,. . ,.,._

wash myself.

What you'll find is that many verbs have both an active form and a passive
form. S?, for example, means wash (something or someone else),
and 'i?" means wash myself. Similarly, if you're dressing a child,
yu'd say , but if yu're dressig yurself, yu}d say . Here
are sme ther similar pairs.

. ... . . ------.. . . . . . . . . !

(reflexive)

;- ~---. . . . . . -.. ---~. - - -- . _. . . . . . . l

~:~~~-- ----------.. . ~:c~:~;~;":~/mar~ each~t~:~--

r---.. . . ,.:. . . . . . . .

,.~----.....-

] '.

come. (deonent)
:
~~~ ----,.-. --. . . . . . . . . . _. ~. We fi ~ ~~;;~;~-~g ~-;(~-~~-~~~~;----~-""'"""!

we can fcus the passive cjugati f verbs i Grup


the full cjugatio f .

1.

Here's

..............................................................."

.____ -- .. .... .. ..... _____ - - ---~- ~~s~ ~~-~rse/f-~t--~i~~t.)

_____ _j

, dress somethng!someone))

I
I

p).

jj

(He dresses himselffast.}

imprtat t

PASS/VE

j (/ wash (somethinglsomeone))

keep i mid that when we speak f the passive ~ju


gatin i Greek, we're really speaking abut a frm, rather th~ a (sngle)
meaing. As yu ca see i the examples abve, there are a vaety f types
f traslatins, depeding the particular verb.
it's

..

::~~...............-~.....................................~-..- .....................,,,,,,,,,,.................................___~"''1

~~(":...............................................,..~--"-"*'''~- ......., ....., .....,......,~........, ...."""""""'"'""""""""""""""""'"'"~~......." .........................................

t'~~~ :----=~--- .-=--~~ =~vv~;kb-;; ~!~~~_=:_~:=- J


S

AC1/VE

. . . -::"-.., ..,

~ ; ~omb{s~~~~h~~g~~~;;en~)}--~-~~ ;~.

......................

1
j

. . . . --.. .I. . . . . . . . . . . .. . ._ - ,.

- -

(We comb our hair in the morning.}


I
--... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .__ I . -.. . . . . . . . . . I. . . . . . _._ --.-.. -.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ J'

: {IIIft (somethinglsomeone))

: s:oo

~'""fh>.~-~,

. (You get up ("lift yourse/f") at


5:00 in the morning.}


n.

(The apartment is for rent.)

"'"'"'"'""""'1-~"'""'"""'"')~)'"' ...........,. ,....,.............~'W~---M- ~.,....... -.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._._. . . . ..~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... . ._. . . . . . _, . .,,___............................................."". . ...........__,j

........................... ,.,.,.., ........

~n' ( rent (out)}

- .............,.......,...._.._.,_.._,_______ _,;;;.,,.. ---..-" .................... ~-----...............................~...-------............ ................................... _....___,_,,...............!

______

- - -..-.............................

58

Greel<

___

................................

_ __

..._................................... ....

.......................................-.-

-.............................

_______

..............

............................................

____

..............................,__,

-..-.. . . . . . . . . . . . ._____ ,__,.,. . . . . . . . . . . . . ._

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-----+-:---
lesson 4

59

. _ ..... ......

~~-~-~.,_,.....,....., ........."""""''' '' '' ''' ' ' ' '''''''' ' ! '' "' '''''-'""'~-

-----~-"'"""'""'' '"" '' ''" '''"''' ''' '''' ' '_..__

, (//et (somethingl
"~<",;.,_,

.... ........... . ..... . .... ' ....... - . - - ,

' (Where?)

(/ rest [myselfl for hour.)

someone) rest)'
"' ''~ '" "'' "'"

_ _ _ .... ......................

_ _ _ _ _ _ ..........

,,.,.,,..,....,

------

-.,...~

....~~......... ,....,,,.,.,

'"'-'""''""'"'"'._,,, ..,,,,.,.

--- - ,,,. _ _ _ ...

(/ shave (something/someone)) ; ".


[myselfl fast.)
-

r--"-~Y'"'"""'"._,.,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,.,,,,-_,_,_,,_,_~

_.._...,,,....,._..,,....,,, ''"""""' '..._ , .,,.,,

'
mean~ where, and when it ~egins a question, it is written and pronounced With an accent over the to distinguish it from the relative ro-

--

(/ shave

noun (that, whch).

__
__ _
~ ~~~~------. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;h~ ,;is the ~-~hroom~----. -... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . __

...,..,,,,.,,.,.,.,,..,,..,,.,.,,,

I ~

............................_.... ..

-- "'""' ' """-' '.....................,~

-~~~~V ;~~~~~~~-p~;,;

..

!f .
:

--~------....;;~-~-.... ..... . . . . .... ...._

Where is Ron-:;;a-: nf;; -------- -


~ ~~~ ~~~- ~-~~::-==-~h~;j~~~s Ron;;~~; ------

(I am registering (''writing myself"J for

the course.)

__~. . . ..,. ,. . . . . . . . .- - --- ----,. . . . . . . . -.. ..__

j ,
L!y;

__ _ _ ...............--...J

'

.. . ._

-,,

-..--........................................

Where s the letter that you are looking !


for?

'

----..................................._..

... .

-- -..-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____ -

______....................

_........

------ --..---......../

But this is not always the case. Some verbs only have passive forms, and
some verbs only have active forms. And again, keep in mind that apassive"
often refers only to the form of a particular verb, rather than its meaning.

Grammar topic 3: Questions and question .words

Lesson 1 you learned how to ask simple yes/no questions in Greek, with
the same word order but rising question intonation. You never have to
worry about using a ahelping" verb like the English dojdoesjdd. And don't
forget how question marks are written in Greek:

---.. . . . . . . . . .;~~ e ~;~~-~~:. -

~~~-~-.

._. ... . . . . . . ...-.-.

~~-~~~~-~-~~-;~e~---~~~---~~

(How?)

questio~ w~rd ~ means

how, and just as with , you should be


car~ful to wte It With an accent when it starts a question. Without an accent, means that.

The

[~_~ &W~ -------;a:d~;~u g;;;~~~;k; ----~

Of course, you may need to ask informational questions, which means that
you'll need to know how to use question words. Just like in English, question words usually come at the beginning of the question. The order of
the verb and subject (if it's expressed) will change, though, with the verb
coming after the question word, and then the subject. Let's look at question
words one at a time.

J:_&>~ ;~{~~-

---~o~d~;~~~~ke-;our ;~u~~~

\1-;~-;;~~~;~--"~---~ How i~-;~~;;~ff~~?

--

....-...................................

(What?)
2

~-t~-:-~~; . :--

What tim~-d~~~ es~on ~;~~; --~

~~)~~~-~::_-=_:_
___:_:=-_w_h~t_~-buying~ _-: ----]
;

.. What are you reading?

.................... ........ -................

i-,........--~""'""''V '''''

....................___! __.... . . . . .. ......... 6

Greek

. . . .................._______

._............................. ____.................................- -,.

~~

..............._

:::

...,.,

~-

......................

........................

_~_,........,.__,_

................. !""''"" ' ' ' '''"'"''"'.0.'"'' ''"' ............. . , ..........__..............,, .,,_, ,, , . ...... . . . .., . .

f(~-~--~~ ;
~

...................................... _,.;1

,,.,,,_, , .,,,, , ,.,,.,.,,.,.,, ......_..,... _._..,................,..........,..........,,

.
~.""""''"'"

~- , ,. ,

~............

'

Why are you p~,ay-in-g. ~~~;;. . . . . . . . . . ...

........... '!

'
'
-- ~-. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . ._. ____
'---. . , , mc.
Because 1/ke the exercise.
1 ~~--, -~. .-.. ..,. . .. ... .__ ., -.. ----- ..........__ ----.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .__ - ---.. _. ___ .
, y

Why are you ooking for big


,

f'

~- ..

--"""""

_j

to ans,wer questions, in that case meaning because. (The words and


also mean because.)

.............-

..........

._....., ..._ ,

............................

..-............ -

,,,., " ' " ' ' ' ' ' "

--!

---............................. ..."----~-......................................._...,.._,________

. ,,,., .,,.,,,,,,,~.._,, ;.,..,,, ,..-, , .........,,.~--./> "'"'""-"''


,.......J....,....,.,;;~;.;.J~ ...,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,....~..... .M.ot,-Ht;--..,...,,...,,, .,.,., ,.,,.,..._........,..........,........,...........,. ....................... ...,.,,,,,,.,.,,..,..,. , , , . , _ - - J

..................................._

__

ask why, use the question word )'t. This same word can also be used

1 <.;
L_

What do you want? (pl.lfml.)

; (Why?)

you learned that ; is the polite way to ask what? as in


pardon, what did y, say? As a question word, what is . can also be
used in the question ; (what tme?).
In Lesson

---

~~~;;;;~{; ~~~--~
'

~;
d~;
~~~
~~~;~;;;~~he;~.
----i
--------~

-- 1

apartment?
,_,,.,

--

....... ...................................

........................

___

_._..

____ _____ ___ ..........

...............................

...........................

/
.............................

................................

_
es_s_
o_
n -4-

--r,

,,...__.....,...,,,.....

~-

,.,._,......

,__,._..-~~"''''''''''''"''''''"''.........h- --"""""""----.. ...............

. .....

r~

~ .

',_,...,., ...._,_____, .,..

.. ...-.-.........................., .... .................................................................

------

\.......................... ,,................-~--"'"~"" ..............................

--"''"'"'"''""'"'""'""'"'"''"'"'""'"'"'"--"''""''''"''''''

------'

j ~J;;~~~~~~----~~~,~;;;;;;;;;
~.,."''""

-- -- - -

.,....

_ _..,

~~v''''''"''''-' ''''''"'""'""''"'''''"''''"'''''''''''''"'""'_. "'~

.. ""''"'"_."'-

1-::~:::::~: ~:~; ::,:-:~:~e~?


............. ..

..........- ... _.........

---

..~... ~-

.......

;
I

i .....

-~

. I

. .

....., . ....................... .

- --~

~-

----

--

~--

... -...........-.. ..---.....----- _.................................. ..........

...

G.

- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,- - .--.. . . . . . .. . . . .. . _. . . . . ._____.,___. __!

.:~=~~~:

"""'"''__J

__

.............................................................................................._ _ ...._......................................- - -. .-------..- ..- ....1

READING

_.,._ ......... ., .. ,,,,,,.,,,,,,." '"'.

,,.... ., ..... ,............. ,,,,, ..................,, ...

. _......................... _ _ ............................................- ...- _____........................................,_.. _. _

~ , ,

J>'}Q ~. . b

,""-'~:

__...._...................1

waiting?

!.........................................., .....-... . ................................---""'"'"""~. ......................................-........- ......-..

8 :?, , , , '}
.
~ y .
~ , ,

-~

)
How ong ( much tme
have you b een

. .. .......................----~~ ............................................................---1

; ;
How many times?
,._., ., . . ___. ,. . . . .-.. . . ,. . . . . . . -.. . . -. . . . . -.-N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . --.. . -. . . . . .,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
n-h........

~-

..

!
.

J t~-;;: &~~; ... --- ~~::;;;~~;(;~~pe) ar~-~~~k; -

!
~

, ~ ~. y
I

9:3~ ? ~ . , ,

11, ~ ~ t ~
.

Grammar topic r: Numbers 20-100

?"l ~ ~~? , y.

Now let's look at tbe numbers from 20 through . Numbers are built by
simply giving the tens place, followed by the ones place, just as in English.

..............................................

"""""1''"'"'"' ' "'""""-62

-~

\ ; .
How much does the newspaper cast?

~~~~ ;:.:~~;;:; -------;;~~;;;~~-- ~~~;~;;~~;; --------~,

. . . . .__. ._.___. . ,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-~~~

Ron's letter to his friend John, in which he describes his typical day
Greece.

How many children do you have?

..... . - . , . . . , . , _ . , _ , , , . , , ,

~ead

~ '~"'"-''"""~"-w---'"'' '~- -w-w~''""'''"''''''''''''''''''''''::,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,.,"'"'"'_

?-

N n M N M N -

...................... ..................- - - ............................-.;.

- . _.................................-.-.... -

...................._. ._..._ ----.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ---!

Who are these children?


___. . . . . ~.u ............

--~--

Greel<

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-

,. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-

--

'<

~..1.,
~

- ....... __.

6-

i'

. _,_.......................................-.. - -.............._..,.,..._........................- ......... -......-..

\~ ;

........................

.................. ....................~--""'""--................... .....

---lo""~*">'N'""'''-'..,.''.. .,AM.>~"'''''''''-''''''''''''''"' ,,,,,,,,.,,,;<t<ttrtN""'.-tHtttttHN.._.


_, -~~""""''"'''"'""'"'''~''"""""'"'""........,"'....-'"''"'....,"'"''''''''''"'"'''"''''''"''''''"'""'.,.'.."'--""'",_..,.,,..,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,.,,,,,,,

..--- ._._...,....... ~.........

?on't. forget t~at c~rtain n~mbers vary according to gender. So,


s masculne, is fe~inine, and is neuter. Other
numbe~s have just two :orms: and are
used, wth ~oth masculne and feminine nouns, and ~nd
are used with neuter nouns.

In Greek, there is only one word for both hqw much and how many. This
is a good thing, because , just like , changes according to gender and number. So there are six forms all. In the singular, is
masculine, is feminine, and is neuter. In the plural, is
masculine, is feminine, and is neuter.

'<0Wo

................................._,________._.

; (How much?/How many?)

;..

"'

; (n.)

...........

..-................................_..__"'1

~---------

5-

, ., ,. . . ., _. '""""';
I '~ -r# --8
I

1,

-- ----

Who are those women?

L . .~. . . . . . . . . . .."...........................................--.. -"""""""- .............. ........................................,.~ . . . - . . . . .,,. . . . . . . . . -

; - -.,..- ...."......."....

. ...... ....... ........ ....._..,_._ ,_.................."""""""i ....................................................

~--~~~~___

-"'""'"''''''"''''"''''''''''"'''"''''''"'"''"'''''''''''''''~

...........

--- . . . . . . . . . ...... -----___


I
/
-~------'"''""'"""""'"""""""
1 44- (m.f.)/
1-

\I ....
- "(U;
Who's that woman?
i
- ... ................., - ..- .. ~ ,.- .
- - , .._ .._... ........................-..----- ......... ......... ...............- - - - - - -...............................--1

;,.._ _..,......, ,.............. ,,,..,,...,..,...................

--""""-- ....... """...

~--.-~

Ir -- . . . . . . , --- - --- -----.. .-.. -.. . . .-.. . _.__

(Who ?)

.....

..__

3-
r _..... ...-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _. ._. .___ ---! 33.:.. (m.f.)/
(n .)

Another useful question word in Greek is , or who. This question


word actually h as six forms that vary according to gender and number.
is masculine, is feminine, and is neuter singular. In the
plural, is masculine, is feminine, and is neuter.

. . . . . ........

~.,.~..

~ ~1CO(Jt,(X (n_.) . ----"................................ __. _____

-. --- "..,

_...............................-..

-......-..

....................

....

; 2~-~ (m.)ltr (f.)l


,,

_ _ . . . . .-.. --.. . . . . .\

b;-~; -- ~h;d~ you-ive. n-~;eec~; .


n~:J ~~-~~ ~dt;x:-- . ~~~~~~- ke -;h-~ ~;;;;;at;~--

. ....... ...

2-

Because my apartment is sma/1.

..- .

-~

............... .........................--1

----.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-

--"""'"""'"""""""""""'" " " -

__

_____

................................ ..

......................................._._.
,

____

..........--..............................- - -

Lesson 4

..... . .- ...............j.---- ---

63

. ro1v ,

the prize. For winners of 01 m


wreath made from a branch ~f apnic el~ents, the official prize was an olive
1e tree sacred to z

h f
century CE, the emperor Theodosius abolished th
eus.. t e ourth
through the combined efforts of p
d C b . e Olympic.Games, but
Ierre e ou ert1n and D

las (the first president of the International m i


. emetus Vkerevived in 1896, and are known t d
h c Committee), they were
ay as t e Modern Olympic Games.
. .
Olympia is not a big city, but even so, a da won}
sanctuaries, the stadium the
. G
t be enough to VISit the
'
ympc ames Muse
d h
logical Museum whi'ch h
um, an t e Archaeo,
ouses among othe
t f
.
}
Hermes (possibly dating to the' : th
r ar acts, Praxiteles s statue of
ur
century BCE).

'kv .
1
11 :3 r y .

Good momng, John!


J'm wrting to you bout my dly life n Greece!
Life in Greece s nice; like it very much nd J'm lerning Greek fst. In the
morning, don't wke up very erly. get up round :, wsh, shve,
dress myself, comb my hr quickly, nd brush my teeth well. Then, drink
my Greek coffee out on the blcony, which hs wonderful view. When the
mlmn brings me my letters, red them, nd then write letter to my
wife. After tht, go nd buy bred from the bkery, which is five blocks from
the prtment building.

-'

..::j,

..::::3,

Also in Western Greece the port cit f 1


third Iargest city in the ~ountry S .
~ (Patra or Patras) is the
dox cathedral of Saint Andrew ~h oAme sitles ohf Inter~st include the Ortho.
e post e, t e Palais de Sp t h
.
ternational sporting events take
d h
or , w ere Ina hill, which offers panoramic v:;~fa~ t .: castle, perched high up on
Charilaos Tikoupis Bridge w .
e CI and the port. In 2004, the
as Inaugurated t
h .
to the other side of the Corinth Gulf St . ~ connects t ~ City of Patra
currently, the Iongest cable-stayed .b 'd rai~. ht 2,252 meters Iength, it is,
ge In t e world.

At 9:30 et brekfst, nd fterwrds, go to Greek clss. tke the bus for


s stops, nd fter tht, tke the subwy for one stop.

~~:s~ore information and practice with your Greek, check out these web-

At'noon, retum to my prtment, et, nd sleep little. don )t go out on


the blcony, becuse (s hot.

r. . . . . . .
:~--

At night, do the housework. wsh my clothes, wsh the dishes, nd then


go out on the blcony nd re~t. Around 11:30 t night, go to bed.
Wrmly

--

'<

w.~ ....................___~-~---...... - - - - . - . . , _ , _ -

'

Y.W'f'J

Greek.....World/lndex. html
--....
--

_____

....................- -. ...__ .. ...

... ..

....... ........ ,

m se m en n. ed

.........._........._,.,_................_,"

'"'"-""'""~...

. . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . .,. .,
-~,.

....... ...1

Life in ancient Greece

'
~

-~~-

wwW. perseus. tufts:~~~;Q,~~ ~ics;------ :

. . . .J

-----:-- -

.............................:~-.....~---". --~ _ ...... _...._ _. _ _ .


The ancent Olympc Games
www.patras.gr/en/index.asp
-- ;~-i~;~ ~
/----........ . . . . . . . . . .. ..........~
aton on Patra
-~~ .,.,_~ ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . -.. .__________. _ _ . . .. . . . . . . . . !

(lit., Mny kisses),

Ron

....

...

..................-............................., ,.,

.....~,- ..,...~._..........,,;_, ........_...........................

..._.., ......................

-........,_..........._...... .......

',_!

EXERCISES
.

CULTURE

Our exploration of Greece continues with the administrative region of


(Western Greece), a haven for both historians and archaeologists due to its long history. For instance, the region is home to the city
of (Olympi), which gave birth to the Olympic Games. History
says that the Olympic Games were originally of a religious nature, and
were held in honor of the god Zeus. When plans for the event were being
laid out, a treaty was signed stating that during the Olympic Games, all
Greek city-states would cease fighting among themselves so that athletes
could travel safely to Olympia. Often, these athletes would compete against
athletes from the very city-state with which their own city was currently
at war.
Although men were the only ones allowed to participate in the Olympic
Games, women who owned horses could enter them in-races and receive

------------ - - - - - - -............. - -

Greek

. Complete.the followin
t
h
.
h
g sen ences Wit the appropriate form of th
b
In parent eses.
e ver
. ()

beleve: thnk tht the pa/ ~b~ . ( thnkj

()
penthouse.)

3 ()
4 ()
.5

r ment s not g.)


'
,
. ( look forjsearch: You're lookngfor

--- ~ . ( open: We open the letters.)

'
- - - . ( know: They {f.) know somethng.)

() --- . ( ply: You -'re plyng ball.)

6 ()

___ . ( wsh: Elen s wshng the dshes.)

-- ----..-~------- .........................................
- - - --........................_ _ _

Lesson 4

-- - -..----

6s

. Conjugate the following verbs in the simple present tense of the passive

. . ( wsh the dishes because

voice with the subject given in parentheses.

them to be clean.)

5.

. ()
2.

wnt

()

Below are two short dialogues. U se the words from each list ( or F) to fill
in the blanks. You won't u se every word. The English translations for each
line are given to help you.

3. ()
4 . ( )
5. ( )

. , ,
I

').!.,...
J.'
:,
,
~,
, ~,
,

'

, , y, , ,

6. ()

. ()

7. ( )

; (Please tell meJ wht

time is it?)

'

'

. : .

and to form ques-

,
h . f
1
C U se the question words , , '
ti~ns that correspond to each of the answers below. (U se t e orma

(2)

; (It's

10

o'clock in the

moming. Don't you hve wtch?)


. ' . (3)

form.)

hve

. . ( wnt big cr.)


2.

. (The apartment is in Glfada.)

one. So

then

it's time Jor small brek.)

. (We're leving in n hour.)

. (s)

3 . (Greek

.
I

clss finishes t two in the fternoon.)

; (Wht time do you finish work?)

(4)

3:. (Work finishes round 3 o'clock.)


;
I

6)

. (} don't

(And then do you go back home ?)

. , (7)
. (8)

. (Yes nd do housework. But take nap

4 . ( put in one spoon of sugar.)


5. . ( wnt bred.)
6. . ( like the blue tie.)
. . ( wsh my clothes.)
7
8. . (The boat arrives at.5 :.)

at .noon to rest.)

F. , , , , , ,

, , , , , y, ,
I

9 . (This is my son.)

. ()

. . ( red the newspper.)

are

(2) ___. (My wife nd

looking for big prtment.)

11.

. ( buy ten apples every day.)

12.

. ( drink my coffee with sugar.)

.',

(3) ___ ; (Do you wnt penthouse?)


(4) ___ . ( but we wnt to have good

vew.)
I

D. Below are the answers to some questions. U se the qu~stion words "(.
and to form the corresponding questions. (Use the nformal form.)
I

. ~ .
( want big apartment because my apartment s small.)
2.

. ( open the window


becuse don't like the het.)

. (s)

; (Where do you wnt it to be?)

. . (6)
I'd like the partment to hve good floor plnJ plese.)

. (7)
. , (8)
curtans

. (In Athens.

; (Do you wnt it furnished.?)


. ( but it should hve

on the wndows.)

3 . (Alexandros is in the courtyard.)


~ 66 t____ Greek

----

...........................................

---..

- - - - - - -------------

- - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------.. -------- ---------

...................................................- - - - - - - - - ................................................................._

Lesson 4

67

' !
'

...

can't get over t!

'

be precse .. .

rt'D

r-+

...

Vl

O'Q

r-+

sB.

Yanns:

DIALOGUE

Goo~ mornng, Elen. How's your studyng


comng along?

Elen:

Listen in to Yiannis and Eleni, two students who are in the same class.

'
' J..,.
' '
'
' '
:

'

Yanns:

'

Elen:

' ' . ']'}~""'

...:\Cv 1,

nns:

.
I

:.

Elen:

Ths week s relly difficult becuse have


tutorng sessons every fternoon. By the wy
what dy s tody?

:
e
;
I
I
'). J..

y; U t .

Yiannis: Tuesday, of course. be precise, Tuesday,

Aprl 25th .

Elen: ~s means tht tomorrow we hve musc clss.

y.

lke musc but lwys Jorget to study . . .


And tht musc clssroom s so uncomfortble
nd hot!

I I
I
'
I
y ~y.

, ;
I

. ,
25 .
I

. SC. VOCABULARY

: ,

---~----- - - - - - - - - ------- - - - - -

70

Greel<

Oh boy! When wll hve tme to finsh? Hve


you figured out the mth problems? hven t
finshed nd lst week got zero. cn't get

tutorng sesson ths fternoon.

: , , !

You hve to sk? m lughng because we're


mess. hven't finshed ether, nd have

; ~
, '}

Elen: Why re you lughng?

: , ! ;

nns: , h h

overt!

)' ey
I
I

I

Yes lke bology becuse we hve good


book. But don)t lke physcs. Chemstry s
esy but mth s very hrd. Elen, do you know
tht t the end of the week we hve test n
geogrphy nd tht we hve to hnd n the
essy to the hstory techer?

' p
' y
'
: , y
.
'
''
'
.


,

It's not gong well. Ths trmester have Zot


of studyng to do nd exms re comng up.
don 't know if I'll pss the courses. thnk
mth s esy, but chemstry s relly hrd nd
: you know, don't lke bology. Do you lke
bology?

'
' .
'
'
' ';
:

.
.
,

.
;

Vl

- - - - -

school

__ .___

..-....................................................................~-..............

...~..._...._..,..

junor hgh

school

----------------------Lesso

~-;-~~
f

hgh

unversty

lesson course class

classroom

classroom

school subject

class

lecture hall

elementary school teacher (m.jf)

,
'

'
,
/

teacher, professor (m./f)

test exam

difficult

easy

'

;-;-

nterestng

'

borng

busy

'

'

hard
r-+

~,

solve

'

stop

'

university student (m.jf)

'
jrr

sk

pen

pencil

understand

eraser

Ired

notebook

study

')'L't1t

computer

w ){>

take test

'
~ \..t
'

v
1

laptop computer

:;

take notes

'

prnter

record

'

geography

biology

everything

physics

but

1m)

'

'

'

'

'

chemistry

mathematics

history

'

physical education

'

gym gymnastcs,

'

() 'i

'
y

'

(freign)

the lecture

save file

(on

computer)

all

however

however
tht

today

philosophy

'

answer

hve finished

exercise

language

you

of you to you

week
paper
schoolyard

test, exam
- - - -------

--j-----

Greek

literature

'
')'L
y

'

_,

'
'
;

'

know

'

outjsolved

like

~
~~

you hf:lve figured outjsolved

I ~

student of technological
educational institute (m.jf)

'

1 0

I ==

'

19-

(m./f/n.)

have figured

elementary or hgh school student


(m./f)

72

school

Lesson 5

.....

sD. PHRASES

Wht re you studying in school?

Wht's your fvorite subject?

~
,......

Algebr is difficult, but the techer


is helpful.

~~
'J..l y

.
I

'iJj

pssed

n y./

I

filed

.
I

I'm

tking n

online course.

t.

countries.
vacation?

hve clssmtes from mny

Wht re you doing for summer

got top grades.

The Greek educational system requires children to be in school between


.
d fifteen The first level of school is (elemenf
the ages s an

. f ll
d b three years of
.
ch
lasts
for
six
years
and
s

owe

tary sch ) , w h 1

h h h l) U
.
stud at the u (lower secondary school, u~r ~9 sc I .
. h
Iad:ation, children have the choice of enrolling ether a JCEtO (hg'
~chool, upper secondary school) for the next three years or at a :

SF. GRAMMAR

1: Days of the week, months, and seasons

. Grammar topic

Here are the .names of the days of the week, as well as a few related words.
-"'"--..............-...--
.
....... ........
-
....... _
- ...........................................
.....................................,

week
...............

sE. CULTURE 1

,-+

This emphasis education is a trend that comes from ancient times. In


classical Greece, education meant development of the student's mind and
body, and students who did not excel in both areas were not considered to
have been successful in their education. This attitude toward education is
reflected in the words used for junor high school, (lt., trainng),
and for gymnasium, (lit., training place).

shrpener.

This we.bsite hs gret mps nd


an online dictionry.

need pencil cse nd pencil

blackbord.

the test.

There isn't ny chlk for the

the test.

j./

C1'Q

Education is ver important in Greek culture. As a result, parents are willing to pay high fees for private schools as well as (prvate
tutoring schoolsjlessons), which are designed to help students with certain
school subjects or teach them a wide array of (foreign languages) . Essentially, these are private lessons. They can either take place
at home individually or in groups at a different location. So, for example,
parents who want to develop their child's English skills might either hire
an English tutor to come to their home or send their child to a school or
oganization that offers English classes after school or on weekends. In
both cases this would be considered . Naturally, there are
other types of (extracurricular activites)
as well, in which children can learn (music), (dnce), or
do (sports).

got goodjbd grde.

It is important to note that Greece still provides free public education for
alllevels of ~ducation and to all students. addition to
(public schools), (private schoqls) also exist, but they are
mostly preferred for middle-level (in other words, high s~hool) education.
Higher education is still a business run by the state rather than the private
sector.

Geometry is my fvorite subject.

([)
,-+

(technological educational institute).

,-

y 10t (technical vocational school) for two or


three years, depending on the program selected. At the end of ,
students must take the , also known as the
(national examinations), if they want to be considered for
(university study) or for a '}'t 10t

----.-. . --

...............

...-..

,_.,.,

~...........

...................................

... ~..........


r --.. . . . . "-""'""-"'' """""""'' "--- _ . . . . . . . . ..,. . ._,. ______
~

. ____,. ,,.__., _ ._. . '

the days of the week


~w.....~ ...- .................... _ .,..................., ....... . ........... , ..... ......... ,_ . ,~ ...., .... .,. ... , ... , .. , ......-

~-


"--.:.~..... ...

...

..

Monday

Tu esday

... .........................


"--.....................

...- - -

;,. '.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _. . . _.-.. --l


.

""'-'~~-----

...

----------~----

----

.... _...

~-~-........ .

..... ....... .

Wednesday
........ ... .............................

.........

1
.....

- .............

.. ......

..... ..

................................... ..........

------------.. . . . . __________,,____, . . .- . . . . . . .,. ._. . . . . . . . . . . . .--.-----'"""''""'"-''""-""___ ,_,___,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.----..-.. . . . .. ....


~- 6;~-k- ------- -----

--- -

-........."''''''-''"''''''''''"''''''-----............-...-------_,..,.

Lesson 5

75

--~--

!. . ..
~."'f'i'W>V>

.......- - .,...""._

Thursday

~----.

.............

! 11 ~

................... _.__.,._............

Friday

---~................-......-.7..-;

l,.._.,_,___~~~. . .;

'

Sunday

- ... -~>Y""'-''"~--"'"'~. . .-v............,........._,_ _~---...........-

and

oMWW._, .....,, ...

midweek (adverb)

r--N'J~"-:---~:'1.->"'-~'}'''''""_........ _ __.,... . . . ,.... ._,....,.

---..--1

,,,,.,....,.,.,.,.........,,,~._.--

.,..j

_ _ . . , ._ _

Yanns s not gong anywhere.jYanns s gong nowhere.

.~~ .

Dmtrs doesn lt have any work at all . . h

..

.. .

___..........._.._____.................... ..~.---------,-~-..--

-----~,.....

&;;~

a fu~;~ -- - - ~~s~~ - ;&~~~

L,.....-..........- ...................-..........-.....-.......-- - . . . . . . ......- ..................._.............._.. ...-...

10. .. .. . . . . . . .-

. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-

.........-

. . . . . . . .-

. . . . . . . . . . .-

......

~~l;,..-~.... -

'

.:_.
_.
..----...................................................................................J

When wll you tell me your secret? Never! .

Related to months are (the four seasons):


(autumn), (winter), (spring), and (sum-

Grammar topic 3: Demonstratives

mer).

Demonstratives are w d

~ .
Ron is not talking to his neighbor.
I

......
------------FEMININE

MASCULINE

76 1

:~!~--- .- - --..

~~---

. . . ,_. . ., .,. . ,._,_, ,. . , , ,., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..


NEUTER
. . .... . .... .. . . . . .

~~~~ ---------~- ..

~---

----

~:::~-----~: - - -:~~{~~-. . . . - ~ ~~~-- tt~--J

-~-----~--. --. -w.< .:'"..~-..........w.w---->..., .................................................................................................................................

,,............ .... .

i thqse

'
....,...... . ............., . . . . . . . . . . ._. . . . .. . ...._. . -f
.

- -.........- ....__,_____

....................................................... .......... ..

Greek

""'" "'-""''' V--~-->->.. """--~-----------..,;.,.~~--.;,;.,;..~..--...._,_


_,;________,

~
_

th~t, thes~~ a~~ ;~~::~~ t~r:~~e~:e d:rr:~:;::t~:~~ ~~~:~h:

In Lesson 2 you learned that you can negate a verb simply by putting ()
(not) right before it. When that negative is followed by a word that starts
with a vowel, the consonants , , , , , or the consonant combinations
, , , , or yc, use instead of . You don't need any kind of
ahelping" verb like the English do or does.

;nglish this,
orm to agree With the noun they're pointing to Th . c
g
I"k h
. e orms are very much
t~a~ :he regular adjec~ive forms that you learned in Lesson 3 Also, notice
b"
e words for ths and these are identica1 to the third
pronouns you learned in Lesson .
person su Ject

Grammar topic 2: More on negation

............................;.....!_

t:-
ore pastres. v wants no more pastres.

Be careful not to confuse (never) and (when).

I () ~

as no work at all.

J>.
.
Stella ~ever goes to the office.jStella doesn't ever go to the office.
.
.
Vv doesn't want any m

.-

m rs

.
Krakos didn 't take anthng./Kiriakos took nothing.

Now let's look at the months of the year, .

not any more n


)

'
'
not .
' ~ more ' (nowhere, not anywhere)'
( . hng, not anythng) These words are all used wi th ()

n .

Notice that the days of the week are capitalized in Greek, as they are in
English. Sunday, literally, the Lords day, is considered the first day of
the week, so Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday are the second
through fifth days, respectively. Friday literally means preparation, as
in preparation for the Sabbath, the literal meaning of Saturday. By the
way, the Greek words for Friday and Sunday are also very popular names
for girls: , , and are variants of the name
. , , and are variants of the name
. The masculine equivalents are and ,
respectively. However, the masculine versions are much less common than
the feminine versions of the names.

r;. ~~~fp

__ ___

. h
h
w c comes nght before the verb The oth
.
'
the verb.
.
er negatve words come after

weekday

L.~......,.......,.~~,.........,,,JW',~;rf~nnN>H1)..;;,.,.~_.~;.1YN"''~": .. ,..'MN#~'r-'NI<Nn'"""''"'"''''''"''''''''''"'' "~n...,,.,,,,,,._,. .., ., ..,_.,,.,,,,..,,.,..,,,....,_.,,.....,,....,,...... ....,..,,,,. ..... ,.,.,,.,"~....,.......,...,.,.. ......., _... ,.,.,.,._.,,,, ... ,,,,..,,..,,_......_.,,.__

--

Le(t's) w'
take (a look at the negatives (never), (not at )

---

::

weekend

understand.

......-.f

' - _, . . ;. ;. , ,.~-----

r-+

..,,,..,._
,...,..._---.2:....-~_.....,.~.-~

(JQ

Vl

.......... . -,....-~........................................-... ....................,.............. ----"" ... "'' ' ' ''' ' .......___ _.... .,_ _ .......

..

I ~1Cp
~

don

!
I

- ............-................................................- ................................... ............ ............................ ... --...-............................................................-............- ....................................

1C

r-+
...

Saturday

(I)

Vl

f..........................., .............._. .......~ .............................................................................- ......~- ............_..................................................................................................................................................................................................!

,.....

don t speak very much Greek.

"""Y._. . . . .;. ___....................--...--._._..............................................._....................................................................~_........... _... ...__ _ _ __!

... - - - - - - ...

~~-~_:____

. . ....................... "'... .....

.... ...... ................... - .. ........... ..-~


...,_,!
~~

- - - - - - - - - - - - -- -----.-....i... . -.-. . . . _____


Lesson 5

77

Demonstratives come before nouns in Greek, just ~s in ~nglish, but. they're


linked to the noun with the definite article: (ths. man),
(that book). Here are some example sentences wth demonstratives.

'
'

As you can see, there are two different y forms, and this is typical of
most Class verbs. Both are correct, but the - form is more colloquial.
Let's look at the complete conjugation of . Note that ad
have only one form.

r~~&;~~
-

'
:.

I W

These lessons are not difficult.

.
Those teachers are very friendly.

'

_..,

.....

........

.......... . . . . ........,.~;;, ,...,...., ............

""""

r-

fD
,......

O'Q

,......

---- --- --

-----~; ~~;;~;i; - ---- - - - ---- - - ---- .,


- - - --- -- - ~~-~;- -- ---

.............

V'l

;_j

........... ~............._~~ ...

'

-~

,.,......_.,_"'""'

.....,

',,..,.

')

: /

~ ~~; -----~

~~~~-

-~&~~~~~-

~~ ~;i~-- ------- -- ~~~~~;~~--------~

'

- ------------- I
L ... . . . . . . .. ---- - -- -- . - -.- ------ ----------- - - - . -- --- -- - - - - - - -- --- - - - - - ________ ]

'
' .
These shoes are narrow.

'
'

' .
That student is short.

Again, do.n't forget that the pronouns in Greek are normally dropped in
conversaton, so they are listed above only to show you the forms. Some
ther common Group 2 Class verbs include:

' y
' ' '.

This woman is intelligent.

~~/~~~&; - - - - ----- .--- - ~-~~;,;e; -

'
'
'


.
This trimester, didnt pass hstory.

~~~~J;&;
r
~
-~
~.,,
,~

::rn""''W' 'H\' ............

'

'
'
'

y.

,. '"""'"'"'

.....................

. .. . - ..

..............-. ...... ........, .... ............-.-. .... ..

J/

--
------ -

1~w;~

.....

---............................................

Grammar topic : Present tense


conjugation of Group 2 verbs
In Lesson 4 you learned the conjugation of Group 1 verbs, which end in
- in the y frm, such as (/ do, am doing). Don't forget that one
of the characteristics of Group 1 verbs is that they're stressed not the
ending, but rather on the verb stem. Group 2 verbs, ~ :he o~her hand, are
stressed the ending. Group 2 verbs are further dvded nto two subgroups, which we can call Class and Class ..These classe~ have :d ifferent
endings in the present tense in bth the actve and p assve voce . Also,
some verbs in Grup 2 can take both Class and Class endings! But don't
worry ... we'll take things slowly.

-~------------

---- .................... -

~~~-_~~~--~~ __ __
. . /

........

.. . _................................~

. . - . . . . . . . . . . ..... . ;----~-~~~-- . . . . . . . . .. _______ . . . .... . . =------ --"----- 1

~~~~~&; - - ------ - . . I stu~y

Those people are approaching fast.

---~

- --

. ...

for~et-

---~

- ---------- -----.

- - -------------

------~

--.. . . .,___,_ _ ~---------.lw.w.WMa...k. ....e.......u. .. p...................... ...........................................................................______________

j,:
-~

r ~~~~~- - - - - -- - ---- -;~~~:~~ry -----------------1


--:-------- -----,--- - --- -
. . . ask
--- - - ------- ------- ---------1
l r/ r
[---- --:--.............

~.... -----'................,..__ --~--------........ --..........................

_________________________________

/ /
-...._.........
'

...... ..........

._

.....

..

_,,........

stop

..................................................

--..... _.._...,.,., .~......... ....--..~........-...................................

.,_,.,.

..........._..,.......~..,..

---------

. .......,,.....................................
..

~,'

........

Let's see some examples of Group

-...

-<... ............,.,... ....._.............,.~----~ ..... . .. .

.................... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ... . ... ................ . . . ... ...

Class verbs used in fuiJ sentences:

,, )'
.

We dont sng modern songs wth our school chor.

) Group 2 Class

Let's start with Class . Take a lok at these examples of Class


which are, of course, stressed on the ending:
-~---:--~---------~~--------------------------~--------------------

verbs,

--- ---------------- --------

speak
- --
!i <~,6)~.,-.,. . . -.. . . ,.--- - ~--- -------------- --- ---- "'"' "' ""'"'""''""""''"-"""""""

!~ /
1C-Ot~l~~~~~-. . . . ... . . . . ,. . . . . . . . .

.. . . . . .-. . . . . . . . . ;love
- ~~-~~,--;--;~-~- - - - ---- - - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

'L~--- -. _,.......,. ,. . . . ..... .............. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

Greel<

...

.....

.........

......... ....... ............... .....

1!

------ --------- -- --------------- ;:-,:,:

................. -----------

___,

.
Those students are askng too many (questons).

t)' .
We have exams and we all stay up all.night to study.

.
They wake up early to go to school on

tme.

____ _________________ _ _ _ _ _____

..................... ................

,,,

____ __________________

...........................................

lesson 5

t-----------79

.
We try to get good grades n school.

.
You throw the ball up too high and can't reach it.

Nkos

jugation of y ( drive, I'm driving):


I

verbs. Take a look at the con-

_.......,..,.,,.....,..,-...'~'"'''"''''''''''''' ''' ''''"'-"''''"' '":o~V_;~"yoH,;

...

,
-
_

_
)
._ ,-

........, - - , - -

-____. ...___. . ... . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ....,

~ ~-~----.........,.................................................-.. ---...

1-... ..

p\>

"*'"'"'""'"""""""""""""'"'"'""'""'""'"'"""""'""""'"'""'""'""'"""'"-""""""'"""""""''~""'"--------.-~ :..i; ,~.: - - ~:;. . ._..,- ' ~ . .;;.. ._.


------------------ -

~- ~

.. ......... - - - -

-~~~~<>~

._ .. ,_ ..._ .....

1:

----

-----

'

/. In fact, Group 2 Class verbs look very similar to

Class verbs:

i--~-~--"''"''"''""''''''''"'"'"''"'"'"""""''''"""""' '''''"'''''''"''-"''""""-"<"-ffN--~>W,,.NN"."'--NHH--<~~""'~"'"-Hffff"'''<'"'""'" """'"'"'""''"''"''"""'"''""""'''"'"'""''''"'"'''""'"''"'"'"''M''""'''"---

! p

I depart, I leave
,_._.:--~---""""'-"""""''"'""''''''''''"'' ''' ' ' ' '''''' ''"' ' '"''' "''''"""'""'"'"'''''' ' ' ' ' ' '"''""'"""""'"'~"'-""''--~-

L.-.. . . . . . . . . ..............:. ............ . . .-....

\ m~

nclu~e: ( follow,), ~/ ( ask Jor look Jor), ;


p ( hold,, carry), / ( speak, talk), /
( walk), (J converse), ~ ( telephone), and /
( wear).

I wish

live

-------~--................................._..............-----..--...-........~- ..

i"":"""-'"'""'"'""--

One tiny wrinkle to keep in mind is that a few common Group 2 verbs can
~ctually be conjug~ted either as Cl~ss verbs or as Class verbs. They

Group verbs, except they're stressed on the endings, and the ending is - instead of -. Let's look at a few more examples of common
Group

know that you hate trigonometry.

You're probably wondering how to tell whether a verb belongs to Group


1 or Group 2 and if it belongs to Group 2, whether it's a Class verb or a
Class verb: ~he stress is on the verb stem, then you know it's a Group
1 v~rb and f t s the ending, then you know it's a Group 2 verb. Once
you ve ~~tten that far if there are two possible endings like /
( ask) t s a Class verb. If there is only one like { try) th
k 1

en
t s most 1 e y a Class verb.

As you can see, this verb has stressed ending-s, which is characteristic of
Group 2 verbs, but those endings are not the same as the ones for Class
verbs like

~-!

r~~ -~~- ----------~~~~~~------I

.. _ ....................................................................................- ...- ..

Ici1> ~

..

::r

y.

y ,;m

...
- - .................. ,
!' ....................
- ........
---......
__

Vl

, ' m;
,

Can you erase the blackboard?

,
rU ;~~~--- . ---------- ~--------- - - ..,
\

The teacher always tells us n advance when we have test.

Now let's look at the second class of Group


_

,...

y.

Class

~-~

OQ

J1.
You never agree wth the teacher.

Every moming we meet Rena in the schoolyard.


2

Vl

calls every Wednesday.


I

I
I
I

I

' '.

Group

r+
...

.
Kosmas doesn't talk to me anymore.

rrt>

~
-.,.-~-. :-. . -.. -r:.,,.-.-~-- --~-; ~;;;-~~/e,-..~~~~--------. ----..----1
1-~

Thi~ is a good time to pause and compare all of the active voice verb endings

you ve learned so far. As you can see, they're really not all that different:
-~~-~._..,_.,,

7t0
.
""""~'"'"'_.___..-."'
..,..

. -:;

,,
~-"''"'_.,._,.,.~-"'-"'~-

.. ,
,

. . . . -.............. ............... . ............. : .. ~ ~~"" ' "' ' ""'~""'

GROUP 2 CLASS

GROUP 1

invite

try

------..-------

'

.... ............ ...... ........~~...w~WNMN

GROUP 2 CLASS

-- . _ . . - . , .v.,..,...,....~"''"'''....,""'~''''''''''''""' ... '''''''''''''''"'''''''''''"'''''''''''"'''''''''''''''"'-'~

...."'"''''''''''''''";,;,,,,,,,,,,,,.-.....

.., ,.,. ...,

..............

- .........._.....-.............-...--

I agree

..,...,..................................~-- . . . . . . . . .--------~,---,..,;__.._---. ......................................................;...................... .................~-----'

And here are some example sentences with Group

11 y
We nvte you to the school's celebration.
I

Class verbs.

_.__

L . -....... .....-____........

\ -- - - -

...............................

80

Greek

__.

- -- -'""'""""""'"""'"'"""'"''""'"'"''"""'"'"'''''""""'"""" """

__________

...................................

- - - --

_...................................

....... ...............

- - ---- -................- ..... .................................


Lesson 5

81

sG. READING

teacher
s French woman. I'm happy at school. Oh Ifiorgot. y sch z has
.
b g gym.

,_..
~

'

~-

Read the following short essays by Alexandros, Petros, and Paraskevi, three
students writing about going to school.

i o

sH. CULTURE 2
I
I
I
:

I
I
I

'

.

.
I

I
I
I
'
~~

.


y'' t:.

Aother mythical claim to fame i the regio is ( zd )

h
th G k k
w ere
e ree ngs we~e supposed to have assembled their fleet before setting
out to fight the TroJan War. The historic Iocation of (Thermopylae), a pass ?etween the mountains and the sea, is also Iocated in Central_ Greece. It s_ famous as the site of King Leonidas of Sparta's last stand
ag~nst the Persan army. And it is important not to forget (Thebes)
a cty w_hose army ~nce beat the mighty Spartan army in ancient times:
Thebes s also the brthplace of the ancient poet Pindar, the philosopher
and aut~or Plutarch, the poet Hesiod, and the mythical figures Hercules
a~d Oedpus. Today, you can still visit some of what remains of the ancient
City.

. y .
.

1
I

.
!

'

: ri y
I

'l
I

I
I
I
I
I


. '
'

. .
) .
I

y Ct .

"' ~.

UJ\

y . .

~.<'} n

11
, ri ~
1VJ\V .

~entral Greece also includes the island of (Evia or Euboea), which

s. the secod
largest Greek islad after ' (Crete) . a
k
.
1s w rtOr a
~trag~ tidal p~eomeno that takes place at the Euripus Strait where the

Alexandros: Ever d wake up very early and go to school. like to study.


have lot of nce books. read n the hallway and then n class. like all
school subjects. Hstor s es nd like t lot. Also like geography. Mth
sn 't difficult becuse the techer is ver good and the problems are ver
esy. At the tutorng school learn English nd music.
Petros: mother wnts me to study lot because she's techer, but 1
don't want to. school is ugly nd the clssroon is small nd hot.
teacher is bd. know tht won't pass the courses. like July because we
don't hve school or homework. Ever afternoon, go to tutoring school.
like t because study music. But ever Thursdy, hve tutorng school for
French and sleep in class. don't lke school!
Paraskevi: like school becuse my techers re nice and smrt. They know
the lesson and they wnt all the kds to pass. The clssrooms re big and
bright with lot of desks. The techer hs big vse wth flowers on the
desk. It's ver ugly becuse it's red nd green. like French becuse the
.

___ .........................................._____
,

..........................................-..................

I
I
I
:

t
'
yI
'l,

. ''l . ~

::r

Let's continue our exploration of Greece with th d t

mns ratve regon


e
a
to th e orth of Attica called (Central c
)
t
reece . ImposIg eature of the regio is (Mt. Parnassus), at 8,6 ft
(z,457 m); on wh?se slop~s yo~ can find the famous archaeological site
of (Delph). In ance~t tmes, it was believed that Delphi was the
cen_ter of the earth, and to ths day, a visitor can see the Omphalos Stone
whch marks the spot as the "navel" of the world ( is the Greek
word for ~avel). The temple at Delphi was dedicated to the god Apollo and
w~s very m~ortant to the ancient Greeks, who visited to consult with Pytha/ the god s oracle, major decisios they had to make.

. .
. .
. y
. y
mc .
y .

,_..


' ~
n

- - - - -

sland s connected to the mainland by a bridge. In this area

the onlooke
c~n see the di~ection of the flow of water change from north to south an~
~ce versa. Th1s happens every six hours. Scietists have tried for cetu
nes to explai this atural pheomeo, ad there are still coflictig accouts.

Some websites of iterest iclude:


..... .......

...........

...._ .....- ............_

--.. ............

.... ..

::,~~:~~;:~landscapes.com/gree~e/ --~~~~r~~n~~;~h~~o;;;;-;;el~hi . . . . - i

;~~~-~i~~-~-d e~~-~~~~-~~ . . . . .,. -~----,~-~---...... . . . . . . . .............. --.. .-~-"'.....~. . . . .- - . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . .................~-;


..........,.....

..

~"""""".:...~............ ~--~:: .. :........................_

...________ ,...~-

nformation on Evia
.....

-----

...................................................................

-----

- ---........- ..- .....

J.
-

---

____.....-...... ... ... . ...... .....___ -..--....-..................... _ _ _ _'""'"'""1'"""""'""""'"-..


Lesson 5

83

3.
. (Konstntina and Lefters won't go anywhere on
I

EXERCISES

. Complete the following sentences using the name of the day, month, or
season that is most appropriate.
1

2 .

3 ,

t .

''

.
.
5
6. :
, _ ____,, _ __ _ __
I

r-+

4 ___ ! ( don't wnt nything!)

V\

5 ___ . ( don't like school at all.)

8.

1.

. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate demonstrative,


as given in the translation.

' '.

. . (The girl tht sits beside you is very nice. Those [girlsj, however, who sit across from you are not
I

. (Petros

, . (J'm telling u that don't know anthing.)

_ __ (I)

I
I

.

(Helen answers

our

) .

(We love chess.)

() . ( brother

4 ___ () . ( neighbor wkes up earl.)


5

() . ( cousin talks ll

d.)

nd Nikos look t those mgzines every dy.)

. '
. ; (We live
3
in this partment building. Where do you live ?)

6.
() .
( friends leve earl to get there on tme.)

. ___ . (These men are old.)


4
.
. (These women, however, are young.)
5
6. .
. (Alice's children re old. These [children] re young.)

7 ~
()
. (Every fternoon, r nd meet Klliop
n front of her house.)

7
8. ,
mo
(This book is expensive, but tht [one] is even more expensive.)

C. Use the negation words , ,


to negate the following sentences.

'

because she got top grdes n school.)

9
lot.)

_ __ . (Vasilis doesn't do nything


t

() . (d m head hurts
() . (The mother kisses her oung

'

child.)
() . (J sing lot of songs.)

11.

pstries.)

()
. ( ounger sister jumps up nd down with j

... ::J..>, , and

. (Anstsi doesn't wnt any more

8.

10.

84

:::

! ( don't under-

3
nd swim in the se.)

. ' ___ . (We hve been to those islnds.)

--""'-"""""

question.)
2.

so nice.)
.

V\

O'Q

D. Complete the following sentences using the correct conjugation of the


Group 2 verbs in parentheses.

7 , , -----'' .

this

7 _ __ . (J will never come to our house.)

. , _ __

1.

/'1)

r-+
...

stand physics at all!)

, .
1

vacaton

r-

year.)

6.

_ __

12.


()
. (The prents wve good-be to ther chidren who leve for

school.)

school.)

_____

----- - - - - - - - -.............................

Greek

...._................................---

______

....- ........-

......

- - - -..----.. - - - - - - ---"--.. - - - - - -...-

....... ,..._ ..,_ - - - - - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . .

...................... ]1 ......- - - - - -

Lesson 5

85

13. ,

() . , . (Marna you

ANSWER

talk too much. Please stop.)


14.

. 1. , 2. 3

4
, 5
6. , , , , 7

() . . (The

()

1.

happy.)

() . (We all want

to win the competiton.)

18.
() :
. (Loukas isnlt movng ahead quckly and we'll miss the plane.)

19.
20.

() ! (But you hate everyone!)

D.

~,

. ~,

C.

16. _ __ () . (We live in big city.)

8.

. (The customers inform the store owner that they arenlt

17.

bus leaves n an hour:. Hurry up.)


15.

I ~

2.

2.,

,
2. ,

11.

;,

6.

=r

'

JCtov;JCtv!vf

8 /
11

9
j, 12. /'

j1

10 /

/, 3

, 1 ;~,
I

Vl

, 3 , 4. , 5. 6 I
1
' . , 7 ,

. . <;;~,
.

,....

7 , 8.

I CIQ

v-

~ , 1. ~, 15. ?, 6. , 17 m'
1 .

j, 19. ,

20.

- () ; (What kind of car do you drve?)

INDEPENDENT CHALLENGE
t's

time to practice those verbs some more! Below are two lists of
Group 2 verbs, first from Class and then from Class . Pick a few
verbs that you find useful or interesting, and try to write out the other
forms. Then, use the verbs to make a few sentences, or perhaps practice writing a short dialogue with them. See if you can use any of
them to talk about your experiences in school, :sing the dialogue: as
inspiration.
Class : j ( hold carry), j ( laugh),
j ( return), j ( am thrstj), j

( treat I buy drnk), / ( count), / (


depart set ofj), / ( stay up all night), ;
( jly), j (1 jump), (Dj ( .am in pain), ;
I
I
I
I
( sell), ; ( prefer), j
( encounter, meet), j ( pull), r/u
( sng), j ( kiss), jb ( ht), ;
1

prefer).

Class : ( demand), ( wonder), ( notify,

lnform tp ofj), ( delay) , ( resde), y


( function) , ( hate), ( observe), ( n
form), ( warn).

................... j.........................._ _ __................................................

86

Greek

- - -...............................

_______

......................

_____ ___________

..

..

___

--......... .........
-

.........................._,

_____

~.-- ........................

...

. ............................- . . . ................................

Lesson 5

--..................11 ........ _ .._ . _

87

LESSON

Let's go shopping!
Most of us like shopping ... for bargains, that is! And when we visit a new
market, the thrill is even greater. After this lesson, you'll enjoy shopping in
Greece even more, because you'll have learned some very useful constructions, such as the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives, common irregular verbs, and quantity expressions. You'll also learn the passive
conjugation of Group 2 verbs, so this lesson is full of important material.
Are you ready to begin?

6.

VOCABULARY WARM-UP

L .
I

Let's go shopping.

1t.
I

There are sales today.

You promsed me.

don't feellike

!
I

it!

r!

Don't worry!

I
I

:
~ '
.

You know how to haggle well.

6.

want your opinion.

DIALOGUE

Thanasis and Anna are brother and sister. Today, they're going shopping
for a special gift. Read the dialogue to see how their shopping spree goes.

'

, L
I

; .

: , a:JJ..1x '}\ L
I

: y; ~ ? .
I

10
Q y
y . ;

: '(), ~ , !:f p.
, : .
.

: y} .
,

I
I

. ,
y.
I

'
'
.

: , ':

: ;
I

, , ;

: ,
I

: , , ')Q

y.

: !

y .

: ! ...
;

: ~ ~ ~
. ;

: 1 y .
;
( Q .)

:
I

: . .
Anna: Thanass come n are you ready to go
shoppng? You know that want your opnon.

Thanass: nn m sorry but tody's no good. (lt. It


can 't happen tody.)
Anna: But why? You promsed me. Besdes there are
sles tody nd we have to buy Mom's gift for
her nme dy. Dd youforget bout that?

Thnass: ddn't forget bout tht but don't feel


like t. Don't worry we'll go tomorrow.

I
)
(
.

: .

Anna: I'm not fooled (that) esly. I'm sure tht


tomoow you'll tell me you don't feellke t
gn. S get up nd drop (lt. don't find) the
excuses. need you to hggle.

Thnss: rght but I'm tred nd hlf wke. (lt.1 I'm


sleepng stndng.)

(Lter, t the clothng store.)

Ann: Whch blouse s the ncest the green one the


prnt or the brown one?

Thanss: The green one s the ncest but none of these


re

Mom's colors.

Ann: Yes know, but wnt to buy few thngs for


me too.

Thanss: Here we go gn ! Most thngs you buy are


lwys for you.
Ann: Hmm! ... Whch skrt mtches the green
blouse?

: , .

n' : !
1

' 1

. I ' '
. }',
..*.
I

(Lter, t the regster.)

Anna: Yes thnk you.

__

.........- -----.......L
' - - - - --...--~ "''' ...... ,,__, - - - " " " " " " ' ' ' ' - - -"'""""""""""""""'"""""""'

Greek

Ann: There's nothng for Mom here. Dd you forget


tht she sked for pr of slppers?

Slesmn: Dd you find wht you were Zookng for?

* ..:
go l

Thnss: The black one mtches. And t's not too


expensve. Hve you found nythng for Mom?

.......................

-_..........................

. . . . . . . . . . - -.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ____. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._.,_ __,,,. . . . . . . . -.. . ._-..!-,


lesson 6

~ ~-

Salesman: Good! (lit., Beautiful, then!) The skirt costs


thirtyfve euros and the blouse costs twentyfive euros. That all comes to sixty euros. The
price includes sales tax. Will you pay cash or
by credit card?

bookstore

.
magazne


:1
I

shoe store

6C. vocABULARY
department store

m y

it costs

photography studio

pay

Jurniture store

cash

flower shop

credit card

'\,..
: ~::

debit card

'

'

digtal

()

cell phone

tax

p ( )/

souvenir(s)

pants

:;

belt

How much do they cost?

dress

y
;

sweater

Where can buy map of the city?


Where can buy batteries?

Where can buy toothpaste,


deodorant, and shampoo?

:, :

coat

'

'

blazer

hat

it matches
glove

- - -..................................

Greek

jacket, cardigan

............................

__

camera

receipt

electronics store

6D. PHRASES

" 92 1

glassware shop

blouse

_,___

shirt

prce

clothing store

c
I

post office

'

traveler's check

sneakers, tennis shoes

shoejs

stamp

::)

sockjs

'

O'Q

::r

newspaper

Vl

O'Q

'

Salesman: Thank you, and here's your receipt.

-+

Vl

Anna: J'll pay by debit card.

r--

t'D

____

.....- ....

-..- -- -

___

- - - - - - " " " " " " " " " ' '

Does this dress lpok good on me?

'
I
I
: '
.

always

'
I
I
I

.

____

..__, ____, ,..

_____

,_....................._,

buy expensive clothes.

a.lways buy inexpensive clothes.

____

____ _

..........................,

____

_..
Lesson 6

.. .., .................

--

.., .......................

93

Do you have anything larger/


smaller?

' y'~/
'

'

' '
' ' .
'

'
' .
'

What sizes do you have?

That's too expensive!

Do you accept traveler}s checks?

ry ;

Gram~ar. topic

of

The prices are reasonable.

adJectves

::r

-.. . .M
. . . .A
. .S
. . .C
. .U
. . .L
. . 1. .N
...E
.. .....

k
. . .- ..... . . ..............~...
~----

We accept cash only.

--------

.... ,._

""'"'

;:]

C1Q

___

- - -.. --- .......................................

....,............ .....................

__! I I

ISuperlative (sg.)
1

- -.... . ...

EUTER

I
~ 'roj;;:J~-- --------. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

_. .--........................................__.....

1~~m pa rative (sg .)

'

~ord ~~ore) ~ef~re

Make an offer.

'

'

V\

English, you
. form
. the comparative of an ad]' ective with -er or more, an d
t h e super1ative
. with -est or most In Greek, th ere are two ways of forming
tfih e comparative
and. super1ative' both of wh.ICh are common1 used The
.
.
rst option IS the simp1er of the two, because it on1y invo1ves usin. the
the adjective, which, of course, will still agreegwith
t e n~un It s modifying. The comparative uses mo on its own, and the sup:rl~tiv~ u~-~ ~ along with the appropriate definite article. Let's see what
t at s e w~th the adjective (pretty). The comparative forms
transla~-~ ~~~ett~r, and the superlative forms translate as prettest.

'

1: The comparative and superlative

C1Q

We accept all credit cards.


.

t'D

r-+
...

V\

Do you have anything less


expensive?

'
' ;
'

r-

6f. GRAMMAR

{;;:~-- -;~;pk,

--~~~---- j

comp;;~;iv~
~f.)__c:__-'-;~~~~
--;~

--~~~-,J
, ..~. ---.. .-.,. . . . . . . . . . . . --~
. . . . .-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

mo

6. CULTURE 1
Although Greeks usually pay by cash, credit cards have gradually become
more and more popular. They are mostly used for buying clothes and appliances rather than for paying restaurant bills and other similar transactions.
Greece, shops are typically open Monday to Friday from 9 : a.m. to
2:30p.m. On Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, they are often also open
from s:oo p.m. until8:3o p.m. On Saturdays, shops generally stay open until3:oo p.m., and on Sundays they are closed. -: (shopping
' (pharmamails), however, may stay open all day, as may some
cies), ' (tourist shops), and (kiosks).

When shopping for food, many Greeks go to


(supermarkets), but often complete their purchases at the
(butcher shop) and the (fish market). They might also buy
their vegetables fresh from the local (street market). Usually
these markets are set up once or twice a week, depending the area. On
the designated day or days, vendors bring their fresh produce, set up their
stands, and sell. At the end of the day, everything is packed up and moved

t
1

---

Superctve(pJ.)

--.-~:-~~ ~-~~;~

~--,-. . . . . . . . . . . . .,. ."-----.... . .

..

'

............ ........ ._........ ... ...,.......... - - . -................


~

!'

. ..................... ... ,..,.,..._..........~- ..........................._~-~- .............!

~-

You can make comparisons between two things with (than).



'
' ' mo

The green blouse s pretter than the blue blouse.


The pants (sg.

n Greek!) are more expensve than the ;hrt.

w ...

Your toys are the most expensve ...


~
' 0
' ' ...
Ths

couch s the most comJrtable ...

to another neighborhood.
The
second

.
. way to f orm comparatives
and superlatives invo1ves the endngs, which are added onto the adjective.
~:

i Plu.ral
---

_____............-..--

-9-4---

Greek -

__

____ _ ___

.......- .....................,_ .

.... .....................,.,_.

... ....................

MAS~~ Ll ~~

Si ngu .;.,. . . . ..- . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ...._. . . .

f. .., ... __ .....-

.............. ..

- ----

.................

..

.,~-~~---

______

- .

_ __

......----

-._..

-.-....................................__

..

- -- .- ---~~-~~-~............... _... -:

. . . . ..- . .. .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .,... . . . . . . . . _,_............... ......... . . . . . .. ... .

~-

-~

_....

~~~;~;~~

-.. . . -

---:;
----

___

...-....... -~... .... .....................................................,..

- - ............................................

.....................................,

~-----
-

----1

~ -~

.-. . . .. . -

-.... .................................

..._,._ ....

,..

_____

.....,..............................

,_..............

-- . . ... . . . .1

..

....,_.. "'"'-'"''''" ...... ~

_______

_._

..........\...........

Lesson 6

95

Simply start with the basic masculine singular form, which as you know
ends in - or -, drop the final -7 and then add the appropriate ending
from the table abve. Let's see that with (pretty). Again, the comparative frms mean prettier, and the superlative forms mean prettiest.
~....,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,...._,,_.....,, ,,..,,,~---.. -- ... ~,," '" '"'''"'"""'-'-"".---~ ""' '''' ' '" '' ''' ' ' '' '"""''' ' "'' ''' ' '''''" ' ,.~-----.--"''' "''''''''"''''''.,....'.,.. _

- - --- - -- . ...

r-

MASCULINE

Superlative (sg.)

I
i

t~o.M-V'"'''

~-~~;~~~--~-----~. ... . ......~~-~ - ~~- ~-~~~-~. ~. . . . . _


. ------- . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . --

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._ ___

=~~- _

'''""-'j

(good)

NEUTER

. . . ,. . ... . . . . --- - - ________. . . . . . . . .

. . .- -- -----.. - . . ... . . . . . . . . . ,

.............................................,~-----~....,......_.''''"'''"'''''''''''''''''''"'~~....,.,..,.---.... ..

i Comparative (sg.)

FEMININE

_ _ _ .._....,..,,

Of curse, a few cmmn ad t


h

.
h
d
b
b
Jec
Ies
ave
some
Irregularities
just like the
ng lS 900 - etter- est.
'

-~-

,,,,,, , ., (,;;,o.-N('"H'ffffi(""'~"-'ff~-Nn.NN"1''' ''''''''''''"'''''''''' '' ''''''' '"'~'.,.,"'""'~,.-.-,----~...... ,,,,,,,,..,,,.,,,,_,,,,.--

. . ..... .1

/ !1;<iite)

comparative (.)

. . 1
. . . . . . ......... . -- -. . .. . . . . . . . ... . . . . ................ . . . . . . . --~.. ... . . . . . . .- -, _,."'. . . . . . . . . . . . . --""""-~-.__. . . .,,,:. . . . .. . . . . . . . . ..<0~---. . . ....__________. . . . . . . . .... . . . . .. .J
Superlative (/.)

.g:t .
I

___. . . -..---

. ~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .____

.._... . . . ... . . ... . . . . . . . . .

. ._... . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . ____.
~

_ . '

. . .--........... ......._____

............__................................

--. ~--------

___

MASCULINE

,.,.....................

----- ....._..,_..._...............-............. ..
.-.

~ ,

....1<'_

r------ -"

I Comparative (/.)
----~.....

. .. . . . . .:. . . . . . .

-.- -'"'"""'"'''"'''''" _ _,__ ....._ . . , ,

""'"""<'

~,----------

(/.)
rLw,su.....perlative
. . . . . ................ ,,,,,,.._____.

. . . . . . . . . ,. . . . . . .-. .-..

.:"'"

'

'""-MMN"'_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _" ''"''""I

:::L-N...._._,_..."..,~ w-NHn~---..;,_.,.~...:_;,,.;...v

...

~~bi~----- ~~~-

2:

Grammar topic

"""""""~~....,.,.,.,... ..... ....,.....::...,............................................_..

---

_________

Let's see sme example seteces. Agai, otice the use of (than).

.. . . . -~--~~---~

....

1\

.!

most intelligent daughter.


I

"~

---~-

J
-- . . . . . . . . . . . . -

.... . .... ' .....


-~

---- ______ --

cry

'

./
~-- ---; --~ - /

----

. . .~---~~--~
. . . . -.... . . . . . . . .-..--------~,;...... ~. . -.. -. . ;

~()

-~ -~'- ~

_ ~~(~

talking to our oungest son.

--.. . ....... ...~. ---"-~ . .____ .

.... .

burn

.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

--;-w~--.

..::~~
~

_
"""'_,._,._,-~-,........................----.......,~ . . . . .
f. ()
()
----~, ~.-

t .
m

. ---- . . . . . . . . -.. . ... . . . . . . . . .1

-~

~-_:~ ~~------- -~

_.................................... ..............

. ,-~- ~ . . . . ... . . . . .. . . .,. ---- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __,_

. : ----.. . . . . . ~~

I~;;.:: . ...~;.~-~----""---- . ..... . . . .

' ''""''""'. . . . ............

'i,

Your ring is more expensve than mine.


s our

eat

i--%-._.

Maria

..,

" " """

go

.
I

-!

...... ..... ....................................................... .. ....................

,.

---:----... ......... ..... ............:.._......_..

--~f~

...................... .......... .

---......... ............... ............ ..

s~

-----

Common irregular verbs

..........._..,....................... ..............._,, ......

-.

Sme Greek verbs have ir


~
.
them i the
. regu ar rms the preset tese, thers have
~ast, ad stii thers have irregularities in different frms
tenses.bSo we come back t the tpic throughut the course as you lea:
m re a ut verbs Sice yu'v
d h
. .
e eare t e preset tese so far, we'll start
b k.
~ ng at s cmm verbs that have irregular forms i the
r ,( hear, lsten to), (/ say), (/ go, also '} ) pre:ent:
eat), (/ burn), and (/ cy). Here are their forms
' (/

Notice that i bth the cmparative ad superlative forms, - is added,


ad the stress falls the atepeultimate syllable (the third syllable frm
the ed f the adjective). That is, it always falls the vwel right befre

::J

CIQ

Your courtard s the bggest n the neghborhood.

"''"'''''''""-----1

. : . . . . . . . . . . . . , :-.--:----.. . . . . . . . . . . . ,

_,.,,_,._..,,.,,,.,.,..,,..,.,.,.,,.,,,,_,,,

----~-

,_.,._,._.,'/\._.,,, '" :::::: ,

::r

y y ')'.

___ _

..

''J r
~
.
1
aptop zs better than yours.

NEUTER

~~;~~;;----;V~~----j
:;. -''---.,..:..~
')

~ '

...__...__...._ _. ............. . . -- : .......................... -~...........................................~....." .... .

--~-

-:,...........,.. , .. ........;;.. .....

~~~~ -- -~;;/ ----)

.. ............ .....
_ _.
................................

............................. ...

]~:~ ..... ,.-.~,......ww-~...........~"';..,.....,. . . . ...:,.....,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"HYoVN<W_N, _ _NMJ<NV"'''"'''-""'' '"''''''''"'''''"''''"'""''.''.'"-,.,.""'~'W."oo-.--- - - -,

!Superlative (sg.)

FEMININE

1Comparative (sg.)

~-

........................................________

Now, let's see the cmparative ad superlative frms f the adjective


(deep), which eds i -. The cmparative frms mean deeper, ad the su~
perlative forms mea deepest.
-

~- - - - ---.......... .

--:""::'-~-.-~:-~ ~'~--. - __

''''"''''" "''' '"""'' ' '''"''"''""---~... --._.,,~'

' "'M' '~\,"'JoeM"'" ''-'''\1'-'""'

SUPERLAv

CIQ

~~;~ ~~----&~~~- ------ -1

~!Co('bad) .

-............................... . . . . .!

. . .,.,.. . . . .

() -- ()-~

- ---..

--

--""... ..................-.. .............._........,._

Why don't u eat our food?

These rooms are narrower than the others.

'

I
l
I
?
,:>;

Do u lsten to old songs?


96-r---G-re_e_k - . . . . . . . . .__________. ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . .______. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . _ __

.............................

______ _

----

_______

--........................................................

____

..............................................

---.... . . . . . . . ... . . . . ._ _ _ _.................._....___

Lesson 6

97

~~

wnt

t.

We're going to school.

'

~.

'

The bby cries ll the time.


.

They're telling lies!

(ll), (very little, very few), (enough),


(enough, quite few), and '}' (few, little) make it possible to
speak about quantities without using numbers or precise amounts. They're
very useful, but they can be a little tricky.lf you look at their endings, you'll
see that all of them, with the exception of , end in -, which is the
typical masculine ending. As you can guess, this means that they will agree
in gender and number with the nouns that they quantify. , now the typical endings will be familiar to you, but let's see them on (ll) as an
example.
. . . . . . - --_,_,_.____. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . ... . . . . .-.... . .,----.. . . . . . . . . . . . ..._. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ". . . -...... . . . - . -. . . . . _. . . ._.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.;,

MASCULINE

0-

0 6~ 0 ......-.--~0--

___

;......,....._

.............................................

..,..,.

-.. - --"""' --~.....

FEMININE

--',
--

............ ....... .

..........

_____,..

1Ct (

----

NEUTER

.........

,_,

-- O F=~~-~-~E

':J.

_........

~~-~--

The forms of (much, many) are just a bit differ~nt.


................ -'"" _
......... --" ...... ......................................................................-- ___ ~- --- .
~.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MASCULINE
___________ ___

~-Sio~;u~r

,_

_....................

........................--..-

__......,

~~~=~-01

--

..

.....,.

- ----

- ..

.. - ..-'''""

....,.,_ _....

- - - - . . . . . . . . . . , . - ..,,,, _,,,,_,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,-

_..Nif-<N........,. ...

use these quantity expressions, simply put them before the noun that
they quantify, with which they will, of course, agree. Keep in mind that

(all) requires the article between it and the noun.

Sometimes get angry esily.

:~

Group 2 verbs are divided into two subclasses in the active voice and both
of those ~ubclas~es have the stress the ending. As you !earned' in Lesson
s, C:~j ( love) is an example of a Class verb, and y (
dr~e) s ~ example of a Class verb. ( review the two different active
COJugaton patterns, turn back to Lesson 5.) The same distinction between
two subclasses carries over into the passive.

..

r. .

~;~~ -~ -~~55~~~ .....

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . - ~~

..

!'

~~~~ (. ~~ ;~v~d)

~ -~ ~-~--

~ rou are aved)


'

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .!

-~

--~

CLASS PASSIVE
i
---- ---............:.............................. . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . ~--~-----,. . . . . ~. . . . . . . .,. . . . . ... . .. . .. ,

rN--~--,.,. . . . ..:. . . . . , ,. . . . . . . . . . . ._
. . -

--.- ~y
(/
I
'}'~ ;~u~re -~,lv~nJ- ----..---..-.-~
am driven)

,--0----0 00_.. --0- -.... ............ ..- --, 0--- ....

!00 ~'l:~o (~:~e/~t is lo~edJ__o


')Wn (we are oved)
. -.. _ """"""/.'. . :

_ .. .... 000___ 0!

')'. (helshelit is driven)

--~~~(~~~;~~~;~~n) --j
0

~~~(yo~ a'-~--~ove~ _ = ~~~{y~~~~-~;;~~~) - --


-

is

i
..,......

;~~-
i
\ . ____ __~--00_....0 .. ....... _____ _........... . . . . . . . . . ....0 - _ . _ .. _...... 0- ----]
i Plural
~
o'JJ..l:.
'
-~
~.,
~.._..,,.n. ,. . . . . . ,.' "' ' ' ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,V~~
-

pckge.

You've learned that Greek verbs belong to two different groups dependi
on where the stress falls. For example,
Jook at) has
stress
t~e verb stem, so it belong; to Group 1. In Lesson 4 you learned both the actve and the passive (, am looked at/I Zook at myself) forms of
Gr.oup 1 verbs. ~ememb.er that the passive conjugation can mean the same
thng as a~ ~nglsh ~~ssve, as in am looked at, but it can also have several
other meanngs, so t s best to think of the passive in Greek as a form with
a whole range of meanings.

- -- --- - - ~

0
- --

---- . -- ..... .................

....

:::::s
O'Q

Grammar topic : Group 2 verbs in the passive

_ ....................................................................... ..........._...... ____..._. .........-......... ......--- --~--,.-......,.................................::.................................................,-.~-- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

: Plural

.
''
Some people are helpful.

(more) ,

Si~~~~;;o--

' .
We hve enough problems.

ln the dialogue, Anna says


she wants to buy y some

things). Words like p1C (some), (much, many),

.
wnt very little milk in my coffee.

Grammar. topic 3: Quantity expressions

': .
did enough work today.

O'Q

' .
lost the whole (lit., ll the)

more cheese.

' .
lost ll the keys.

u .
Your cr burns lot of fuel.

rt'D
r-+

-.v w - -'"":""""""""'"""""'"""'"""""'""""

L) (they are oved)


. ---...,,..~........

~&~~~ (th~y ~re d-riv~~)


------

..................... ..... ... ........~ ... , ........... , . . , . , , ,.,., ............,.....~...~.Now..

..............................................................,. ..............,.,..

...................._..,....""....

,~..._,

"''~' """"'"~"'~'""''"''""''

.......................

/.1 .

buy lot of skirts.

- -- - - - -

... ..............................................

._.____......................................- - - - - -.........................................--..- - - -....--................................

_............................\...................................

98

....

Greek

Lesson 6

99

Note that sometimes in less formal situations, Class verbs will have the
same conjugation as Class verbs. For example, you may come across the
verb (/ worry) in its passive form both as and
as (I'm worried).

~allshinttolt~: c:~fc~ryw:f ~:~~~; ~~:::i'Z

There's actually a third class thbat


h
nly four ver s t a c a '
verbs. ere are
.
he are all adeponent," meaning that
but they're very common. Notce that t . meaning Below is the conjuga.
. e form but not a passve
h
they ave a ~assv
,
other verbs that follow this conjugation are
tion of ( sleep)~ The
b ) and (I'm afrid).
(I'm sorry), ( remem - -~~. .'.. . ... . ~.--. - . --~-~. . .. . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . ......... . . ...... .......[

________.._ ......................................-".......... ......----

---- .......................~

'"" ..

"'

::

-
::s

O'Q

66. READING

.._........._......._. _ __............-..
\,
.. ...... ....... ..... -~~~6~ (you steep)
----..--i
_____.............. . . . . . .. . . . .. .......... ............\
(they steep)
i
................... .
________,.................................. . . . . . . ". . . .--..--
..........J

......... .

"'
O'Q

! ( see )
--~,. ......
~ -------------~-------~-
\. . ~~ (you steep)
\- . . . . . . - ---- - ~---- --- - . . . . . ---j

(t)

r-+

--~

(we steep)

r-

Read the following e-mail exchange between Dina and Eleni, two sisters
who live in different cities.

__i
. ---- - . ____,__(he!shelit
. _ . . . ____. . . . . . . . . . .sleeps)
. .,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-.. . .

1et :

~ .
Mother is woied because of the chzld.
I

y !

. , ;

They roll around in the dirt.

I
I
I
' 10t.

.f ' '

~..

Tomorrow, have exams, and m afrad.

') 1'1'
.
') . ''1 y
.
.
v .
') :i

'

~ .
The children remember their summer vacatons.
I

m .
We wonder where we'll be five years from now.
I

. , ,

J..:J.l1 .

J..."1 .

"1 "1

J.

U :.

J'm sorry, but today is no good.

1 don't feellike it.


.
.
J'm half awake. (J'm sleeping standzng up.)

1et :
I

Now let's see a summary of all the passive endings, so you can compare

____

them.

.._.............

..... ..

-------,...,.~~1~ ~""""'""~' .. ,~...................,....,. . ._...............

.. .. . . . . . . . -.....-------'

..,.,,...,.. ,., ' ,.,,

;..

~---

. . . . .,. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .~---- ,-...

\ -

\ -

. -

~ ~

.-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-

--~-----,

_,. ,_. . . . . ~-'!'""'"""'


100 \i

_ _ __

Greek

_ _ _ ._

.........- .......


t
t f1')..fx ')

y .

'),,_,_

' '

I
"1 I
I
, /\t:.'

11

, .
"1"1J...

'

\U, y.
f."1 "'

,
I

'}

-~~~;

1:. '}

. . ,. , . __..-)._....~. . . . . . . . . . . . .., . . . .- ---------4

-!."1 ,....

~ ,, ~

---w-~--. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .--.--.. . . . . - -

1...............~....................-.-.,......."...............~...~- .......~----"'"'''''''''''"''''''''' .................................~---

"1 .I

I
I
-."1 "1 J...

I
I
UJ\J\U
. !

._ ._......,.

I
"1 "1 !...
U

'

~-=~;--------,-- ~~~~~
- __ . . . . . ..----------~ _______ . . . . . ;
. .. . . . .._. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . ----------~ , :.,_
-
-
'
-
\~----
.
- .,. . . .,. . ."""'''--""""'"'....;..,,,,,,_,,_,.__.,_..,,~_.. ,,
..__ ...... ..
t-- _.__ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. . . . --
; -ri
-
--------..-----~--. . . ._.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
... . . . ,."" '"' ' .... . .... , ...... . .
___. _...................-.. .-..---,-.. . .-.. .-..,. . . ...--........ . . . . . .
,
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . - _______. ___. ___. _. . . . . . ........... . . . . . . . .............................. 1
\ -
1
~

' - - -- -----~R~UP; (~~;~-~------- 6-;;UP ;;SS ... . . . ~.~~-~~.:. CLAS~--l.'


; GROUP 1
. . . . ... . . . . . . .

-- - - - - - ---..

- - "''""""'"''" "'

- -- - -

....

-...

------

- - - - - - -- --

__ ................ _.............____ ,

..

.....

...

- - - - - --- ---- ........,..................................


Lesson 6

1101

y ; .

golden and white pebble beaches the .


right up to the coast and mount .
d 1 konian Sea forests that extend

aJns an a es furth . d Th
tory of this region which has suf d
h
er an e Iong hisis visible in the U:any fortificat erethmoreht an its fair share of invasions
Ions roug out the area
of the areas for6fications can be
d. h .
, great exampie
oun
Jn
t
e
ty
of

(
. )
.
h
w h IC was built in the sixth centu CE
. .
oannna
stone streetsl and numerous sh
ryii' . hong With Its fortres sl cobbie.
ops se Ing t e citys fam
1

Ioannina aiso boasts a Iarge numb


f
ous SI ver J ewelry
er museums gallere
d I'b
well as a wax museum that dep t
' .
s, an rariesl as
IC S rea IStiC Scenes of J }} '
d
throughout history.
oca e an customs

'
'
'
' "/v'}
,.,
'
'
,
.

.1u.\UI
y .
!

'

Eleni's e-mil:
Der Dn,

good mortng!

rt'D

V')

O'Q

O'Q

hope tht you're well nd tht you're not very busy ths week. Wht do
you sy? Are you n the mood for stroll n Athens? hve lot of news to
tell you! And s you know, sles begn tomorrow. her tht your beloved
boutque Lel hs fntstc sles. It hs better prces thn lst tme nd t
hs greter vrety ths seson. suts re hlf prce. It hs the most chrm
ng blouses, nd slk scrves n the window. And my frend Meln told me
where to go for the lest expensive lether shoes n Athens. Ppoutses hs,
she sid, the biggest disply n Athens nd, of course, the best prices. Wow,
with ll the tlking, time hs flown by (lit., pssed gn) nd I've got lot of
chores to finish. Don't forget to tell me which dy you wnt to meet.

~uts~de of the cities of Epirusl visitors ~an fin

.
ties, Including spelunking hik'
d fi h ' d an array of outdoor activiIngl an s Ing It is a]
'bl
some of the areas arched brid
. .
.
so possi e to view
(Dodon). Dating at le gets, orfisbit archaeological sites, such as
'f
as as ar ack as the e 'ght
not earlier as a prehistoric site th
.

century BCE,
considered to be the oldest , . eGancient oracle of Dodona is usually
.
rac e reece In f t .
.
Homer; Odysseus claimed to h
. . d h.
ac' t was mentioned by
ave vsite t e oracle on his way home.
.
For more information Epirus visit www.ab t .
ou -oannina.gr

Kisses,

EXERCISES

Eleni

. Give both forms of the


.
below.
. comparative and superlative for each adjective

Din 's e-mil:

Der Eleni,

. (the far/just women)

good moming!

I'm sd tht we live fr (prt)! We hve lot of news to tell but so little time
to tell it (lit., them). Wht pity! But I'm hppy tht you wnt to go shopping
this week becuse I've gotten together enough money nd, s you know, I'm
crzy bout shopping, but don't feel like continully going to the shops
n my neighborhood. As you know, ltely I've been eting too much nd my
clothes re tighter thn they were lst yer. So, hve to buy lot of things.
First of ll, longer cot thn the one hve. lso wnt to buy mtchng
gloves, ht, nd scrf Do you think tht I'll find ny in the shops (lit., the
mrket), or is it still too erly for wnter clothes? wnt boots (lit., n.d) too,
but don't think I'll find ny. So, let's not lose ny time. I'm going to get my
ticket for Wednesdy. See you then!
Kisses,

CULTURE

3 (the poor ldy)


4 (the good coffee)
5

(the easy route)

6
.

(the cold/ndifferent atttude)

7 (the smll cr)


8. (the good grades)
9 (the bad chldren)

Complete the following sentences with h


given in parentheses.
t e correct form of the verb

Now let's explore the administrative region of (Epirus). Epirus


is located in th~ northwest, and it has a little bit of everything. There are

. (Petros nd h. .

'

'

()

s sster eat lot of sweets and t's not good.)

. . . .... . . . . .!. . . .-...


102

(the ft chldren)

. (the powerful germ)

Din

2.

---- --..- - - - - - -

------......................- .........

Greek

............. .............................. --......... ...........~-----"""""---

-------------------e;~------;-~3

() ~ .
.
5
(The students wonder whether the exam will be difficult.)

() . (Despina tells lies.)

2 .

--() . (My cousins lis3. _ __

6.

ten when talk.)

_ __

'

.
5

'

baklava.)
6.

_ __

' ,

place.)

'

. _ __
7
hotjburning.)
8.

'

_ __

8.
. () , . (My
mother worries too much Loukas says.)

() . (There's wood burnng n the fire-

_ __

9.

(). (Be careful because the pot is


10.

() . (This train goes to Patra.)

(more women)

. ()
9

1.

_ __

4.

I ~

~ ~

~~

!: "
~'
.'"'

I
i
~

!
i

i
~

' 4 ', ', ',

5 , , , ,
'
' ,
'
' 7 ,
'
6. ,
,
,

' ,
'
' 8. ', ,' ,
'
,
,
'
'
'
'
,
, 9 , , , , 10.
'
' ,
'
'
,
,

. 1. ,
'
2. "~
1\:,,

'
(),

'
,

'
'
,
6. ()
,

'
,

8.

'

( )

_ __

. (Alexander sleeps
d

() . (Your parents e-

. prived themselves of many [things} for you.

'

~ ~
! ~'

(very few occasions)

played together ?)

'

() . (Grandfather s

'

( -) ,

many hours.)

i ()Q

i -

, ,

D. Complete the following sentences with the right form of the verb.
,
,
' . (Do you remember that we

2 .

! :::3

'
'
'
' , ,
' , 2. ,
,
' ,
'
' 3 ,
'
'
,
,
,

(all the friends)

10. ()

! -

. 1.

(some shops)

_()

::

! ~

ANSWER

(enough milk}

Vl

Since shopping is something that most of us have to do, it'"s a good


idea to practice the Greek youI need to make a purchase. Start out
. , simply, by comin:g up with a few things that you, as a custmer, might
~ say, and a fewthings that a cash1er would say. You can use the end of
~-cthe dialogue as a model, and fee free to change things around a bit.

- (the whole neighborhood)

,.

. () ___ (many .classmates)


5
6. () _ __ (very few letters)

. (Many people are born

INDEPENDE.N...T CHA~LENGE

() ___ (some young girls)


(quite few diplomas)
2. () _ __

. ()
7

___ ()

really happy to see us.)

1.

4 ()

poor.)

C. Give the correct form of the quantity expressions in parentheses.

3 ()

() .

(Kosma's teacher s sorry that Kosma doesn't study.)

() . (Natalia and you eat

'

7.

Vl

()Q

() . (Loukas

and Despna are tired of studying.)

( -) ; (Niko, are we going to the

amusement park?)

.
4

I~

C. 1. ,
' 2. ,
'
'
3 ', 4 ,
5 ,' 6. ',
' 8. ,
' 9 ', 10. '
7 ,
'
'
'
'
'
D. ....
,
2. ,
3 ,
4 ,
5 ,
6. , 7 , 8. , 9~ , 10.

() . (My grand-

'

mother tells the best stores.)

-----~~~-~-~--~~r~~~~~~~~~~-~~----~

-------------------.......

--------------"''"'_____,____,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.....,,-----------"j'--""-'''""''"
L~sson 6
105

LESSON

: !

Foods and flavors!


In this less, we'll fcus ne f the great pleasures f learig about
a new langage and culture, the fd! This meas that yu'lllearn a lt f
important ew vcabulary. Yu'll also cntinue t build yur kwledge
f Greek grammar by learing hw t express likes ad dislikes, which f
curse is very practical whe talking abut fod! But that's not all. Yu'll
lear how to talk about the past ad how to use ordial numbers, ad
you'll be formally itroduced to somethig you've been seeing for quite
a few lessos ow-the accusative case. Definitely eough to work up a
good appetite for some delicious Greek cuisie!

7.

VOCABULARY WARM-UP
I

)'t

Thnks for

the

nvtton.

.
I

~~!.

U!

Here's to long life! (lit., wish you


mny yers!)

~ , !
I

.
I

your wishes come true! (lit.,


wish you whtever you'd like!)
Tody, {s

my tret.

to

We'll order one portion.

'}'t !

' !

Be well! (in reply to generous


gesture)

tost

your helth!

78. DILOGUE
Grigoris ad Varvara are havig lunch at the
cial event. Liste i their cnversatin.

restaurat t

celebrate a spe-

'): .

Grgors: Good momng, Vrvr.

: '), ,, ;
. ~ ; ~
.
I

y , '?
y. .~, ,
I
!

y y . ;

. y ~

' .
'I
'
I
. . ;
, ,

! , ? ~'}'

; ~, y,
, ...

... ~

'l.

'): ~ m; :_r:-
I

':J

J1

y .

: , , .
, ?. ~,
,
I

~ ~ ~
! ;

'

'}': , . ; y ~
,
.

' ~.
.. '
: ;' ~'
, !

'}': , m ~
1

Vrvr: Good mornng, Grgors. Thnk you for the

a.
V\

vtt. And wht nce dy you chose for


us to meet. So, here's to long life (lt., wsh
you mny yers) on your nme dy. Here's to
helth, hppness, nd of course, everythng
else you wsh for I

QJ

::J

a.

:::::!)
QJ

<

..,

V\

':J

Grgoris: Thank you, Vrvr. Tody, t's my tret for my

nme dy. Ths plce s gret. came for the


first ~me wth some compny lst week nd we
te. wonderfully. met the owner. Good guy. Get
this (lit., Think), forgot my umbrell, he found
t he kept t, nd he gve t to me the next
dy! S should we strt wth few ppetzers?
Eggplnt sld fred cheese cod roe cvar
salad, cheese pe ...

Vrvr: ... few stuffed vne leves nd of course


retsna

so tht we cn toast.

Grigors: The mousk s relly outstndng here. Do you


lke mousaka? Maybe you prefer spcy grlled
pork or rbs. WeZ order porton of each.

~ ,; ~~
~; ~

'): ~ ~. ~ ~

y.

(

.)
I
: , yI

Vrvr: Yes, like mousk very much. Anywy, Zke


everythng. Oh, let's not forget bread and

slad wth feta cheese and olves I Do you lke

horatk slad?

Grgors: Yes, of course. And t the end for dessert, they


hve tasty galaktoboureko (phyllo dough and
cream fillng), kantafi, and baklava (phyllo
wth nuts and almonds).

Vrvara: And of course Greek coffee wth kmk


(crem). Boy, how are we gong to et ths?
Grgors: Don't worry bout t. Besdes, we sad tht
we're celebratng today.

(In the meantme, they put the order n and the


water brngs the wne and the appetzers.)

Vrvr: So, to your helth nd long life. And to being


here together! (lt., May we be hppy for your
presence!)

Grgors: Thnk you, Varvr. Be well!

I
I
1
y:

,
.

-----------------...---......-......

.............................................................-................._ _- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Greek
Lesson 7

----r------.. . . ._
j

109

. . . . ,. _. . . . t. . ._ . ,_. ._.
110

~ -

Greek

- -

_________

........ ........ .......

................................................_,,.,,........._, ..........._,

____________
lesson 7

"--~!----

!I 111

Do you

hve vegetrin

dishes?

7F. GRAMMAR

.,

,;
I

Is

mc;
I
'
~ /

...

How do u like (lit., jind) it?

Is it good?

Jt's delicious!

It's spic.

. - .-. . . . . . . . . . .
,. r,

::

..

. .

.
- -..---..---......................................................
(we were)

""~--...- ......~ ..................... ,,,,,;;,,,,..................

<

..,
"'
-

~ ~

...............................~

(you were)

~
s

__

..:.-,-

s,

..-~--- ,
-.-.. . . . ---..--.........._..-~.........
.... ............................ .............
J tt (I had}

...
,
f. . .., . . . .,..., .., . .,. ~,. . ,. .,. ~. . .,_. _.._..._....,~- - .........~_.._..,............ ..,
(We had}
~ (ou. had)
.
. .......... . . , ......,...,_______________. __,,..,............. . ..............................__--..
~-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -.. . _. __
(you had)
1 '"' (helsh' e/'t had}
----.... . . . . . ......,..... ... . . -.. . . ______,..,.. ........ . . .. . . . . . . ..
1
L-~~...-..,"-.... . . .. . . . . .,:,. . . . ............ .....:.............. : ..._.......... .._""'__, _. ,.......,. .....................
t
(they had}
1
.
_"'"'-~

~
:,

_
....

..........__......,.,..~

.......

. .................................. ........ 1.

...............

....

.............................................______

........~,....,.

------...................................J'

Strictiy speaking the ab


.c

.
,
ove lOrms are a tense that's caii d h
tinuous or imperfect. This tense refers to on .
e t e p~st consituations in the past; and if you think ab
?oing or repeated actions or
have that meaning.
out It, wsjwere and had usuaiiy

the meal! (lit., Good

ppetite!)
U !

QJ

..................................................

Are u having (lit., taking)


anthing else?
Enjo

........................ .
, ---.. ---~

!
.-I\ ,I

............................... . . . . ........................

Have oujinished?
',

- ...-....

---

w
_.

"'

QJ

-----..,..---.. -...-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. . . . . . .__.__


l
, """:' ('helshe-1..-.t--.. . . .). . . . . . ... . ._____ ~
,~ .. u,
____
,':__ as___ - -------~~-~~r~J _ _
--..----.. . . . . .

(/ was)

,_,. ,_.__,____~. . ~. .~~~-. . .,~.. . _.,,. .-... . . . .~---. ' .


.
(you were)

Jt's little hev Jor m stomach.

In this Iesson, weI Iook at expressing th


.
with the first two verbs that you Iearned: clp:t at~~s; Greek. Let's start

portion of . ..

Grammar topic 1: Expressing and in the past

t fresh?

wnt

hope u enjoed our meal!


(lit. Good digestion !)

.
7.

CULTURE

We were in Athens yesterday.

Most Greek first names are the names of saints, such as (r),
(Dimitris) , ) (Grgoris), (Eleni) , and so . Consequently, many people celebrate the day that the church honors the saint
after which they are named. This day of celebration is known as their
. (name day). On that day, family, close relatives, and
friends call or visit. They may also offer either a gift or a treat such as a
pastry, and they'll wish the person ! This literally translates
as many years, which is similar to wishing someone a long, happy, and
healthy life. Another expression of well-being is , (as you

wish, lt., everything you wish [Jr youj).


Birthdays are also celebrated in Gteece, although name days have been a
part of Greek tradition for a much longer time, and tend to be celebrated
a larger scale. typical birthday wish is (may you

live to be one hundred years old).


In Greece, like anywhere else, food is an important part of any celebration.
On name days and birthdays, the honoree may offer pastries to visitors as
a way to say thanks for all of the wishes. And if the celebration happens in
a restaurant, it's up to the person whose name day or birthday it is to pay.
I
He or she (treats) everybody else!

---;-,2t - - -G-re_e_k- - - - - - - -- . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ..- . . . ..

- - - - - - - ...._........ ....................

'~ .

was sck last week.

.
They hd () house on Crete.

.
She/He had n umbrella.

.
Yesterdy morning, she was vey tired.

didn 't have your phone number.

She/He wasn't home when called.

Grammar topic 2: The simple past of other verbs

' k

~ et s at the past tense of other verbs in Greek The endin s th t

h
g
a
you JUSt Iearned for the past tense of "'
11
endin s Here the
.
.
"' are actua t e regular past tense
g .
are again. Notice that they're never stressed, because in

,_

--

----.. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .............-.. . ._. .___


Le-ss_o_n_?_ ___ -

~~~3

--

I...................... -~--- ,
--

last) syllable.
"' =~"' """'"' , , ""'~--~---~--~

----;

__,;_--~""'""""
.... .. . . . .~ .-----..-- . -~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .-

. -
I

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "'"""""'

t------ .,.. . .. ,. . . . . . .. . . . . -----.. . . .-.. . . . . . . . . . . ___.

(/ cover)

. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .----~-. . ~~. .. . .. \

.. . ,-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . _.

t-~-----.

,_.,_. . . . . . ~...... , .______________._ _:~ _ _ _ . . . . . . . . . . .-~.- -.--------.. - ,_. ..


................................... ...........- ............- - - - - - - - " " ' ' " " " " " " ' " ' """" """''""

: ......,.........,.

~~~~ _____ ___ ------~- ____

~~~~~ . . ____

1 -

~~~~~~

\ ~~~ _ ----~~

.. _

........_..___......~..-~- ..7.................................- - -~1\

(/ thinklbelieve)

..... ___ _

~-~~l~( ~n-~~)---------
~-

--- -

---~- --~-

! (/ deposit)

__

V>( kne_~!. ~

--1

---',

____ - ,

-~~~~~~-~-~e~~site~ ---------i

__ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~d) _______. . . . . ..

Second stems that end in -, -, -, -, -, -, or - merge that last consoat 'soud with - to form - before the past tense edigs.

114 \
I

Greek

--

............................................................

V\

i
,.1

...._....,..

................._. - -

(/ oened)

(l noticed}

. . . . . . . . .. . . . .-.---. . . . . 1

.. .__._. - -...- ........................................................!


1qp (/ wrote}
(we wrote)
;
I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................................
..----.......................... . . . . . . . !,
-,-.------
- - - --~
-----
- -
-(y.o:u
. .-.-, rote-) - . . . . . . . . ~.........................__ ---- --..---~.
J> (you wrote)
--..................:...-----:--,---.................._,__,,............-- ....................,...,_............. ..,_.-, ------.................................. .. . . . . .. . . . ..........................._ ...... .....................
(he/she wrote}
.
.
(thej' wrote}
-----..------~. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .___~.;:...;. .........-.::..........--.. .- .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . ._. . _. . . . ___ ---.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .__ """""""-.. I

~<--...-

....I . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _. ._..

---~-------.....--.-...

..

~---

. w

' -;~

,..

_.~

-~

--~

-~

....

-~

Notice that sice the and edigs have two syllables1there's


need for the augmet at the begiig, because the stem + edig produces
three syllables. few other examples of verbs that add the extra - are:
/
'
I
I
(-
( solve- solved) 1 (-
( hide- hid) ('
I
I

( feel- I felt)1 m(-m


( catch-I caught) 1(-
( close-I closed)1 and may others. few commo verbs add '- istead of
1

a momet.

------~

...

...,

. . . . .. . . . . . .-...._. . . . ..._._ . . . . . . . . . . . . __. _..._. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .............. . .. . . . ... . . . . .~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . .. . . . . . . . . .... . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . ... . .........-...-J.

There are just a few common verbs whose stem ends in - that take - in
the past rather than -, for example ()-- ( play-I played) ,and
)..).}.()--)..).n1;, ( change- I changed). We'll come back to that extra - on

...............................j................- ...............- .

_.~-

..............................................,............,......................_ .........,...__.................~..-~....................................,",....................,......-

J) ( wrte).
. .,... . . .,. .,. .,.,. .
- - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .... . . .

~,_.,.._.._,_._,_,_....-,nnn~;;,,,,,,,."'"'"'''' , ,,.,,,,,,,,;._,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,;: ... ,,,,,,,,,,,,,;w, .. ,,,..,,,,,.,,..~""'"""''''"'''n'"..,....__

(/ covered)

<

Remember that i the past tese 1 the third syllable from the ed gets the
stress. This of course meas that a past tese verb form1 icludig the
stem ad the edigs, has to have at least three syllables. There's a obvious problem1though1 if the verb stem is e syllable ad the eding is e
syllable-this does't produce the required three syllables. these cases1
a extra - is added at the begiig of these verbs to "boost" them. You'll
see the term "augmet" used to refer to this extra syllable. This is what you
sa'; i ~ ( pla-I plaed). Let's see aother example with

------------------ . _ ............................................----

~~ (;;e/~~;;~~)-

QJ

...- ............_J

........................

.. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ____,,,,_____, ,.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _,__,___ ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .

whose stems

... . .... . - ~~~~~:~-~- - . .... . . . ...

:::::!)

~- ~~~k) -~---- - ~t~~~;;~~;e;;;-- --- ~

-----1

-------- --

:::::3

a.

a(/ exchanged)

r~---; -~ ~

------1~

(l thoughtlbelieved}

....................................................

......................... .....................- ....._...... --- ---- .........-..

y (/ open)

__. . . . . . .-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -------------- . . _... _ --- _ . . . . . . . . . . .-!

; -~~&~,-;;~;-.......

QJ

. ---- ----. . . . . .:. . ---- . - ----------- . . ... -.. . . .,.. . . . . . . ------.. . --.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

:................ ...................... ........~....~-~----.,.,_,........_....................

Here are some other examples of past tese verbs of Group

--~-- ~.-

t----

.....

a.

V\

edigs.

! _''/: (/ exchange)

.. . . . . . . ~-

--

(/ a//owed)

(/ returned}

.,.......................,,_'''"'""''''''""

..........,......................_,. _____.....

--~ _____ __ ~~~~~~":-------- -

chage to -.

__, ...................................................... ,...

past tese

Let's start with Group 1 verbs and the patterns of spelling and pronunciation changes triggered by the addition of - to the stem. First, verbs whose
stem ends in the consonants -, -, -, r-, drop that consonant w~en_-
is added before the past tense endings. Let's see an example of ths wth
n ( rent), which is n ( rented) in the past tense. Note the
I

11

"--.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. _____ _ ,. , . . .". . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . .

(/ notice}

stress the peultimate syllable


- ---- of the. . stem.
. . . . . . . ._. . . . ._. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ----..----..--

.. . ,_..,.

d third, stems that ed i -, -, -, -, -'(, or - change to - before the

that adding - directly to the stem triggers.

, ......--- ....- ..... , ................................

----~-----

(/ return)

Before you add these endings, though, you have to alter the verb stem
slightly by adding -. Group 1 verbs, - is added right to :he stem, and
there are certain spelling and pronunciation changes tha~ ths causes th~t
we'lllook at in a moment. In Group 2 verbs, -- (or sometmes -- or --) s
inserted before -. This is good news, because it usually avoids the changes

....--...........

(/ worked)

(/ a//ow)

-1

i-..----..- - - - -..- -

.. , ___.. --..--------------- .......... ....... . ............


.... ...... ...... .... .... ..........__. - ......-.................... -- .. , .... .... ... ....
I

~h~~~~~ ~~;i~~:)~:- =~=~- =- ~~~(~~n~~;;;>- --~==-_-1

0
---~---~

(/ work)

the past tense, Greek verbs are stressed on the antepenultimate (third from

.-

...~...

-------

............................................

I
'
I
-:
(-
( know-I

knew), m(-m
( hope-I hoped).

Now let' s look at Group 2 verbs, which are actually easier tha Group 1
erbs1 because you dori't have to worry about the spellig ad prou
ciatio chages the root. The vowel -- is iserted betwee the verb
root ad the edigs. Here's a example with ,-y ( love1 loved).
- -- - ----------- - - -- - - - - - - - - -

_________ ______

........, _ ,

,,,,.,

________

......................._,

.............. ...........................

Lesson 7

115

---""''"'"""'"''"""""'"'''''''"""'"'"""''"'''''"'"'''""'"'-'""_"'_ _ _ _ _ ....................................................."-~

. . . . .-.. .,. . .--.. --------.................. ... ......

(we

oved)

(l oved)
...___........................................... -'__.
____,_........................ ---"-------- . . ~~~ (you loved)
\ y (yOU /oed)
,_................................-..
....................................... . . . . . ... . . -...- -

. . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . .

..

. -.. .

..

-;~--(~ ~~-~-11)

-~~; {- s;~~)

~~ (;~t)

~~~_;h~i~~~~-= __ . ......~t -~t~-~~-- ~~~~~~ ...

. . . . . . --

. . . ... _______. ______ . . . . . . .

- _ _.

1.
I

- ----~.........

~-~----

. .

. . . . ._.,_ _______. . . . . . . . . . . . . _!
. . . _. . _.
. . -.. . . . . . . . . ._.

~~~~- (~- ~~~-~-~-"d)

~(, ~-~~j.........

....-.. . . .... .

................... . . .

~~~<-;;~)-

""'"

.I a.
V'\
ia.
::1

a.

- . .._ _ _ _ .................. .

~
Q.

"""""'',....''''' ' ' '' !' '~" ' '''' ' '"''"''"'"'""'''"''""'"u'"""'W'N<#-NIIoft' """"' '"'''.._'

,,,,,,.,,.,,,,...,""""""'"""'','.((.'"""""""""........,.......,.~.,,.,..."..,'"''''''''''' ''' ' '''' ' ''',,,, ,,,, ,, ,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,......,,,.,._,...._~

.---,

1 eaveJ

L---

:.:~. -~-~--

h,.... :

-'''"'"'''''''''''''""'''""'" ''''" .. '

...................-..-.

,.._,,.. . . . . . .-. . . . . --................................................... .--

oett>
-.-.... .. .....

..........

- - - - - ...............~-- --- ......- -..-.(

<

..,
V\

Ntice agai that the stress is always the thi;d syllabl~ f~m the ~d.

That' 5 usually the verb stem, except i the ~d 1: rmskw e~e


't' the inserted . There are just two other mnor ponts to. eep
s
.
h
t d vowel s some'
'
. d about Group 2 verbs in the past. Frst, t e nser e
~
. ~~ J..,., ~ ( laugh- laughed), m-
tmes -- or - - -!W' '"'
h
can-I was able to/I could). Also, the - of the past tense ma~ ds) wup;:_
-ll"' ( carry-I carre ,
- in some Group 2 verb s:
UI
( pull- pulled).

&rammar topic 3: Object pronouns and the accusative case


You've already learned the subject pronouns in Greek, and you know that
they're almost always dropped in sentences. When nouns and pronouns
are used as subjects, such as with the subject pronouns, they are.in a grammatical case called the nominative case. Think of case as the role that a
noun or pronoun actor can play; nominative is then the role of subject.
Nominative is also thought of as the basic case, so that's what you learn
whenever you learn new vocabulary, and that's what's used in dictionary
entries. But nouns and pronouns can also act as direct objects, in other
words as the people or things that "receive" the action of the verb: John
wrote letter. Bill sees Marie. love them. In this role, nouns and pronouns
are in the accusative case. You've seen examples of the accusative case
throughout the course, and you'll be formally introduced to nouns in the
accusative case in Lesson 8. For now, let'S. just focus on the pronouns. As
you can see, in both Greek and English accusative pronouns are different
from nominative ones.

Fially, there are a lt f irregular verbs i the past tese that simply have
---~-. . . .~

to be memorized. Here are some of the more common ones. .

.--. ------.. . ..,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -.. -...--,--_--:-

- - ;;(;~~~;~~)-

I (I go up)

_____.._ ......... . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . ........- - - - - - - -............ . ..........."~


~"~ - ( put)
\

r ..........,......~...............v... .... - -.. ' ;:, ..................:........- - - - - , . ; ..., ....... .,..,. .....................--......- -..

r
-,--
-

(I put) . . . .

'1

~- -

_______. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .;. ..-.. .

----~--

-- --- .
1
(I removedltook out)
1
. . . . . .................. . . . . . --_ .......................- .........................- ....1
'y (I came out)
.
.._...................................----:
)

'ym (I removeltake -out)

. . . . .,..,.,--~ ""'. . . . . . . . . ------

;t ~m
( come out)
'
_ . ::::-... ::::;;, ~ . . . . . . . . . .,~-..........~. . . ~-~"''""'"-"~"''"''-~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-. . .,.;. . .~......... .. ..................., ............----------...
--,----

( saw)

! m (l .see)

~--~-....,........ ............... ..........- ........- .......

------- ...-i., _

rtm; (fi~d} ___

r.l_!~~~~!

----

l ~f.
~>-- -~---~---~~~~~=~~~~(~~~~! _____
t' (l
-~~~~~~_<~ame)
came)

- ---

---

..............................

---\

--

::..:::...:. ....:..:J::... . . .... . ,. . . . . . . . ._. ._. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -.~~-:,;,;:,.

. receive}

t-,. . ....... . . . . . .-.. . -;__.____. . __,__.....,...........-..... --

\ m (I say)

(itJ ___

m (I pass/go)

\ i~~Q~/jj

..

r n

(/

(I d ra n k)

. ..
. ' . .

___

-; -., :__..~---""'"""'''''""""'""'"

...._._. .........." .........,,,,,,,,, ...............,,.,..,,,..

.....,_.............................- ...- - - - - - - " " "'"''"""'''''"'' ''"'' '"'""'"'

Greek

Went)

______

.........................------------"-"""'''''''""'"''"""'"""''''"'"""'"'' .

.............................................................

(you, pl.lfml.)

__,__,_,;.;,.,,_,, ................................................_,_,. ... ''"""""'''__ ...._._ _ _............................................_

. . . . . . . . . . . .1

----

(them, m.)

____

--- _

-- ---

.
You see me, and see you.

..........................

. .... . . . ..,~~. .. . . ,. , .."''~'"'"'''''"'' . . . . . ...,,. . ,..,.-.-..........-"':f:'""~..,--------,--"'"' ...........................

.
_
---

...................................

--~~

..

\..-k.,-. ,. . . . . '( d :~;)

-~~--~~-~

Now take a look at how these pronouns are used. As you can see, they come
before the verb, rather than after it as in English.

-------~=~.:=- ~ 0~~~!- ........ --------.. . ~

r----,-""
- -.~
')m (I go)
1
:

---- ---

. ..__...................... -.--..-
~
. . . .:. . . . . . . . . .~~~ (I passed/went)
---
..
_......... . . . . . ... . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . .. . . .- - - - -

--. --"~~~~ : __. . . . . . . . . .----.. . ~--""-"

,, ,, '''''''

=--. . -. ... . . . . . ... -.]. ..

Notice that the object pronouns and sometimes take - at the end.
The rule to add - is the same as that for the negative (), which you
learned in lesson 5 When the word that follows starts with either a vowel,
the consonants , , , , or , or the combinations , , , , or ,
then you add -.

........ . . ......... ............ ."'....................-,


received)

____....______. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .
......... . . . ......1
(I said)
~
_______...............................--.....
_.......................... . . . . . . . .-1

( (I know)

!. . . ....--.. .-.. . - . . . . .

~(_u__- s_

~~~!;)=-=~~~=:~-~-~- ~~- ~(t~-~~ .C~~ .-~~:=~----- ---:


~
~~-~t~=~~-~
_j

---------- ---\

\ . .~~~~:~=:==~~---~~~-~~~d)
., . ------(I knew)

'".._""""'

. ~() (him)

. . . . . . . . . . . ... ......-~--. ....&

(me)

_j\

m ( cry)

---

......'.MN'f'NI-N~oi_N<'_.,,,,..,,..,,_,.,,.... " .....~........,.,

~~J~!~~~n~~- -=~~ ~~:,,:;:iJ~e~t~~-~> _____.


__:......~---. . . .:....... . . . . . .- .. "----

----

, ...........,.,, ,__..............,...~,....),.......V.\............" .....' " ' ' """''''''"'''"''' '' 'nooM'''"'~"'-"

(I burned)
I
i. m (I burn) . -. "'"'...~.w.~~----.. ----"""'""'"""'"'"' ' . . . . . ..,., ... .......----..--..... --..................... . . . . . ......................---"1
...;.;.,,.....-....---~--.,..)--- ..........~ . . .
(I did)
:
(I d
._. . . .-_.. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . ..... . . . . . -----:----1

i. ::. . : :. .,. . -.. ------..____. . . . . . .. . ----

_______

---

...-...............................

_ ____

- - - -....-................................_..

...............................

- - - ........................,....____

i
_ _ _ -.........!-----

Lesson 7

117

~.

her), (to us), (to you), (to them). Then you use the verb
(s pleasng) if the thing liked is singular, or (are pleasng) if the
things liked are plural. Here are some more examples.

love u. (pl.jfml.)
I

:.
The

::.
lke squd (lit., squds).

We met her.
I

.
You lke mousaka.

asked them. (m.)


I

-'t,.._.

a.

;'

hear us.

/ 2?

1 0

.
She lkes retsna.

thanked them. (f.)

J.

Don't forget that even inanimate objects have gender in Greek, so the gender of the noun will determine whether you use (), (), or to mean
it, or , , or to mean them.

He lkes these restaurants.

:.
I

We like fred cheese.

'y .; y .
, ./ , .
chldren.(he

read the

book.jMarna

J.

The like dolmadhes (stuffed cabbage leaves).

parents scolded them.

.j .
Marna

:.

You (pl.) like roasted chcken.

ShejHe ate all the bread.j ShejHe ate t all.


The parents scolded the

read t.

express dislikes, just put the negative () in front of , , and

so on.

y.; .
know

the game./I know t.

.
don 't like baklava.

Grammar topic : Expressing likes and dislikes


You can use two different expressions to say that you like someone or
something: ( like), and ( prefer).

Grammar topic

~~'
I


: '.

lke

Greek food.

Eym , : .

.
don 't lke potatoes.

s:

Ordinal numbers

Ordinal numbers are used to show order. Since they're adjectives, they take
the regular adjective endings to agree with the noun they're modifying. So,
for example, the ordinal number (first) has these forms.

prefer the fish, and u prefer the lamb.

The sentence literally means Greek food


is pleasing to me, and it's a good example of the construction that's used
to exp~ess likes. You first use -a pronoun in the same form as the possessives that you learned in Lesson 3, although in this construction you can
translate it with to: (to me), (to you), (to him, to it), (to
-~'""""'" """"" """""""""

118

------"""""""""".

Greek

- - - - -...............................-...

------"""""""'

Here are the other ordinals up to 'h. Notice that the masculine singular
forms all end in -, except for the words: (second),
---..- ... - - - -..........................-----............................._ _ _ -...................... - - .

...............................

Lesson 7

__

............................ ...........

119

y.

,..'l ~

UU . ,

'

m,

J.!
t .
,

'
1

'

<Jt.
:
' ,

~?.

1~

y .
y
y . ,
. .

a.

V\
QJ

:::J

a.
:::!)
QJ

<

, .

'
' .

'

, ,

35ooF (175oC). !

For the recpe we need: 5 lbs eggplnts, 7 pottoes, 2.5 lbs mnced met1
5 tomtoes, 1 glss of whte wne 1 cup of grted prmesn1 hlf cup of
butter, 1 onon, olve oil, 3 cups of milk hlf cup offlour 4 eggs slt pepper, nd cnnmon.

Look at some examples of ordinal numbers in sentences.

~ ~ 100.

The first book read was Little Red Rdng Hood.

.
The third door is the bathroom.

I

The fifth house on the right is mine.


Note that in writing, ordinals are exp,ressed with a ~uperscri~t a~jective
ending after the number, as in: 2 (), 2 (), 2 (),
and so .

7 &. READING
Read the following passage, which is .a transcript of a cooking show. See
how well you understand the recipe for mousaka.

:y ,;: 2 ~ y, 7 ~
5

'J

"';,

, 1 : :~, 1 :m ~~,

u,

~, ~, 3 :> ).D.,

, 4 , , .

'

, ~, ? ~~
y ': ~. ~

, y

-- - ---

Greek
t

--------"-----

120

------- .._..............

__.............

So, yesterdy, fried the eggplnts nd the pottoes nd let them drin
so tht they wouldn't be too oly. Ths mornng, cut the nn put t n
sucepn wth lttle oil nd suteed t. lso put the wne n t. Af
terwrds dded the mnced met1 slt, pepper, nd cnnmon; cut the
tomtoes nd dded them n the m, nd let them smmer. Then prepred
the bechmel suce. You hve to use the suce rght wy before t gets cold.
Lsten to how we mke t: We put the butter, the mlk, nd the flour n
sucepn. We m the flour well so tht t won't hve little lumps. Afterwrds,
we put the sucepn on low het so tht the suce cn thicken nd we str
cntnuously so tht t won't burn. When the suce hs thckened, we remove
t from the het we put n the eggs, nd we str well. The suce s redy. w
we tke deep pn nd we cover the bottom of the pn wth pottoes. We
now put the eggplnts on top nd we cover them wth the mnced met. In
the end, we cover the ngredents wth the bechmel suce, we sprnkle the
grted prmesn and we put the pn n the oven for hlf n hour t 350 F
(175 C). Enjoy the mel!

7.

CULTURE

In this section we'll explore the administrative region of


(Westem Mcedon). It's located in tJ:e northwest part of
Greece and is the only landlocked region in the country. But what it lacks
in seaside attractions it makes up for in lakes, rivers, rapids, canyons, stone
bridges, and even a petrified forest. Some.of the mo.st impressive mountains

. . ._._---- -... . . . --""' " ' "'"'"""""--'. . . . . . _,_. . . . . ...._._..-... . . . . . ._.1__. . . . .


Lesson 7

121

of Greece are located in Western Macedonia, so visitors can enjoy skiing,


hiking, mountain climbing, mountai bikig, a:d huntig..The regio's .rivers are also ideal for swimming, fishing, kayakng, and whte water raftng.

6. (hej she opens)

17. { buy)
8. (we feeljcomprehend)

Important cities in the region include (Kastoria), known, for


its fur, honey, cheese, wine, walnuts, chestuts, ad fish, and
(Kozani), kw for its marble, broze decorative pieces, ad saffro,
as well as its energy productio. For visitors who like the arts, there are
the summer festivals of Kozai, which iclude theater, dace, ad other
art exhibitios ad cocerts. w as the Greek City of Books, Kozai
is also home to a library with tes of thousads of books ad rare docu-

19. (you give)


20.

. (he/she spreads)

'
21.
(

do)

22.

(hejshe deposts)

mets.

2 3

(they snk)

Sice

'
24.
(you leave)

our lesso has bee food, you may be iterested i these websites
Greek cuisie:
~O-OyoyoooO ooooooo oooooooo0000o000000.0oOo

--

..

---- ........................................- - -----..- ...............................

'
-.~---;_

~w~_w. g_
re~~~re~~--~-=-~-~~-~---------~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __
w~-~-~- ~-~=-~-~-=-fo__o_ds_.c~-~ . . . . . .

. ....... . .______

www.greekcuisine.com

..... ------.._.._......................................_ - -

-..---------~-"""'""""""""''""""''""'--'-"'"-"""""- --~--"''""'" "'""'''"""

25. (you s_ee)


26. (we want)

27. (they change)


28. (we hde)

EXERCISES

29.

Give the simple past tese of the followig verbs i the same person ad
number that the verbs are given in the present tese.

'

(they leave)

1.

(you wash)

2.

(they find)

. Replace the direct object nouns with accusative pronouns. Don't worry
about the accusative articles or nouns yet; we'll come back to those in the
next lesson.
1.


'
' . (They bought apples.)

2.


'
'
.

3 (you're thirsty)

4 ( forget)

(They cooked the meat.)

3 . (They ordered the meal.)

5. (you hurt)

4 . (We asked for the bll.)

6. (they pull)

5 . (We mxed the ngredents.)

7 ( laugh)

6. . (Yhey looked at the menu.)

8. (we protect)

'
' (They beat the eggs.)
7
.

9 (you solve)
10.

(you wash)

11.

(we go)

12.

(you eat)

8.

. (They sprnkled the sugar.)

9 . (He/She salted the eggplants.)

' (He/She grated the cheese.)


. ' .

13. (we're away)


C. Use the right pronouns and verb forms in the follqwing sentences.

14. (you look)


1

s. (you play)

...................~-------..--

122 1

Greek

- - - -................_.

______

. (He lkes appetzers.)

2.

. ( lke water.)

..

....................

__ __

...................................-

_____

...............................- - -

.... . . . .- --.. . . . . . . . _, ------.. . .... . . . ---.. . . . . . . . . . . ___. . . . . . ---.. . . . . ..__


--~

. --.-. . . .

--"-

Lesson 7

123
1

'

. (They like pastries.)

'

'

3
4

'

. (She likes mushrooms.)

'

. (They like olives.)

'

. ( like leafy green vegetables.)

'

. (You {pl.) like lemonade.)

8.

Go to www.matia.gr (and follow the link ) to look for a


recipe tha1 !you find appealing. You can.choose an appetizer, a main
course, or a dessert, since there are some very interesting choices .
the website. Don't worry u won'thave to cook anything! Unless
yo)yant to, of course. Once youe selected a recipe, read it and make
" sure: )'u .inderstand it, using a dictionary or online reference for h~lp.
. .Jot down any new vocabulary in your language journal. Then, trans: :tlate the recipe into English. For a greater challenge, do the reverse.
Choose one of your own recipes, and
trans1a.te. it)pto Greek.

.
...

(We like fish (pl.) .)

. (You like turkey.)

10.

(He likes meat.)

'

6.

D CHALLENGE

D. Give the masculine singular form of the ordinal number for each of the
following cardinal numbers.

'

. . , 2. , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6. ,
'
'
7 ', 8. ' , 9 ', . ', . ,
12. ,
'
' , 15. ', 16.
'
, 17. ,
'
13. ,
14. :

. (24)
2.

ANSWER

',.

(53)

'
' , 21. ,
'
'
18. ,
19. ', 20.
22. ,
23. , 24. , 25. , 26. , 27. ,
'
'
28. ,
29.

3 (4)

4 (6)
5 (97)

'
'
. . .
2.
.
'
.
5

6. (88)

'
.

6.

'
.
"(t

' .
:

'
.

'
8. '. 9 '. 10. .

7 (73)

'
'
'
'
C. 1. ,
2. ,
3 ,
4 ,
'
'
'
'
5 ,
6. ,
7 ,
8. ,
'
'
9 ,
.

8. (75)
9 (6)

' ,
'
' ' , 3. ,
'
D. 1. :
2.
'
'
' ', 6.
'
' ,
4 :
:,
5
7 , 8. , 9 ,
' ,
'
' 12. ':, 13. :
'
10.
11. :,
'
' ,
'
'
,
14. :
15. ,
16. ': ' , 17.
' ,
'
' ,
'
'
'
:
18. :
19. :,
20. :

. (ss)
. ()

12. (12)
13. (39)

'

14. (44)

s. ()

6. (13)

17. (6)
8. (22)

19. (6)
20. (79)

..................-...

124

........................_ ..

Greek

_..............................- --

...............................- - ----.....................

__

- --

._._....................................

-...................

- - - ..................................--- - ----.........................._

__ _

___

..........................

-- .......................

___

Lesson 7

....................... .............

125

LESSON

Around town

Do you enjoy sightseeing but aren't always good at finding the place you're
looking for, without some help? If so, you'll enjoy this lesson because you
willlearn how to ask for directions. But that's not all. You'll also study the
imperative, or command form, and you'll return to nouns and adjectives,
this time to see how they change form when their role within the sentence
changes. That means that we'll formally deal with the issue of case, with
an introduction to the accusative case in Greek. Finally, you'll learn some
useful prepositions. Are you ready? Let's start!

SA. VOCABULARY WARM-UP


Can you please tell me ... ?

' ... ;


/.J.

Please speak (more) slowly.

think didn't understand very


well.

'

y.

the end of the street

It's dead-end street.

Tu.m

'
'
.

Go back.

)U .

Go straight.

...

You

'
'

'
.

We aren't very far.

left.

sad

that ...

88. DIALOGUE

]t .

Today, Ron decides to go around town and take some pictures. But Athens
has a lot of winding roads, and Ron isn't sure which way to go. When he
decides to ask a passer-by for directions ... well, things do not turn out to
be as easy as he thought they'd be.

V,

: ! .
Ron: Excuse me, J'm from brod nd don't know
the cty. Cn u plese tell me how to go to
the center ofAthens?

' '
V' '.

Sophi: OJ coursel Are u tourst? ... We ren 't very


fr w. So, go stright hed up to the end of
the rod. There's souvlki plce t the corner.
There, turn right ... , tht's wrong Rther,

'
'
';

'

! , ; ...
'

'

'

'
'
, ,

tum left becuse the other directon s ded


end. Wlk for block up to the hotel Filoxeni.
Across from the hotel there 1s bkery. Ask
gn t the ~kery nd the'll tell u.

. ){)V
. ... '
'\J...

~ . '

U! U ~

Ron: think tht didn't understnd very well. Cn


u plese spek slowl? Did u s tht the
bkery s cross from the souvlki plce?

'
'
'
'

.
' .
'
'
'
r

~ph: , t's pst the souvlk plce, nd cross Jrom


t~e hotel. Better bu mp from the bookstore.

'

'
.
:

.
, mo y.

'

It ll help u lot.

'

.
'


'

Ron: Is there bookstore close b?

'

Soph: Yes, there s. Go bck towrd the subw stton

'v,
-r.s' ~.
' '){>
I

nd go nto the fifth shop from the comer.


Ron: And where's the subw stton?

.
.

Soph: It's on the second (street tht runs) prllel to


the unversty.

: ;

'
:

Ron: And the ...

' .
'
'
'
,
m
I

Soph: Look, ths s wht we'll do. Sit here nd f'll go


find t tht wll tke u to the center of
Athens, to the bookstore, to the unversty, nd

' .
:

'

'

' ' ' ;


everywhere else u wnt. Is tht rght?

Ron: Excellent I Thnk u very much.

'

m.

'
:

...

'
'
~1...
.

uw

' )'.


, ,

. -..--G-re_e_k__._. . . . .. . . . . . . . . ..- - - - - -.. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .------.. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-- - - - -- . -.. . . . . . . .. . . . . ..- -

-,;-8-

8C. VOCABULARY
.

All rght.

Excellentl

- -----

___

................................................._.

. ... . . . . . . . . .----.. . . -.. . . . . . ._._ . . . . . . . . -..

Lesson

129

So . ..

...

traffic signs

sidewalk

medan

traffic light

department store

pedestrian walkway

theater

onelane

stadum

highway, freeway

street vendor who sells bread rolls

boulevard

) )

tour gude (m./f)

j y

store, shop

1~

archaeologcal

newsstand

street, road

newspaper vendor

passenger (m./f)

street vendor

fellow passenger (m./f)

museum

site

pharmacy, drugstore

shop window

grocery store

jewelry shop

one-way street

hotel

square

yc
I

j /

apartment bulding

.j.

J'm lost.

tran

Can you give me drections?

'
I

j

How do get to ... ?

... ;

Cross the street at the crosswalk.


.

station

'
I

Cross the street at the traffic lght.

The traffic lght is red.

1.

pedestran (m./f)

y;

..
polce

PHRASES

polcemanjwoman

/
1

park

bakery

BD.

buildng

bench

staton

museum of fine arts

y . .

Parkng

art gallery

p 1
.

This street s perpendicular to the


boulevard.

bank

y1 .

Crossng s prohbted.

~ y

The traffic is heavy on ths road.

hospital

..............................- .......- - - -- -----"''"'''''""'''"-"'"

Greek

'\ J.....
I
U

130

bookstore

_._..

airport

_..

jWell . ..

port

_____

.._.... ..................

n.
_,

___ ..............-----,

______

is prohibted.

_____________

.........................................

__ _____ _____

......................................

Lesson 8

............

.............,.....................

131

y ;

Wht

time does the museum open?

: ;

How much s the

I

I : '
.

The

tcket's expensve.

The

tcket's nexpensive.

'\'\,

/\:

ticket?

Where do they sell Greek

entrnce

souvenrs?
I

Where

buy mp?

'

The

Closed for

trvel gency s

on your right.

'

'

' :

lost my wllet.
holdys.

Where's the Amercn Embssy?

'
'
'

The bus
block.

8F. GRAMMAR

Grammar topic 1: The imperative

cn

:' y
' '

rhetorical question. Since this is meant to accommodate more people who


would otherwise be stranded waiting for a cab, it's rare that anyone will
object.

termnal s

As you already know}verbs are conjugated in different tenses that indicate


the time of a state or action. Verbs also come in "moods." In Greek, there
are three moods: the indicative, the imperative, and the subjunctive. We've
mostly ~een working with the indicative, which, as its name suggests, indicates thngs as they are, were, or will be, with a degree of certainty on the
part of the speaker. The subjunctive expresses expectations and is usually
introduced by , which can be translated as to or that, but we'II come
back to that mood later. Right now we'll focus on the imperative, which
expresses commands or orders. Here are some examples that you saw in
the dialogue.

I
i

on the next

'

'

y .

Go straght.
.

CULTURE

.
Turn rght.

general, the transportation network in Greece ha~ been ~otably upgraded

in recent years. Traveling through the Greek manland s both s~fe and
fast (and impressively punctual!) due to the railway system an? h?hway
network connecting all of the main cities. Coastal transportaton s also
well-organized especially in the summer months when millions of tourists descend upon the Greek islands. Finally, there are a couple of .Greek
airlines, with the largest being Olympic Airlines, that offer domestc and
international connections all year round.
1

Getting around urban areas in Greece is no more difficult than gett~ng


around any oth~r big cities in the world, and with the new transportaton
infrastructure and bilingual signs in tourist areas, it's even easier. Most
Greeks in urban areas also speak English, not always fluently but more
than enough to help tourists.
In Athens you'll discover that using public transportation, especially the
(subway) , is a real time-saver. (buses) and _ (trams)
are also available and have an extensive network. Somethng that may
surprise a first-time visitor to Greece is that a cab driyer who has already
picked up a passenger may pick up more passengers along the way, provided of course they're also going in the same direction. Out of courtesy,
the cab driver will ask the passenger if this is okay, but it's really just a

- - - - - ----..

. . . . . . . ~'3';""!'""""'""""""''"""-- Gre ek
;

______

------................

_,,_,

__ ____
_..;._

y .
Buy mp.

'
'
.
Go back.

).
Speak slowly.

All the examples above are given in the second person plural, which is
what you'd use if you're giving a command to two or more people, or
what you'd use to give a polite command, as was the case in our dialogue.
As you can see, the plural/polite imperative ends in -. The singular imperative ends in -, and that's the command form used in more familiar
situations.

At this point, it's important to take a step back and look at the bigger pictur~ of Gre~k verbs. Gr_eek v_erbs actually have two stems, the present stem,
~hch you ve been usng snce you first learned hoW to conjugate verbs
the present, and the past stem, which you learned in the last lesson.
The imperative that we're looking at now uses the past stem, so if you

--..-----------

----..-.. . ..-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . - - - - - -L-es_s_o_n 8 ----

/ ~33

eed

to review the verb stem mdificatis, tur back t Less 7. frm


the imperative, simply add either the sigular r the plural/plite edig
t the past stem. (There's actually ather imperative that uses the preset stem, which expresses idefiite or geeral cmmads, but we w't
wrry abut that e here!) Here are sme examples f the imperative,
with the simple past give as well s yu ca see h~ the imperative is
built frm it.
~;~~~-~~-~--"--;~~-~~~;~~~ ..................... ~~~-~-~u-tA~--- . . . .~-- ----- RA ;~;~~~~--

, !
Go to your room! (pl.)
~~... I

. UW

Please lsten to me carefully (sg.)


I

IMPERAiVE

IMPERAiVE

Leave rght away (sg.)


!

Tum on the lght n the kitchenl (sg.)

. .,. . . . . : ; \. . . . :. .... . . ~~~-~~~---

-~~~~~~(_f ;~~~)-- ~~~~~~~--~~~{;~

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . --.. . . ----.. . . . . -

I ( comb)
.........................-......................--.-...

i uwak)
I

i:..,...

......_...... _..,.,.,..__ ---"""' ..... _....................- ........ - ...... ._.....-

i''"" ~-

. . . . .____. _._..........._.,................................ . . . ... . . . . . . . .~. ----------... --..---.. . .,._,1

..

..

......

......-........-

'

. w !
Pck up your thngs from the floor I (sg.)

Please talk to hm tool (pl.)

----

,_, _ _ _ __.,.....,...,.,......,,,,.......,,,,,')"''""""'""''OO>OO'-O"''"''''' O''' ''''' '""".... "" '' ''' "0'"H~0'''''"''' ''""' "''' ' ''''''"''' '' '''''''''''''' '' '' '' ''' '' '"''' ' '_.},,,, t"(<ti<~~N..'.Y'(~NHM.YMINIMHtn-NJJHn,;,yt""--~~-N'-"#~..u.A,\' 'N'I '.'o' ' ' .............. ' f.........,..,..,.V,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,.,,,,,,,..,.,,,.,(

! m (

ask)

i >( ret-;rn} --6p~~:~ - --------.,6~---l---~{~

1,~

.~ ----~-----'~

~~~~&~ -i~~k

j'..
1

--

~~-

------ ,

(I turn)

___. .

..

..., . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .

_ .~ ~ ~~~~~

~~~~; ~...........

I~~; <~-~;;;)-- -~;:~--- -----~---- ---- - - ----i~~


,. . . . - - - -- ____. ___. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -.. . .

----

~---

)' ( drive)

---~--,

J1-

.,. . . . _...____, _,__~. ~---~-.................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . .,_. . .... . . . . . . ..._.. . . . .

J1

.-.-

-----_. . _. . . . . . . .

__. . . . . _. ._. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !

.
Don't call the ambulance. (sg.)

f!~ .

Don t cook the same dsh agan. (sg.)

Cmpare the follwing cmmand frms.

r;NG ~i~~:. . . ._,_.,__. ___---.. . ... . . . .-.. . . -.. . . . . . . . . . . . . - -- . . . _ - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,


~~ ~~~~

...

.........................................._..

~~~ (k)

[ . --~. -.....__. ,. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Study your lesson! (sg.)

U'y (cook)

Go to your room! (sg.)

PLURAL/POLITE

~--~'t'N""""f'~--

-----~

~-~~~c~~ --- - -~~-~~~-- ~--~~6~

'

Don t watch v tonght. (pl.)

Play quietly! (sg.)

'

- 1 - - - - - - - - - - ---------. ---. . --. . . . _, ______________. . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . ,.. . . . .

Greek

~ .

I... ..:_
-; . . .!. . . . . . . . .... . . . . :-~-. . . . . . . . . . . .__. ._-....,.,,.

I
'!

.
Don't play ball. (pl.)

that the extra syllable augmet that's added i the past tense is nt
added in the imperative. Als tice that the stress accent is the ate
peultimate syllable i the singular, but the peultimate in the plural.
Mst verbs follw this rule, but there are sme exceptis. Verbs such as
(J turn) ad . (J sole), which nly have tw syllables, keep the
stress accent the peultimate syllable i bth sigular and plural frms.
Simply put, the stress accent i the imperative falls the same syllable as
i the past tense. Two-syllable verbs are the exceptin, because the imperative des't add a third syllable as the past tense des. w let's lk at
sme example sentences.

tice

Fr egative commands, there are tw th.


h
p
h
. .
Igs t at yu should remember
Irst, t e egatie IS formed with () istead f () Th
.
dd th fi 1
e same rules fr
;ha~n: fr:m na - ap~ly to ~ as they do to . Second, the verb endings
a loo~ at the ~ltloo -~ In the sinlgular, ad frm - t - i the plural. Take
~
Wing examp es.

__. . . .._........ ,. . ,. . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-..........--.. . ,. -..

--

______,. _.. .,. .,,... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .,,___ ..


-----.. . ... . . . . . . _. ,. . . . . --.. . . . . . . . .
j ~ ( buy)
,-
,
~
i
,~

'y !

. _. . . .,

<

-,-

- ;~;-l

--. ----

------J
:

. 6
:

~p[;---~- - --

_____ __!~-~~~----------'--

----1

------ - . . . . ' ......_.

......................................................................... ............................................

........ .................... ......... J

....,.,._,

.___._,._.

--------------------Lesson

-----.. . . /
!

,3.5. . . . . .

2: The accusative case

Grammar topic

Lesson 7 you learned the accusative case pronouns, so now let's formally
look at accusative nouns and articles. Don't forget that case refers to the
role that a noun or pronoun plays in a sentence. We've mostly been dealing with the nominative case, yvhich is the case of subjects. The accusative
case is the case that nouns are in if they're the direct object of a sentence,
or if they follow certain prepositions that we'll come back to in a moment.
You've already seen how pronouns change form in the accusative; now
let's look at articles and nouns. At this point you've seen the accusative
articles quite a bit throughout this course, but let's take a moment to look
at them formally. We'll start with the indefinite article.

. ---- . -~-~-~-~-~-~ ---.. . . . . . . .

r~-~----~-~--.-- -----~-~~~~C~~~--~;~~-~~it:~~:--~~-:

-- ' b~

~-Nomina-~~~------ ------------~~
'""'''" " ' " - - - - - ..,.,._,.,

V ''H" "' "~~"

-""''-

''"'-"""'-"'''""'"-'"""'"'"'"'-''''-"'-"''""'"' " "''"

()

Accusative

----- 1

- -----"'"""""""~---

" """'"'"'

e::

As you can see, only the masculine indefinite article changes form in the
accusative. It drops its final - of the nominative to become , or .
Again, the rule for the use of - is similar to the one with () and ().
It's usually used if the next word begins with a vowel, the consonants , ,
, , , or , or the consonant combinations , , , or c.
Now let's look at the definite articles in the accusative case, which show
more changes than the indefinite articles. Note the - ending that may
show up in the masculine and feminine singular forms.
~-

C>

!
!
i
~

..,,, .

-.

...,.,.,., ,,,,.,.,,,.,.,,,,,,.,,,, ., ,,,,,,,,,, .,,.,,.,..,,,,., ,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,., , ,, , ,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,, .~.,,,,,,,.,,...,. ,,,,,, , ,,,, ,,,

....,...-.,.,,,,.,.__,.,. __,,,.,.....,..,,..,,.-"'-''""--

MASCULINE
,,___,.. - -

.................

J?'Io:'"-~~"''~>--"~""""'"'~

..............,,,, ......................_....._.........................."""""""...........,.............

"'''"'''~-....."-

[ Nom. (sg~)

~ -~ -~~~ : (s~.f---

L...~YW:-.vw.-. .

FEMININE

-~-_...,.,.,

()

- -()

NJ<UHNJN#N>N-~--#-

--~

-~~

Acc~ (pl.)
I

.. ....H#,., . , . ,... . . ... . . . . . . . . . ., .

. .

~ .

Elen lstens to her classmates.


'7.1

~ .

Ask for the map.

..................,,............... _ ........................................j

~--~''-1-' ~---..._

:. .
Mrs. Katina shows the garden.

.:? ~~'} : .

Nkos s sngng the natonal anthem.

-------~~--

~ ( :;''''-' ''' '''"'''" ' '''::.:~ ;: ::::: ;;::.............................-.:-.............................-....................................... . - .............. .-.....-1

I Nom~ {pl.)

- - _. - . . ;. .,. . . - . .,. . , _. . . . -.. . . . . . . . . . . .,. .


N ... _ _ _ _
.,, N_ _ _ _

NEUTER
........

Notice that in the accusative singuiar the finai - f th


. . .
d
d
'

e nomnatve s
~oppe : us~ as you saw with the indefinite articles, but that in the plural
t e nomnatve and accusative forms are the same The

. .
h
. .

excepton s
nouns that d
plural -
Inb - In t e no~InnatJve singular form. Their nominative
. ng ecomes - the accusative. Here are a few exam
sentences wth masculine nouns in the accusative.
e

..

~t:""' ""'~:.,~--t-o "":~;"'"""'"''''""''""'"""""'J"'"""""""""'" " '"''-"'---:

...."> ..........., ..' ........................................................,............................................................................. -....................,._......- - - - - -

,......._-----.

:
_.(

Now Iet's Iook at fe

ex t'
f ~ . . mnne nouns the accusative. Notice that with the
h
. .
cep Iemnne nouns ending.
'd
.

-,
t
e
nomnatve
and accusative
noun s are entca .

...........:::............... ................................:.."'"""' ... ............................................. .

The use of - is again the same as in the case of and . The masculine
. and feminine singular forms take the final - when the next word begins
with a vowel or with , , , c, , , , , and .
Now let's look at nouns in the accusative case, starting with masculine
nouns. Take a look at the following table, which groups masculine nouns
according to their nominative singular endings.

--~-

............ .................. .

-:;r-7
~----~, ';w~~~ . ,-..,~_....W.Oy.N,.........._,...,.,,""''"'~- ~:...:.....
.
J

. ~c~. (sg.)

......

~
---.. . . . . ........ . . . ___ . __. . ...__ ~ .

e t

. ,."...)-,...,.............."~~~-

~~

(ta)

.~

::

-~-~---~--: ,. ~-'----

. . . . . ~~. . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .~. . . . . _., . . . .. . ._. _,__

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . ,..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-~---~-~-~~~~~~-- -~
- ~~6&~
~{;;

~
....._
-----__
- __ ___ __
................._...........................

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - ' - - - - -..---..-------

...................................................................................

----

--------------------

.................................. ~......-.~ .........."'.

........., ............._.......... .

......

...

..,:~::~;;.

----------lesson -8

~
Antnis

!...

U.

Dimitris (nm.) talks

made the sauce.

Irin (nm.)

.
Vivi eats the chclates.

The teacher sclded Irini (acc.).

. .
(end)

: Acc. (sg.)

(water)

(meat)

(name)

...,....,..._


...

'

~'

..................,,.................

I Acc.

(pl.)

I .

I
'

1CU.

-- . - --

The traveler lst the ticket!


I

drank the wine.

Proper names in Greek change depending their .case as w~ll, fol:owing


the same rules as nouns. And don't forget that they re used wth artcles .

-----..........-...............--------........~-------.........-....--- -"'"''

~ ~
~
1

~-'!

. ACCUSAiVE

- - ---I - -

MaSCUine indefinite article

- - - -..--~----

()

j'
t

-~~~-~~fi~ite -~rticle
--- . ------~~(~)"---- --1
r.~: ~~ ~~~~i~~-arti_~'= = ~~~~::-.==: :: : - .~ == :-.=:1

----

~.. . . . . . . .

. ..............

.................... . . . . ...... . . . . .

F. pl. definite article

~~~~ ......... ": .......................

...

..

.......jl

.
~

~. s~~-~~~-~~-~t~.-~i-._~, , , -, - "'9- , o<;;:~~--_:;-J


..

nouns in

. - ------

r.~~~,. nouns ;..;;-~~ .-------- .....................-....... . ................. ................

Greek

--

~~~;~~~~ . ~;-~ ~;

Be careful of the waves!

- - - - - - ---- -

---..~~-..-"~..~~--. .~........,,...,____,..---~------,. . . . .. . . ....- . --... --,---~-""

.----------..............

-~

Andrea, bring the things (purchases) we've bught.

Petrs

--~

F~ sg. definite article

, ~.

-:::

summarize, there are't changes a lot of istaces from the nominative t the accusative. The ones that you need to keep in mind are as
follows.


I

' .
Lukas is thinking abut his expenses.

confusion in dialogues, readings, and other sections where the


same n~me .may appea~ in different forms dependig case, people's
names ths course wll geerally be written in their ominative form
in the Eglish translatio (such as Dimitris), but i their case-appropriate
form in the Greek (). Of course, the example sentences abve are
exceptios, presented in rder t illustrate the chages in the Greek.

r-.. . . . .-.. . . . . . . .-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . --.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . --.-- --.. . . -..-- -- - . ..... . . . . . . . .

----------------#---~---~----.,.-- ---~-~

lj

----NOJ__.,..-_....-NrH-

\.

-- - - ~~-----~

Niki distributes the tys.

I~

y.
I

finished her studies.

--

i ~'

........................................~ .. ....................................................................,.............................,................................... ~ ................................................................1

............................

''"""'""

, ...}~~"'''"'"'~~ ......._,,..,,,,-,,.,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,..,.,,,,,..,,..,,-.,,.,.,,,..,.,..,,.,.,,,1

'

m.-;;;;J~ ------- ~~-Ji- ~~;~p,-~~

~-ff.-HI'<>~''N><._.....:.un=~v~...~~~.,.N#M'I'~''''''"'''''V.>.~'I'''''.M'I'''"''""'"'-'"''''.,..'oN"\'-'''""""1

-~(>(~'-----~~~~-'"""""'''~'''''""""

~.........---~----

, -)

avid

not change at all in the

_ _ _ _......

......,.,.,,,.... ..........._........... m;.;.........,..,,,,""''''''''"''''''''''''"''''"''''-.."'''''~~--

(child)

-+

fnally, let's look at neuter nouns, which do

Nom. sg.

accusative.

::s

.
Lefteris is lking at the pictures.

t". _.. . . . ~. . . .-( _. ..--J..,..........-...... -.---


~. -

::s

c:
a.

much.

Eleni lves Dimitri (acc.).

The children blw n their sup.

And

)>

_______. .,.

:~~

-------

...

. . . . . . . . . . _. _. . . . ._. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _. . . . .

. --

_:_j

=~~- ------t

.. ...... ......................................... ................................................-... -"' .........................................................................................................................................................1

The only other minr change that you'll come acrss is with sme masculine. three-syllable us that are stressed the antepenultimate syllab~e the nminative (plural). the accusative (plural), they change
ther stress to the peultimate syllable. There are not many of these, s
you shuld t worry about them too much. Her~ are some f the commn
ones you may come across.

- _______
....

-----------..------

..................................... ............. ..,.........................................- .................................................................

-------.. .- Lesso

s--1139

As you can see, the adjective endings in the accusative are very similar to
the noun endings. The masculine singular forms drop the final -, and in
the masculine plural - changes to -. None of the other forms change.
Let's look at some example sentences with adjectives in the accusative
case.
I
~.h'}
I

' .c-VJ\V
.

Petros panted the bg wall.


y .

Anna buys expensve shoes.

Rent the bright apartment.


.

Grammar topic 3: Accusative adjective agreement

. Stella

In Lesson 3 you learned that adjectives agree in gend~r and number with
f and that their agreement endngs
the nouns t h ey mo d y,
. . resemble
. those
.
of the noun they agree with. Remember that most ad]ect~ves end -~
the masculine singular nominative form, but some end --. A~Jec
.tives also agree with case, so let's look at the accusative agree~ent endgs
. now, starting with - adjectives. Here are the forms of (good) and

(rich).

......~--- -- ............... ----~ -. ~~~-~U~-~~-~--" .......-----"-~~~;~;~-~-- . . . . . .

I!----'"-..----"-----
\ Nom. (sg.)

:. . .......

.. ..... (

.... ...)

~~6.~;~

........ w ....................................

\ Nom. (pl.)

Nkos

______..__ -----..

\ Acc. (pl.) ,

--

....

...

. ..

.. .. ..

,..........

,..

... .... ............. .


l 1

...............

. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ . . .. . . . . . . . ................. . . . . .. . .. ......... . . ... . ............. . . . . . ::;:,


-. ~-z-,
. . . .
. . . . ..,. .
- . .
. --.:,':

~~

. . ______

-- 7~~-1

.. ?t....

...,......~ ....... . . . . . ~....... ... ~~. . . ....:~-"

~~~,;...;.....--..w....,............-

""

J.l

.... ----..,.,..,_, _

..
'l ,

...~. . .'~"""-~~- ....:..-.~~------..-----,-

J.l
, ..

_.... -.. ------v.ww."'

__, .,.. .~ -:

. .' '"' ' '"""'-""'"""""'. . . '""'' "'-' '. . . . . . . . ._... . . . . . ---. . .~---. .---v.. .-

~...,.~-""------

And now let's look at (br~wn) and


MASCULINE

(deep).

-----

saves old magazines.

Grammar topic r: Accusative prepositions

NEUTER

.
--.
.
.
-----------.
.
--
.
------

'h
___. _ . . . .-~~ / ,

:. . . . . . . . . . .-. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

\ Acc. sg.

Mother loves her good daughters.

-~--

.......

young Mary for camp.

& .

. . . . . . . . . .... . . .,. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. -- . . ,

regsters

...........

Prepositions are little words that express things like direction, location,
time, and other relationships. Examples of prepositions in English are to,
with, through, before, and so on. Greek, the nouns that come after prepositions are in a particular case determined by the preposition itself.
prepositions take the nominative case, but lots of common ones take the
accusative case, so we can refer to them as accusative prepositions. Strictly
speaking, there are thirteen accusative prepositions. They are: (to, at),
(with), y (/r, about), (till, as), (towrds), (from, by),
(fter), (without), (according to, on, upon, against, during),
(in spite of less than), (instead), (without), (until,
up to). Of course some of these are more common than others, but they're
all followed by the accusative case. Take a look at these examples.

,...~

i
i

l
I

We came back from school.


.

Alexandra s

talkng

with Leonida.

r y ).
save

the place for Odyssea.

r ' .

Thomas left without his sister.

. . . . . . - . . . . . t--. . -- --""'' ' ' "'"'_. -.. .-.. . . .-..-.. . . . . . . . ... -.. . . . . --.. . . . ._,_. . . . . . ... . . .-.. . .--.. . . ....-.. . . . . . .---"""''__. . . . . ... .- ----""'"-'""''"_. . ---------. . . . . . . -.. . . . . . .-----140 1

Greek

__ ______________

.........................................-...-........,___.

..-----------............................1.................................

Lesson

l 141

' .

They walk in our direction.

1,...
I

L~

~ ' .

Invte

Nikos talks from morning till night.

+ {) = {)

. . . . . . ... ..... . .---.--.. -..,.-----.

-~;~ ~ . m~~

+ =

+ =

~~-;-~~~;---

--

. ' .

bought

it Jor him.

' '.
came Jor this reason.

' !
What wouldn't give for this job!

-~

' .
work hard for these children.

'

,..,.--..-"-"-----.... ... . ... . . . . . . \

""""''"'''"""''"""""''"'"""'""''""'""""'"'""''"'"''"""""""'"''"""''''""''"_..."""""-"""""'''""""""""""''"--'",__,__ _

some of your friends.

'NN_N_<nN-<NnNnnnnn""""'--"-''""'"'""''"''"""'''''"''""""'"'V'X-NY"'>''""_."""'""""""""'"'""""''"""""'"O"O''""""''""""''''''""""""""''''''"""""""''''''''"'""""""""''"""""'"""'''"'""'"""'"'""""""''"''' """"'""-"""'''""""'"-M

___...................,,..........,,.... vr'"""" ......~...,...............,...........,..................- ......- ............................- - - - " -" """""""_.._.." : ' -

1 .
bought it from the shops.

Let's take a closer look at the preposition (to, t) now. When is followed by the definite article, the two form the following contractions.

' .
She was among the first to come. (lit., She came from the first.)

One important point to make about prepositions is that literal translations


do not always work. There are of course many times when this is true across
languages, but it's especially true with prepositions. Sometimes one language
uses a preposition where another one doesn't, or the choice of preposition
is entirely different. So, keep in mind that the translations of prepositions
given here are approximations, and the exact meaning may vary.

I~,,.,,_,_..
+ {) =.w---~
{)

Pass by the house.

take the subway instead of the bus.


I

returned from the barber (shop).

' .

.
-..!

'~ ,

.l~ ' I '


.
pad ten euros for these flowerpots.

y p .

' .
prepared these only for them.
I

Ifigenia goes home.

y y.

We went to the stores.


I

c1 ' .

86. READING

He went back to his country.


Ron has a lot of directions scribbled different pieces of paper. Can you
follow them?

Come at seven (o'clock).


The preposition (from) sometimes loses its final vowel before the definite articles, as does L (fr) before a pronoun.

-:;-~~(;) -= d~~~o{~)f;~;;; th~)-- - d .;-~~-; -;~.--;;~(!~~~


~
..
--------- ....
\ + {) ::::= ' {) (from the) :t6 += ' (from the)
I
~
~
\ :t6 += ' (from the)
+ = ~_!~-~e!_ ____ _j
.......................--

.......

""""'''""""""""""""""""''' '' ''""""""""'""""''''''''''""''"''"'''''' ''''' '''"'"''"'"'''''""''"""'"""""""""""""""-""""'""'''""""""""""""""""- " - -

..

!........ ,.. ........................................................................-...... - ......- ....

-----""'

- --- ---- - --- -

~-

\ -y + {) = 'YL' {) . .

}"'"" ...

.....................,...........

-~~--

. -y + = L'

\ (for him)

(for them)

~'..~.,------"'"'""""""'"'"'"'-----"''""'"''"''''''''""""' ......................................-.,............................................--..-,.--..- --------"------- ""~1


-y + {) = -y' {) (for he) -y + = -y' (for them)

................

~-;..,;.............................................:.w..............

-y += -y' (for it)


f

-.J....---..----------..- -- - - - - -..-------..--

w ................... ...... ..............- - ' - ...

-y += -y' (for them)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - " " " ''''''""'"'""'"'"'--'"""""''''"''"'"'''"""""""" " "''''"""'''

..............................................~.;,~.,...,.................... -~.-... . ........ . . ... . -----~ . .--~..--"'--/"""~,_..-.f!'_....

..............................\-----..---

142

Greek

- - - - - - - - -- ---------..--...........................

y . ,
p .
~ ;. y ' lcr.
]C ;p 1e
y~. .
.

I
I
?I t
~
y . y
,
~ .

I
I
, ' mw
- " ,

I I .
~ ~ ~ ~ W
yp.

---- - - - - - - ---- -..........- ...................................................................-------- - - --

Lesson

-.........................

,._.....- ..................

143

cently the nly way up was t be pulled in a basket. Tday, stairs have been
carve? around the rck. These mnasteries are f religious, histric, and culturalmportance, and are included the UNESCO W ld .
.

. .
y ').

,
I

.
I

'l..

,
I

The regin f Thessaly als includes mst f the S


d
.
1 d h
pora es, a grup f 18_
a s t e Aegean Sea. These islads are famous fr their scener
d
a~
clear water. Due t their close prximitv island-ho . .

ppng IS ecouraged
rd er to get the mst ut f them!

.
I

up to the prk. There, turn left nd wlk towrd the direction


of the pstry shop. The bnk is one hundred meters further down (lit., more
fter). It's housed in modern building. The post office is inside the sme
building, nd it s~ys open till five in the ftemoon. Mrs. Stvrki 's school is
two streets pst (lit., fter) the post office.
Go

etage Lst.

stright

Here are some websites you may find f iterest:

r .-- . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - ---

..................................... ........

_~

~wwW ~.;_:~::~=~~-~ 11 ~~----

nformation ou -nt ~-~~----........................1

~ ~~-ePelion.com

-~~-~~~;~-~~-i-to;~~t;~o~~; -

r--:-:-........... :........ -.... ~~..-.... .

From the squre, tke the bus for three stops. At the corner, there's bright
sign nd it dvertises the dentl cliniC which is one street west of the bus
stop. It is found on Itridou Street. It's quiet street, one block fter the
police sttion. On your right, youl see the tutoring school 'chilles/' nd on
the left side of the street s smll rel estte office.

-----~........... .. ........ ........

www.meteora-greece.com

. .

Pelion

........................._~~~.......

lnformation on

......~..........._..

!
.

. . . ........................ . . . .................../

,. ~--~~~~~~~des-~--~J

i
!
~

EXERCISES

The supermrket is bout fifteen blocks from the prk of The Heroes. From
the prtment to the prk, it's not very fr. Bu( the rest ofthe wy is bit
longer. Even (lit., And) without purchses (bgs to crry), it is tiring, especilly towrd the end. In ny cse the route is esy, without (ny) turns. You
lwys go in strght lne untl the prkng lot of the supermrket.

~- Give both the singular ad plural/formal commad frms f the follow-

Ig
1.

verbs.

( swm)

' ( move)
2.
.

3 ( set ofj)

CULTURE

4 ( return)

We cotiue ur tur f Greece with a stop i (Thessly), hme .


of the mythical half-ma, half-hrse cetaurs ad the birthplace f the
mighty warrirs Achilles ad Jas (f the Argauts ). Thessaly exteds
t the orth f Cetral Greece the mailad ad icludes sme f the
earby islads i the Aegea Sea. With bth mutais ad islads, the
regi ffers smethig t visitrs i all seass.
The majr prt city f (Volos) is located i Thessaly. mder city,
Vls is actually built the site of the aciet city f lk, the mythic
startig pit f Jas ad the Argauts their quest t fid the Glde
Fleece. shrt distace frm Vls is (Pelon), the tree-cvered
mutai that is home t hikig trails, traditial villages perched gree
hillsides, ad Chir, a rewed tutr ad cetaur i Greek mythlgy.
Other attractis i Thessaly iclude the famus eighteeth cetury schl
ad library i n (gr), the arched ste bridge i :
(sgrd), ad ice-cld moutai sprigs. Near the city of
(lmbk) are the (Meteor), a group of imposig moasteries
that trace their origis to the eleveth cetury. The moasteries are built
atop sadstoe pillars that rise vertically ut of the grud, ad util re............................... ~......-----

144 1

_______ __ __
..

Greek

..

- .......____________............_.................

............................................................................... .............

5 ( sk)
6. ( answer)

7 ( kss)
8. ( love)

9 ( comb)
1 .

' ( open)

11

( clen)

12. ( study)
13

( wke up)

14

( hurt)

5 ( smell)

l6. ( close)

- - - - - - ----............................_.
..

- -.... . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . .... . .__. .__l_e-ss_o_n_8_ . _ __ _ ~ ~4~ ---

'

17. ( fuse thej phone)

18. ( converse)

'
' (the lost tresure)
5

6
,
,

rch merchnts)

(the

. (the open windows)

7. (the my people)

Write the following commands in the negative form.

1.

, . (Open the door, plese.)

8. (the beutiful islnds)

2.

. (Answer the question right way.)

3 . (Begin your work.)

(the whte towel)

10.

(the

roned

skirts)

4 , . (Help me, plese.)

11. ( curous neghbor)

5 . (Write crd for his nme dy.)

12.

( hgh wll)

6. , . (Cler the tble, Petros.)

13.

( chep tcket)

14. ( wrnkled blouse)


C. Give the accusative forms of the nouns and articles.
1.

(the student)

2.

(the girl)

15. ( quet prtment)

~ Complete the following sentences with the accusative form of the words

3 (the surprse)

1.

4 (the couch)

5 (the irplnes)
6. (the bker)

parentheses.

... ( ). (We're laughing at the joke.)

. ( ). (We're levng from tutorng


school.)

3 ... ( ). (We learn the news from


Alexndros.)

7. (the frends)

4 -y ... ( ). (You buy fertilizer for the gar

8. (the flight ttendnts)

den.)

9 (the kitchens)

10.

(the blcony)

5 ... ( ). (They're gong to the mrket.)

11.

( snger)

6. ~ ... ( :~ ). (He works hard for his

12.

( nurse)

fmly.)

13. ( cge)

.. ( ). (He/She s coming from Amerc.)

. ... ( ). (He's coming with his cousin.)

14. ( bicycle)

9 ( ). (I'm sorry for the msunderstnding.)

15. ( plot)

. ... ( ). (I'm Studyng in Athens.)

D. Give the accusative forms of the following phrases.


1.

(the nrrow rod)

2.

(the closed shop)

3 (the stry dogs)


------!--- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----
!

146 1

Greek

'

- --

...............................................................

____

- - -.................................................................

___

__...................................................- ....

.,

Lesson

----- ...................................

147

LESSON

INDEPENDENT CHALLENGE
Now, it's your turn to put what you've.learned in this lesS,n to practical use by trying your hand at giving directions. Choose a place that
you're familiar with and know how t get to easily, as well as a point
of departure. Then, write out the directions,~sig verbs in the imp~r.a
tive form, and of course any of the necessary p;~positions thatyod"ve
1earned. And tlon't forget that giving good directions is as hard as
}1aving to follow them! Aft~r all, you don't w.ant ayone to tell you
"it's all Greek to me !"
..
.. .

/
Ma/(ng phone ca/11

Ma/(ng an appointment

ANSWER

. 1. /, 2. /, 3 /,

4 /, 5 /, 6. /,
7 j,8. /, 9 /, 10. /
, 11. /, 12. /, 13.;
, 14. I, 15. I, 16. 4"\
V\t 1\.1\t,
17. j, 18. /
I

, .'

1 4 ..."\ " '

gA. VOCABULARY WARM-UP

1. , . (Don't open the door, please.)


2. . (Don't answer the question
right away.) 3 . (Don't begin your work.)
4 , . (Please dont help me.) 5
. (Don't write card for his name day.) 6.

to come for an

, . {Don't clear the table Petros.)

have an appointment.

C. 1. , 2. , 3 , 4 , 5
, 6. , 7 , 8. , 9

/
,

10.

11.

12.

'
13. , 14. '
, 15.
I

D. 1.

'

'

2.

"\"

,
I

12.

10.

I
' ,

13.

I

,

8.
I

'

I
'
,

'
3 ' ,
, 6.

'

11.

,
I

job application

14.

nsurance compan

intervew

Youre bus

'

to cancel the appontment

person.

time in the afternoon

date book agenda

up-to-date CV/resume

15.
1

1. .2. . 3

"\~ . 4
' ' .

/\;;

5
. 6. V\..
/

)4

/\,t, ,
I

'
5

y ')'

' '

,
I

In ,this lesson we'll take a step back and tie up some Ioose ends. Since
we ve
. covered some heavy-duty grammar in the pas t 1esson) you 'll h ave
a b~ of a break, and a. chance to practice a lot of what you 've Iearned.
You ~I cover s?me pr.actcal new material,- such as higher numbers, telling
the tme, makng polte requests, and giving the date. First, we'll begin with
a vocabulary warm-up.

98. DIALOGUE

....."\ .

. 7 . 8. .

L~st w~ek, Ioanna sent an application to a major insurance firm in Athens.

Lsten as she gets a phone call to set up an appointment.

9
'
y. 10. '
.
I

: .
'
'
'

.::.;

_._..................................

_____

148

Greek

---

- - - - - - - - ----- ---- --------

: , .

Ioanna: Thank you, but unfortunately, have another


appontment that day.

: '
I

. y y

Mhalis: Does t work (lit., serve you) better Jor you to


come on the sxth of t'e month at nne thrty?


'
I

.
I

Ioanna: Hm .. you know ... that's not so good ether


... have an appontment that day, too.

,
I

Mhalis:

. . . ... t ...
I

").,

,
I

').

J.

~
I
/ I .

Mhals:

< ;

: ,
I
I
.

Mhals:

-
::J
r-+
3

::J
r-+

At one forty-five n room number 735 Please


b~ the~e on tme and brng the mcst up-to-date
resume (you have) wth you.

Ioanna: Of course. Thank you very much. Good-bye.

, .
I

QJ

"'t:J
"'t:J

Ioanna: ~he seventh of the month s good. J'm wrting t


n my date book so that I7l remember t. What
time dd you say that have to be there?

~.

.,').~

QJ

::J

Mihalis: Yes, have an empty (slot) on the seventh of the


month at quarter to two.

: y ...

::J
C1Q

()

Ioanna: These are appontments made whle back


and t's not right to cancel them. want to
make good on my responsbilites. Do you offer
appontments n the afternoon?

:
I
I
, ;
I

QJ

UJ\JW .

3:

Let me see what can do for you ... You )re


very busy person from what see.

,
L'\ ")........

Good-bye.

t 'L .
I

,~

: , ,
I

735

human resources

j w

secretary

telephone conversaton

operator

Good mornng. Can speak to Mss Ioanna

call center

Kspnopoul?

pre-pad

Ioanna: Yes, ths s she speakng.

cordless phone

Mhals:

:v ()

cell phone

phone booth

()

answerng machne

I
I
'
I

: . , .
: .

Mhals:

J'm callng from the nsurance company ZISE.


You appled for job and we receved the
resume that you e-maled. We'd lke you to
come for an intervew on the fifth of this month
at eight fifteen.
I

- - -....- ....!............,..._ .._ _ _ ...- ........_...................... - - - - - -.................. _ _ _ _ .............._.............- --

150

Greek

9C. VOCABULARY

- - ---....... _ .

- - - - ................ ___
,

_____

..............,_

phone card

- - -....................

---

_........................___._ _ _ _..... ............t - ~

Lesson 9

151

phone book

yellow pges

personl informton (nme, dte

time did you sy the


ppointment is?

conference cll

Wht

video conferencing

I '). ,.,

of brth)

.
I

yer

w;

tme

y ;

Can you tell me how to get to your


office?

w .

The lne s free.

busy, occuped ( person)

J'm sorry, mssed my appontment.

dte

note

i n
i DJ

Can you gve me nformaton?

to postpone my

What are your office's hours?

messge

want

to cncel the appointment.

ppointment.

wnt

phone lne)

busy

free, vlble ( person)

w . The lne s busy.

free, vcnt ( set, phone lne,


person)

He/She s talkng on the phone.

TheyJre not answering.

I'm on the phone.

:~
').!.

dl

J\tj

pck

hng

up (the phone)
up (the phone)

(lt.,

close the

phone)
I

').!.

/\t
,u.

...

leve messge

put on hold

long-dstnce cll

found

your phone number n the


phone book.

I'd like you to connect me to.


extenson ...
want

to change my flight.

voceml

9. CULTURE 1

gD.

PHRASES

.....-!

V\t

I'd lke to

mke n ppontment.

I'm busy tht dy.

.
.
I

I'm
_,').

J..

KUU.

152-~

--

vlble.

cn't her you


connecton

well. The
sn 't good.

... ... . . . . . ..---------.. . . . . . . . _ ____. . . . . . . . . . __. _ __. _. . . . . . . .

Gree k~---------

Making appointments in Greece comes with the understanding that there


can be ~ (postponements), (cancellations), and often
(delays)-from either side. As a generalization, Greeks are
laid-back about time, and if they happen to be running late for whatever
reason, they don't let it bother them too much. Therefore, as a visitor, it's
best to be armed with a bit of patience and a good sense of humor when
you're waiting for an appointment, including personal appointments. If
you're waiting for a lunch date with a Greek friend, and he or she is running late, you shouldn't let it spoil your mood or your meal. But don't take
that to mean that it's okay to be late for an official appointment, and much
less so for a train or plane. These types of schedules and appointments

.............. ...

__

- - -................................___
_____....................................._.

__

..........................................

..............................-..........

..............................

Lesson 9

153

1y, and 1 n fact ' "'


(/ missed the train) is an
are taken seous
~
expression that means missed great opportunity.

As you can see, the word for the cardinal form of one hundred, (),
is singular and fixed, but the words for hundreds, for example
(3), and the word for one thousand, , are all plural forms, and they
chage dependig the geder of the word that follows. Higher numbers
(thousands), (millon), and (bl
lion), do t change for geder. Whe you're just coutig, use the neuter
form.
~-~- ...........................,.................
~................._.____________
_........................................_......
................................_________ ...................................
i ..
'
'
I
i
! ~
126

gF. GRAMMAR
Grammar topic

1:

Numbers above

100

___

Now le(s look at numbers above 100. Below are both the cardinal and ordial umbers. The ordial forms are't very commo, but yo~ may c~m)e
across them. add a umber to a hudred, add - to (~ ,
ad the give the umber. Notice that for 200, 300, ad so , -
(m.); - (f.); ad - (.) are added, dependig the u that
follows.
t""'"""...,."""'"'--""Y'}''' : "'' ~"'' ' ~''' ''''''''''' ''' ' '~ ' -'~ <~HooMH#tHtHt--0#-"UM'''' ''''''''

. . . . . . . . . .-~'~-........--

: ~ -,-----~,--~

ORDINAL

- ~~~~~~~~~'

'.

. .... .

----~--.. ........-.

...-......................................._ _ _

1i-~-----.-... . . . . . . . . . .-- ~;~~~~


_

.. J

. ;~~---~~. . -.......... --;~~~~

..

. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .

"""-~~---

-.+

. . .2,. . ... . .. ..

. . . 5..
---- . ~- ~~-~~

--~

................- -

_ _ _ _ _

'

have forms agreeig f?r all three gede;s i both sigul~r


ad plural, for example ~, ~, t;,
t, , ad (3 ).

154 1

______

Greek

..,..............

___ _

____

........................

.....................................

--

. ........................._.

3,465,,

__

-:

'

--= ....... ....................... _

~-~..... ............................ , - - -..- ......................- ...._.____..........................

.._..

The boat has one thousand passengers.

Ordial umbers

eole

HejShe won five mllion nine hundred thousand euros in the lottery.

Of course, one context in which these higher numbers will come in handy
is expressig the year.

r---.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .- -.. . . . . . . . . . .__


1 .U. ,: .;",/.

~... ~--....................... --~---~

- - --..........................................- -...................

--

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._. ._

-,..,.__.

-.. . . . . . . . . _

----......................,..,.. . . . _

;
!

_......---~

2,500,400

................_.._ .._ _..___..,!

--------- -!

...................... .......-..

....... , ,,. , .................................................

.................................................._ _ _-

-----.0.:.-.cc ....
- -; - ;

...OO . .OoOOOoOOoOOooo

....................... -

!~--1,
.
_ .............. ------- _. -------- ,. .
- -------- ---- ~~V
1 :
" . . .. . . _
_Y_o,..oyoo~yO,

~.....
I! 1 , -. .. . ._
. . _ ----..----- --- '\
. . . . . . . . _ - -..... ._.............._.,,....,..
1,000,QOO . . . _~'!~---- ~~~~~~~~~ -. . . . . . . . _,___ --
. . . 6~-~. .~-6 ---;
' _
1
, .

- - __ __ . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . -- ......._._ . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ .- - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _
~-

~
,......

Three thousand s hundred vstors vst ths sland.

f--""'-------- ;:;{i~~~~;~ ----- -

-~ -~~l& - - ------ - - ... ~"~

. . . . . . . - _. . .--.-.. . . . . . . . . . . . __..

~~~~
~-
. .8
. . ,;~~. . . ... . . ... . . . . ... . . .. . . . . .,.,~--. . . . .r/
. . . . . . . . . . . . .--.. ;-_..._. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . ~----...............
.. ,___ __
I 9 --
/
~~~~~ __ _

-~~~~~ -----

ft)

_!

~
,......

'.........,___]_

...................- ...-

-- --- .......................----~ --.-...... . ---- ----- ..........


I

. . . .... . . . . . . .~. . . . . ._. ___. . . . . ........ . . . . . . . . ..

~-~_:_~-- . ~. . . .. --..

...................--.................,(..

-................ ....

- -- . -- ------.. . . . . . -- -----.. . . . . . . . . . . - .. .

. . . . . ... .. . . . . . . .,..--.. . . .-.. . . . . . . .

----~-

QJ
'
'

-.v..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,_.__________ . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . '


50,748 euros

__. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~~~~~~

. . - . . . . . . . . . . . .

- -..- .............___.. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _...................................., ____________ .. ,................

QJ
~

...._ ......................... - - - - .. .....................- . -

2 women
~--2 chidren

'
v..
m

"-

O"Q

-----..............._-----..................................... - - -........1

.------'":"~-
.

1-~-. . .... . . .. -~-. ., .~---~~~;~~~~~~ - . ~. -~~~~;~~~----~. . . . . . . ... ... . . . .:


....................................~- .................................__ ........ ........:................................-....-.....--~, - ..........................."'---~..!
l! 200i 3 . _.. . . . . . . . . . . .- - //
-- :..~~~~-~~-~~.~- - ----..~---.
.. _
//

___._. . . . . . . . I
. 400 .
___.......................... ............ -
-~b _-. ----~/
1t ______-
L - - - .......

QJ

women

200 men
.............. .. ...............................__ -...............................

t
~~~~~ ~-~~~-. . . . . . .,. ._1

150

~- yo '"?"---~

. .; . . ,

r-.
.
.
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
:
_
.
____
,

......... _ ..................

t t

l 125

! .

. . .l(j
..._....
. . . .t._. ._ . . . .
. . '.. ..
.. ~-. . .. . .
. . . .... ..,-.~---,._:

......................................- - -.................. _.........................- ...- -, - ,............... I

--= ~~____ ----~~ :=----~]

--.. ~-.....................................--..-~ - ~ -

[r,; ;1 . ... ----

_ ~~~~--~~~--~~-~~-~. . ,_. . .--~


,. . . ---- . ~~~~ ~&. . . . .. . . . . . . .-- ~
~

,,

, ~
...... -..................... ..-----~-----........
,r----..........
1 .q

..,..... ,_......:."--..-1

..................

____

"'''''",..,...............................""''"'-'''''''''''' '''''''''''''"''''''"...,_'_-.t,~V--HIW'.nN-'M'" '''' ''''''''''' '' '''''',y,"''''"-;.'''"~''_'..'''''"''''' ' '''''''''''"'-.--.''""'~

CARDINAL

..................

~-----.--..-

' --- ------,. .................___,,,....................................

--1

-2-
..,
-...............

... ...............

____

_.

- ....................

__

1988
............... _ , , .______ .............................................. _..._,

One minor point to keep in mind is that Greek, like Other languages in Europe, uses a period i writte umbers where Eglish uses a comma, and
aco1ma where Eglish uses a period. So, 1.540. meas 1,54,, and
75,00 meas 75.00 euros .

. . ... . . . . . -

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ______ --- --- --

... . . . .... . . . . _._

____. . . . . . . . ._____,- - . - --t-- . . . . ..


Lesson 9

/ 155

Grammar topic

2: Telling time

say that something happens at a particular time, use the preposition

ask what time it is, you can say ; (wht tme s ~t?} or

us:

; (do you hve the tme ?) answe~ wit~ a w~~le hour, JUSt
~he
number before the phrase . Since s fem~ne, use the femnne
form for :. You can also add the word ~sh~, exact!~ ~ --

Et; . . ~~./~{~j;.----=- ___ _t~s 1:aa. --


--~~-
i ~~&
./ ~cX
.
. . . t's ~:~.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -.. . .- . . . . . .-"". . -.....................
. . _ ..._. . . ..._.. .. . . .
!

............

---~

- - - - . . . .................

......... . . . . . ~.... . . . . .-----"'..----

-~-

.."- -

,__.......,...............

/t'S 2:30.

- - - - - ' ' " ' ' ' . ,' "'''''''''''"'''''''.. -"'.--

""""'''''' -

l.

..-.. . ..~.... . . . . . . . ..-..

Ii~ ~~~~~ ~~;/J~~~:


......... --:-=
!....,,.,...~.- . _.. -""- - - . _. ._"'' "'' "' "' "' '"' .,. --..---

___]

,...., ,.,...,,..,,,,,

...

__. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . --

....

___ ,

--~~........... . . . . . . . . . .,...,.___~-. . . . . .

......''''o" "'" '" "''''''""''''"'''Nffo<,./i- H I -

-----~v-~; . .
..

t's :

~ . .

11

_..... . . .. . ..-----~ ~ --~---. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


...~~ -~~-~~~ ~~ .
t's a:35.
i
i

7 25

_.". . . I -~------. . . . .
1----.
. . . .............
-.. . .. . . . _-.
-.. . - ---- -- . . . . --I
. , .

.......................... ------ -
......- ----- ---~-......................._.....-..--~ - ........ ............_ _ _
1

.l

I
.
..

l,

~--~-~. . . . . . . . . . . . . ---.. -. ;. . ~:.......~..........., ......-~ ..........~~~-r'-:. ---;-- . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .


-~~~---~-

!.

Vt}

t s 9:55.

----.

_. ._ . . . . . . . . . _._________
. . . . - --------- . . . . . . __

_. _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- _. ..

Some other useful phrases for telling the time are (in th; mor~ng),
(t noon), y (in the fternoon), (n the
evenng, t night), and (t midnight).

. -:-r------.. . . . . . . ____. . . . . . . . . . . ._.,_ --- --___


..

156 !

Greek

I~

: "0
!

:::J

-+

13
f'D
:::J

-+

,_

-What tme do you wnt to meet? -At qurter to one.

- ; - .
-What tme wll you return? -Around five.
I

, - ; - .
I

-What tme does the plne rrve n Athens? -At mdnght.

...........------ ..............

----

Grammar topic 3: Polite requests


The verb ( wnt) is used in making polite requests. these cases it's
introduced by the particle . We won't get into all of the grammar behind
at this point, but notice that itself takes the past tense form after
it. This literally means would want, but you can translate it as would like.
You've probably also noticed that is used to express the future in Greek,
but we'II come back to all of that later. For no~ just take a Iook at the following examples of polite requests. Notice that the nouns following
are in the accusative case.

......... 1

. .{~;- .v
lt's 10:45.
r
11----~
. .
. . . . ........ . .. . . . . . . .-.-.~------1
.. ,. . . . . . . . ._"_
. . . . . . ------,--------. .,..,.. . . .,. .......,.. .,. . . . __...,-----~-------..:""--.
lt's 11:50.

'

- ~ ; - .
I

-- t,s 1:20.
..


OoooH<N,.<';;OJWvl<lf-J.N...;;;.:~ ,.,,,,,..,;;,,~>-~\""'"'"'""''""
.
'''''''''''''''''''''''Ni-'iNiti
,;

CJQ

''""'" ' '.'<''''' ''''''''''"''1'-'"'"'"''"'"'~'>'""'''"''"''""''"'''''~''''''' '''' '' ''' ' '''''''''''''' Ni(tfN'HH-<--ooNoONNO #'"''''''"' '' - ~----"-';"""-"'~'-" "'"''''"'" "'""-'" -------

.. .
_j;_
. . . . . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . . ....._. ---.. . .:. . ."'-.. . .._. . . . . . . . . . ...,...~.
. . ., . . . .----,
'''

:::J

- watch s slow. Tell me what tme t s. -The tme s seven thrty.

.. . . . . . . .:

QJ

;;'

~--
. -----~.- --.. --''
~~:-~~-. -/;
,. . . . .. . . . . . .
..,,-,.~---~----~~~~--
. ' --""" . 't=
lt's :.
6:10.
t

1 ::::

I
I

I
- po
.
I
. -

r __.,..,.,.._.. .,_,.,.,. . . . ,.,. ,,,,.,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,. . .

~ ~

- ; - .
-What tme s your ppontment? -Jt's t nne n the mornng.

- ''"'''''''''''''''''''1,

give other times, just use (nd) and the number. Since the word
(mnutes) is neuter, you use the neuter form of the numbe,rs. You
probably don't need to be quite so specific, but the word
(seconds) is neuter as well. Notice that for minutes after half past the hour,
you can also use (to, before).

'

-When does the train arrive? -At eight forty-five at nght.

~r.~s-~: 15 ...... ......................

-~

"
:

I
I
-

;
- I

give minutes past the hour, use (nd). Notice that hlf ~st is
a (nd thrty) or (nd hlj). Qurter pst s
(nd fifteen) or (nd qurter).
~-...........- ............-,

QJ

:::J

CJQ

f'D

~-..............................

j :::J

look at some examples.

J!

..... .....

(t). Remember that takes the accusative case, and that it contracts with
the article that follows it. U se with , , or , and use
with all other times. can be used to mean around or bout. Let's

.
I'd lke your phone number.

.
Youa lke the slt.

.
HejShe would lke favor.

.
Wea lke glass of wter.

---

-------------

- - - - -..------..........................

___

---............- .....

Lesson 9

.. . . .... .

---

157

.
I

My

mp.

birthdy s n

'"\,..

::

April.

:::::J
fD

;j

QJ

I ~
j

i
1

QJ

\ OQ

n 1931.

'

We moved to Greece n 2008.

wnt fvor./I would: like fvor.


1

t1 28 ( ).

.f w, .
I

QJ

We go on vcaton in summer.

I
I 1931 (').
He/She was bom

:::::J
C1Q

Compare the following pairs of sentences. The first of each pair is .a simple
request in the present tense, and the second, with , is more polte.

')'V .

They'd like

QJ

Winter starts in December.

You'd like n ppointment on Mondy.

~ ~;?

Do you wnt glss of wne?jWould you lke glss of wne.

;j ;
Do you wnt these shoes?jWould you like these shoes?
Grammar topic : Dates
In Lesson 5 you learned the days of the week and the months of t~e year.
Now let's look at how to use them in sentences to say when somethng happens. We'll start with the days of the week. say that s.omethin~ hap~ens
a particular day, just use the day with the accusatve defint~ artcle.
Remember that most days are feminine, so you'd use (). Don t forget
that (Saturdy) is neuter, so you'd use . Notice that you can use
words like (this), (next), or F (this c~mng), in
their accusative forms along with the article, or : (every) wthout the

give a specific date with the month, you use a different form of the
month, namely the genitive, which carries the meaning of Don't worry
about the grammar yet; all you have to know for now is that the ending
- changes to -. (Notice the stress change!) So, if means
Jnuary) means ofJnury. All of the other forms you need to
know are: (ofFebruary), (ofMrch), (of
April), 1 (of y), (of June), (of fuly),
(of Aug~st), (of September), 01ct (of October),
(of November), and (of December).

17 () .
Today s September 1th.

12

() .

Yesterday was July

article, to be more specific.

12th.

'
'
'
'

' 24 (
)
.

' .

Tomorrow s November 24th.

hve test on Mondy.

1 ()

' .

Monday) January

2007

( )

1st) 2007

hve guitr lesson this Wednesdy.

JJ;

'
'
'
'

.
hve n interview next Fridy.

' cf .

25 ( ) uy 1999 (

() 1987 (

Thursday) February 2nd)

'

1987

'

hve tutoring ths coming Sturdy.

Saturday, August 25th)

1999

We hve history clss every Tuesday and Thursday.


'

say that something happens in a month or a season, us.e the same gen-

15 ~

eral construction: the accusative article plus the accusatve form of the
month or season. For a year, use the article followed by the number.
...............................- --- - --........................- - - ---................,_...
..._......................

- - -G
-r-ee_k_ . . . . . . . -..... . . . .. - --

___

Notice that in written Greek, there are no commas separating the day,
month, and year, and that the month comes after the date. The cardinal
number is usually used for the date, but for the 1 st of the month the ordinal
number (first) is used instead.

--

___

...............................................

.............,..............-...

,,_

- - - - -..........................-....

___ _ _

___

..............................................

Lesson 9

----i.-- - -

159

gG. READING

Leondas: Can have an appontment wth Mr. Nomko?

Read the following transcripts of three different phone conversations.

'
:
,
'
;
'
'

3:

Q.

Secretary: It's out of the queston for today. the


lawyers of the firm have meetng and
they aren't takng clents. can gve you an
appontment for the tenth ofAprl at nne

;::-

O'Q~

j
. I

/ Q.

::r

thrty.

t'D

Q.

' .
'

~
Q.

Thanass: Athna, do you want to go to the moves ths

: .

'
;

'
:

'

'

'

Thanass: told my mother that won 't go.

i
i

Q.

i -

'

s
' r-+
3

t'D

Athna: don't care what you do. You know that on


the twenteth of the month we have test n

Nataia: Honey (lit., My golden one), I'd lke you to


tell me how to make bechamel sauce agan,
because forgot what you told me last week.

'
' .
'
'}'

rk: Gladly. Are you ready? But wrte what tell you

. t

'

'

Athina: I(s out of the queston for today. We have


tutorng school and we cant be absent.

' .
,
'

Q.
J ~

r-+

chemstry and want to pass.

'}';

'
:

O'Q

afternoon?

v . '
'

1CJ1y I"'~

y'

'

-
;::-

'

'
'
' -~
'


.
0'
'}' t
'
'
'

so that you remember t.

Natala: Yes, I'm wrtng. Tell me first what ngredents


need.

rk: You need (lt., want) mlk, eggs, butter, flour . ..


: , ~ ~

~ : ~ t

.

'

1CJ1:

. ;,
'i. t .

' :'
: , yp. m
.
'
1CJ1:

' ,
'
' .
, y,

Leonidas: Until what time does your office stay open


today, 1y1iss?
Secretary: Until two in the afternoon (lit., at noon).

_ _........'1.............-......____ .._ _ ___ ,......................_

160 I

Greek

----

_______

_...............................

........-.......

9. CULTURE 2
The next stop in our exploration of northern Greece is
(Central Macedonia), which has terrific in:land beauty, gorgeous beaches, and of course a rich history. At the border of Central Macedonia and Thessaly, ' ' (Mount Olympus), abode of the Greek
gods, towers above all other Greek mountains at 9,570 ft (2,917 m). At its
foot are lush forests where Orpheus and the muses made their homes. Another favorite point of natural interest Central Macedonia is the seventymeter high waterfall at (Edessa).
At (Vergina), the ancient capital of the Macedonian Empire, you
can find the grandiose tombs of Philip (father of Alexander the Great)
and other Macedonian kings, precious artifacts, and the remnants of the
palace. (Pella), (Veroia), (Nea Nikome-

--~---------

- - - -

____ ____

-..- ............. ...........___....,


_,,,

..,

_________................................... ........

............................

Lesson 9

161

d), and (G~nntsa), to name but a few of the cities in the

. Write the following times in Greek.

region, all have their own archaeological treasures as well.

1.

Greece's second largest city, 1C (Thessalonk), is also located in


the region. King Cassander of Macedon built the c_ity and named it ~ft~r his
wife, Thessalonike (appropriately), who was Alexander the Great s sster.
Thessaloniki is a modern city, with a variety of galleries and museums as
well as an important music hall. The charm of older times can be found in
the (Old Quarter), where visitors can enjoy a nice view of the
city and the port. Visitors to Thessaloniki can also visit the 4,300 meterlong wall of the fortress, traditional eateries with local appetizers, grand
churches, the port, and the (White Tower), one of the city's
landmarks. U ntil you visit the region in person, the websites below will
give you just a taste of its beauty and charms.
r ...................

-.w~-~

.......................................... _ . _ _,...

~~~:~~~s_s~~n~kicity..gr __
www.saioniki.org/
1

......, ............................ .................... ..

"" "" '""'-~""""""' "' " " ' " """""'"""""""~""' ---~

................................ -

__,.,_. ..,..... ....:................

2.

C7Q

4:10

QJ

::::r

3 3:30 n the afternoon (lt., at noon)

::

t'D

4 9 : at nght

QJ

5 12:05

QJ

"-

6. 11:45 at nght

::

C7Q
QJ

7 2:40

::

QJ

8. 7.'45

9 8:15 in the mornng

r+

::

3
t'D

10.

___

::

6:so

r+

C. Give the polite form for the following requests.

EXERCISES
1.

. ( wnt bicycle s gift.)

2.

. ( wnt lot of cndy (lit., mny cndies}.)

Complete the sentences by writing out (in Greek!) the numbers in


parentheses.
1.

-
"

nformation on Thessaloniki
..--............................................- .........
..._,..................................................,_

---

..........................................

5.'55

::

---~-""~'"" ' ""'""" 1

Genera_i~~~~~~~i~~-~-n Thessaloni_~i

. - --

QJ

3 . ( wnt two souvlkis.)

(6,3) . (6,300 people live in

4 ; (Do you want ice cream?)

this cty.)
2. (1,) . ( told you thousand times to call.)
3 (15,) . (The library has 15,000 books.)

6. (1,4) . (He
pad $1,400 for his airplane ticket.)

. (They want their friends.)

6.

; (Do you want to go to the theater?)

'
7 '
... ' ' .
(She wants her coat because she)s
cold.)

4 (2,5) . (The
actress you like has 2,500 pairs of shoes.)
5 (1961). (Ron was bornin 1961.)

8.

. (They want the bill.)

. (We want our passports.)


1. . ( want an order of mouska.)
9

7 (243). (He lives n apartment 243.)

8. (189,) . (They traveled 189,000 km n their car.)

.............................. .................,

162

D. Find the errors in the following sentences and phrases, and rewrite

them correctly.
1

~ . (Every February we go on n excur-

9 (134). (The interview


wll take place in room 13 4.)

10. (54,) . (He sold his house for


540,000 euros.)

2.

. ( have test on Tuesday.)

J.

_____
Greek

...................... ........

,,,

______

- - - - - - ....- ......

son.)

2012.)

14,

2012

(Today is

Tuesdy, March

,
4

. (I'd like you to come on Wednesday.)

-------- --...

................................._..............

- - ---. --.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ - -.. . . .-.... . . . . . . .. . .. . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ..


lesson 9
163

5 . (My name day is in


'
y;r' .
8.

November.)
6. . (He/She passed by to see us last

year in July.)

. 1. 6..9
D. 1. '

7 . (HejShe is leaving for Greece on

'

'
,

'
;~ ~ 14 (no comma) 2012. 4 ~:
'

. 2.

, . 5 y

Sunday.)

6.

8. . (My sister was born in Decem-

'

'

~.

~;:~~~~~~~~~~~:::~ ~~~~~:~~:~!s. 9

ber.)

9 . (School closed in fune.)


10.

30

2008 (Thursday, September JO, 28)

INDEPENDENT CHALLENGE
As you know, the best way to prepare for an interview or a very impor-.
tant conversation is to practice ahead of time. That's especially true
in a new languagel In your journal, try to construct a telephone conversation between you and, for example, a. receptionist, .a bank teller,
or the owner of a store (com.plete with some phone haggling!). Or
imagine something more relevant to your life, perhaps even a job interview. You can use the dialogue or the readings for inspiration, and
as usual, try to challenge yourself by looking up (and learning!) new
vocabulary that fits your own needs.

ANSWER

. 1. , 2. , 3 , 4
' ,
'
'
'

5 '
'
,
6. '

'
,
', 9

'
7.
'

'
'

,
'

'

8.
10.

' ~' '

'

'

'
'
'
'
' ,
'
'
. 1.

j
2.
',
'
'
'

j
' ,

'

j , 5. , 6.
/ , 7
'
' ,
'
'
'
' '
j

8. '
j

'
,

'
'
'
'
'
9 '
j
,

10.

c. 1. . 2. .
3 . 4 ; 5
. 6. ; 7
.............................!...--. - - - - - - - -------------

164 I1

Greek .

-----

------ - - - - - - - -

--- ..---------~------

-----------~-- ...................

Lesson 9

j 165

LESSO


h e

b dy

nd

h e"/ t h

This lesson will focus talking about health, so you'lllearn useful vocabulary related to the human body, to illnesses, to pharmacies, and to doctors.
You'll also learn a lot of important new grammar related to the genitive
case, which expresses possession, among other things. But we'll come to
that in time. First, let's start with a vocabulary warm-up.

10.

VOCABULARY WARM-UP

How do youfeel?

1
J...
UJ\.

feel terrble. (lt.,

have

'

high fever.

J've lost my appette.


pankllers

m
I

am teble.)

Everything hurts/s sore.


~

My throat s sore (lt., hoarse).

Do you have fever?

symptoms

feel

better.

Note
You saw in previous lessons that the word (/) means
high. But in the vocabulary warm-up above you learned that a very similar
word, (/) has the same meaning. Don't let this confuse you. Just remember that and its variats are more colloquial,
while and its variants are a bit more formal.

108. DIALOGUE

. : ; ~ ...
~. ~

Mrs. Louisa likes to complain about all sorts of pains, both real and not so
real, but she swears she won't go to the hospital for anything in the world.
Today she's with her doctor, who knows that she's a bit of a hypochondriac.
Listen in.

, .

Doctor: Good momng, Mrs. Lousa. How do youfeel?


Mrs.

Lousa:

: . . ;

terrble.

. : , :,
'i.
I

.
:

Doctor: Are you n pan?


rs. Lousa:

I

.

t
I

. ,

Mrs.

t>.
I

And snce when have you had these symptoms?

Lousa:

Snce (lt., From) the begnnng of last week.

Doctor: Dd you take pankllers?

Mrs.

Lousa:

. : .
I

;
I

. : :

.
I

Doctor: ! write prescription for u to take syrup.


Do you have fever by ny chnce?

.
I

Mrs.

Lousa:

,
I

...

. ;

. : , .
I

Mrs.

Lousa:

: Jl
I

Yes, forgot to tell you about t. probably still


hve fever.

Doctor: You're not warm and your pulse is regular. But


the symptoms that you have are bad, and you
have to go to the hospital rght away. I'll call
the ambulance to come and take you, and
sk them to run lot of tests.

J1
I

T~ey, gave me sprn t the phrmcy, but t


ddn t help at . The pn got worse. Now,
als? feel numbness between the elbow and the
wrst, my throt s hoarse, my body s swollen
and ...

Everythng hurts. The rght sde of my head


began to hurt suddenl, and then the lower part
of m leg began to hurt. Also, since (lit.,from)
yesterday my heartbeats don}t seem regular
an~ the rhythm of my breathng s slow. h~ve .
chlls, and Ive lost my appette.

Doctor:

do~~t feel well, doctor. IJm tellng you, Ifieel

Hmm, you know, doctor ... thnk that feel


better. My head doesn't hurt that much, nether
does the (my) foot.

.
I

-----

168 .

---- - - - - - -..- -.........................___.__............................................

Greek

_________

----..

....

--

----

----.-.._---

....

Lesson 10

_ _ _____

.............

----------

16g

'

10C. VOCABULARY

'

hair

'

eyebrow

eyelid

eyelash
eye

'

'

'

'

::

tD

lungs (more formal)

I ~

lungs

11:

! ~

~ ~
_,

~ ~

bran

'

have fever

take your temperature

'

'){>

cheek

'

mouth

sneeze

lip

Note

tooth

Generally speaking, the word is used to refer to lower limbs-in other


words legs or feet, while is used to refer to upper limbs-hands and

arms.

neck, throat

'

'

'

'

shoulder

10-D. RASES

armpit

.J

hve

arm

elbow


'

'
.

My nose s congested/stuffed.

'
'

J'm dizzy.


' .
'

My ears hurt.

My throat s sore.

My throat

forearm

'

hand, arm

'

'

wrist
finger, toe

headache./ My head hurts.

have cold.

'

nail

back

'
.

'

chest

.;

stomach

stomach.

abdomen

y .j

J'm gong to vomt.

'

'

'

chin

I
I
I!
i
!

'

cough

lc

bone

'

::

I~

blood

thigh

~---..-t". - -----.. . . . . -- ------------ --------------- --------:--.. . . . . - . . . . .--------------..------ - . -----"""'""'__. _. __. . . . ................------"- ---..- ---"--170 1 .
Greek
I

heart

nose

'

:::J

a.

ear

'

a.

Joot, leg

'

forehead

'
'

'

'<

face

::

tD

leg

head

knee

')Q

'

s rrtted.

feel nusetedjsck

'

to my

'

---

------------------

--------------------------------------------t. . . . ._. . . . . . . . .
Lesson 10
! 171

m constantly coughing and

sneezng.

'

10F.

GRAMMAR

Grammar topic

:::r
(t)

1: Genitive case of nouns and articles

a.

'<

have chest pains.

' .

broke my arm.


' ' .
'

My arm is in cast.

'
'

'

.
'

sprained my foot.

, >. can't see; need glasses.

The pharmacy stays open all night.

y .

need cough syrup.

need cold medicne.

need aspirin.

'

'

'

need shampoo, soap, toothpaste,

and deodorant.

far, you've learned .two ca~es-the nominative, which is the case of sub)ects, and the accusa~ve, whch is the case of direct objects, and which is
also used after certan prepositions Now let's look at th
't'
whi h h
f
d'ff

e gen ve case
c .a~ a ew. erent uses. For now, let's focus on one common use of
the genti~e, whch is possession. In each of the following examples, the
second artcle + nou phrase is in the geitive.

'

diabetic.

y;;;;;;;;]

Yiannis's brother, the brother of


the brother ofthei
woman
:

~;,~:;;~;;;;;;;~)(;;;;,;;,-

[ ~

the child's brother, -th_e_b,~th;~-~~-;~~---i

child

,-

(t)
QJ

,-+

:::r

1:
~

-;J~-~~~;;;,~~;;~:-;;;~-;;~~-e~-~~;~~-;1

- - - -,-------.;__-

lt. ,d,~ -"'

:::r

---- - - - - - - - -

!' ~ . . _

--~-----

a.

- .

~-. ----------.. -- . . . . . -.. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..!

the women s houses. the houses the


women

i/

.. n ~ . . . . . .,. . . . . . . . . . .-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _.________. ,....------------_ _j

--,,

t-'---'~":

'

..............,......,._...........,._

---------- ---. -------- - ---- ----------~----~-

...................... ---~ -

--

[~-- ~~------~-~~~~-~~
[ 0 uri.~ii- d& ---------- - -----

QJ

:::J

'' '

.... .

. .
........,

~----,,.,...,..,,,..._,.._....,,.,.,;,...,.

..

the children 's houses, the houses of the

children

...._............................_.....

i.

...................................................... _._

-~

allergic to penicillin.

10. CULTURE 1
If you're ever un\ucky enough to be sick during your stay Greece, you're
likely to hear the phrase (get well, lit., good recovery)
or the expression (may it be bygone). This expression is commonly used by family, friends, and acquaintances to show concern for
people who are sick.
Greeks can rely either public or private healthcare in order to remain
healthy. Everyone has access to government-funded medical care, but they
also have the option of private care, provided they're willing to pay and
have the means to do so. May people tur to private care for secod opinions, speedier appointments, and to seek the expertise of professors of
medicine, who are know to be top medical experts.
For health and other types of emergecies, you can dial the number 66
in Greece for a (ambulance) or the number for the
(police). Even if you are not yet confident in your Greek, you
should be able by now to commuicate your name and exact location.

As you ca see, the genitive articles and nouns refer to possessors so they
ca~ be_t.ranslated into English as apostrophe s or of, as in 'r
(Y~nns s or of Y~annis) or (the children's or of the children).
Notce that there s no overt prepositio of i these examples; it's just a
understood par~ of the geitive. Nous i the geitive undergo certain
changes, but let s focus the articles first. The genitive defiite articles
are: ~ (m. or . sg.), (f. sg.), and (pl., all genders). For the sake of
~ompanson, here are all the definite articles in all three cases.
_. . . ...............................

............

.-
1
.

~~ -~----------------

~-~~i~ati~; (sgJ .

........................................................................................._....................'"............... ............................... ------------1

-~~~~~~-~---~-----~~------1

-- - - - .

~~
.~-.S_ :~~~~ ~~~l--------~~~~)
()

------~
r:
--------------.. . . . .
R
[N~~i~;t~~~ ~~:~ :~~: : -~~-~... ....:... ..,.....-.. . ..... ::
-l
.
-.
---~,-

Genitie (sg.)

1 :Accusat~ve

_ ...,......._ . _____..........._

~
; - -~

~ -------~

?--....

-~. --~

!l

__ _

{pl.)

jGenitive (pl.)

. . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - -......-..- ..-... -------

-;:c;:--~~---

c ~;;

". " - ------ .

--"'""'"""""'""""''"'"'''''-------~--'"''"""'"'"-"'-'"'""'-'''" '''''' " ' ''' ''' '''' ''''"'" ' ' "'' : ......................., .... ~..., .. -....................... ~................................ .

-;

Do~'t be ~urprised if you s;e the g~nitive masculine and neuter articles
wn~te wt~.

accet: //.

This is optional, and it is doe to


avod confuso betwee the geitive definite article and the possessive .
an

.............................................. . ........,..._ .,,.,.,._ ,.,,.............

-------------------------

~--"':'"""''-----

- -- ---------------- ------------

Greel<

---------+-- ------

Lesson 10

173

The indefinite articles in the genitive are (m. or .) and (f.). Of


course there are no plural forms.

--- ----. --,- -.,- ............................

c w~

.,.~----

1..,.........................,.. ,,,,,,.......................,............................................., ................

--..-. - _ _ ________

.................. ...... ................................

......................

......

~---

-----~~

hunter's dog, the dog of hunter


-

...........................- .

::

tD

'<

femte student's book, the book of

student

.r 'w:~:::-:-:--,::~;". . . .t""''/'~. . .._...-.,7~r,:w."""'''''~-..-. . ~~;~":o-..y.o_,._. . . . . . . . . . . ,.: ........................................................................................-.........................................-

tVt

- - - .......:

femle
1

'

Let's see ~ome example sentences with masculine nouns in the genitive
~ase. See If you can pick out the other nouns and t.heir cases in the followIng examples, too.

.. -----i

child's toy, the toy of child

L_.. . . . . . . . . . . . ~. . . . . . .,.,. ..... . . . . . . :. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . ~,... . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . ._. . . . . .~.~,..,.. .,. . . . .,.. .,. . . . _ . .,. .,. ~--

.
I

'

DJ
:::::J

::

tD
DJ

Yiannis's house is beautiful.

V, .
d t know my classmate's father.

Now let's look at all the forms of the indefinite articles in all three cases.

/
I
I

' ' ' ''''" ''"' ''"'''YY'''''''"''''...... "''''"''" """ '''''"''" "''"'' ''"'" "' ''''' ''' "'' '' '"'""" ""''"'"''''" '~-nooo,.,....,,.,., , 00 , ,,,.,.,..._.,,,. .. -. ,No'"'f<oo'oo"ooo'oNNI(<tHnN,_ _ _.

MASCULINE

--~-----

FEMININE

- - - - - - - --

Grandfather's armchair is vey comfortable.

NEUTER
..- _ .....,............,....,..,,____..,.,..,_.............,.............................

'

Who broke the coffee cup?

........,... ., .. ,..........:;;c ......~: ........- - -..~--~ -

()

Accusative
~------

Gent~ve

-~ .. --~~-~-~ .. - ---

--~-

...

............,.... _...,......................................................................................................................- ......!j

..._. ,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .--.. - . . .-.. . . . .... . . . . . . . ..........--.. . ..-----J

' and thus a1so


Remember that the feminine indefinite article ,
may be written with or without an accent. Both forms are correct.

'
,

Now let's look at nouns, gender by gender. As you can see below, most
m~sculine singular nouns are the same in the accusative and genitive. The
exception is nouns that end in -, which end in - in the accusative but
- in the genitive. All plural genitive nouns end in -, although this ending is sometimes stressed, and sometimes not stressed. This will be true of
feminine and neuter nouns as well.
., _.. ,.,.,,... ,,,,,,~--"""'...-. ""''"'-"""'" ''''''' ~' .."'''''''''''"''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

~...,,

''''''''''''" ''''''''"''''"'""'''""''"'"''':'''''"''

,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,.,_.,,.,..,, _

" -
-.
.
-------- - - - - - --- r;;;;-rs;. -~~p~---- ~-~~

, .
Yanns bought Uncle's car.

~ow _et's

focus on ~eminine nouns. Most feminine nouns form the genitie Singular by add1ng - to the nominative or accusative forms, which are
the same. ~he exception is nouns that end in -, ~hich change to - in
the accusat~ve, but - in the genitive. Don't forget that all plural genitive
nouns end -.

_.....,..,.,,_.,.,.,,,,..,,,""""''''',...-,.,......'1

----~

ir......,._
'' .................................. .

""'"'''''"'""'''"'''''""''''''''''''''''''''''''"''''''"'"'"'"'"""'j],:;~N;_.......,_.,.._,....,,,,NN,.,..,....,.~;..W,;;;N(.,..,._....WooN"'I""""""'HWolt-~--NN--.-NW;:N-~~;.M(V#o~---'ONAAWV

(mn)

(silo

(grndfthe

(coffee)

j.................... :~.............................................................................................-----..- - - - - - - - - - - - -

Acc. (sg.)

1
~ ...

.._

Gen. (sg.)

jl

() ,

. .;

..... ' ; 'n Av _J'

(uncle)
-~~(~)

......j

____ .........................................,:;:;...; ............................................................................-- :~~-----'

tvu

~---.,......-........ .....................
1

'

. . .;. ' ;

~~~:(pt.J-

--~,_..

l!

'

.,_ _ _ _.,_ ..~,-- .. ..-.

N < .,._........_ _M.. ''""'V'

n ....

.. . ... .
1

-~~~~-(~~)-..~;;~- ~~ ----~~~

'

'

~ ---~........

'

'

'

-- _J

----------~~. . . . . . . . . ... ~. .~.~~. . . ..... . . . . . . . .~~- - - ~ . -. --.. . --~~~-~


Gen. (/.)

174

Greek

,__~ ----,.~~-

~--~~..... . . . . . ]

Notice that the plural ending - is sometimes stressed, and sometimes not
stressed, just as we saw in the masculine. Also note that the stress shifts
toward the end of the noun (exit) in the genitive: .

~~-.. --~---------

------......................................................___..,__ _. - - - - - - - -

----------

lesson

10

175

Stress accents of nous i the genitive case are a little difficult for any beginner to deal with. So for now, just focus the use of the genitive, ad try to
memorize where the stress falls. But keep i mind that many nouns shift
their stress closer to the ed of the word i the geitive plural, ad sometimes
eve i the singular. Also, the plural ending - is t always stressed.

' ~' .
'
J,.LV

The lady's wedding ring is made of whte gold.

~.
We found the fox's lair.

'
'

' .

Grammar topic 2: Adjectives in the genitive

Tap water is cold.

Don't forget that adjectives have to agree with the nous they modify not
only for gender ad umber, but also for case. Adjectives that end in -
i the nomiative masculie sigular have the edigs - (m. or . sg.),
-- (f. sg.) ad - (pl., all genders) i the geitive. Let's look at
(good) ad m (rch) as examples.
-
- ............................. ---................................................................................. .............___
................................................................... _
'
i,;
.
MASCULINE
FEMJNINE
NEUTER
j

.
Unlock the ext door.
And finall let's look at neuter nouns. Neuter nouns have the same forms ~
the omi~tive ad accusative, but they udergo a few differet c~a9es
the genitive singular. The genitive plural, thankf~ll~,~l:'~~~
.,.....,..,...................

'''""''

................

. . ._. . .. . . . . . . . . --~---~----,\-------. --~. ~-----..................................... . . . -

''

.. . ... . ....
"

.......--MY'P-"""'~v.>.: ~>;--"uNNN'''~,.,, , , ,

~ ~~~:--~-~~
!.

(sg.)

~~ds~~~

..... "' ~""'""' "'' ,_,_..,_ ,..._....,.~,..__...,;


~

(oate~~6

L--~

t~ Nom.

',~

'

..

~~
r... . . -- --.. . -.. ,. . . . ..__. . . . . . '
I Nom.

(~':!

(pt.)


......................

r-~---~,;.,.,..___.........- -"

' G

\ en.
t

;,"C.

~---

1':,

'

___Ji
I

......._.-:::. . .
. :~~:. . ------ . . ._. . . .. . .
. . ~., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-.~ --~.,.::.

. (p1.)
. . . . ."'. . .-.. .---,-------- . . . . . . ". -- . . . . .-.. . . -... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-.. . . . "

. . . . . . . . . . . -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- . . - - . . .

'

- - ---....,-------------- -... . ..,... . . . . - " -.. ~ .

Acc.

. ~

_____!~ -,---3~~~-~~~~~~ -i
.

......-.. . -.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

---+

. . . _ . _ _ . .. . . . . . . .

I Nom. {pl.)

lm

d~~<;~ - ~/

lm

1-:::;:""'''''~;.....,,.,...,.,.._....,~_.,..__
(

Acc. (pl.)

. .

__.._

_..._,.....,_,.,.,,.,.,,,,.. ...,,,,,,.,,,,,.. ,,,,.,,,,,,.,,,,,,,.. ,, ... ,,.:.,.,,

'

'

.. '

Gen. (pl.)

iU,

'

'

'

lm

_.~

, , , ,. . , . , , , , . , , , , , , . , , . , , . ,. ., . , .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., ,. . . ..,,...,.. . . .

,l.:W / !

.. _ _,____________,,,....... ..

........_..............

__, ___ ..............................................,

Adjectives that ed i - or - i the ominative masculine sigular have


the endings - (m. or . sg.), - (f. sg.) ad - (pl., all geders) in the
geitive. Let's look at (brown-colored) and (deep) as examples.
r
r1;. -

- ....._,""""_...,_,..,.,..,.. ,,.. ,.,.........,,..,..,,,,... ,.........,.,,._., ......

.......... ,,.,.,,,.,,,,.,.,,,,, ..,,.,,,,,.,_., ....,...,.,,.,..,........."

..,....,_,,...__,""ff---~---n-.oo

MASCULINE

,.

FEMININE

NEUTER

f::~~w~. (s~~J---~~e{; . . . . . . . ..~~{~&J~h&" -~~;['/~e{;. . .. --~


' ,..................................____......__.........__ _........__...,____...................,.O<., ................._,.~-"~'.:.".-----.- ..---~............ ......................................................_,..... _.-;'
t:.

~ ~ .............~

"'' ' '"'""'""''""

.-...).'~"""' '~'""''"'""'"""''''-"~~..

Gen. (sg.)
~

... ,

. . , ,. ,.,., ,., , , .

'

',,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,i

....

.,.._,.;....,,,, , ,,,, , ,,.,, , ,, ,,,,,,.,,.,,. , ,.,, ._.,,., , ,,.,, , .,..,.,,,,, ,.,.,.,_.,..,._...._~_ _-...._.,..,.,,_.__...,.,., ,, ,,,... , ,, , , ,,,, , ,, ,,,, ,, , , , ,,,,,, , ,,, , . ,, , , , .... ~.

. Nom. (pt.)

0'."\\~"NNNn,-, ,....,,.,.,,~,,Nf>ol"'>'(:.<t,o:,,,,,~::::::,,,,,,,,,,,~,:::, ::"::..,......... -.~----...----,---.o

"'1'>~-H>'-'v,-.w-.v~(!tn.;. . N,n,,

The child's book has big pictures.

. l

lm

- ............................ ...........................,....... _

.~....;

~"~:;;~j.:: ...:,................ .,.:.:. .;. . ._,.,. ,. ,. ,. ,. . .~......,....;""''-"""~'~~,-.......,,;..,............. ,,,,..,.......................,,,..,,.......,.,...,,...,..,..,,____~__J

~.;...(~,>;> ...,.,,,,,,~,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,V,:.,y._"''..... """' "''"""""'""'.......""''''" ""'".................................-.,.....,..,,,.,.,,,,.,,,..,.,,.,.,,,..,,,,,:,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,, ,,:_.,,,,,,.,.,,';,_.._,., ... _ _ _ _


. .

. Acc. (sg.)

y .

. "------..,. _. . . . ........ . . . ..

"~-----

l;~._.....,,, .......-------'YW""'''''"""''~''''''''''"''''''''''''''''''''''''''''"'''''''''''''~''"''"''\"":""''____......._ _"'"'''""""'"-'"~"""''"''''""'"'~')'>o\>oooooooooooooooo"'''"'""'""'''"""'H''''~>VNU'


..
I
I
'
..
I
I
I

'

'
:
,

. . . . - . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
/
"~

. "--. . -.. .. . . . . . ........._. . . .

~---

fGen. {sg.) --~{;~~~{;;~

(name)

:,., ., ---- - - _._. . . . . ... . . . _. . . .,-- . . . . . -- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...,. . . . . . . . . . . . . .-.. . . . . . -.,. . ----- _. .._. _. .~-


. ,
1
cc.

i
! (sg.)
-----..-..----..---_. . . _.. . . . . . . ._.;.... ..~.:;.......... . ~............... . . . .. -------~
{;~n.- --- -~~~ - -------
,
~
. ~
j
\ (sg.)

. . . . . . . . . .-.. . . . . . . .__
-----.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . .__
(sg.~) /
/ <:

:} Acc. (sg.)

---~-..-~

~~e= 6~

(end)

(child)

-~

,.

,._~---

,...,,,...........,........,.,..,.,.....,....,,.,.,,.,

~l~

/m / !

~:-~(}'=~~~~~~~ ~1~~--~~~~J;-- ~

'

' '.
The price of meat is expensive.

'

'

1r.

Gen. (pt.)

~..................... .................. , . .. ........ . ., . ._

-..............

....

.. ....................................................................._ , _ . , . . ,. ._ _ _ _, ,_,

......... ....................... ...

J'm afraid of the force of the waves.


y ~ yr~' rv.
Eleni is responsible for members regstraton.

' ' ' ' :y.


'

The roof of the tall house is new.
'

u .
I

The history of ancient times is very interesting.

. . . . . . . ..--..--1- -- - - - - - - - - - -
176 \

Greek

----- - - - - - - - -

.......... _........................._........

..................-..........

- - - - - - -.........................................................

- --

- --

.. ....-.........................._, __.

- - - - - -..--.................................
Lesson 10
177

: :r r .

The jokes of the young (lit.,

smll)

') ').

children re originl.

The mother sng her chld song.

r y.

The iron nchor weighs lot. (The weight of the

ron nchor

is big.)

Grammar topic 3: lndirect objects

y .
Yiorgos gve the medicine to r.

!...

bought chocolates for the chldren.

-..t!

~~ u
Nkos

dstributed hs possessons

::r

t1

~'

It's also P~~sible to use a pronoun as an indirect object, in which case you'd
use a gentve pronoun. Yol;l've actually already seen these pronoun forms
bef~re. W~y back in Lesson 3, you came across them when you Iearned possessves, lke m or our. And then you saw them again in Lesson when
7
you learn~d to use the expression ( [ke). Le(s look at all the
forms agan.
~---

~- - -~-

~ -S

/ :

~ ~
_,

...............

(to us)

(to you)

--- ---------.. . . ~~~;~~~;h~~ m.)


...............,........... ~.. ~............~-------.......................................................................

(to them,

......_ _~

f.}

.............................. ...................._,-.,i

___
_____

"--~-"----...-~--

(to them,

.................................................._.

__

n.)

,........................................................................

..............................................
~

""""~1

...- -...............................1
.......... 1

Her: are some example sentences with indirect object (genitive) pronouns.
Notc: that these pronouns come before the verb in Greek just like the accusatve pronouns.

. .

to the poor.

'

QJ
_,_..

r.

He

::r

t'D

: .

loaned hs bcycle to Petros.

QJ

::3

her son n pple.

1v
it) _.,_..... _ _ _ __
L_
...........-....,(to
.......................

y /\.U.
Katna

a.

r-..-""...... . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . ..........=-.........~..- - -................................-

.
The doctor explained t to the ptients/sck people.

'<

(to her)

spoke to Dimitrs.

a.

Nektros bought his dughter cr.

~~)~- ~

U .

t'D

~ y .

Ann gve

In Lesson 7 you learned that direct objects are the things or people that
directly ((receive" the action of a verb: y J).
(Yinnis wrote letter.) . (Vsilis sees r.)
/ ( love them.) An indirect object, the other hand, is
the thing or person that indirectly benefits in some way. t is the person
to or for whom, or the thing to or for which, something is done. In Greek,
indirect object nouns are usually introduced by the pronoun , which is
similar to to in the English e xamples above. Don't forget is followed by
the accusative case, and it contracts with the articles , ., , , ,
and to form: (), (), , , , and .

rn

.....

::r

'

Uncle Mhalis explained to the police where he lost hs money.

They gave me asprin.


y;
Who sent you the letter?

.
The teacher gave us good (pece of} advce.

y .

But just as in English, it's also possible to use an indirect object noun without any preposition. Compare: Yiorgos gve the medicine to r with
Yiorgos gve r the medicine. In Greek, in this kind of construction,
the indirect object is in the genitive case, without any preposition. Even
though this is less frequently used than the accusative examples with
given above, you may come across it.

--------------

178

Greek

Yiorgos gve her the medicne.

.
Marna spoke to hm.
y.
The baby smled at them.

----

-.............................................- .... - - - -................................................

........

- - - - - - -...................................-... - - - Lesson 10

.. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .____
179

106.

y y.
The doctor explained to them.

--t

READING

:
'D

Imagine that you're in a hospital in Athens, and you overhear a few patients around you. See if you can understand what's wrong with them and
why they need to see the doctor.

'
' ~'.
~

Mother sang him song.


It's possible for the indirect object (genitive) pronoun ~. have an .accen~, ~s

e of the examples above. Like the gentve definte artc e,


you saw som
'd
f
genitive pronouns sometimes use an accent to help the reader avo con usion with the possessives.

In Lesson 8 you learned that nouns following prepositions are usua.ll?' in


the accusative case. There are some exceptions though; some prepostons
are followed by nouns in the genitive, case instead. The t~o most common
are (between, among) and ~ (over and above; n Ja,vor of, for) ..
casual conversation, though, is often replaced by , wh~ch
as ' , but which is
has the same meanng
. followed by the accusatve

'<
QJ

:::1

a.
:
'D

QJ
"+

: . y

' ' .
' ' :
'
'
'
' '

.
. ),
y y

Grammar topic : Genitive case prepositions

a.

1:

I ~

'
'
'
'
' '.


. '


. : n
. y
'

'
'
' '. y
'
' '
'

JJ..I:t .

'
'
' ' '
'
'
'

~ '

u. .

case.

' '
'
'
'
'
. :
.
'
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
~L y
'
KUJ\U.

' .
'
.
It's between the elbow and the wrist.

? ft.
My house is between the school and the lbrary.

.
.
y JJ..I:t .
I

'

'
'

.
She sat between her father and her mother.
I

,
.
Between lemonade and orange juice, prefer lemonade.
~'\ v

UU'l .

He/She is in favor of the change in (the) law.


I

<~

She always talks in favor of her famly.


I

t.

am for human rights.

Notice in 'y (He(She s n favor of the


change n fthej law) that two genitive nouns are use~.n a ro;v. The first one
( 'y) is the object of th~ ge~itive prepos~on , and th:second one ( ) is a possessve, lterally meanng change of la
~-~- ...................

180

-- - - - -----

Greek

- - - -

--

deepfried pstry) nd burning oil


splshed on my hnd. put tomto pste on it right wy to drw out the
heat, but it still hurts very much. My neighbor told me to spread butter on it
but tht didn t help either. think tht the burn is deep, nd I'm frid tht
my nerves my hve been dmged nd my hnd paralyzed.

Mrs.

Zhraki: ws mking

dhiples

We are all for Despina.


I

Mr. Markopoulos: don't feel well. At noon} te too much nd my stomach


is hevy. Since tht time, I've hd tightness in the chest. feel dizzy nd I'm
afraid tht my blood pressure hs gone up. I'd like to see crdiologist in
cse something hs hppened to my hert, becuse suffer from arrhythmi,
nd for two dys now, I've Jorgotten to take my pills. I'm fraid my be suffering from hert ttack.

- ------------ - - - - - - -

Mrs. Lmbrinou: don't know wht's happened. This morning was welZ..
went out in the grden and fter hlf n hour my finger strted swelling.
Now, the top prt of my plm is swollen nd the swelling is dvncing continuously. J'm afrid tht m having n llergic rection to something but
don't know to what. J'm strting to get relly worried.

----------

---

- - - ----------------- - - - - ---i--- -

lesson 10

1181

10.

CULTURE

'
12.

Let's wrap up our tour of northern Greece with a stop in the administrative region of (Eastern Macedonia
and Thrace). Like most of the other regions wee seen, this one offers
mountains, the sea, and natural beauty. The region also has a rich wildlife.
For example, (Vistonida Lake) in (Xanth) mixes
fresh water from the north with salt water from the Aegean, and is thus
home to many species of birds and fish that thrive in the unique ecosystem. In the mountains to the north, you can find wild cats, wolves, and
even jackals hidden in the dense forests. If you prefer skiing to wildlife,
you'll be happy to know that the slopes of the region are covered in snow
well into the month of April.
There are archaeological sites as well, such as the ancient theater in
(Kavala), which hosts many festivals. The port of Kavala has frequent connections to the islands of Thasos and Samothrace. Another city
in the region is the port of (Alexandroupol), with its
landmark lighthouse and beautiful beaches. The city of ' (Komotni) is also worth visiting, as a place where the new and old coexist
through the boulevards, winding streets, and architecture of the city.
For more information Komotini, visit: www.komotini-polis.gr/

(food, meal)

-i

::r

t'D

13. (tablecloth)

a.

'
'
14.
(letter)
15

'<
QJ

::J

(tap)

a.

::r
t'D

6. (blanket)

-,.....

17. (washng machne)

'
8.

QJ

::r

~'
~

(country)

-~

19. (tongue, language)


20.

(hope)

21.

(sea)

' (sky)

22.

'
'
23..
(baker)
24.

'
-y-y

(grandmother)

25. (picture)
26. (ntervew)

27. (patient)

EXERCISES

28. (kosk)

29.

Give the genitive forms of the following articles and nouns. For definite
articles, give both singular and plural forms.

30. (bookstore)

1.

(tenant)

31. (bll)

2.

(student)

32. (closet)

3 (school)

33

4 (airport)

34 (coat)

5 (boat)

35 (pair)

6. (bus)

36. (flower shop)

7. (courtyard)

(tutorng

school)

37 (prce)

8. (apartment)

38. (classroom, lecture hall)

9 (store, shop)

39 (test)

10.

(heart)

40.

11.

m (shoe)

41.

--------

182 1

m (tcket)

Greek

---------'-- -

----------

- - - - - - ---- -

(soap)
(window)

---- --------- - - - - ----

___

-------- - - - - --- ......

lesson 10

183

. Now give the genitive forms . of the following phrases, which include

::r

( ). (My office is

'<

adjectives.
1.

1.

(the helpfulflight ttendnt)

..

between r 's nd Pvlos s.)


2.

3 (the inexpensive blouse)

:::1
..

( ). (We're in fvor of the biol-

ogy techer.)

::r

I ([)

music.)

5 (the broken toy)

_ (
). (You'll find the genda in my bg between the notebook

6. (the old stethoscope)

7 ( renewed pssport)

nd

the book.)

8. (the correct dignosis)

5 ( ) . (Varvra is in favor of her team.)

9 (the scribbled prescription)

6. ( ) . (Be-

l =r
~
1:'

' ( ' ).
' (Nikos is in fvor of clssical
3 ' '

4 ( big doctor's office)

! -~

ic
! ~

I S'

I!
!

tween the cinema nd the theater prefer the theater.)

( strong medicine)

10.

rD

( pti~nt nurse)

2.

D. Complete the following sentences using the correct form of the noun( s)
in parentheses.

7 ( ). ( caught

11.

(the clen hospitl)

12.

( friendly neighbor)

my finger between the couch and the wll.)

8. ( ). (I'm for free educton.)

13. (the creful mountin climber)

' (
'
' ) ; (Are you in favor of public
9 '

I

14. (the fst swimmer)

transportaton?)

15. ( poor clssmte)

10.

( ) . (Be-

tween

restng

and studying, they prefer the first.)

C. Replace the indirect objects in the following sentences with a genitive


pronoun.

I D D . C LL G

1.

)'. ( spek to Ifigenia.)

2.

. ( look like Petros.)

this lesson, you've learned a lot of useful vocablary related to the

3 . ( requested tht Elephteri come.)


4 . ( serve cndies to the guests.)
5 ' . ( brought book to Pericles.)
6. . ( spoke to my neighbor.)
7. . ( dvise students to study.)
8. . (He ppered ll of sudden to his brother.)

. body and health. Now see how much of tnat vocabulary you can put
to practical use. . Check out these websites for online Gr.e ek pharma~; cies. Navig-ate as though you were looking for t11e types of products
that you usually buy at pharmacies. Choose a product, and see how
much of the description/product informatiqn youcan understand. Of
course, keep a note of any new and useful vocabulary in your LanguageJournal.
www.pharmazon.gr
www.pharmacyonline.gr

9 ' . ( sent letter to my prents.)


10.

. ( syjtell my secrets to my friend.)

. . ..1.. ... .. . .-184

, _. . ... . _,
Greek

_____

- - --

.................

- - - - - -------

_______

- - - - -................

_______

,,,,,,,,,,

............

---

_..-.. . .... . .---t---.. . . . . .


Lesson 10

185

ANSWER
.

LESSON

3 lI
, 4 j , 5 /
, 6. / , 7 ,
8. , 9 ,

11
10.
, 11. ),
12. j , 13. /
, 14. , 15. c) ,
16. , 17. j , 18.
/ , 19. / , 20. ,
21. c) , 22. 1 ,
23 , 24. / , 25. ,
26. c) , 27. j ,
28. j ,29. I ,
30. / , 31. ,
32. c) , 33 /
, 34 , 35 j ,
I
I 38.
36. j
l, 37 lcj,
c) , 39 c) ,

40. j ,
41.
1.

I
I
j
,

2.

I
I

. 1. , 2. ,
3 , 4 , 5

7
, 8. , 9
, 10. , 11. ,

12.
, 13. , 14.
, 15.
6.

11. VOCABULARY WARM-UP

need your help.

don 't know how to use it (lit.,

handle t).
.

c. 1. , 2. , 3 , 4 , 5
,

This lesson will introduce you to expressions and vocabulary that will
come in handy when you're using computers or going online. You'Il also
lear,n ~ow to .t alk about events that will take place in the future, and you'll
learn ndefinte pronouns like somethng, (lnythng, and nothng. Are you
ready to begin?

Comput.ers and the internet

'J

6. , 7 , 8. , 9
, 10.
D. 1. , 2. ,
. 3 , 4 , 5
, 6. , 7
, 8. , 9
, 10.

,-.,

'

...

The only thing know s . . .


You 're jokng.

have no idea.

J'm not completely out of the loopj


uninformed (lt., rrelevant).


'k ...

Let me

don't understand anythng.

thnk

how t's sad ...

It's userjrendly.

111. DIALOGUE

: yyk.
.

yy: , ,
;

. . ... ... . ...t -.. . . . . ... . . . .-.-- . . . . . . . . . . . . . _,__. . . . . . . . ... . ,. _.__ ._. . . . . . . . . . . . .- -.. . . . . . . . . . . .- -..-.. . . . .
~

186

Greek

~.....

: Q~ ~:,~

rn: Hello, Angelos. n~ed your help.

y

I
I


.
.

'

, ~ p
. ,
~

...

... ?

f-..

~ :.

... ...

y: ~
I

yc -t"""'.

y : ;
I


; ?y ~;
'\\

)'t ;
I
,I
I
I
;
I

y,

: , ! ~ y ,;

y y.
I
I
'

' I

)'tt.
I

~!...
y: .

KUU
yI
. W?rd
Windows. ,
I
I
~f
~ ,

I
I
I

, , ~

...

~!...

y KUU .

I
v
)'t
I""

I
I
.
,
I
'
Windows ,
;

y: , ! ' !

... ;
I

: , .
,
I

I
I
~~ .
y: ' ,

.......................~................................._.

188

Greek

__

--

.................................

______

................._......

::
,-+
(1)

rn: m going to buy computer, but don't know


wht to sk t the store. Will u come wth
me? I'll need some help wth the nternet, too,
becuse don't know how to use t. Oh es,
lso wnt .. . let me thnk wht t's clled . ..
post office ... box office .. . n e-ml ddress!

-.

Vl

QJ

:::J

a.

-+

! =r
! ro

iI :::J
-

j
'

,-+
(1)

! -.

:::J

(1)
,-+

Angelos: Of course J'll come wth u, nd J'll help you


nstll the sstem. Tell me exctl, wht do
you wnt to bu? Wht cpct do u wnt
the hrd drve to hve? Do u know wht
softwre u wnt? Will u bu jostck for
gmes ? Wll you get flt screen? Will you get
scnner, nd modem? Wht prnter wll u
rn: Oh boy I Wht's ll ths tht ou 're skng?
don 't hve n de wht hve to bu. All
know s tht wnt lptop. J'm gong to wrte
novel, nd use t s tpewrter.

Angelos: Got t (lit., Understood). You wnt good word


processor. You'lllke Word for Windows
lot. You'll hve trnsltor, spell-check, ou 'll
be ble to cop nd pste, nd t hs good
grphcs ... nd let's not forget to bu good
wreless mouse.
rn: would've wnted to hve the trnsltor now,
to trnslte everythng you're syng, becuse
don 't understnd thng. Wht s ths
Windows nyw, "wndows"? Wll need
curtns, too, by n chnce'?

Angelos: , h! Very funn! You re jokng ... rght?


rn: Yes, don't worry; J'm not completely out of the
loop (lt., elevnt). ws mkng joke, but
of course ths doesn 't men tht understnd
nythng else.

Angelos: From wht see, we hve lot of work (to do)


before you wrte the novel!

'

I
f

______

................................

"

bu, lser?

;
1

! 3

Angelos: Tell me how you wnt m e to help you, rn.

; ; , t
I

............._.

--

---

-......................__

____

- - - ..................._.

........................... __

Lesson 11

___

...............................

189

11C. VOCABULARY
tt

computer

t/

CD

download

110. PHRASES

file

flat screen

laptop

yy
I

open afile

close file

rD
r-+

. play computer games.


'\!

~
I

Choose from the menu on the top.

printer

Forward the e-mail to Yiorgos.

y.

print

printout (noun)

..,

:::::J

document

:::::J

r-+
rD

data storage

Sf nd copy to everyone in the


office.


m .

get

deletion

y .

Go to the homepage.

Click on the icon for questions.

1lj

intemet


r.

search (noun)

J'm doing keyword search.

search engine

t
I

delete

refresh

pause (noun)

1'\'\,

/\

J'm

a.

have

My mailbox is full.

new user.
backup files.

y.

.
copy

--.

cut

save, store

an electronic newsletter.

forgot

my password.

.
1

online'

paste

J'm chatting online.

username

password

y
e-mail.

I'm on the mailing list.

filename

website

Which search engine are you


using?

e-mail

e-mail

keyboard

mouse

___

- - -

.....................

Greek

Tell me, which website will find


it on?

.......-............ ....-

- --"'"'"-"'"'"''"""--

___

..................-..........

__

.....-.................

__

------.....................................

........................-........ - - -....................................- - - - ......................!..............,...._

Lesson

11

191

11.

CULTURE

Wll you

Although many Greeks do enjoy access to a (high


speed internet connection), with relatively low subscription fees, the most
popular method of communication in Greece is still, by far, the telephone,
and specifically the cell phone. Given the widespread use of cell phones,
let's jump back a bit to talk about something we didn't get to cover in Lesson 9: how to make a call or say a telephone number in Greek.

. . . . . . . . . .,;----

~~-~~:~ ~

---..---...

I www.pathfinder.gr

..._._..................-........,....

___

--"

- -

............ ........... ...- , . - -

__

................................

-- --

-----........-......

11F.

Portal with , didionary (in Greek)

__ _

-....-------..........................................................------ ............................-

..

., ........

ew~~a ~-~ ~ .~.i..~ G_ree I<) __. __. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................._J

-.............. .~i::

.. ..........................-:..

.. .

r') (e)

~-~~-~~""'~"-""'"---

~~-

. .-. . . . . . . . . :. . . . . . . . . . . ._. . . .i
I

~-...,.,....................__.-~.-w. . . . ..-.~.,. . .. . .. .... . . . .

--

.......- ..--...- ........., .............................................

t)p (1 write)
r-. . . . . . . . . . . . _.
-~----

__

. . . . :. . . . . . . . . . -EJh

..---

!~.~- ~_:.earch)

- .... .. ........ ...

. . .. . . . . . :
j

- ........._., ......-..-......................,---....,

y
--.
. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _.____ ;p: .

y
'}1
- __ _________
_____

--.........

'

..........

. -

...

"'"'(''"<.................. ,..........

.......................................................

-~"----..- -........- -...~~....~............... ., .......... .

- ..-.-.......................................

''"-----...

The simple future conjugation uses the same endings as the present tense:
-, -, and - in the singular and -, -, and -() in the plural.
Here's the whole conjugation of y (I'll wrte).

. . . -------

y (/// wrte)

--.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . ... . .

. .----.. . . . . .-..... . . . . . ... . . . . . . . ________.__

,.~~----

y (we'/1 write)

fe;w;; (j~~~;~~'::;~~. ------- "" -~ w~;ou '11 w~~)- . ------~


:;::e-;:-:;-,-----~-----------~"-~-::-~.........,..

--~ !~ (he!shelit ~~::'-.~~e)

-..,.. ~... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . -.~----. . . . . -.. . . . . . . . ... .... . . . . . . ... . . ... . ... ... .. . !

'~~~~~~ (they'/1 write)

- - - , - -- ....~w-uw.......,...,........ ,, ............................ }

1m>1t .
I'll prnt document.

~ y;
Wll you use the computer?
yc .
She'll hug her dughter.

' .
wll red good book.

Greek

~-=r;'":":~---- ;: ~ ~---

1: The simple future tense

_ _......... j...............-... - - - - ....................... _ _ _ _ _ ..................------ -

V'l

.................-.~

Greek has two future tenses, the simple future and the future continuous.
In this course, we'll study the simple future, which expresses an instantaneous action that takes place in the future, corresponding for the most part
to English will do (instead of will be doing). There are two things to keep
in mind when forming this tense. First, the particle is placed in front
of the verb, and second, the verb form is the one that has the -- ending,
similar, but not identical, to the simple past forms. We'll come back to that,
but first, let' s see some examples.

192

---~- ...........

--

v ( sole) .

GRAMMAR

Grammar topic

'

~;~~ (;;;;dJ -~-;~i;~ 7f:ii ,;;;;i

--~~~~ (I ciiide)

..

_______. . . . . . . . . ,~

Portal (in Greek)

.___~__w_.t~~~~!_ ____. . . . .__.__. . . --.. . . . . ..-..-

, m

1 -,

. . . ,. ., _. . . ._.________.,_ - . .-. -.. ,. ._____~""--

. . . . . . . . . -----.. . .~. . . . . . . . . . .~-. .------. . . . . . . . . _. ____________. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-.www.in.gr

c::

-+

SIMPLE FUTURE

.-.-..-..-

.. ....

............~~,------"-"~---

three forty-five).

Since this lesson is about the internet, you may be interested in checking
out these popular Greek websites:
..................

---~-~-~ --~-~-~---~~-~-~-

/t1c fentJ

r-~-~

-~---

buy computer?

Now let's compare the forms of the simple future and the simple past. Take
a look at the following examples, and you'll see the two main differences
between past and future forms. Basically the same stem is used, but the
aug~ent (-, -) that is added in the past to form a third syllable is not
used the future. Also the stress in the simple future is always the last
vowel of the stem, except in irregulars, which we'll come back to Iater.

If you know how to count to 99, then you'll have no trouble saying telephone numbers in Greek. When they are read out loud, phone numbers
are generally divided into two digits and single digits. Thus, the number
I

I
I
I
I
I
76 45 345 reads as: , ,

.
They won't lsten to music.

Greek phone number is usually made up of an area code, the number


zero, and then the number. If you're calling from outside of Greece, make
sre to also use the country code for Greece, which is +30. So a number in
Athens, which has area code 21, might look like this: (+30) 21 76 45 345
Keep in mind that all telephone numbers should have 10 digits (including
the area code and the number zero) and that you always dial the area code
no matter where you are calling to or from.

_...........,.................... ..-

"'

(seventy-six forty-five

~ y;

.
We'll ply computer gmes.

_____..

,_.....................

--

______

------......................_........_...

........................................

------.............................................- _
..

Lesson 11

193

'
' .
'
\)

r ....................._

t..................................

---

(I come u)

..._- ...................

(/ came u)

[ )~;r;~~~~-;UtJ -~----~~'''' ''" ''~

...,,,,.,. , . , ., , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,0 000000000000000-

- - -

00000000 0000000000 . ., 00-

~ (I fi nd)
' ''''''' ''''' ''''f'''"''''"

l (I come}
----... .

---

~,.,,... ~o,,,,,,..., _ _ . ._

_ __ . _ , , ,,,,.,,,,,, ..,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,.,,,,,,,.,,,,..,, W""""'-'.w.M.-

;
(I come down)
................................................--" ..

'

'

-- -

-------

(I take)

.,. ,, , , .,,,.,,.,.<"('~--1

- ~--..,~ ,._.,,_.,, ,.,, ,..._, 0~, V ''''''''''''''' ' ' ' ''' ''' '' ""' ' ' ' ""~'--'-uNHM1 '''''"'''"'''""'

(I drink)

~ ---

----- j

d~ -------

,,,.,.,.,... ,,,,.,..,,.,,,..,,.,,..,..,.,....,._ _.....,_,_ _" '..............(,,...,,...._.,,,,,,,.,,.,,,,,;,,,

'

...;O..._..,---,....._H_'''~

,,,, ,;;,;,,, , ,,,, ,,,,,,,,, ,,, ,><trN(N(>.t<HNN~-

'

.
i

'

_________.._...............................................................- - - - - - - - - " " """""""""_"_"" ------

~+

come up

~~1~

............... .,.._ ..............-....:-""-.

~.-

t .

t,,.,._,_, ......_...

----........ ---'-

194

' _.....................................
.................

~_~--

---

wi/1 come

wi/1 want

. e; -

- ....

.....................,,. ..............................-..,

_____, ..__

.....................................................

_,

-----.....................................................................

.........

--~--

a.
::r
-+

I'D
~

-+

(1)
....,

~
(1)
-+

-~----~"""""'''"''';

- - - - - - - -

..

8~

---~---
-

"""'~-"'

..."'' "' , .............. ............................. . . .......... .. , ....,..

. . . . . .-.__~

The remaining two verbs h~ve different stems and different endings.
,.................................
- -........................................................_.. ..-......._ ..

.
---.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .--;
~ eat
. :..
wi go
1

____

v.w.-......,..... "'~--"

. . . . ,""'". . . . . . . .--.-....-w.. . ~. . . . .-.....:. . . .::..,.............................". . . ....... . . . . . . ,. . ...........,"...:.. ...... .


f~ ~"". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . ___

'

---..-----............._

....... .....................................~. . . . . .- -....,,........_......__..,. . . . . .... ......-.-.... ..................................................................~

*"-~..;.,.-.--

......................................................-----------~-................................. ...... J

,..

----- ----... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -...

. . . . . . . . .,. ... . . . . . . . ..:_. . ___


.

ia~---- ~- -~

____

, .

"- --""-

~&~

___c

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .~

...... . . . . . . _.. . "'-------- . ..,.,~-~---. ----............. . . . . . . ---------~----. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._..___---.!


.............................___
____...._._..............,
_,...........____... ......................_......_______ ----. . . . . . ,_. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___[

#r ()

____

~""""-- ............................................,.......

()

. . .......................~ ............................................................. ~.........................._

.
......_ _.............,.....,.,.

- - -.............................................. - .... ~... ..<

wi/1 take

. . . . . . . ...~~-;.-.. . .

it~

.............................. .....------

. -------- - --

Greek

~- e;i~;~-. -~--~~~~

_......,.__.

wi/1 come down

-..

. . . . ..................~.......................................................................

QJ
~

-i
~~!~-~~~(~--- ~~~(~- ~(~----~~~(~) -~~~~~~_j

let's divide these verbs into three different categories. First are verbs
that have a different stem in the future than they do in the past. These
verbs take the regular future endings that you learned in the last grammar
point.
~ill

;--

.....#"fft-.!\0'11 "'' ' ' .......... , ......... . . ,.,. . ... . . .. , ........ ........_ , . , . , . ._ _ _ ____,..,.,."....

:----

ow

.......
........- - - - - - - - .................. .........................- ..- - - - - - -........_............................. ............................
-..........

.~

'

f..

""

_; ''

J ...

,,

Vl

r~. ,yd~~-e j;;--e;&;; ~~~-; ~~;

..

..

'- ~~~j(; g~}--- ~

'

'

(I eat)
...............................................- ...-..._,

>MMN '~~ ~v.o -'

"" >.. .......,.................. _....,....

-+

ret;
~~-
&--

e~
~

~---e~-~---1
I ------.. . . .-.. . . . . . . . . .-.. . . . ... . . . . . . ._____
.---. . . -.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -.
. . . ... . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
~

I~~~~~me~~! ____~ .
1

- ...._ .......... ......- ....~----1

----...........................................................____........................................................................_ .._________................. .............-.......

'J.1 (I say, tell)

....,,.,._..,. ,_.,, ...,.,,.,,,,,,,,~,,,,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,.,,. ,..,,.,.,., ,.,,.,.,.,..,..__._ _ _ _ _

c:
(1)
....,

:e-~- e - "&: -e~~ - - ~~~ ~~--

...... . .

/
-

~-~

1......

..-~

.,._,..,-~.,..,.,,_ ,"..,.......,-. .... ~. """"""""'""""'''"''.,.,....,.~....,.,.,.,_..,,.,,,_...,,~;,,., ,., ... , _...

. _ ..~--.... .................... ..... .... .. _ _ _ _,__ ........................................................................____

(I want)

,...,., _.. ,,.,, , ,._. ,,,, .. ,. ,,.,, ,,.,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,, ,..,,

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' -.....-

~-- -~

'

~~~~--~~me out wi/1 find


wi/1 see
wi/1 come ;~- ....~;;;...dr;~;-- -wi/1 sayltel~ J
'ym -.. ~-;;;- "---e~&; --- ~~-;;
~;;,-

'

..,

_ , , , . . , . _ . _ , , , , . , , , . , . _ . , . . . . . , , , , . , . , , . , , , , , , , . . ,,,) ""~--------

',....,_...........,...~-----"''......,"""""""''''''"''...,""'"''' ' "

~ ~''''''''' '''''"'' ' 'V~-"'~oww--....,-................_~, ..........,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,...,,..,,...,,,,,,,., .....,_

............_.......,J.., .... ..... .... ..

. . .--.. . . ...._. ______ . . . . . . . . . . .,. . . . . j


._,;,,l!

... .

Second are verbs that take a shortened stem in the future. The endings are
the same as the regular future, except for the second person plural (-
instead of -).

___

~-~~-~~~=!__ .. ..:.--- ~~ ---- ----.. . . . . . . ..-~.~-. .~---~.i..~~


I

,,,,..,..,..~,~.-.v"''''''''''''''''

--------

'){!)

. . . . . . . . . --..-.,..._ ....................................................................._......

v() () f() () () i
.......... ...........-...--------...--......-....................................................................._____ ....._.__. - - - -

(/ wi/1 come u)
......-........._...................._ _ , _

----

'

.. "" .. -................. -. . --~- . ..

--

---------

,.,..,__

~~-:;;~......... ~;;~. -t~ke -1


-~-: : -- - e
--e-----e
- e~" ---

_., ..,.......................................................

wi/1 come

'"'"'''":"""-:"'~~>~--~--------.-~,-,<.....,,.,................,...........,...................,...,,...........,..,,.,, ..,,,'.::......,.,...,....,.,,.,.:.,,,_.,..,.,___~,....,......... ""'""""""""'""":

~-- ~ ; ~ ~~~ ~~~~-------~--~~~~~~~~~~~---~----

______.._..

wi/1 wa-nt

'

Now let's take a look at some common verbs that form the future irregularly. First we'lllook at.these verbs in their present, simple past, and simple
future forms. Then wel divide them into three categories and look at the
patterns of irregularities.
..

...........................

' ' ' " " ' " ...'"'"' " " " " " ' ' ' " ' ' ' ' ' ' ' " ' '' ' " "' "' "" " " ' " ' ' ''"'"" ..''_.,..._.....,................_ _ _,_.............,.,.,.,......,...,.,...,.,.,.....,,,,

2: Simple future of irregular verbs

. ,.... . . . . . . . . . ._.____- --..

'

~ .
They'll travel by car.

~-~~~~~~

-----

I wi/1 come
up
wi/1 come
"""""''''..,._,.,. ,~

You'll come back home tomorrow.

Grammar topic

--

'

.....................,........,................ .

__ ____

..- ..................

..


ro ')'L I ,.
We'llgo out for coffee n the afternoon.
I
I


')'L

.
1

u stand up because there's no seat.

- - - - - - - ---- ----..........._
..

--.......-............/.................................
Lesson 11
195

m.

We'll climb to the top of the mountain.

m y .

don't want any visitor.


I

(""'\

"

c:

r-+
t'D

m.

"""'

EachjEvery one has her reason to be here.

J'll drink lot of water because I'm thirsty.

QJ

:::J
.

r-+

::r

t'D

Grammar topic 3: ndefinites

is similar in that it only varies according to gender, but all of its


forms are plural instead of singular. You first came across in Lesson 6.

Now let's look at indefinites, which are the equivalent of words like something, anything, and nothing. They can be divided into three ?iffere~t categories in Greek, depending how many forms they have. Fst, let s look

l;- - -~----- -----------=~?;;amething, so;~. -~===J


itt&td ---- - - --
~~-~""""'-~~-"

~ --"'~ . . . . .:.~-------

. . : . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . .....'<' . ...... ..... ...

........ . .

...-

,~

............

everything,,.:_~~~-. .~~-~.~~- . """'"_ . . . . . . ---

~.;."'' ''"'"""'"''''"'"'''''~''"'' ...~,.._, ..........-

__

. .- - - ....

some, few,
(m.lf.ln.)

.......~.... ----~.w.....-""

y c

__................................_.............-...--.---

:.~.

Everythng

,,,,, ,,.,.,..,.,,,,, ooovY;-.-

__

-----~:rH'i~
--,.._...-_,._

M._....., . . . _~
...,_...,_.,.,,,_ _ _ _ _ _...._ ...............,, ,,,.,.,,,,,~,- "'''''..., .. ,,,,,,,,, ..,,...,.,.,_,,!"

(m./f./n., sg.)

~~~~;:~;~~. --~~~;~~~~-~~; more

--- - _-- -

t,~

r;--

_ . ...._...........

1;,

everything, everyone (m.f.n.) __ ..............................1

................... "--- ...........................

................................................

-------,
---,-:~-""""'_
----.
()/.: no one, onyone, anythng, none, one,

1\

---

;
_

____. . . . . . . . . . . . . . -.. . . . .-
:~ .

. .,' .

.
.

ny (m.lf./n.)

__,______. . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . ........ . . . . .. --

'

....... -........................................
I
.

.. ....
~ .............................................
- -. ..... - - --

/:

~~{~i~

(m./f.ln.,

I--

!..

Now let's look at the forms that vary according to gender, but that only

. --

.,-~~

~--

..-----., .......-.............. ................................................................................. ..................

someone, somebody (m ./f.ln., sg.)

~._

:/

someone, somebody (m. lf.ln.,

''" '' ' ' 0 '''''''AM'NV'~O '"''""-'"""""""''""J' 'O ' '--w--......, ....-......,,..-.,,,,, ..., ,, ~~-' ' "''''''' ''""'"' ' ""''"' '' ' ' ' '' ''''''' ' ' '' ' ' ' ''' ' ''' '' ' ' ' '' '''' ' '' '' '''''' ' 'f'" "

pl.)

-, . . - - ...-.. . . . , . .............................. :. . . . _..._. . . . . . _ . . .. . -....---------.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .- . . . . . . . . . ..-.. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . j

....... :

other, e/se, onother, ony more

r.
_. _. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .----

;--.~~

I i:/i
r- ~~-i~

do bothers you.

have singular forms.

~..

~~~~~-~~~~~~~~~ some:_~- n~~~~~c:!_~~!!<~:.~ l.}

. Something tells me that Nikos will not come today.

want to give it all up .

-.-,

. .

_..J

Now let' s look at a few more indefinites, that vary according to both gender
and number.
. ----------, . --:-
. , .. --- --.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .___..
-.. .
l/
some, n mount of (m.lf.ln., sg.)

Did you find out anything about my chld?

_ _ , _ ; . ; ,,., , .......

Some people are helpful.

Every day, go to work.

..

~//

.

1
'\.-.
u:..

' I y 't ;

_,,~~""""'-"-~'-"........,.._..,._.._.,.,.,..~--"-~'''-'"""''"""'''""''"'''''.' '''''''''''''''''"'"'''''''''"'''''''''''''''''''''''''' ''''"''"'''"-""'~'n't'HN#J>.............."""''HHHNHHJ'H_

Sometmes,

i
.....!

ech, every, everyone, ech one

sm/1 quntity of .

'

_.,...,.

. . . . . . .,. .. . . . ,... .:v..M"'''''"'''''''''''''''''''"''''''"''''"''~'~

~-------

,,,,,,,,, ,,,, .... _""""""'' ..

. --~~-~hing, none, onyt:!~!!:~~~ -~

"""'
:::J
t'D
r-+

,. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......,. . .. . . . . . ..._. . . . __, ......._______._________. . _ . __. . . . . . .- ..- . . . . . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . --.-........""....

at the invariable indefinites.

:::J

r-+
t'D

pl.)

,,, , , ,,, ,~ , .,. , ._. ,,... ...._"-' 'O<''''' 'i.-V.................... _ _ _, _ _ _,,_..,....,_,,.,_>oooo,

have other frends too.

1>p y .

Here are a few examples. Notice that

is in the accusative in the

second example.

ll

Some woman lost her gloves.


I

buy some oranges.

Does anyone want ice cream?

~196\______

---------.........................................--

----- ....................._........

. . . . . . .. . . . . .-- - -- - - - -- --------.. . ._.__. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ---- -- - - -- - - L


-e-ss_o_n_1_1-

Greek
,______

---m--

READING

116.

11.

CULTURE

The focus of this section is the administrative region of '}'


(N_orthern ~egean). Thi~ region inclu,des five big islands: (Lesvos~
(Lmnos),. (Icaria), (Samos), andXo (Chios). There
are other smaller slands as well, such as (s).

Read the following short passages, about how different people use computers and the internet.

. : ,
.
r
,.
yc
I

.
I

I
I
I
I
I
:

.
'

.
'
I

. i, , a
m :
I

.
I

11

: .
I
I
I
I
I
,



y '
.


I
I
'
I

.

'~

i . , y

~ ' .

(~,~~-~s_:.~_~~r- _____ -=-- ~--

seventy yers old nd I'll buy computer to red Greek nd


foregn newsppers. I'lllern to use e-mil to wrte letters to my brother, who
s in Chicgo. don't know, though, how to nstll the different progrms tht
J'll need. They told me t the seniors' (lit., old ge) club tht they'll he~p me.
student

nd

J'm studying

The internet is
very useful. like to red scentific rticles nd to look t the websites of
foreign unverstes nd hosptls. This wy, I'll be better prepred for exms.
ll be very well informed. lso downlod musc, exchnge photos with my
friends, nd sometimes red blogs or go into chtrooms.
J'm forty yers old. After cr ccident, ws left hndicpped
nd cn 't go to work. With the internet, though, found work nd do it
from home without needing to move. translte texts nd send them to
clients v the internet. Also, py my bills without needing to wit in line
t the bnk.

v.ww~goesy,os.com .

------- -- ....................................:............................. --------

medcne.

Pnore:

t"+

tt>
..,

QJ
:::

.
t"+

:::r

tt>

:::
t"+

tt>
..,
:::

tt>

t"+

Limnos, also know~ as Lemnos, is also blessed with olive groves and vineyards, .as well as pcturesque villages. Icaria is named after Icarus who
accordng to mythology, perished in the sea near the island when h~ fle~
t~o close to the sun a~d the wings he was wearing melted. Samos the
brthplac~ of Pyt~agoras and Epicurus, is a favorite spot for sun lover; and
~esser~ wne afico~ados. The island of Chios produces many specialties,
ncludng sweet frut preserves, but it is best known for ' ( t )
th d 'bl
f

ms c ,
e e. e resn an evergreen shrub, which is used as a gum, as a spice in
. cook~g, as a flavorin? in liqueur, and for many other purposes. Finally, the
smallslan~ of Psara s known for the heroic contribution of its inhabitants
toward the ndependence of modern Greece.

. Socrts: m

Dn: m unversty

Many people a~sociate the phrase ((Greek island with sandy beaches and
~lue water, whch is of course true, but that's only part of the story. The
slands also have :conomic, cultural, and historic significance. On Lesvos
{or Lesb?s), one wll find galleries, a Roman aqueduct, and an ancient theat:r, whch at one time could hold ten thousand people. There are also the
runs of Aphrodite's temp~e, a ~useum of natural history, and a petrified
forest. Lesvos produces olve !, specialty cheeses, fish delicacies honey
and th; world-renowned . (Plomari Ouzo). h: {
(wi?e ofMethymn?) from Lesvos was considered by ancient
Greeks to be the (nectar of Olympian gods).

I

'

th;;~ktrave. ~o-~;i~~s - --------------,


--;~~~~;~os-tra;e.com ------- .
l
www.

--

- -- --

--

---__)

EXERCISES

. Give the following verbs in the simple future tense, in the same person

and number.
1.

(you shout)

2.

{they look)

y { cook)

'

4 y (you drive)
5

'

(we beleve)

6. ( her, listen)
------~---------------------------------------------

198 \

Greel<

.............................................................. ......................._,.........~-- ..........-.......................

- - ------------------1................................

Lesson

11

199

7 . (you return)

Ifigena

8. (you comb)

10.

10.

( deposit)

11 .

(hejshe works)

12 .

(Will you come

nside

to

1.

() . (Everything you say is recorded.)

2.

() , . (One {f.) wants ths1 the

other {f.) wants that.)

15. (they forget)

() . {Some children are very in-

telligent.)

(you ask)

() . {Some men are askng for you.)

17. ( sing)

8. (you wake up)

6.

19 . (they converse)
20 .

(you smell)

21.

(J ask)

22 .

(they swim)

from

() . ( go on trip every year.)


() . { don't want anything

Tlemaho.)

7.
shop.)

() . { lke somethng in this

8.
day.)

23 . (you start)

() . (We'll come again another

9 ___ () . ( one wants to listen to


me.)

24. ( answer)

5. ( open).

I)

down?)

(we laugh)

14. (they paint)

C. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the indefinite
in parentheses.

13 . (hejshe pulls)

at school.)

I
___

st

9 . (hejshe rents)

1 6.

() . (Tomoow, J'll see

() . {None of the women beleved

her.)

Complete the following sentences with the simple future form of the

verb in parentheses.

() 1C\). (Nikos willgo hunting.)

2.

early.)

() . (Aunt Vasiliki will come

() . (Yina will drink water from

'
3. --the spring.)
4
() . (You'll phone Maria.)
5
6

() . (Eleni wil/go out for stroll.}


() . (I'll climb up the stairs.)

0
8.

() . (Kiriakos will eat salad.)


() . (Alexandra will find the

treasure.)
----------------

. . . .. . .. . . . . ... . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .-.. ... . . . .-.. . . . . . . . . 200


Greek

D. Every sentence below has a grammatical error. Rewrite the sentences


correctly.
1.

'

' .
'

2.

. (Every chld lkes to play.)

(Tomorrow

hejshe will go to the moves.)

3 . {Marika wll speak to Ron tomorrow.)


4

'
'
'
'

{My wife and

will leave

tomoow.)

S ; {Will you drnk Greek coffee?)


6. . { don't know any good grll
house.)

-----------..----- - . . . . . ._,__. _ _ _. . . . . .... . . .--.. . . . _ _ _ . . . . . . . ... . . . .------.. ..-... . . .--.. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .-.. . .------ . .1. . . . . ______
Lesson

11

201

7 . (Some men will go fishing.)

LESSON

8. ; (Will you eat mousaka ?)

9 ; (Will you go up on the roof?)


10.

. . ( don't want any more cheese.)

INDEPENDENT CHALLENGE

Running errands
Since this lesson is all about computers and the internet see how well
you can find your way around a Greek language portal, for example
~.in.gr. Imagine that you needto do some oline shopping. Go to
on-lirie (shops onli'ie) and select a category that interests you. Explore the links that corne up anq see if you can find all the
information you need to make your purchase. Remember to jot down
any new vocabulary that you find in your Language Jurnal.
1

~his lesson ~ou'Illearn key vocabulary related to running errands and


tak~lg ~ar~ of lttle everyday tasks. On top of this useful new vocabulary
In

yo~ ~ so earn ho~ to say what you want to} can, should and have to do:

ANSWER

ree muc

'
,

'
}

6.

'

'
')',

'
,

'
4 ,
'
8. ,

, !

'

"1!.
9 :, 10. , 11. t,
12. ')' '
,
13.

14.

15.

16.

'
'
'
17. - ,
18. ,
19. ,
20.

'
'
'
,
21. '
, 22. ,
23. :,

'

24. , 25. '

. 1. , 2. ,
I

7 , 8. , 9 ,

C.

' 2. '
1. ,
,
8. ', 9

'
,

10.

')',

6.

'

'
,

'
,

'
6. ,
7

'
,

' 10.
'
,

'

D. 1. ')' ( )
. 2.
() . 3 ( ) .
,
,
,
) ,

4 ( . 5 . .
1

( )
I ;
I

6.

I
)
'
(
-;:;-

7 () . 8.
( ) ; 9 ( ) ;
10.

urther along! So, are you ready to begin?

12. VOCABULARY WARM-UP

' } 2.
' ,
. 1.

~hs ;ll ~afn learnng a few key pieces of grammar, but they'll bring your

() .

Can help you?

Can pay the bill?

i.


. '){>

complete your personal informaton


(by) :xpress (mail) with proof of
I'll come again.

)'

This letter doesn 't have sender.

recept

Greek

bill stub

'}U

202

please

;
;;
.

ext,

...

Can you gie me informaton


about . ..
They'll start complainng.

: .

128. DIALOGUE

Amalia has some errands to run and decides to start at the post office.

: , ! ,
;

: .
J!! ;p ~
.. ~
y ;
: .
I

I
y
' ;

: , ~. ~ ; W,
. p

: y p
:){) .
I
I
:
; I ~
;

.
'
'
;

: , ' ; ~ :
: .

: . ~ } ; '~
c.

'
'
'
: :.

'\ ,
..........


"' 1rU\U
'
'
~'\ ';

.
U

'
'
'\,
'
'
:
.
"'
;
: '(), ~. ~
){) 011J1.
: ,
250 ~; y
. ~
:

'
;
I

:
:

p. 'J
Jl
I

. . ___,,_,. . .t-----..----.. . . . .._,_. ____ _ ,., _;-__,___,_________,_____,_____


204 !
i

Greek

: .
~
,
'
,
'
:

,
,

c:: , .
.

Teller: Next, please! Good moming, can help you?


Amalia: Good morning. I'd like to mal some letters
and ask some questons. Can pay my electrc
company bill here?
Teller: Of course. Do you have the bll stub?
Amalia: Yes, here it s. And here are the letters that I'll
mal. have to send ths one regstered, and the
big envelope ( have to send) express with proof
of recept.
Teller: Ths letter has no sender. Please complete your
personal informaton. Do you need anythng
else?
Amalia: Yes. Do you have (busjsubway) tickets? also
want two pre-pad calling cards.
Teller: Here you go. How many tckets do you want?
We only have tckets for cty transt.

Amala: Give me ten. Also, they told me that can pay


my car regstraton fees (here). Is that true?
Teller: That's rght. Will you pay now?
Amalia: , come a,gan. But I'd lke to buy book
of stamps. Will you also gve me postal check
for 2 50 euros? have one last queston. Can
you give me nformaton on Post Office Savngs
Bank loans?
Teller: For loans you should (lt., wll) go upstars to
the offices, and they'll gve you the nformaton
you need. Tell me the name of the recipent of
the postal check so can get t ready.

Amala: Kalliro Kserou. She lves n Arzona in the


Unted 8tates.
............................................-......_........ .__.._____,__, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

---------..----~---.........................

Lesson 12

/ 205

/ y

gve informton,

;/

send by mail, mail

~/

receive, get

I.complete

COD (csh on delivery)

fill

(by} express (mil)

J'm in rush

pre-pid clling card

Teller: Here's the check. hope you don't need


anything else because the line has reached
all the way to the door and the rest of the
customers will start complaining.
Amalia: Don't worry, I've finished. Thank you very much.

12C. VOCABULARY
I

r
I

postl

ask for

nformaton

inform

out form

complain

have lot of eands to run today.

code

lbum for stmp

collecting

*known as

greeting crds

cr registrtion fee

12D.

PHRASES

o'JJ.lx
./

collection

pyment in full

envelope

stmp

First hve to go to the dry

clener 's.

income t declartion

coin(s)

Then hve to get some groceries.

J. ,

U.
I

teller

bill (money)

hours of opertion

customer

aJ.~

,_....

\:'ltW

lso

need to go to the bank and


the post office.

wnt

to mail letter.

y.

t

j~

., mail caier

( 1CJ1

checkbook

mQ)

ticket (fr city transit)

m (

I
I

ryc)
I

mJ1

How much does it cost to


postcrd to the US?

mil

)*

t
I

1
~~!

i\J\t,

postl check (postal money order)

___ _.._

-;~6t - -..-G;~~ek--------------------------

...

......... _._............----..--..

Give me the full


wnt

ddress.

to rent post office box.

y.

- - - - - - - - - -........................................................................................_ ......................._ . _ _ _ _ _ _,_.,,_,_ ..............1..................................

Lesson 12

i 207

What

the name of the recipient?

12F.

Grammar topic

nd lst nme.

Complete your first

The use of

Write legibly.

"'!!

1:

Throughout this course you've seen examples like the following, with the

particle , which has been translated as to.

.
I

GRAMMAR

/\.t:,;

Are you the sender?

wnt

to send the letter registered.

want

hve

to buy bus tickets.

to ply.

)'
I

y .

, !

Be creful, it's frgile!

cme

to pick up

pckge.

l:,

need to
euros.

.
I

Wht

exchnge dollrs for

is the

exchnge rte?

w;

'

! wnt to open svings ccount.


I

y.

wnt

to close my ccount.

y .

n y

svings ccount

ccount?

or checking

m;

.
We want to t/k.

y.
You wnt to laugh.
/~I

~ ~ ~-
He/She wants to leave.

They want to wash ther clothes.

J>.

If you look at the English translation abOve, you'll see that want is followed
by an infinitive in English, to play. In Greek, though, there is no infinitive
form, so the Greek literally means something along the lines of want that
(should) play. So the particle is really closer in meaning to that than it
is to to; it introduces a clause or a mini-sentence within the Iarger sentence.
Here are some other examples with clauses.

need to cash this check.

need to

You want to buy stamps.

mJl.


(
)

wthdraw

money from the

(want) is not the only verb that can introduce a clause. We'll see

other ones a bit later, but for now we'H focus on and the use of .
All of the examples you've seen so far have had the same subjects the
main clause and the clause. However, it's also possible to have different
subjects, and again, English uses to where Greek uses .

12. CU LTU RE 1
1
I
I
fd
Two useful phrases to know in ~reek are ~ ' ~e
fvor) and ( need smll servce).
You'll hear Greek people use these phrases often, and as a ge~eral rule,
Greeks are happy, or even proud, to be of service. Greek people, ,~ke people
in many places, believe that /{what goes around, comes around, so re.turning a favor is the natural thing to do. In fact, people may even wat for
generations to return favors!

........................._1_
I ..,_- - - -- - - - - - --------------I

208 1

Greel<

.
want hmjher to see me.
a!"'!,....

\:'lt:J\W ~.

want you to leave.

I
I
'} I"VUUV.
I
'

v
J'I .

You want Yanns to open bank account.

- -.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . _ _ _. ______. . . . . . . . . . . . . ._.___ - - - ------t-. -Lesson

12

/ 209

for example: am learning Greek or learned Greek. The imperative mood


expresses commands, for example: Learn Greek! And the subjunctive expresses things like expectations. Wel come back to the subjunctive in the
next grammar topic, but for now just consider sentences like can learn
Greek and must learn Greek. Verbs like can and must are called ((modals"
because they introduce a different mood, one that doesn't express things as
they actually are, but rather intent, desire, obligation, necessity, and so on.
You've already learned how to express want: , followed by the particle
and another verb. Here are the common modals in Greek.

'
'

' .
We want you to mail this letter.

. .-. -._

~-~.~
--~~~--==--~~ ~=:~~=- -------~---~-~~_~ ~ ____ ---=~=::~:~ ~::=]
1r ' ...

__. . _. . _ . . .

.....

'---.,~

rt . ~ .

!
, -- -..-

j .

...,,,,_, , ....,,,,_.,,,,,,

need to ...

, ,,,,_, ,,,,,, ,_, , ,,,,,,,,,,,.,n,n>-n-O O 'f""""'-HN-o-N<O<.....,._.,..,,,,,,.,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,. ..., ...._

_ ................................\ ..................._ . , . ,, .............._. ,, , , ,, ,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,...,.,,HHN/W,NI'HHHNI'N'---ffoH(W"'fH<'H<N'M. .. ' (

...

~ ~.~~. .~. . .:. . .:. . . . . . . _. ,_,...~..--~---,..,. .-......... . .!

ca n_:._:.,. . . '.. .

must . .. , hae to ...


____......................,.... ...
~

----~~' """' '

(can, may) and (need to) function just like . Simply conjugate them, and follow them with a clause. Notice that with
, both the main clause and the clause willlogically have the same
subject.
Let's look at some more examples of clauses in sentences. No.tice t~at
the irregular verbs that you st~died in Lesson 11 keep the same rregu ar

forms in clauses.

I
' m .

want to drink water.


'

) .
I

He/She wants to buy ticket.


.
We don't want to play.

I
I
' y
).

They want you to leave fast.

'
'
:y
.

:;

1 want to buy new shoes.

Can tell you secret?

-~ ~ k~
'
~
m.

They want to move (lit., change houses).

Can you give me the keys?

'

I
t ;

Do you want to eat with us this evening?


I

It's necessary that we go to the post office.j We need to go to the post


office.

Do you want to go up on the roof?

~~

:.

(must, have to) works a little differently, though. It's always conjugated in the third person singular form. Notice that the verbs in the
clauses after may be in other forms.

You want to drink lemonade.


Grammar topic

2: Modals

ln Lesson 8 you were introduced to the concept of grammatical 'r~ood."


The indicative mood expresses things as they actually are, were, or wll be,

) .

have to buy bread.

---

_..

.............-..........................................

----------210 I
Greek

--------

------

-----..-

___

___ --

.................................................... ....

....

.........................................._, ....

- - - - -.........................................._
Lesson 12

211

Grammar topic 3: The subjunctive

'
.
I

You have to leave tomorrow morning.


You can soften a modal in English by saying would like instead of want,
could instead of can, should instead of must, and so on. ln Greek, you can
do the same thing by using the particle along with a past form of the
verb. So for example, (want) becomes (would like).

~-~_{ ---- -------- -----------~-~-~-~d ~-~-~-~---to_____-.. . -. .__-.. . .-.._:_ :~~-~---_---!I


;~{;~ -----~---- ---- ~~",;d, might
\
------i.
1

,.._.,. _____,,,,,, ''' ,,,,,,,,,_ ..,......,.,n-__ .._ _ _ _ _..._ _,_.,.,, ...

~-

!
I
1
,,,,,,.,,.">#

---

_....

:::::s
.
Vl

to the simple future, but it uses the particle instead


of . This is actually not the only form of the subjunctive, but it's the only
one that we'll focus on in this course.

woutd need to
i
..___...........- ..... --- ----------"""''' ' ' ''1.
should, ought to

- - - - - ........................................- - - -- ----""'''''"'"""""''"'j

------------ ---"'-----

.
hope you answer my question.

Don't be misled by the particle ; this isn't a future tense, but rather a
conditional. We'lllook at conditionals in more detail in Lesson 15. For now,
just take a \ook at the conjugations of these three useful verbs. Remember
that only has a third person form, .
_ _ _ _ _..__....................................................... ------~'""'"''' ...................................- ....- - - - - - - - --""""""""'""""'"'"""-

j would ike

could, might

~-----" .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .

! ~

..

,.,,_____... _.......... . . . . -,-"'#_. .____.......~:"''"'"'""""'""'"""""'''---"/ .............----~,.,..,:...._..,1

...

--""'

would need ,to

\ ~-~~ -----~~_I:L~~~
--~-~~---
'
-~~

--- ~;;

______ __::~:~~~~~ _" \


. 1
...._.._.............................~--~~........... . ........ ......................................~
"'""

~
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___________. .. . . . . ,. . . . ,. . . . ... . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . ..,. . . . . . . ..~:.~. . ,. - ' -, -_. . . .~. . . . . . . . ----4

1

_:
_

--"-- ;;~~~~ ---e;-;-~~-l


r-..-___:, ___ . . . . . . . _.... . . . . . . . .. .-. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .-.. .
__. . . . ."':;....:. . . . . . . . . . .: . . . . . .. . . . ,------..

e-': i~

~-

l1~ ~~ ___

~~~

_ __ __~~~~~~-----~~~~~ . ,_____j

I
I

' l.

would

tve: t s dentcal

'

~-

.,.

...,

C'D

~s yo_u ~a~e pr?bably guessed, you already know how to form the subjunc-

i,

- -

OQ

think about (doing something).

___________.._....................................................-


...-- ---
_.,.. ..............................................................................................
'

.,.,,, .......

:::::s
:::::s
:::::s

Now we're ready to look at the third mood in Greek, the subjunctive. You've
actually been dealing with the subjunctive since the first grammar topic in
this lesson. The subjunctive expresses wishes, desires, hopes, and expectations, "':hich is why it is used with verbs like ~ , ,
and . It'~ also used with verbs like (hope) , (it is
about to ... ), (wish), (like), (believe) ,
(intend), and many others as well. The verb (to be about to ... ,
to almost . .. ) is also followed by the subjunctive, because it expresses an
expectation rather than something that has actually happened. similar
example is the expression 'l. , which can be translated as consider or

s..-

::

He/She has to go to work.

!i

:::tJ

(t y..
He/ She is about to leave on trip.
~ .
We wish that you l (pl.) pass the exams.
I

)'.
She likes to read Greek mythology.
.
beleve that he/she is telling me the truth.
I

intend to study microbiology.

You should leave now.

)'.

'
.
I'm considering talking to Petros.

like to win the lottery.

y .
You're about to finish your work.

hope find my watch.

m.

should take picture.


'

~ .
I

It would be necessary to get to the store very early.jWe would need to


get to the store very early.

__

............. ..

, ,_,

212

................................

....

-..

Greek

-.- -- - - _...........................--...- - - --

The~e

are a few particles other than that can introduce the subjunctive:
, , or y . is used to introduce suggestions, and it can be
translated as let's. can be translated as when, but in a future sense,

__ ___

.......................,_..

......._____ , ,

____

...................---------

- - --------

- ....- ................. I ..--- -

Lesson 12

213

meaning something like as soon as. can be translated as to, in order


to, or 50 as to. Let's look at examples to see this more clearly.

m {ry.
wnt

you not to leve.

I
1\/
.

You don't hve to

'

'

(It's not the cse

tht

you're obligted to

tlk.)

Le(s move on.

'

tlk.

You must not tlk. (You're obligted not to

'

'
.

tlk.)

Let's go to the supermrket first.

'
'
't
')U.

126.

When/As soon s you come, we'llleve.

' y :
' ~.
'
y

READING

See if you can understand the following lists of errands.

One needs lot of ptience to mke mousk.


: y t t,

The subjunctive can also be used to soften commands, similar to the English could you . . . ? or would you . . . ?

'
't .
'

'

I
I

t .
d t .
~ t t
I
I
I
I

'
J1'.

Could we wit little more?jVVhy don t we wt lttle more?

'

yp .

I
'\ I
I
,._..'\ ..,.!

m ~ y t ~

'

. ,
t t .

Would you wtch this documentry?


negate the subjunctive, use (), which is put between the particle
and the verb.

: < ,
, y
. ') y
yp
'.
I
~
I
'\ ,
I

,
t

y
I
I
I
I
y. t
, y
t

.
wnt you not to come.

'

'

y .

Could we not buy tickets?/Let's not buy tickets.

'.

{ y .

Let them not leve for work, yet./fhey shouldn't leve for work, yet.

'

'

m m .

I'm considering not tlking to Petros.


As you know, if you negate a main (indicative) clause, you use () instead
of (). This can create subtle differences in meaning.

'm qnyy.
.'

don't wnt you to leve.

- - -...rI ...........-.... - - - --- ............................... -

214

Greek

_ _ _ _.......................................-.-...

-.--

----"'''''''''" - - - ...........................................

First Lst: We hve to buy greetng crds for the holdys, write them, nd
mil them. Afterwrds, we hve to do the week's shoppng t the supermr
ket nd pss by the met mrket nd . the fish mrket for fresh met nd fish.
Sturdy, we hve to go to the open-ir mrket for green lefy vegetbles
nd frut. We hve to buy gift for Alexndros 's brother, who s celebrtng
(hs nme dyjbrthdy), nd reserve tble t the resturnt 'he Good
Food." We lso hve to cll the doctor to mke the ext ppontment for
Ansts 's mother. Finlly, we hve to pck out fbric for upholsterng the
new dinng room set.
............................

____

____

...................................._..

...................................
,

___ __

_____

.. ,..............................

......................................

Lesson 12

_..

..-.................. ......

215

do these islands justice, but perhaps you'll find inspiration for a trip one
of the following websites:
-- ..........................................
-- - - r . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .___ - . --

Second List: We have to pay the electricity, telephone and water bill, and pay
the credit card bill in Jull. We have to buy bus and subway tickets and pck up
the letters Jrom the post office box. Also, we make the monthly mortgage payment and deposit the two salaries in the joint account. We have to take the car
to the dealership Jor an oil change, and pass by the gas station to fill up, and
finally, pay the fine for running the stop sign (lit., the stop [sgnj volaton.)

[ www.greektravel.com/greekislands/

1 cyclades. htni

_............ ---- ..

... ..............

~- .......,........

www.mykonos-web.com/ .....................----

"'-----.. - . --................ _.,..____ ........................................._ _ - ... . .

~~~ ~~~~es. gr_-- - . . . ------- _


. - ___ ww_w. sa nt~~~net~h~m~-==-=~
.

12 .

CULTURE

EXERCISES

It is likely that the South Aegean Sea, with its assortment of sun-drenched
islands, is one of the first things that comes to mind when many people
think of traveling to Greece. We've left it until Lesson 12, perhaps appropriately until after you've learned how to express wishes and desires with
the subjunctive!

. Complete the following sentences using the verb in parentheses in a

The administrative region of y (South Aegean) is made up


of two island clusters. The first one is the (Dodecanese), or
literally twelve slands. In reality, of course, there are many, many more
islands than the twelve accounted for in the name. The second one is the
(Cyclades), literally meaning crcular. The name comes from
the fact that the islands in the cluster appear to be {( encircling" the sacred
island of (De/os). In Greek mythology, Delos was the birthplace of
the gods Apollo and Arte~is, but its position as a sanctuary dates back to
well before the ancient Greeks. Today, the island has impressive and very
extensiv~ archaeological remains that are well worth visiting.
Typical scenes from Greek island life include white churches with their blue
domes, blooming flowers in pots neatly arranged along narrow staircases,
winding flagstone alleys, whitewashed houses, and of course beautiful vistas of sand, sea, and sky. Family-owned restaurants by the sea serve local
products such as cheese, wine, sausage, honey, and the catch of the day.
However, even though they do share similar characteristics, each island
naturally has its own character as well. (Rhodes), for example, was
once home to one of the seven wonders of the ancient world: the Colossus
of Rhodes. This giant bronze statue of the sun god Helios used to tower
over the harbor at Rhodes at a height of about 108 ft (33 m) before it
was destroyed in an earthquake. (Mykonos) is a world-famous
summer destination known for its vibrant gay culture and cosmopolitan
nightlife. (Santorn), which was decimated by a cataclysmic
volcanic eruption in ancient times, offers spectacular sunsets viewed from
atop the sharp cliffs that remain. (Tnos) is known for its shrine
to the Virgin Mary. (Andros) has its natural springs and vegetation; (Kalymnos) its sponge divers; (Tlos) its flowers;
'} (Amorgos) its hiking trails and herbs; (Naxos) its sweet
potatoes; and (Patmos) is home to the cave in which St. John wrote
the Apocalypse, or the Book of Revelations. Of course a simple list does not

216 ~--G-re_e_k-----

---

_______

.........

clause.

_ _ _ () . { want to go to the shops.)

() . (We want to eat ce cream.)

() ; {Do you want to drnk cold milk?)

(). (They don't want to studyjread.)

s.

('i ..
t

clothes.)

'

to wash
(He doesn't want

hs

_ _ _ () . (hey want to Jorget

6.

ther problems.)

7 _ _ _ () . (You want to buy computer.)

8.

_ _ _ () . (He wants to sell hs

old car.)
9

_ _ _ () . {We want to leave right

now.)

io
candes

(' )

to the chldren.)

'
' .

(They want to

gve

. Complete the following sentences using the verb or modal in parentheses, in Greek.

(ought) . ( ought to get up to


go. to work.)

2. _

_ _ (could)

; {Could you lend us the

car?)
(can) ; (Can you step {lit., dojmake) lttle

Jurther?)

____

- - - - - ....................
..

- - -.............................._ _ _ _

...................

.......................

Lesson 12

/ 217

. _ _ _ (hve to) . (We hve to phone

home.)
5

When you find them, underline them and give the correction.

(hve to) . (We hve to cook.)

D. There are ten grammatical errors in the following Greek paragraph.

6.

(wnt) . (You wnt to go on trp.)

.
7
8.

(my) ; (y hve glss ofwter?)

(would) . (We would lke to


invte you to prty.) -

9 _ _ _ (must) . (We must tlk.)


10.---


. .

.
. .
I
'


.
wnt

. (She wnts to become fmous.)


(wnt) ~
"'

c. Give the subjunctive of each verb in the same person and number. Start

to go to the movies tomorrow but don t know what movie wll be


plying (they will ply). called my fr.iend Anesti and weJll go together. ll
study my lessons tonight and tomorrow ll be free to enjoy the movie. We'll
each pay for our (own) tcket. Before the movie starts, we z buy refreshments.
The movie will finish at ten thirty.

your answer with the particle .


1.

(you open)

2.

( close)

INDEPENDENT CHALLENGE
So far you've learned quite a few different verb forms, and you've probably come to the realization that verbs in Greek can be a real challenge!
But now that we've added the subjunctive, you can see that it's not so
difficult. The form thatwe're focusing in this course is identical to
the future tense. Still, with some verbs, the differences between the
simple past tense, and the fiture/subjunctive are very minor. Take .f or
example: (to call, to shou,t) ' which becomes in the
simple ast, < in the futu~e, and < in the subjunctive, the only difference being a shift in ~tress. sort out Greek verbs,
choose a good variety of Greek verbs that you've learned so far, and
write out the y forms for the simple pres~nt, the simple past, the
simple future, and the subjunctive. Of course you may need to refer
back to earlier lessons, but this kind of practice wil1 really help you.

3. (they ply)
4 (we wsh)
5 ( have)
6. (the do)

7.

(we pull)

8. (you laugh)
9 (we wake up)
10.

(they comb)

11.

(we shout)

12.

(you eat)

13.

(they drink)

ANSWER

14. (you look)

I
. 1. ,
2. ,

15. (we p)

,
7
10.

6.

16. (you find)

18. ( write)

1 ,

218

Greek

11.

12.

13.

14. , 15. , 16. , 17. , 18.

.......................--+----

3 , 4 , 5
'
9 , 10....

6. , 7 , 8. , 9 ,

(to collect, to pick up)

- - - - - - - - - -- .......................

c. 1. a, 2. , 3 , 4 , 5 ,

19. ( search for)


20.

. 1. , 2. ,
I
,
6....
', 7 ,
8....

17. (we go)

4 ', 5 ',
8. ', 9 ,

I ,

- - ...-..........................--.- -

.......................

19. , 20. '


I

- .........................................____ _____........................ - - - -.............................._ _ _ ...................................- - ..............................- -+--...........................

Lesson

12

219

D.

( ) , ~

. () ; ;)
( ) . ( ) ~

LESSON

~ J!~)
( ), . ~F (
) ., ; (~)
. ( )

() .

At wor/(

Lesson 13 focuses work, so you'lllearn a lot of useful vocabulary related


to offices and the workplace. You'll also learn the names of various professions and departments within companies. In addition, this lesson will
introduce some new grammar, including reflexive pronouns like mself,
ourself, and so on, as well as two-word prepositions and rules on word
order in Greek sentences. Let's begin with a vocabulary warm-up.

13.

VOCABULARY WARM-UP

What's your mpresson of our


department?


~.
-

They ntroduced me to all the


colleagues.

They're ready to help me.

.
I

...

'

got

my (bachelor's) degree
from ...
Your achevements are

mpressve.

'

y.

We have meeting.

'

'

to arrange your officej desk

Theyl connect the phone for me.

to complete your schedule

.......................

220

---- - - - - -........- - -

+
. -- -

Greek

........................- .. _ _ _............................- - - -

: .
t ... ,

138. DIALOGUE
Stavros has just started working at a new company. Listen in as he talks
to Elli.

1.."1.

y y

'n: , pJ.1
,,

'
'
'
'
y .

'

'

y .

:
, ,
, , . '
y .

"l .

,
,
,

:
, ry.

'

Ell: Welcome to the office Stvros. Wht's your


mpresson of our deprtment?
Stvros: like t very much. They ntroduced me to ll
the collegues nd the ssstnts. Everyone s

very polte nd they're redy to help me.


tell me Stvros) where dd you study?
Stvros: got my (bchelors) degree from the Arstotle
Unversty of Thesslonk) then contnued
my studes brod nd got my doctorte from
Columb Unversty n New York.

'
'
'
'

'
'
'


. .
'n:
'

'
.
'

'

'
y
.

' , ,
'
'
,
ry
I

. ry
I

, ? , pJ.1 y
w .

'

' '.
1

Jl ~ , ~

Elli: Bravo your chevements are relly impressve.


You must be proud of yourself Dd you work
somewhere else before comng here?
Stavros: ) finished unversty brely two months
g. But) whle was studying ws workng
t prvte firm nd we did reserch smlar
to what we're dong here) together wth Mr.
Lefkd's deprtment.
Ell:

m glad tht you hve some experence. J'm

sure we'll work well together. So, n hlf n


hour we hve meetng wth the drector.
Before the meetng however, let me tell you

I

y.

--~

Greek

..............................._,_,

__

--..--..- -..............................----- - -....................._,_,

_,....................

Ell: Jt's true tht our tem works well together. S

: '(), (
.
'} Jl

'

v ;

,
'
,

.

'

': ,
. ,
'
'
'
,

'
.

"'j

' '

. ,

w. '~ ~ ~ f'Ut

'
' ' '
:

:,
,
v

w. ,

'
'
'~

'
.
-,

'

'

,
I
I
I
I
v w

': .

'
:

m,
J
I
I

,

'

)>

r+

---............................................___
______

____

..................................

,,,

,,_,,,

.......................................- ......

- -.......................................___
..

lesson 13

__

..............................]-..........

1223

few things so that you can arrange your office/


desk.
Stavros: Thanks Elli. The only thing theyve told me up
till now is that this aftemoon theyll connect
the telephone and the laptop.
Elli: Good. Let me think what else you need for now
. .. So, the plugs are on the floor under the desk,
you can hang your jacket on the hanger behind
the door, you )ll find coffee in the kitchen, which
is across from the director)s office, and the
photocopier is in front of the assistan(s desk.
Ah, yes, (arid} the washrooms are beside the
elevator. And finally, dont forget to e-mail your
weekly schedule to the assistant. don )t think
that e forgotten anything. Maybe you want
to ask me something?
Stavros: Not right now. Maybe later, ll think of
something.

hanging folder

:t>
-+

divider

pencil holder

-"

wastepaper basket

bookends

13C. VOCABU LARY

'

'

paper clip

correction flud

m/

'

salesmanjwoman

{>/ {>

lawyer

'j

polcemanjwoman

t/ t

doctor

engneer

banker

architect

'
/

veterinaran

department

dentst

~.'
/\,

'

sales department

{>/ {>

carpenter

marketing department

construction worker

{>/ {>

taxi driver

.. '

'

shipping department

/ artist

'

..

'

supervsor

'
'
/

writer

'
'
m

business card

plumber

/ 1r

elevator

electrcian

'
m

photocopier

Q/
Q

p/

journalist

photocopy .

'

yyr

shredder

fax

'
/

muscan

'
yp/
yp

secretary, assistant

----'....................- - - -
Greek

__...........................

---

- --

...............................

busnessmanjwoman

company

~
~'

staple

I~
~

stapler

Elli: Good. Then, le(s go to the meeting.

224

'

-----

............................... ..

.................................- - -

............................................................

actorjactress

- - - -....- ....................................................

- - -.............................................._.___
Lesson 13

. ..... ....................................._

225

'

'

Note
In most cases, the distinction between the masculine an~ feminine f?r~s
f an occupation is made through the use of the masculne a~d :emnne
0
vn (urnalst) s mascu ".'~
h f _
articles respectively. For examp1e, 0
line, and yp Uoumalist) is femnne. In a few cases, t, e em
nine form will have another ending, as in the example of ~~
. (rtist). Don't worry too much about those for now; you w
learn them as you encounter them.

He/She s on sck leve.

'

'

.....

The coffee mchne s out of order.

'\.....
uw,.

'

y.

1 got promotion.

got

ws fired.

got rse.
bonus.

13D. PHRASES

' ' ;
' y

13.

Wht do you do for livng?

;fl
'

work full-tmejprt-tme.

I'm unemployed.

'

'

1. ){).

.j

I'll receive my pension.jl'll retire.

'
'

C\).

J'm on mternity leve.

'
.

' ry.

The work hours are long.

t
'
' .
'

The dedline to submit the report is

'

'

tomorrow.

The fringejemployee benefits re


not significnt.

- .

'
'

t.

Tomorrow is dy off

'
'

t.

We're on strike tomorrow.

'

We hve long (three-dy)


weekend.

'

'

The secretry is efficient.

'

' y.
'

'

The secretry is bsent-minded.

'

My supervisor is tempermentl.


'
y.

_____

My collegue is not coopertive.

.................................................................

226

Greek

Grammar topic

1:

Word order

As you already know, Greek nouns and pronouns, as well as articles and
adjectives, all have grammatical cases that show the role they play in a
sentence, whether subject, direct object, indirect object, and so . You
may think that this is a big complication for learners, but it also means
that Greek word order can be much freer than word order in English. For
example, in English you can only say Paul reads books, but in Greek you
can say or . Since
is nominative, you know that it's the subject. Now take a look at
the following examples, all of which have the same basic meaning: The

man speaks to the woman.


.

'

- --------- - - - -

Like numerous other job hunters around the world, many young Greeks
seek out professional and managerial positions, aspiring to become y
(doctors), y (lawyers), (engneers) , (bankers), ''l
(professors), ... (etc.). At the same time, y:
,
(famly busnesses) are still prominent, especially in ship' ping, although many of the smaller ones face increasing competition from
large, multinational corporations.

13F. GRAMMAR

The meeting ws cnceled.

'
c
1r ' .

ln big cities today, Greeks find their jobs much as they do in other countries. They might read an advertisement in the y y (job
ads), then y (apply for the job) , next comes
the (ntervew), and hopefully they are hired.

-;

'
'
y j

CULTURE

---

.....................................................

.
.
.
---------------------------------------- -----------------------

Lesson 13

227

'ttt y .

"- ...-, ..................... .. ........., ....................................................___ ................... _____

through, from inside


t------.. . .~............... ..................... . ...................... . ..................................._.............................._____. - ----" ......__ --.. ...... .-........... ..

y.


I /

inside, in, into

r-...............................__,____..__ ,....._____ ..........._ . . .....

English, iritonation plays an important role in


. . Greek. The
f most

: t as
Jus

important part of the sentence, perhaps t~e part contanng new


tion, is what's stressed and given emphass.

orma-

f ...--;
j

..._..

- - - -.. . . . . .--..-!'

on top of, over, above, upon, on

~- . . ,.. . . .

-- ,--. ----.. .-- - - - ----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . ._____!



behind
!
- - -~. ... ............... . ....................................................................................._____--......;

beside

Don't forget that when the preposition is followed by the definite article
theJthey contract to form , , , and so .

The man is talking to the woman (not arguing with her).


:.
I

The man (not someone else) is talking to the woman.


I ....-'\ ...,.
I
I

~
.

The chars are around the table.

The most neutral word order in Greek is just like English: subject, then
verb, then object. And of course there are certain phrases that cann~t be
broken up even if word order is changed. That includes a phrase wth a
noun, arti~le, and adjective ( y. , the big house): ~ verb ~nd
particle ( , to playj , will play), and a preposton, artcle,
and noun ( , in the house).

In Lesson 8 you learned that prepositions are invariable wo~~s that introduce prepositional phrases, and that most common pre~~stons ar~ f~l
lowed by nouns in the accusative. Three of those ~repostons: (n, ,
at), (from), and (with) can pair up with c~r~an adverbs to form twoword prepositions, which also introduce prepostonal phrase~ . . . . . . . . -....-.~-. -..

:=-.= .:. : :..:-betw~~~~~~


- ---

~~~ ->
I~ ./:ri

.. .-.. . . . . . . .... . . . . . . -.-. . . . . . . . . -.. -..,- -.

-~,.

I-,-- - , / ' .. ....


,,
, ~-.:.:... . . ...-; . .:,;.;. . .;. . ___

.... _...,_.,...................................

opposite, across Jrom

--~-----

. . . . . _.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-~

~--

.... ................... ...........

- - - - - - - - - - - - - ......., .......................... .u.........................-

!
!""'""".

-------~

_ _ _ _____ ]

!
.--.,.. . . . . .. . . . around
______
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
~~~id~,. . ~.~~~. ;~. . . . . .-. . . . . .

. --~ ~~{;. . . . . . -- . .---------------- --- ~-~;~;;;~: ~~; of


!

.... - - -

--------... . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . l
_ . . _. . - ... _ --

---"-'-"'"'' '

..

under, below, beneath


-.~.... - . neor

-~.

~-~~-..................... . ................
....................... ...........................................................
.

...-.. . . . . . . . . ... . ...... . . . . . . ... . ... . . . .- . . ... . . . . . . . ..-.--.. . . .--

....

----

-..--- .....................

........... ......... .... . . . .-

[~[~=---~---"'
_ _ --- -----~og~t~~~!.. .~~.~~. . . . . . . . . . . . .--..--------.. j
.
far from, away from
.
!
,,

. .. _.. ,........- ...-

~~

~..'
.........

... -

.................

. . .. .............. . . ... .. .. ......... . . .... . . ............-.. ........... ...... ........

~.,,WW>h"o;,..,HNo

--------~--------------................................. ___

228 1

Greek

-------.. . . . . . . . . . . ,

:""'~-- ......~.......................... ..................................-

______

.
Don't st near the fireplace.

'\~

. ~.
My house s across from the school.
I

go to the restaurant wth my colleagues.

Grammar topic 2: Two-word prepositions

- - - - -- - -

...........-......................................

:
.

--<--..................-..................

: .

-- - -

~~~-- - - -.- - -~--~---==-b~e -=~=:_ _ ::~ :

The man is talking to the woman (not to anyone else).

--.. .-----..... --,------ -.. . . .- --- -..-... -....... . . . . . . . . . . . .._...... . . . . . . . -.. ._._ --

---

-~

in front of

t..................... ............................................................................_.......__ ....._.........__

------ .............._. .......................................... ..... ......... .. . . .................................-...- ......__ ....~---..

'
I

left my umbrella in the car.


_,

'\!...

'

.=.~ w

r.
I

forgt my pen next to the prnter.


' I
I


ryt.
The mlk s n the refrigerator.

.
The keys are on the small table.
As noted before, it's always good for language learners to keep in mind that
the precise meaning and usage of prepositions can be tricky across lan-guages, and literal translation is not always helpful. For example, you saw
that can be translated as on, but that doesn 't mean that you can
use it whenever on is used in English. Take a look at the following pair.
I
'\...,.
I
':
~.

got on the bus. ( clmbed onto the roof of the bus.)

_ _________

-...-.....- - - - - - - - - - -------------......................................___........

...

Lesson 13

'

'
'

'

'\....
: 1\t.

Ths

got on the bus. ( boarded the bus.)

'

She always looks after herself.

'

active verbs and reflexive pronouns, or with passve verbs.

You're only

___............

........

...-

~~~-~~~~~~~

r~:::; ~,.-~ : "

_ _ _.....,._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _..~ ,__....."""................................ .......................... .. ..........1;.

........................................-. ---

............

~-.
l
~

, - -.. - " " '" " - -

.............. . -............

himself/herself/itself (accusative)

.......

N)Jo>n~'''''''.,.. , , ~ , ...........~., ..... , .......~""'""'"'_..,~.--

; /

ourselves. ,. ~~~~.~. ~ .~~~.~.~!.


ourse/ves (genitive)

,!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. . . . ...,----

t. --,- . __. . . . . . .
::

.

, .................... ,,.;,,.,, ~..., ... :;: : "~ .. ..

- - - - " " ' " " ' """"'"'"""''''''"'""" ' '"''''''''''"

! /

(you wash yourself)


J

........ ,,,,,,,,.......... ,.. ,.... ,....... ,,,,,.,,,,,,.,,,,,,,.,,,.,.,,,,,,,, .. ,.................._,,,._,._,._.,,.,........ ,,n...,,.,..,-..., .., .,..., _ ,,, __

(they comb their hair)

I (she/ he shaves)

(she/ he shaves herselfl

himself)

t.,,..........,.............-...."'"'"""-"""""'""'''''"""''"............................. ..... .....................,.........................................................,.

(we cut)

_~----

~..~-----1

,_,

-----~

(we cut our hair)

~;{yu-(~;~)"; ~;~.~-;~). . . . . . . . . _.,. ~ . . . . . ~~~~.&~~;-(;~u are g~tting

-~

yourselves ready)

........................................................... , . .........................,._., ..................... ,_..__..,,..., .. . : .... ..,-..,,_ ~,.......,,, ..~~ - -.,.....................,...,,._. .. ,.__.__...~-..-,......,.,,

....- - - -......._

........................... S

!,:

------:

--:

-- _..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. . ., ., . . _..~,-.

I___
~: - -.
__. . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . .,. ---.. . . . .----

themse/ves (gen

tive)~~-~------ ~ ..

_\

--~_.,.

Let' s look at some examples of sentences with reflexiv~ pronou~s. The


verbs in these examples ray only express reflexivity by usng reflexve pronouns, not by using the passive forms, which we'll come to in a moment.

'
' y '

136. READING
Every month, the human resources department of the company where Elli
and Stavros work posts the name of the employee of the month, along with
some information about him or her. Read the following posting to see the
achievements of this month's employee.

.
.
.
y y

. n ,
'
'
' '



. ''i:t

'

'

'

'

'

'\'\ ,
y /\
c

Manolis only talks about himself.

. y
, , , .

'
'


They take care of themselves.
---------........~ ..---""'"'''

__,

themselves (accusative)

I
.-- . . .- -- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. --; . . . ~- -,--.. --.

--------------------tGreek
230 I

___ _ _ _ _ _._.'IW_,_ _ ___ _ _, _

1~

. . . . . . . .. ................ . . ... . . _. ._. . . . . . . . . . . . . ,.1

- -. - - -- ----..... :

~;~~;~~-

............. ......................... .. ..~ vv" ' '''"'""'""''' ' " '"''' ' ''""''" '' '"'_

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...

i ~-~t~~~~- yourse/ves (acc~_sat~v~ ~-. .~~


-~
~;;~
;-;~:~~~~~. . . .--- . . . . . .:. .-. . .. . . ._. . . . . .-- -- . . . -- -- .. __..__............................ . . .

,. .

~-

. (they comb)

[~er\~~~-lc-- ---~_!.ims~lf/herse/~~t:~!(g~~~~~~=) -

.,---.. . . . . . ---..

~-----

~.....:~. . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. . .,.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~~~~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,_,__""""""'"'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .~"""'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._......,...,................................. ... ................................ ... ............... .. ........................"""'" ... .....-........

... \
I ~".--,..............-:-..__......:-. . ":".."... ....... .... ....... -..-- ______....,.__....---~---_
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .........
\ ................ : ..

---~

~........''"""'"""''"'",...,.....,...,,,,,,,,,,,.,._~,,,,.-,,,,,,,,...,._,..,","""''""'")"'""'''''''''''''"'""'"'''''''''"'''''""'''''''"''...,'"'""''"'"'''"'''.' '"'"''"'''"'''''') '''''''''''"'"""'"

........................ , ......-

of yourselves.

(you wash)

.
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-.. . . . . . . .--- -~
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .,. . . . . ...~~. . . . . . ..,. . . . . ----~-----""--;~-~-;~elf (accusative)

.
-~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . ----1
. . . . ..
..--~-yourself (genitive)

l' ~cr;ve

- - - --- --- - - ---:::~~::::~:;7)-- ---- ---- - --- ----

~----

thinkng

The other way that Greek expresses a reflexive action is to use the passive
voice. You've already learned this type of construction, but here are some
examples that will be familiar to you.

. h e made up of three parts: an


Let's start with reflexive pronouns, w h c ar
article, the noun , and a p~ssessive. Reflexive_ pronouns have c~ses,
so the article and the noun will vary accordng ~ case. Reflexves
are not typically used as the subject of a sentence, so we 11 focus t~e a~
cusative and genitive cases. itself does not vary for gender, ut t

--

'

'

the sentence my colleague talks to herself, the ':ord herself is a reflexiv~


pronoun, because it indicates that subject and object ~efe~ to the ~a~e ~~
tity. ln Greek, there are two ways to show that a~ acton s reflexve. wt

..----

way, you're only decevng yourself

'
' .

Grammar .topic 3: Reflexive verbs and pronouns

may vary for number.

'.

-------
___ ___ ---- - - - - - -

........................

.....

-----------------

............................................-------------..----..

- - -..-----..--.--J................................

Lesson 13

231

r '
I
I
I
L'\ "1 .
UJ\

spans 150 m at the widest point and barely 4 m at its narrowest tip. Hiking
through the gorge is a unique experience but not for the faint of heart. The
descending trail, which begins at an altitude of over 1,200 m above sea Ievel,
leads to the sea at the other end and involves a five- to six-hour-long trek.

y y
I

y.

, J> '
<y y.

Hospitality on the island is very important. Regardless of whether your


~ega-yacht is moored at the harbor or your only possessions are packed
In your backpack, you will always feel welcome. After all, mythology has it
that Crete was the birthplace of Zeus, guardian of hospitality!

Distinction for the employee Dimitris yrikidis


working t our compny twenty-five yers g. He begn when he ws university student, nd s soon s he completed his studies he ws hired for full-time work. He hs worked in ll five deprtments
of our compny, nd he knows ll the personnel well, s well s the studies
nd reserch tht ech deprtment is responsible for. He is dynmic, hs
pioneering ides, nd hs cquired the trust nd respect of his collegues
becuse he lwys puts others before himself.
Mr.

Kyrikidis begn

Some websites of interest include:

-:~;~~~;~~j~f~:~; --- --------~---G e~-~~~;-. ;~i~-~~~ti~-~ ~~---~;et~----.. . . _. . . . -.. . . .. 'J

i
f

::V~:;;;~~~~;~------------~;;~-;a~~~;id~-------1

~~;:~~t~~;;e;~~-- ---~-. . . . . ~.-,-~;~;~~;i~~ -~~~-~~~~~;~s . . . .-.. . . - ~

1 archaeology/knossos.html

~ "'" . . . (.., .,. . . _._. . .,. . . . ,.;. ~, ....... .' " ' ~' . ,., ,,..,.,. -----.,.. ....' ......... ,. . . ~. "". . . . ,.,,,. . . .,. .,. . ,. ,...,(' ........... , .

He hs tken prt in mny conventions s keynote speker nd is known in


Greek nd intemtionl scientific circles. He's published four books on gri
culture tht hve been trnslted into English, French, Germn, nd Spnish.
Lst September he ws distinguished with the prize rth nd Advnce
ment' nd he's received (lit., tken) mny medls nd honors in competitions
for the promotion of griculture.
he is responsible for the progrm xperiment' which combines technolog nd trditionl mens of cultivtion.

............................................................... .................................. ................................................................................


-

EXERCISES
. Rewrite the following sentences with the other possible word orders.
1.

:. {Antonis is studying Portuguese.)

2.

::. (J'll go to Greece in the summer.)

Finlly,

3 . (J'm writing letter to my prents.)


13.

CULTURE

4
I

Located in the Mediterranean Sea, the administrative region of


(Crete) is the largest island in Greece and a popular tourist destination.
ndoubtedly, the clear blue water and endless sandy ?eaches offered by
Crete's thousand-kilometer-long coastline contribute somewhat to the attraction. Apart from its impressive history and natural beauty, Crete is
known for its people, who, despite lengthy occupations by Romans, Venetians, Arabs, and Ottomans, managed to protect and preserve their traditions and Greek identity.

If archaeology isn't your thing, Crete is also home to the y


(Smri Gorge), which is 16 km long and has a width that
.....................................,

232

_____ .....-------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -------------..----...........


,

Greek

t. (The doctor wrote prescription.)

. ( wnt

to et ce crem.)

6. . {Areti is studying ancient Greek.)


7 ' .
I

(Anests

sends prcel.)

8. . (You listen to music.)


I

9 . (The chldren ply n the street.)


10.

In ancient times, Crete was the center of the Minoan civilization, a Bronze
Age culture that was dominant before the rise of the Myceneans. The civilization gets its name from the mythic King Minos. Today, you can visit
the archaeological ruins of (Knossos), a Minoan palace that some
believe to be the originallocation of Minos's famous labyrinth which, in
mythology, housed the half-man, half-bull Minotaur. You can also visit the
archaeological museum in (Irklion or J:Eerklion) for a great
collection of Minoan antiquities ornaments, and pottery.

<?. (Sls is leving tomorrow.)

. se the Greek form of the prepositions in parentheses to complete the


following sentences.
1.

_ __ (n) . (Tkis went in the house.)

2.

_ _ _ (under) . (You'll sit under the tree.)

(cro.5s) . (Her house is cross the

park.)

4 _ _ _ (wth) . (She cme with her prents.)

___ ___...........-...............-....-

- -................_____________..

,.

--------...- .......................-

...

____..................................- .....................-.........-......................-....-...--..--.........________............ ___......................

....- ........

Lesson 13

I233

6. ___ (outside) . (I'll wait for you outside your office.)


.
(around} .
7
(They all gathered around their new colleague.)
8.
left drawer.)

ANSWER

S ___ (far from) . (She sits far from her friends.)

.1. .;
.j .j
.j ./
. 2. , .j
./
.j ./

{in} . (The ru/er is in the

.j . 3

(on) . ( put it on the table.)

10.
out of his office.)

./ .j

(out of) . (The director came

.f. .
I

./ ./0

.j .j ./

5 '
.j'
I

.j .j .j

c. Complete the sentences below with the correct reflexive pronoun.

.j . 6. .;

. (Maria only trusts herself.)


1.
. (You }re speaking to yourself.)
2 .
'
(Th ey heard themselves on the
.
.
3
radio.)
4.
5.

./ .j

.j
.j .j
.j . 7
'

./0

I
I

'.j'

./ .j'
I

' ./


'.

. ( asked myself.)

8.

.j .j .j

. (She knows herself.)

: ./: m./: .

.j .j
.j .j

6. _ __ . ( answered myself.)
7. _ __ . (You ignore yourself.)
8.
. (He hired himself.)

I

I
I
' .j

' .

10.

I
'

./0 .j ./
.j .j .

. (You buy yourself.)


9.
1 . _ _ _ . ( surpassed myself.)

1.0

. 2.

. 3 . 4
. 5 . 6.
. 7
'

.
I

INDEPENDENT CHALLENGE
Since this lesson h~ been. about the workplace, try to write a detailed. .
description of where you work using the voca?~lary and gramm~r
that you learred in this lesson.' Two~wor? prepos~tlons should co~e
handy, if you'd like to describe the locaton of thngs.' Of course, f you
don't work, then you can do the same with your home, your schoo1,
or any other place where you spend a lot of time. Chal~ell.ge your~e~f
to use vocabulary that's new to you, and of course wnte everythg

8.

. 9 . 10.

C. 1.
?

'

. 2.

/ .

.
I

I .

'

v
I .

8.

6.

' I

. 9 . 10. .

down in your Language Jou~al.

. .---Gre ek

--;-3;-

--.....

----- - - -..

..

-----------~

__

-----" ----------------------""'""

.........____,.............

----------------------------------------------~----------------~--.
Lesson 13
1235

LESSON

Free time

Welcome to Lesson 14, which is all about hobbies and free time . .You'll
learn some useful vocabulary that will help you talk about how you like to
spend your free time. But the lesson itself isn't all fun and games. There
is some grammar that we'll have to cover, .i ncluding more on the passive
voice, relative clauses like the book that m reading, and fially the so-called
emphatic forms of pronouns. Let's begin with a vocabulary warm-up.

14.

VOCABULARY WARM-UP

'

'

'

yy;

Are you ready to leave?

, .

Fne,

'
'

Did you decde which move we'll


watch?

'),~~
'
'
'\\f

My

that's all right (lit., no harm).

sster

suggested this move.

'

'

'
y

'

The protagonst is famous.

'

The actress played n the horror

move.

It's historcal drama.

want

to watch somethng that will


make me laugh.

'y

to go out to unwind

You'reright.

148. DIALOGUE

, ,

,
'
;

'

y ;

, .

,
, ' . ' ,

,
,
,
, , ,

~ y

'

: ' '.
,

~ y :, y

, .


'
,
, ,
' '

,
, '\,... ,
~ . . .
,

;...

7
I
I
I
',
; y
:

,
.
,
,
,

y
I

_,

. ~,
I

'.

';

,
,

'

'.
,
,
,
,y
,
.
;

'
I
: '(), ~.
~

y
y .

, ,

Athn: Yes, J'm redy. But my sster wont be comng


wth us, fter ll (lit., finlly). She cme bck
from work, she wshed up, she combed her
hr, she got dressed, nd she left gn.

Athn: Yes, the moves 'Blck Cloud' nd 'The Mrror'

were suggested, nd fter lot of thought t


ws decded to see the move 'he Mrror' n
which . . . .
Donysos: Stop one mnute ... Who suggested nd who
decded? . .. And mybe you cn tell me why
(lit., wht dd you suffer) you re usng the
pssve voce? Are you wrtng dssertton
re we tlkng bout hv.ng good tme?

moves?

see?

J-

Donysos: Hello, Athn. Are you redy to leve for the

Dionysos: Fne, tht's ll rght (lit., no hrm); the two of


us wll go. Dd you decde whch move we'll

:. .

'


,
,
'
,
...

,
, ';

'
'
,
' ,
'
.

. >

'

Athina and Dionysios are friends who are going out to the movies together.
Dionysios has just arrived at Athina's house to pick her up.

, ' .


, , , ,
,
.

or

Athn: Well, I'll sy t the smple wy. My sster

suggested ths move nd we decded tht t's


worth seeng, especlly snce the protgonst
s the fmous Arste Stern. You know, she's
the ctress who plyed in the horror move 'The
Trffic Lights:
Donysos: Tht's to sy, you wnt us tq see the move 'The
Mrror '?

Athin: Yes, decded tht we should wtch the movie

'rhe Mrror: It's historcl drm nd t's n

. . . . . . . . . . __-- - - - - . -.. . . . . . . .-... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ . .- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


--

Greek

lesson 14

239

important movie for our intellectual growth. Do


you like historical dramas?
Dionysios:

Athna:

Donysos:

Athna:

don't like them. When go to the movies


want to watch something that'll make me laugh
and not something to upset me. But, since you
want to see this movie, let's go. Anyhow, think
your sster likes the movie and since she can't
go see it, she wants us to go. hope she doesn lt
want us to take notes.
Oh, for Pete s sake (lit., but in the end of
everything), you're always complaning (lit., all
complaints). So, is having fun the only thing
that matters for you? Don't you like to enrich
your knowledge?
Let's not start agan. We
unwnd, not to dsagree.
You 're

rght.

sad

we'd go out to

Let's go.

to go to the gym

j:

to work out, to exercse, to tran

crochet, knittng

""'"
-

I'D
I'D

-
-+

scuba dving

paraglidng

water skiing

wndsurfing

sculptng

horseback rding

pantng

rowng

engravng,

etching

chess
I

<ryp

14C. VOCABULARY
I

wood burnng (pyrography)

;;

interestng (m.lf/n.)

boring

big screen movejmovie

j
I

)
I

move

theaterjcinema

to buy tickets
theater

to see an opera

fascnatng

... 1
.. .

J'm nterested in ...

... 1
.. .

'm bored by ...

concert

amusement park

phlately,

What do you do n your spare


tme?

amusement, recreation,
entertainment

'
I
'

y

to play game

play the pano.

'
I

to play cards

take gutar lessons.

J'()'L

backgammon
.
.

swmmng

mountain

- - - - - - - - --------"""'

240

stamp collectng

140. PHRASES

Greek

bikng

________

----:-------.................................._......

play chess.

lke gardenng..

like recreatonal trps.

- - ----.-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._,_.___
le-ss_o_n_14 .... .. ;~~ -

solve crossword puzzles in my free

time.

y .

read

Greek literature to relax.

learn traditional dances.

have - big coin collection.

'

ql

Jl.

y Cooking is the best hobby.

'

m.

Tomoow, I'm going fishing at the

lake.

' '
'
1rt.

'

'
'

Starting today, hunting is


forbidden.

.
' like to make stained glass.

collect model cars.

'

:.
I

'

Rock climbing scares me.

The ski station has opened.

Hiking

' '

'

'

'

the woods relaxes me.

'

We'll go camping.

'

need to get new tennis equipment.

There has always been room in the Greek lifestyle for hobbies and pastimes, even if the word ( (hobby) is thought to have entered
the Greek lexicon sometime in the Middle Ages. Greeks enjoy a wide range
of recreational activities, from board games like (backgammon) to
sports like (soccer) or (basketball), and of course
m (swimming) the beach as soon as the thermometer hints that
summer has arrived.
Other hobbies might include taking a course in (traditional dances) or (fine embroidery) at a local community center,
or possibly engaging in something like (phlately), which is
the study of postage stamps. Some hobbies, the other hand, may sound
more extreme, like m (bungee jumping).
Another hobby with a long tradition in Greece is (discussion)
or (debate). This hobby is practiced just about everywhere! From
cafes to the village square, Greeks love to discuss and debate, often over
coffee. Even if no great metaphysical debates are settled, a good discussion
offers a nice escape from everyday life.

'

'

1: More on the passive voice

In Lessons 4 and 6, you learned the present tense conjugation of verbs in


the passive voice. Remember that the passive voice in Greek can express a
range of meanings, and they don't all correspond to English passives.
....
..
...................,..

The book is read by Dina. (true passive)
---~ - ----_-----

,..,_.1
~"',------'--";------ -- -- ------ -

'

/ t

'

.
I

don

t feellike doing anything

anight.

'

___

........,.............._.,. . . . . . . .."'. . . . . . . , . . . . . ,

having party.

...... .f

!
~

............ ........................... _..

.................................................... ~

~-----

! . _
,

l'm washing myself. (reflexive)

! .

They see each other frequently. (reciprocal)

r--:-~:--7'~~~--'-.:~~~,.,,-.('j,..,.,.....\\.,..,,,-...v..~~~~'"'""''~"-'I"""''v;~~>~Y.""N.,.,~,...,.-w,-"'"""'""'H;N--"""N;w<uNVNr<o"''"'""''' ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,._.,.,.,.....,,"""''"".........,"'"''.............,_......'............,.""'"'''"'"''"""''"'''''''''"'''~

---.........- ....__.... _ .. I -

---""""""'""""'"'"""'"''''"""'""'"""""""""------"""""""""""""-

"""" ------------- ......................._

---~
-w""""'"'

Nikos is sleeping. (deponent)

L-~---------........-..............................................:...... ------------.........................................._.__

Le(s go out to dinner, and then to


the movies.

/ y My friend

---- ---------------- ----------- ~-.,.~~--~---------

1 .
1

~Vhat do you feellike doing tonight?

() ;

Grammar topic

;,.... ~........, ........ , .................t:............_ ........ __.~--.......>. .c.----

'
t .

'

14F. GRAMMAR

CULTURE

I've taken up amateur astronomy.

Le(s stay in. I'm exhausted.

love mountain climbing.

.
.

t'D
t'D

I'm member of the municipal


choir.

-n
..,

14.

'i y y
I

y .

. Let's go to the club to dance.

___ _____ ................................ _..____ ..................___....

Remember that there is one passive conjugation for Group 1 verbs, and
two passive conjugations for Group 2 verbs: one for Class and one for
Class . Don't forget that there is also a third class in Group 2, consist-

'

()
.

- - - - - - -------...............................i------- - - - - - ----- - - ------------

242 \

Greek

________

............................

_____

- - - - __...........................___..

Lesson 14

---------------- ..................._,_

243

'

r--- - - ~. . .. . _. . . . . ---.. . - - - - ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ......-...,.~ . . . - .


GROUP 1
GROUP 2 CLASS
GROUP 2 ..~-~~-~~.. ~--------~~-~ ~

ing of four common deponent verbs. As a review, all four passive conjugations are listed below for ( get dressed) , p ( am loved),
y ( am driven), and ( sleep).

61~~ ------

~~~~~~~s~~ ---

f GROUP ~.. -- --~ 2 CLAS~..-~...............................~~b~~-~ 2 C'LA~~----- . G.~OUP 2 CLASS C -

~"7-- ........................... ,.-~.


j
~---

- __...,.-- .....- -- .-.....

...

---~---- . . . . . . . . . . . . -..

....................................................... ...

..... ..._.....

ry

,..

........................ ......~.......

--

___

,.

..

'----

--- ____________

___

~
.. _____ .......... .................., ...

..........

I
I
'
.

' ./0
The tree shades the garden./ The garden s shaded by the tree.

I
I
I
I
'
.;

I '.

Lola sews the clothes./The clothes are sewn by Lola.


I

I
I

I
:Jl

./

:Jl.
The teacher corrects the tests./ The tests are corrected by the teacher.
I

y ./ y
I

.
s

consoled by Stella.

Just like the active voice, the passive voice (with its range of meanings) has
a past tense. Take a look at the simple past tense conjugations of our ex1
I

I
ample verbs, ( get dressed), )U ( am loved), ~
(J am driven), and (J sleep).

________ _

...................... .......___..

244

.............................

Greek

...

.. ......

)U~~~

:.......... . . . >---. . . ___,,.__~'"""-..................


I
.
!

-,-~~

. . .. ,:

- - - - - - - -..........................

'- -. . . ., . . . . . . . . . __.,~-----,_. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .w-------.. .,. .. ........ . . ;.. :. . . . . . . .,: ~i.c:~

~. ~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ______. ___

. .

---

N<N.. ,~...~._,.....,...,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,..,,'AM.............,_ _~'NN"""''.-""""""'~o'o'oA,.,,,,.,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,..,,..,,,._.

(1)

_._~

j'

. . . . . . . . . .~.~ .....-,. . . . . . . . . . . . -.. .,

__,___._.,.,....................................... ~...........,_._,.....-.:._~ -- ..;........ .

.., .... _ _ _

-~.,..~. . . .

.............................

... . . ,

.
. . . . . . ... . . .

~,-~-

J..,;,..Hoo,v,y,..,.,,,:,...~,~l"'''''''''''''''''''''''""..._ _.,._.....,......._ _ _ _ _

As you can see, all of these verbs share common endings in the past tense:
-, -, ~, -~, -, -. These are the same endings that you learned for
the ac~ve smpl~ . past tense. Notice, though, that there is no "augment"
added In the passve past tense. Also notice that all of the forms are stressed
on the third-to-last syllable.
Remember that in the active past tense, - is added directly to the stem of
Group 1 verbs, and this often c.auses alterations the verb stem. Group
2 verbs, though, - (and sometmes . . or -) is added before - and this basically "in~ulates" the verb stem from undergoing any of the ~hanges that
happen wth Group 1 verbs. The situation is similar in the passive voice.
~efore the past tense endings, an infix, or a syllable added inside a word,
Is attached to the verb stem. That infix is usually -- for Group 1 verbs
and -~- f?r Group 2 verbs. Group 1 verbs, - - is added directly to the
stem, JUSt lke - of the simple past in the active voice. This often alters the
final consonant of the stem, and the of - - may also be altered.

~f the present stem of the, verb ends in -, the - disappears, and the infix
s, --. Exampl:s are ~ ( get dressed)- ( got dressed),

~ ( am ted up)- ( was ted up), and (! am st)-

( got lost).

If the present verb stem ends in -, -, -, or -, the final consonant of


the stem changes to - b~fore --. If the final consonant is -, it is not
altered. Examples are ( am hiding' _rn (
h 'dd
h 'd
1
...,...
was en,
m~self), (t is gnted)- (it was ignited) and
~ (it is dscvered)- (it was discovered also

).

Stella consoles Panorea.j Panorea

&

' 3

----

(/ s/ept)

ft)

,....
I -

''"'''''''''"'..................
....-~"'-"'''''''''~

ln this lesson's dialogue, you saw an example of the ''true passive" meaning. This is somewhat formal in Greek and tends to be used mostly in
writing. Don't forget that in an active sentence, the direct object is in the
accusative case. But in a passive sentence, the direct object becomes the
subject, so it's in the nominative case. The agent may be expressed with
I
'
I
I

(by). For example:

(The clothes
are sewn by Lola). In this passive sentence, Lola is the agent, or doer of the
action, and the clothes are the subject. (By contrast, in the active sentence
Lola sews the clothes, the subject is Lola and the clothes are the direct object.) However, note that this passive construction is not common in Greek,
and in fact not all Greek verbs are possible in the passive voice with an
I
agent expressed by .

(/ was driven)

--

. . . ~
............- --------- .........................................................................- ....-- ----
I

(I was loved)

--- ~&~~

~~~ - ...~~;1~---~&-ri1-;---~~~~e~
I
,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ---.. -.. . . . .,.. . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . ..._._____. . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . ... . .
'-~. . . ..________. . . ........ . . . . . .~~
fl

-~~~~~--- I
------

-- ____

!,

...-........-------..---------................................--..


............................................ - - - . , _..............................
I

~--

. . ---. ---- ----- ,_...._.... . .............--1


i

:.'}') ..

......_....,......

1
1

----~~~~~ __

.. ..______..___.................................... ...._..

_......

~~ ___ :__ :_c.~_

-----

--- ___................................. ---


-

........................

~
,.................. ...--.--..

- .........,....................... - -

- ~~ - ~r]1f-~~ --

. ; .~~~ . . . .

_..........................- - - - - - -

'

If the present verb stem ends in -, -, -y, -, -, -, or -, the final cons~nant of the stem c?anges to (or remains) - before - -. Examples are

( accept)~x ( ac~epted), ( tlerte)-


( tolerated, also ~), y (it is pened)- (it was

opened), and ~ (hejshefit is tught)- (hejshe/ it was


taught, also ). Verbs \hose present tense stem ends in - and
- - ----.............___,_

- - - ....._____

....,..._.

____

-..................._

- - -- ..---..................-......_-------.....................___
Lesson 14

245

that change to - in the active simple past also follow . this pattern:

Of course, there are some Group 2 verbs that only have passive forms,
so there' s active simple past form to which you can refer to find
which vowel to use in the infix. You'lllearn these verbs with practice and
exposure.

changed)-l; (it chnged)- (t was


changed, also ).

(it is

If the present stem ends in -, -, or - (with - instead of - in the active simple past), the stem changes to -- before --. Examples are
( am getting tred)- ( amjgot tired), ( shampooj
wash my hir)- ( got my hair washed, also ),
') (it is bught)-) (it was bought), and (it
is being grund)- (t was ground).
Also note that there are some verbs in which the vowel of the stem changes
when ging from the simple present to the simple past in the active voice.
For example, '. (J wash) becomes (J washed). This pattern
repeats in the passive: 'v ( wash myself) becomes (

~~-.............................._.. ... , , ,,, , , ,

,,, ,,,,, ., , , , ,, ,,,,....., .. ,..,....JJ,NNHn,..,.,.,.,..__.NN'N'NNIWWNHN.. ,,,, ,..,

(I m bored)

---

.....

...__

-- -............

(I
!

..

...........

...

'' '''' ''''''' '' '' '"''"'""''''\'..........,..__,__

....._,._,., .......................

ro

...........~p~,~(;~~~- ;~;~;)"'. . . . . .

___

..-... .......................... . . ......

---- ---

sleep)

~-

: (I slept)

~::'"""~'''V~'"'......"~~;..,,.,,,,.,,,,.,,,,,,,.,..:,"':':''~--.--................... :.:....,<fl~ '<'t",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,~,..,,,.._....,_,,,,"""~'''..,.(<--,-<W,.,.,,.,,,,,,.,.,.,,........,,,..,,.....,....,.....,._,_

___...,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,.,,.,.,,,.,,,,,,-W<f',-~,~

(/ remember)
: (/ remembered)
... . . . . . . . . . . .;--- , - --- -~
---.. . ---.. . . . . . . . . . . ._ .
-.... ............................. .
...... ....... ...........................
f (/ m atrad}
(I was afraid)

--.-.. ... .. . . . . . . . . . . ...------..- . . . . .


. . . . . . . . .... . .... . . . . .... "'. . . . . ..... -..--- --.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _.........J1
I occuy myselfwith)
occuied myselfwith)
r~,~--~;

J- - . . . . . . . . .--,- - . ..-.. --.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....,. . . . . -.. ~--~ . ._ . . . . . . . . .._._. ________


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __
~< (I defend myself}

(I defended ~;;~;;)"' . . . . _,

''''"""''""''"'''''''"'''''"'''"'''"U'NINN-~N-N. ..,,,,,.,_,..,,,.,,..,,,..

..... ,., . .,.,,, .. _ ,,, . ..,.,_,_ _,..,.........,,_,,,,,,.,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,., ... ,.,.. ,, ' V N n - . - - -... ..,,,,.,..,,,.,,,,,., .. ,,.,.,,]

washed myself).
Here's a summary of the common patterns with Group
1---..-..-------. .... ---- ----
; .lf the present verb stem ends in . . .
~""'"'"'"""~-,."'""'"'_ .......................... ... .-,.......... -

__
..,..

i! .-
, .f -v f
r

-'VV

~-.~};~::#:-

~.

........-

::

::..:.

Here are a few more examples of passive verbs in the past tense.

verbs.

The final consonant + infix is . . .

.... _,_,, ..._ ......................................,................ _.. _ _.........................................-.-

[_~:_.--.~~~_. =_ --~-

~.,. .......................................................'!

~, -~-_~;~~---- ~ ~----===--:~~--= ]

They were born in Athens.

__-_ _

-v
- f -.v
- f -
f
" f

-v
.

_.......... ,.,_. ...~~~-: ......,................................................ _....._ _ _ _ _~- ...., ..................................................-

!j

..........---.. ................................,......,.,.~,..._-

:~.~- -,__-__....__. . . . . . . . . . . . . . -~----~~. . . . . . . . . . . ~ -~~--~=


~ . --.. .-.. . !
..

You refused to tell him your secret.

.
The robbers ted us up but we unted ourselves mmedately.

With Group 2 verbs, the infix is --, and just like in the active simple
past, a vowel is inserted between the verb stem and the infix. This means
that you don't have to worry about alterations being made to the verb stem.
The vowel that's inserted will be the same as the one inserted before the -
of the active simple past. In other words, verbs that take -- in the active
simple past will take -:- in the passive, verbs that take -- in the active
simple past will take -:- in the passive, and verbs that take -- in the
active simple past will take -- in the passive. Here are some examples
including the active simple past so that you can see the relation.
............................................................. , o \ _ . ._ _ _ _ _ _ _,, ...,

................................. - "'

r-""""~

---- .

-.. "'''''''''".......

~~-.

y:

(/ ws

)U (1/oved)

') am drivenJ

was

( drove)

driven)

~ ~....,.,..,.,.

".'~'-"'' ' '''''''''" ' ' '' '

,,,,,,,,,,_.;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,
. ...,....,,.....,_-..N.YNMJ.~\-Nn""''"''''' '''''' ''

,,, ,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,..,-,~-~-~VO.""'-' "\' \\"'"'"''"'''"'"''''' ..... '''''' '

(/'m sorry}

(/ was sorry)

,,,,.,,,,, ,,,,,,,,..,,,,,..,.,....."""""""'_......_,,...,..,...,,...,,.,.,.....,_........._,,,,,,_,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,.,,,,

(/ made sad}

~~~=---~~~~~-r; w~~~~!_:=q;~ <~ :~=J


____

.................................,....

Greek

.....................,,,,..,,,,...................---

___

............................-.....

p)
.
dressed myself quickly and left.

.
The nhertance was dvded between the two children.

Grammar topic

2:

Relative clauses

..........,......~-- . . .,. - - - - - ;

! )U (/ m loved}

'

y y y.
The cat shook tself to dry.

- - -- - - -

relative clause is a kind of "mini sentence" inside a larger sentence, such


as the language that I'm studyng s Greek or the professor- who studied
wth is very well known. Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns, which are the equivalent of words like that) which, whichever) who,
whoever, whom) and whomever. In Greek, there are several pronouns that
do this task, but the most common one is (who, whom) that) whch).
Take a look at how two simpler sentences can be joined to form a larger
one with .

___

.........................

___...........................................

___

...................................

.,.,

_.

___

____

...........................................

...,...........................

_.._.

___

Lesson 14

__

...............................

247

t .

t

We

wll go

to the

c~mp.

The camp s

s n

Crete.

We wll go to the camp, whch

'

'

The woman who talked s my aunt. (Who refers to a singular, feminine

noun and is the subject of the relative clause.)

Crete.

'

y
.
The woman who(m) notified s my aunt. (Who(m) refers to a singular,
feminine noun and is the object of the rela~ive clause.)

t . t
.

met your son. Your son studies abroad.

t'D

t .

Also remember that and / j are used interchangeably. however, is less formal and is used more frequently in
spoken Greek.

met your son who studies abroad.

is invariable, and it can be used to introduce relative clauses about


both people and things, similar to that in English. But in Greek, is not
optional; it can't be dropped like that in English. Also remember that
(no accent) is a relative pronoun, and (with an accent) means where?

, .
Manolis always does whatever he wants.

y .
The man who is in the other room s called Nikos.

.
The excursion that was telling you (about) is expensive.

y y .
The woman who s in the other room is called r.

' t
' '.
:

' .
Whoever wants, let (himjher) come with us.

He found the ticket which is required to go to the theater.


1

y .

We watched the movie that you recommended.

Mother sad to buy as much bread as you want.

' : '
I .
I

The man who

playing the gutar s my brother.


Grammar topic 3: Strong and weak pronoun forms

.
The newspaper that you're reading is yesterday's.

'}'V .

The actress who(m) we met yesterday has beautiful eyes.


Other relative pronouns that you'll come across include ,'t} (whatever),
(as much as), (who whom, whch that), and <? {whoever, whomever whatever whchever). Like , , is invariable. But ,
1

, and change according to case, gender, and number. For


example, if a relative clause refers to a singular feminine noun, and if that
noun functions as the subject of the relative clause itself, then you should
use the feminine, singular, and nominative form of that relative pronoun.
But if the noun functions as the object of the clause, it will be in the
accusative.

Outside of the nominative case, Greek has two sets of pronouns, ({weak"
pronouns and "strong" pronouns. You've already learned the weak
forms, which are most common. Now le(s look at the strong forms,
which are not as common, but which are still useful to know. We'll start
with strong possessives, which show emphasis, much as own (as in my
own or your own) does in English. As you know, possession is typically
shown in Greek with , , , , , , , or , which
usually follow the noun they modify. emphasize possession, a form
of (own) is added.

-------------

her ~~-~~-b-~~-~ ~-----.

~-

________.,,....................... .......

--..--~-

......................"'-------... ----....

.............................

[-------

! """""""' 'V - -,-

- - - " " "'

her own notebook

"""-----~-- --~;""''''"''"'""''-"'""-"'"--- -

;p1C
' ..

~--. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~. . !

'''"'''"'"'""'"'' " - - - - - M"""'''' ''"'"'''"""'"''"O'''"--HHV--... -

... '""''''"'''')

his own camera

- - -....................................... - -

-....................

...................................._~

____ -~ --------- -~
I t<p
Alekos's camera
i .................... ............... _________

.... .......................................

.. - ..- -....

,-:~~~~:~~~~~::.. -- :~~~~~:,~~---: :

--

~- .........,..,.,.,.,,.,..,..,..,~."~""''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''.,.,.,..,,

............. , ....,._....,.,_

248 ~---Gre_e_
k _----------. .-.. . . .------

-~~~&~ . . . . . . . . .-.. .----- . . . _

.. .......,,,,,,,,.

~._.,,,. . . . . . . .,..._

_....,_ _ _ ...,.,...,, ""'""'''''''''' ''

,. .. ~-'-1-IW'NMN>rN-+< ''''''"''''-..''"'"""'"""-""'-'''~-~.,..,,,,,,,.,,,

_____

-- - -..........................._.______..................

..

.....

....................

- -

.....................

....- .......................-.~--.....................

Lesson 14

l 249

--..

..................

As you can see, varies to match the gender an~ number of the possession, and it is used along with the possessive, which in this case comes
before the noun, and which matches the gender and number of the possessor. also varies according to case, depending the use f the
noun it refers t in a sentence. Its frms are summarized in the table belw,
each cell including masculinejfeminine/neuter frms.
. .~.................................................................

\-~-;~-- ------ ~ ~-;&~6----

/ /

Gen.

!............................................--

_..,_____

'

!-~

'

'

________~ ___________ __ _____ ~ --

.. ,.

""""""""""""'""'"'""'__.

~~--- . . . -~~~-!

. _. . . . . . .

..

..... -.~-- .................,............------........................................-.,., .....,1'

'~&-., '""'''"' '''"'0"~~"''"'"'"""""'


[
-

._~.........,.~-...._..,._ ..~,"'~''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''''~''l~;I<J'"'""'_............,.......,,,....,,\"'W>"""'"'''"'"''""'''

. . . . . . . . .:..,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .--- . .. . . . . . . . . ._.. .

'

_..-,,.,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.........

....~

~~&'~--~---"""'""""~~~'""'"""'......"""'"~~~~-"""

"''"'-

_ _.,,.,. ..,,,.,,..,,.,.,.,.,, .. .,,.... ''

,""""'''''"'''''' '' ' '''"''''''' ''' ''''V>',..;.---~-'"'"'"'"';."'""'"'"'''''''''''"'"''~'

,.,,,_,,,..,,

"""'"-----~

'/ ""'

QVl l

!
t's imprtat t

make a special poit about the third pers prus


, , , ad so . Keep i mid that subject prous are
usually drpped i Greek, ad the third pers forms are also used as demstratives, this r that (see Less 5.) S, uder certai circumstaces,
the use of t refer to a pers could be less tha plite, similar to
referrig t a pers as one i Eglish.

_...................... __.._ _._..,_......................"-"-'-----.................:

_,............. ....................................-..--..

,.....

~~ . -----~~ --------- -- ~~-,----

- ~--,... ..... ''1

---..-~'"'""''""""""""'""-"'''_

~ ~

~~~~~~~-~~
&m

r;;~-"""'M'"''"" '''''''''''"'"'"'"-WH~''H""''"''''"'""'"'"'"'''"'"""'''''"'"""----o

( 1)
(1)

t' ,:,,,,,....,_";o,.o.o''"'"""""'"''-........'~-o!o'-oo~,oo""''"''"'".,'"'''

/ /

~~~~: - ---;;~~i f\/~~~~

'

ACCUSAiVE

STRONG
........-............-----

W<
'

..,

....................

ACCUSAiVE

-l

---~-~-~~ G~~-~-~ ......... ,............-.....-.............................................--.~ ~-~-~--~ ..---- ---

..,...........-~

Here are sme ther pairs f examples that illustrate bth weak ad strg
r emphatic pssessi. Ntice that emphatic prus ca be traslated
with own i sme cases, but they ca als be used simply t emphasize ps
sessi by a particular pers, rather tha by smee else.

Just like the strg pssessives, these strg


emphasis. This ca be traslated it Eglish

prous
i

are used t show


a few differet ways.

.j' .
She put up her tent./She put up her own tent.
I

.j'

./0 .
I

Nkos recognzed me./Nkos recognzed .

He broke hs chessboard.jHe broke hs own chessboard.

.; .
Alekos s scoldng them./Alekos s scoldng .

.; .

She took her moble.jShe took HER moble (not someone else's).
I

. .j

.j .

.,

We lost Mrs. Lentou's money.jWe lost HER money (not someone else s).

hate you.jYOU're the one hate.


I

.j .

They love us./ It's US who they love.

.j .
He/ She gave you an autograph.jYOUe the one hej she gave an
autograph to.

w let's lk at the strg frms f persal prus. There is ly e


set f prus i the miative, but both the accusative ad the geitive
cases have tw sets, althugh they differ oly i the third pers.
~-'" "''_,_ _ _.__ ........ ,,,,,,, ............._.._...-~vv

. ...... ..... . - , . . . . . , . - . . , ,,,,,..,.,._...,,, ......, . , ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,

ACCUSAiVE

' '''': , ,,.,,.,.,.,.........,.......,..,.""........""""'''''''''''''"''"''''''''''"""_

ACCUSAiVE

GENiiVE

1.-~~~~~~ ~- ~.~~- ~G. - -- --~-~~~


I

_____
y

'

!.

...................................-----------------......-.....------- ...

__...,""'""'~'"'''''"'"'''"'''''''"''"'"""''".,.,j

GENiiVE

... . . . . . ---........- --

S~~~~- .j

1
-.................~
I

:
:

; :::~:::. : .. !
;
'
......_ _...._.,.... ,.... ,............................. ~...........,~"1
~~''J''"'''''''':,.,,,,,:,,::::~ ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,.,,"W'o'WWoO'"''"'--' ,..,,,,,,. ,,,,,,,_,,,,,,~.....,.~ .., -........- .................."''"''......'~''""'''''''''''''''''''"'''''),,,,,...,,.......;-.--"-r

~~~~~.. -- ~~ . -----~~~~>. --~~------. . . . ~~---~


t
{)
(~~~--- ~ ----~ I
~ ...<. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-,...,.-~-""""''"'';1.-""

.......................

..........................- ".................-.........

___

............................ ------;"---

______

- -......................
.

......................................

Other tha showig emphasis, accusative ad geitive strg prouns


are the frms that are used after prepsitios. Just keep i mid that whe
the prous , , , ad cme after the prepsitis
, , , ad , a optial ctracti may take place. Either the
fial vowel f the prepsitio or the iitial vwel f the persal pru
will be drpped. Either form is crrect, ad of course the o-ctracted
frm is crrect as well. Hwever, i the case of ;;;JJ, c
tractis ca ly be made the prepsiti.
------- -

__

................................ ..
.,

--

........_.........................

- - ---es~-~-~. . ~.~--v

1.

Petros is talking to me.

the
west of the Greek mainland is the administrative region of
I
(Eptansa) a cluster of islands in the Ionian Sea. The name
Eptansa comes from the phrase (seven slands) which are
z1C.J (Zakynthos), (Kefalonia), (Lefkada),
(Ithaka), 1C.J (Corfu), (), and (Kythira).

' , ;
'
'
,

'.
Where are the tickets? gave them to you.

aske(j them for help.

There are about twenty smaller islands in the vicinity including the private
island of (Skorpos). Once Aristotle Onassis's island, Skorpios
now belongs to his granddaughter Athina.

.
Alekos s always thinkng about you.

y .
Give them some water, too.

The Eptanisa are known for their blue waters, steep rock formations rare
animal species, like the careta-careta turtles, and geological treasures, such
as the (subterranean lake ,of Melissani)
in Kefalonia and the gorgeous caves in Paxoi. If you prefer to lose yourself
hiking along endless trails, then don't miss (Askos
Stone Park) in Zakynthos, where you can find an amazing variety of flora
and fauna, both indigenous and transplanted from as far away as Africa.
Unfortunately the Eptanisa also sit a fault line and have suffered enormously from several destructive ear.thquakes in the past.

146. READING
Read the following passage which is the transcrip.t of an interview with a
passenger who has just gotten off a cruise ship in Piraeus.

Further removed from the main cluster of islands is Kythira, located in


the south of the Peloponnese, with its own beauty and charm. If you don't
get that far off the beaten path, though, no trip to the Eptanisa is complete
without a taste of the island of Corfu, a favorite vacation destination.

: .
. .
1

. ~~ ~ 01 ~
. _ ~., ~
' .
I

You can reach the Eptanisa by air or sea but if you choose the latter, a fun
surprise is waiting for you. As your boat draws near to the islands, you may
find that it is suddenly escorted by a school of dolphins, whose chattering
will be transmitted by the boat's hydrophone. You may not quite make out
! (Welcome!) but you'll certainly be charmed!

I
I
I
I
I
I ~ !
I

. ~

. y ,)!. ~, t~ ~
I

CULTURE

y n.

. , ~.
~ ,
. .
I

...-....................,.....,.....................,........._____ ""1'...

.........._ _ _ __

__

~-----

www.greekhotelnet.com/ma/

'

, __ _ _,,..,.,,.,.....,_,.,._,,,,,,.,.,,,,,,., , ,,,...

_.__

..............................................

'www.united'""hellas.com/tourism/i()n:ian/'"
index.htm
..... ........ __ .......
-.- .................... ...........
......................,.._... _..
,

Klio: We came back Jrom Iraklia. It's small sland in the Cyclades. We
staed there ten das. The island is clean and the people are. hospitable. On
the whole sland there are about eight rooms to rent. The prces are reason'
.
able. Our vacation was pleasant. husband and went up the mountan
along narrow Jootpaths. From there, u see the islands (all) aroun~. The
sight is enchanting. Also, we went fishing with the locals and the chldren
took excursons donkes (lit., went around for strolls donke back)
We visited St. John's Cavern and we learned astronom! At night, the sk
is clear (lit., clean) and you can see all the stars. learned to make out the
constellations.

__
__

Here are a few websites that can give you a prelude to the Eptanisa. Enjoy!
~

---................................._............

..-................

General information and maps on the


Eptanisa

___

...................................,..........

............................,...... .,.._ _ _

fnteractive map and information on


Greece

~9

.,.~....,--.. ,..~~ ...........,.:...w,,"~"'''"'''''''''''''''.' ' '''''''''''''''''-''-.---""'''''''''"'"---"'"''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''"'-''-'"""""'"~~-"'"'"''''''''"''''''''''


'

EXERCISES
. Give the simple past form of the following- passive verbs.
1.

( get tired)

2.

(the are washing themselves)

3 (it is cooked)

4 (the are paid)

. . . . . . . .-r_. . . . . . . . . . . .

252

- - - - " " " " """"''"'"""'

Greel<

___

.............,.. _....- ..

- - - -.........-................ -------.............-...--- ----...........

- - - - -........................- ....____

- - - -..................-....-----...-........... ---Lesson 14
253

5 (u wash ourself)

8. . (s vacaton begns tomorrow.)

6. ( get lost)

9 . (Her chld's school s fr.)

7. (u shave ourself)

. se
1.

10.

the relatiye pronoun to link the following pairs of sentences.

D. Rewrite the following sentences using strong personal pronouns to replace the weak forms.

.j . (The bab is crng./The bab s hungr.)

2.

.; . (The

flower

s nearl

dried out./ The flower needs to be watered.)

1.

. (Stavroul tells u the stor.)

2.

. (The poor [personj sks us for help.)

3 . (The grndmother s tlking to u.)

3 . ./ . (The gloves re Zoe's.j

4 . (The child s clling u.)

The gloves fell.)


4. . ;
. (The binoculrs re of good qult./The binoculrs re from
the Unted Sttes.)

of mstkes.j The essa is Anton's.)

What's your faQri_te hobby or pastime? Using the vocabulary and


grammar that you've learned so far, try to write a short essay describing how you like to spend your free time. Describe a favorite .sport
or hobby, explain how you came to enjoy it, write about how often
you're able to spend time with it, and so . Challenge yoursel(to use
some new vocabulary that you need to look up to express yourself. For
inspiration, you can type the Greek te.rm for the activity into a search
engine and check out the sites of organizations or individuals who '
. share your i~terests. Have a good time!

6. .j . (The house s clen./1 bought

the house.)
7. .; . (The
biccle s expensve.jThe bccle hs ten speeds.)
8. .; . (The
trp

isn't tirng.jWe'll go on

trp

. (Mims sent u letter.)

INDEPENDENT CHALhENGE

5. ./ . (The ess
s full

. (His trp was fun.)

to Greece.)

9 . .j . (The stor is

,:

interesting./ You told me stor.)

10.

.'

m.j y
. (The bracelet is decorated with rubies.jYou bought me brcelet.)

ANSWER

I
'
. 1. ,
2. ,

2.

. (s book is es to red.)
. (Her chir is broken.)

4 . ( glsses aren't clen.)


5. . (Your friend's son is little.)
-

6. . (His biccle s expensive.)

7 . (Your binoculrs are lost.)

254

Greel<

---

..............

-~

1.

I
' .

2.

3 . 4
I

3 . (Her pstr is ver nice.)

- - - -L...........................________.....................- - - ---.................................._ _ _ _ _....................

5 , 6. , 7

C. Rewrite the following sentences using a strong possessive pronoun.


1.

3 , 4 ,

- - - - -...-............

I
I
'
I
I
I
5
v . 6.
I
I
I

.
7 '

.
. 9
I

8.
I
I
I
I
. 10.

C. 1. . 2.
I
4
I .
3 I ' .

----...-......................... ------......................

_,,,,

_________ __
,,_,

_____

- - - -...............................

...................- ...

Lesson 14

__

......................;............

255

5 .
,
,
'
'
6. . 7 ~ ~.
8. . ? ~

LESSON

10.

:.

. 2.

. ~ . 3 . . 4 .
5 .

Sports and the outdoors

You're almost there! With this lesson, we'll wrap up your introduction to
Greek language and culture. We'll conclude by talking about sports and
the great outdoors, so you'll learn a lot of interesting vocabulary that you
can use to make plans for free time. You'll also learn how to talk about the
weather, which is of course important ~hen planning outdoor activities.
But that doesn't mean that we won't have any new grammar in this lesson.
You'll also learn how to use the conditional in if ... then sentences, and
you'll be introduced to a second way of talking about the past. So, are you
ready?
15.

VOCABULARY WARM-UP

'

'

'
.
I

;
I

It's great that you convnced me to


come along.
Do you know what the temperature
is today?

feel comJrtable.

Did you take the umbrella?

Good thing you remembered.

Are you serious?

In the middle of the day.

Let's go to the clearng.

It'll be ranng cats and dogs. (lit., It


wll drop char legs.)

158. DIALOGUE
Aris and Nektaria are visiting Askos Stone Park in Zakynthos. Aris loves
nature, but Nektaria prefers the city. Listen in them as they wander
along the park's trails.

'

---...\.."'""' - - - - ---

256

Greek

_____

.....................__

___ __

----"___.

..

..........-...............

--

:;

,
'
,
,
. .

: , .... !!!

'
,
,
'
.

, '
,
,
'.
L
' '
, .'
'

' '

'

Ars:

(
I

...

even more.

Nektr: It's good thng t's not very hot. Do you know

!!!!

wht

: ... ;
I

... 't
I

Nektr:

There re some clouds n the sky (lit., the sky


hs some clouds) nd the wether forecst sd
there my be smll shower. Did you tke the

.
.

: , y.

! nn.

........................................ - - - - - - --

258

. Greek

- - - - - - --

- - ---- - -

temperture s tody?

The thermometer t the entrnce sd (lt.,


wrote) 2 5 degrees Celsus. Even though the sun
s strong, feel comfortble. Do you th_nk t'll
rn, thougb?

: I I 't,

the

Ars:

'

Do you lke the prk?

Ars: m gld you lke t. If we go to tht sde tht


doesn't hve lot of commoton (lt., movement
nd nose), we'll see nmls nd you'll enjoy t

I
n
y.

{ry t

to come long. Nture s relly beutiful.

: .

, .
y
'

' '.

Nektr: lke t lot. It's gret tht you convnced me

I
I
I
I

~. t.

.
, ~

,
,
I
'
I
:

'
!!!

' ... , '


' ~t! "/.
~

,\\/C

; p
. .

"""'

' ,
'
'

'
'
' '
.
!

'

'
: , /..i .

c:
,....

y.)

'

:::r

tD

I
'

'
: , .
y

.
-+

( , y

y. ;

::::J

JC
/
I
~ ;
I

25

'
'
,

'

'
'
_,

~.'
' . .:.

: ! y

,
'
'

' ,
.
:

;4

: n.
'
;

' .
' ' '

V'\

QJ

~ y
,
,
'

1
~.

: ;

umbrell?

-----

...............................................................""

- -- ---esso--15 - --t~s~ --

Ars:

15C. VOCABULARY

Yes, took t. lso took the cmer so we cn

V'\

tke pctures.
Nektr:

Ars:

Ah, good thng you remembered. Now then,


how nice the quet n the woods is. Wht Clm!
Do you her the wter of the sprng in the
bckgroZltnd? relly like to listen to it . .. Aris,
look, roe deer! Tke pcture, plese. If hd
frm of my own, would hve lot of roe
deer. They're so grceful!
All rght. But, if we mke ny sudden
movements it'll be strtled nd willleve.
(Aris is getting redy to
suddenly ... )

Nektri:

tke

'

the pcture, when

'

Nektri:

Wht

you're showing me sn't snke;


root of the pine tree.

Nektri:

Yes, I'd like

tke

tht

t's

the

picture?

lot ... rs!!!

I'm scred! The plce is full of bts.

Yes, good ide. Let's lso tke pictures of the


pecocks tht re next (to them).

Aris: It's better to get gong becuse it's gong to


rin cts nd dogs (lit., it wll drop chir legs).
The sky's completely blck.
_..____...........,.................
26_

Oh, too

----------..-

Greek

bd! liked

it so much!!!
---------

...,

V)

! ~

~,

~ ~

. ' s

wrestlng

:)

i -

i
!

volleybll

~ ~

-&
C)

bsketbll

:,

"

hndbll

(It strts rnng. Ars opens the umbre[! nd


they both run towrd the shelter.)

Nektri:

a.

Aris: Are you serious? There ren't ny bts in the


middle of the dy. They're sleeping t this hour.
But you're shking. Do you wnt us to go to the
clering where there re benches to sit down
little until you feel better?
Nektri:

s=
,....

fencng

Aris: There goes the little squirrel too. Wht


hppened to you now, Nektri?
Nektri:

t'D

rcher

Ah yes, sorry. bd the roe deer left! But


look, little squirrel.

Aris: You wnt to

::::r

ground

t (

Look there ... snke n the bushes!

a.
t""+

thletcs field, open-r trnng

~ (

to

QJ
:::)

field

( )

Wht hppened

pool

gymnsum

Aris:

swmmng

Heeeeelp!!!!

Aris: There goes the roe deer ...


you, Nektri?
Nektri:

...,

t""+
V\

'

( )

tennis

judo

rowing

soccer

JC

golf
I

')1.L

boxng

wter

polo

shootng

'}{>

ce skting

weght

'

krte

lifting

crcket

tVJC-]tOVJC (
)

tble tenns

( )

sports

ljump

ctch

'

-------.............

throw

m
------..------

j
--r--
....- ......__

Lesson 15

261

'

lose

game, match

j /

the score

.
I

score

What's your favorite

V\
QJ
:)

tem?

a.

;;
t ;

V'\

;4

The best sport is horseback riding.

-+

::r
m

c:
,.....


<t;

Which team won the


championship?

..

...,
V\

going to the soccer game.

15D. PHRASES

Which team is winning?

; Do you play any sports?

y;

Wht's

They got goal!

What's your fvorite sport?

j;

ply soccerjbasketblljbsebll/

//
I

hoc~ey.

the score?

He doesn't like to lose.

I

'
.

He only likes to win.

.
I

lke

winter sports.
15.

.
I

like summer sports.

prefer open-r sports.

.
I

'
I

belong to n thletc club.

go

y 't

.
I

to the gym severl times


week.
lift weghts nd go running.

trn five hours every dy.

.
I

strted swimmng when ws .five


yers old.

lwy s win t tble

tennis.

m .

He/She hs blck belt in krte.


won

the gold medl in fencing.

.
'\'\!

/\J\:,
I

tke prt

in lot of competitions.

- - - - - - - --""'""'-''""----"""'"

---;~--G-re
_e_k_ _ _ __

---------- .

CULTURE

For more than a century, (soccer, Jootball) has conquered the


hearts of Greek men, wome, and children alike. Sixteen teams make up
the (Frst Natonal Category) or c {Super League) in
professional Greek soccer. Every year, each team plays twenty-four games
to determine the champion of the Super League. The two best teams (champion and runner-up) go on to compete at the European level; namely in the
UEFA (U nion of European Football Associations) Champions League. ~op
Greek players make up the (National Team of Greece),
which in 2004 gained unprecedented recognition after winning the 2004
Euro Cup (not to be confused with the UEFA Champions League) for the
first time ever.
On the locallevel, most Greeks are supporters of one of the teams in the
First National Category, and as may be imagined, rivalries among the supporters are not infrequent. At times these escalate to clashes with other
supporters or the police, and have in the past resulted in property damage
and physical injuries. The most well-known rivalry is between Olympiakos
and Panathinaikos, the two oldest teams in Attica.
The second most popular sport is (basketball). Since most schools
have a basketball court, many kids are introduced to the sport at an early
age. Not surprisingly, (water sports) are also popular,
with over 200 nautical clubs around Greece. While (sailng)
and (rowing) are considered most widespread,
(scuba divng) or ) (wndsurfing),
(water skiing), and other water sports can also be found at
most organized beaches.

Lesson 15

------11-----.. . .,_. _
263

Despite the fact that when you think of Greece, you probably think mostly
of beaches and the sea, you should know by now that the country also has
an impressive array of mountains. In fact, there are over twenty ski resorts
the Greek mainland with a wide range of slopes. Some of the most
popular resorts are in the regions of Thessaly, Western Macedonia, and
Eastern Macedonia and Thrace.
--

---------

-~--:--- --

----. --------1

Lwww. e)~:!~~ef:~~-~-~:-~-~~----- -~--------- --~=11=-~c ~~ot~~ Fed eration


I www.novasports.gr ,
Sports news
. . ...;.;... . ..........."................... .......... . .:...,............ .........,................
-------1

--:~~...;. ;._

"--~--~""'"""'"--~.. - - - - - - - - -

www.gtp.gr/skicenters.asp

!................................................. ... ...........................:..

lnformation on ski resorts

. .. ....... .. ......,...:::.........,:. :~ ..-

~-...~...............~.-~...............

1
... . .... . . .. . ..

15F. GRAMMAR
Grammar topic

1: The weather

'

It's cold.

'
'.

Jt's hot.

It's sunny.

'

The wether is rny.

'
'
.J

It's cloudy.
The wnd s blowng.

'
' .

Jt's very windy.

.j .

t's somewht

'
.- .'\ J... .
'

KUMJ

The wether s

~'l
.
'
f'
1UJ\t

' ' '.


It's

'

p.

It's humd.

There's lightning and thunder.

The temperature s high.

c:
,....
..

..,

"'

. The temperture s low.


.
It's foggy.

:z: The past continuous tense

In Le~son 7 you learned the simple past, also known as the aorist past.
!here s actually another past tense in Greece, called the past continuous or
I~Ierfect, _but the difference is very similar to distinctions made in EngIIs~. The Simple past expresses things that happened, typically one-time
actns that have been completed. The past continuous expresses things
that _were happening or used to happen. Take a .Iook at the following past
contnuous examples.

r used to sng every day.

cold.
nce.

cler dy.

We'll

:
/'1)

~ .

he wether s very bd.


It's snowing.

,....

Uncle Paul used to trvel all the time (lt., contnuously).

The wether s bd.

'

QJ
::)
..

' .
'

'

The weather will get better.

Petros ws takng fencng lessons.

'

'

'

Dmtrs ws playng ball.

Jt's rning.

'

The weather will get worse.

Grammar topic

Let's look at some common expressions you can use to talk about the
weather. Notice that in English you usually use it is, but in Greek, you use
(it does) or (it has).

'

'f.;

hve het wve

Remember that the simple past tense is built from the past stem, and there
are often changes that the verb stem undergoes. The past continuous is
actually much easier to form, because you use the present stem, without
any changes made to that stem. But there are two sets of endings in the
past continuous, one for Group verbs and one for Group 2 verbs. Let's
st~rt with the Group 1 endings first, which are the same past tense endings
you 've seen already.

next week.

. . . ......... .. ......t-.. - -
264
Greek

-- ...............~......__

____

...

.....,,

___

_ . ,,,

__ __ _

.... _,

,,,.,_, ___,.._

,..,

.....__

.,....... ..........._, ,~.~--....... _,,.,.,,..........,....._,_,.._.,..,._,.,

_ ___________

,,,,,,,,,,,

........................._.,_..___...,..._.............................................,....._,,,,,,,,,,,_,,_,_,,_,_, ,,,,_.,., ,............... . ....................


-

Lesson 15

265

.................

J -

1-- ......-

;' -

whether they belong to Class r Class . Ntice that the stress shown
the fllwing endings is usually the secnd-t-last syllable, except fr
the and frms, where it is the third-t-last syllable.
. ;-- . . . . . ._.... ---"" . .....................,. . - -- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ............. ., . . . . . . . ........... .......... - --- -..-- ....____.,_1

............--

.... ~ .. .. ...................................

.................... ................. .... .,.~-

............................................

...

.!

- -

.. "'... .

------

...._.................- .....,.....

~~-

...............,._,,,.............

-
...... '"'-""-"....................-. ........- ..

.-~

--......................................----........................................

-_
~_
m:_.____. _. . .___;,-----~-~.____
____.---------

some examples of verbs both with and wit~o~~e--~~!~~t ----------

Here are

\ PRE5ENT 5

~~~~~::- __

..

--

........................................................... ...............,..............................................

~-

~---- -~

QJ

:1

-+

::r
t'D

-+

V\

f Grup 2
.

~'

verbs.

1::

__ .. _ .........., ... .,.,_, ... ___....._ .., .... ,.........,_ _.,_ ..... ,_,.,,,,._.,..,.,,_,....................,.,..._ ..,..... .,,..,.....,....,.,..,.. ,..

(he. lshelt used to

;:.
V\

c::

,
ws oving
1
!
........................,.,...,.....................................,......................,.,.....,..................... "........... ..................,_...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................1
!

was driving

''"~"~................ ,....,..-................."'....""""'""'""'- ""''''"'''''''''"'"'"'~"'"~""~;............, .~................................. : +. olo6

+ ';} { . .;.. .............................................................: ................- ................................................................................--...........................

~~~~~----------- ~as ~alking. -~----'--------~

were combing) \

\L.
(hel~helit stays)
. . . ,.~-. ------' . . .-,_,;,.~_--,,~-. . . . . . .... ................. . . . . . . . . . . . -..--.-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. . . . . .-.. . . . ... ............. . .----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-- . . . .

examples

,. ' """"' " -> """ >-w-..--"~

1.: -~~
.~.-~;(~;;:~ ~~5~
~~
~
~~~~J
.. . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . ..... . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
stay)
..

sme

,..,,...,.,, .. ,.. .... ,... ,.,.,.,_,.,.,.,,,..

------- - - ----- -- --

~(yu

________!~~~~.(~~~o~kin~~~-~

:--w

--.~~ --. . . . ..............,,,;..,...........,.....,.,. . .,... . . . . . . . . . . ~

5 co u u5 s

-~~-

__

Remember that Gro~p 1 verbs are always stressed on the third-,~o-last syl:
1 bl
d that if the verb doesn't have three syllables, a stressed augment
i: a~d: to the beginning of the verb, just as in the simple past. Here are
;""-~..---""""-.."~-----..,--~~; ~~

V'

......~~~...................~.-- ...............................................................................w......-:......, ...._ ..._ . _ _ _ _

~~,

.....,_,______

.-

was aughing

r ~XV~~~~- - . ---. . . . . . . . .--.-. . __.. . .-. ~-7~as ;~-~-~~~g

...\

was hittinglknocking

-~---

-----1

L . .. --- . ._.._ -.........ww--- ..........;..............__._....................................................._ ....._ ....,......................._....._____,_,__,..........................~,...,...


I
. ' .

was kissing

Here are sme other Grup verbs in the past cntinuu~~----- .-......,.,.,..,

---...

.....................

............,...............

-~.......~.~ .... ............""- .....--.

--

- - - '""W"<'f'N""'""HN'f-""'~---;...,_ _ _ _,,

( '/.,...-----..--
1

~-

......

--"- -----

was paying

. . . .--............................'-'''""'"'''. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......,.....\''""'~..,."""''"' ........................ _.._, ..................... ~.............. -

..

........ .., ......... -

1 was watering (plants)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _.. . . . ... . . .

'"

.................,, ,. . . . . . . . . . . .,.,............ .. . . . . . . ................................;,......................... . .. . ;~s cooking

1 .~

. . . ... . . . . . -.. . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-~---

\..,.., . . . . . ._.............-.. . . . . . . . ......................,,,.......................................,,.............,,..

!'_~.~---. --~---~-"~"

-- . . . \

I
~

. .. - .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._

"-- - ..-----. . . . . "----

~~-~
!

was drinking

was eating

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-

-1

-----..--~1

\;. ~' __.. . . ........ . ._. . . . . . ..-.. . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . ._.._. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . ._. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .1

J.-~

1' ... ........

............ ,,, . ........... .................................... ....... ..... ......... ~ ......

was crying __............. -- ---- .... . . . . .. . . . ............... ............... . ....... . . . . ..

.. . ...... ...............-_.......... . ....-. __ .... - ........---


~...

,,,_,

The au ment of a few very common ver~s in the past c~ntinuous is ~r


regular~You already learned the past of ( am) and ha)v~
Lesson 7: ( was, used to be) and ( had, ~ used to ave,. wo
more common verbs with an irregular augment ~re: ( wnt)f
( wanted, used to want) and ( knw)j ( knew, used to

know).

..................................................................

. . . ...~----~:.~.~d ....~------

_j

____._

. . . . ---------.-----.-------..--__. .-

~~; ~;~;~~

I ').,:, ..
.. . . -.. .--.. .-.... . . ... . . ..-.. .------- ". --~. . . ..._.... . . . . . . . . . _. . .. . . . . .. . . . .... .---,. .... . . . . .!
J---.. . ,. ._...................-..--................. ._,._. . . . -~--... ...........
wa s t h nki ngI beIi evi ng
\
~-. -~----. . -----~--------!
..
___.___........,. . . .---""'__. . ._. ._1
-

........................................................................1

was washing

- -- -

1 was talking

~- - --,-.------~. . .,.....,. ..-.......~. ......-.. . . . . . . ............................... .... . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .... . ._... . . . .. . . -.. . . . .. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ . . . . . .. ................................i

-------ti

\......
~
...: ..
.,. .
.. . .
,... .
,.._
_. . . . . . . . ..~. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,t....................--.. -..~~~~;~~d~~-

!;;~~;;:-

----------------~
was seeing

. . . . . . -.. .....~............. . .......... . . . . _......._.

......... ... .... ......... .. ...................._...... . ..... ................... ................... .. .......... -..................-.............. .. .. .......................................................... ......................... ........................................................................... jj

typical differece between the simple past and the past cntinuus is
that yu use the past cntiuus t express backgrud" states r actins,
ad the simple past to express e-time actis that may have happened
against this backgrud. This is very similar t the differece bet.wee the
Eglish simple past (spoke) and the past ctiuus (ws speaking).

We were eting dinner when the phone rng.



.

They were wtching (lit., following) the soccer game when it started to

rn.

'
I

I
'
I
"1 L

w,.

was

hiking when ll of sudden sw deer.

Now let's look at Group 2 verbs, which take a different set of end_ings
fiom Group 1 verbs. Fortunately, all Group 2 verbs take the same endngs,
----l------------..---------------------------------..---------"---"--------;---..----..----..--"-"""

266 \

Greek

---------------------..--..--------------------------------------------i----

Lesson 15

\ 267

.
If you tlk too much, they'll get tred of listenng to you.

Grammar topic 3: The conditional


The conditional is typically expressed with would in English. would learn
Greek, but don't have the time. We would buy the house, but it's so expensive. She'd never say that! Yu've actually see the cditial already
in Greek. In Lesson 12, you learned that you can soften a comman? or a
request, fr example by usig ( would like) istead f (
want). By w ,you ca recgize the particle , as well_ ~s the _past c
tinuous form . This is one way to form the condtonal Greek:
+

past

An unreal conditional, or one where the condition is known to be false and


completely hypothetical, follows that pattern (if) + past continuous in
the condition, and + past continuous in the consequence.

V\

I
'

~
,
.
If you hd drven crefully, you wouldn 't hve hd an ccident.

'

~ , U\\U . .
We would buy the house, but it's too expensive.
'\,1

, .
If you hd sked, would hve answered you.

=r

r .

.-'\fv

a.
,....
c:
,....
a.

would learn Greek, but don't hve the time.

::1

f"D

.-'\fv'

a-

QI

, t .
If you wnt, we'll go on vcton to Greece.

~ontinuous.

, ~

V'\
"

, .
If you had studied, you would hve gotten good grde.

Of course a lot of conditional sentences are made up of two parts: an if


clause (th~ coditi) ad a then clause (the csequece). There are di:feret types f if ... then seteces, depedig whether the speaker s
talkig abut a cdt that is r may be true (a "~eal" c~,diti);, r ~
that is known to be false and completely hypothetcal (an unreal cond
ti). Eglish is just the same this regard. Cmpare the fllwig tw

y , .
If you hd sked for help, would've helped you.
mo , .
If you had spoken more slowly, would hve understood.

conditional sentences.
",,.."'.;. .. -.\..._............--------~-"---

- - - , _ - - -- - - -...........

1 f it's

rar;J}ng,

1'11 bring t;J1Y umbrel/a. ,,

\ ;. .

..

.....

\ ~fj;;,e ;~~;~;,--;:-;;;;;;-;,;~~-;;;;--- .
\ umbrella.
!

l"

.....

~.

--~~-

__.....,........._..,<

"Real Conditional." l'm not sure if it's


.

r~i~i~~ ~~~ t~-~~-c~n~~~~~ is-~~=~~~

\
.

know for a fact i

-"Unreal Conditional."

it's not raining, so l'm speaking

hypothetically.

... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..:. . . .-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..._. . . . . . _. . . . . . . . . . .---- . ---. -- - . . --- - -. ----. ;

156. READING
Do you remember Ron from the beginning of the course? Lesson 1 he
was learning Greek with Mrs. Stavraki. Now that he's back home in the
United States, he's decided to send her a letter and thank her for helping
him learn Greek.
.

1U'l . 1C,
I

Now let's turn to Greek. Just as in English, a real conditional is typically


expressed with (if) + preset tese the coditi, ad + the future
in the consequence.

I
-1.."1 .
I
I
I
I
I

~ y

r~ ~ y

, r{>.
If he's busy, I'll cll agin lter.

{r , .
If you're leving home now, we'll meet t the bus stop.
I

I
c r
, ro '~.
If you're on time, ll give you chocolte.

.
y V. ,
/

~ ! y ,
~. ~ ,
.

---.....- ....---..--..- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -......................,..................................

Lesson 15

\ 269

y
I
I
I

I
D" ' L ~-.
. .
!
!
rJ\l\UUU

go~e~ned region and is subject to the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs


politically, and to the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople for rel
purposes.
Igious

I
'
I
' ,

' '

,
yp ,
' ' /\J\U
'-.
'
'
'
'

m,
_
'
,
,
D" L~-. "
,
m : Ll\l\UUU.

'
'
'
,
'

.-.' .'
'
'.
U

'

J've been bck n the Unted Sttes for month now. But fter my long b
sence needed lttle tme to settle down gn, nd tht's why didn't write
sooner.

..,

"'

~~~;~; i~f~;~ ation ~~ ~;~-~;h 0~----

vded.

.
2

~ ? ,

(W.
b
'
e cn t trve y bot ths week becuse t's
I

;
(It s not vey cold but tke your jcket becuse it's bit cold.)

---

. (The temperture s high nd


I

60

. (ke your umbrell because it's

rning.)

wndy.)

. (Tomor-

row the sky wll hve clouds. Tht s to sy, t wll be cloudy.)

---~------~~~~-------------270
Greek

Cl.

~ Complete the following weather expressions using the translations pro-

meet gn in the

By now you've explored all thirteen administrative regions of Greece, including both the mainland and the islands. However, there's actually one
more region left to explore. Situated the easternmost portion of a fingerlike peninsula in Central Macedonia, the region of (Mount
Athos) is also called the L (Holy Mountn) or the
(Grden of the Virgin Mry). Mount Athos is actually a self-

c:
,....

EX~RCISES

Ron Pecock .

CULTURE

tD

. . . . . . . .... . . . . . . ____... ._~-----. . . . __ -- .....-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ____-. - . . . _. _J

sure tht J'll come bck to Greece on vcton soon. The wether in
Greece s so good n the summer, nd s you know like het nd sunshine.
Of course, rin nd cold re needed too, but don't like to crry n umbrell
or wer jcket when go on vcton.

15.

Genera I nfo r~"~ ~;~~ . ,~.~M"~~~-~~~ 0~~----1

,,: , :,,,,,,,, ,,,.,, ....~, , ,.,,,,,,, , .,~~'<.~ - V. - 4:\

~~~:i~~~~~~-~r/~~~~~~en/

'm

tht we'll

~.~~~~.~.~ ntathos. gr/

Greece. hd good tme nd mde lot of new


cquintnces. Of course, hve to thnk you becuse if! hdn't hd your
help, wouldn't hve lerned Greek. And if hdn't lerned Greek, wouldn't
have been able to communcate wth anyone.

you gn nd hope

,....

r. . ' ""''.' ' ""'""'""'"""'"' ' "'". . . """'-,~1r--. . . . . . ........... . . . ~..... .- -.. . . . . . . . . . .~. . ~~~..........,,.,,~. . . . ...,.............................................. ................................

s stll bck n

thnk

:::3
Cl.

If you plan to. visit Mount Athos, you should know that only male visi~ors are pe~mtted, and you should make sure you get the appropriate
ocumentaton (http://www.inathos.gr/athos/en/VisitMountAthos.html)
learn more about the area, you can visit the following websites:

Der Mrs. Stvrk,

In closing, wnt to
future.

"'

There are twenty different monasteries spread around the peninsula


~f th_ese mo~asteries, the Holy Monastery of Xenophon, celebrated it~ m7~
~nnial anniversa~ in. 1998. The monasteries of Mount Athos are built
lke fortresses, whch s no mistake given the region's history of attacks.
Each of ~h~m has a courtyard in the middle, where the main church and
other buildings are located. Outside of the w 11
d
h
k , d'
a s are gar ens t at meet the
mon 8 etary needs. The monks eat a diet consisting almost entirely of
vegetables, le~umes, and occasionally fish, but no meat. The monks are
also .the guardans of a massive, important, and valuable collection of manuscpts, artwork, and sacred relics which rarely make their way out of
Mount Athos.

My collegues who sw the pictures took on the slnds, t Pelon nd n ll


the other places tht visited, hve gone crzy nd they wnt to vst Greece
too. When they come, I'll tell them to tke Greek lessons from you.

;:::;.

QJ

'
I
I

I
I
I

My mind

V'l

hot.)

'

~ . :
. (The bby s
cryng becuse hejshe s frd of the lghtnng nd the thunder.)
I

. ,

. . (It's

cler dy. There sn t sngle cloud n the sky.)


-------~--------

- -..---.................-..............................................._.

.,..,

--- - - - - -. . ..........................,..................................

............................................ . .

lesson 15

271

8. '

. (It's very windy and [the

26.

(J cross)

V\
"

;:.

27. (J sign)

wind} took [away] his hat.)

. _ _ _ ! (It's snowing and everything is white!}


9
' '
'
' '
10. .
'

. ( don't /ike the cold. prefer when it's hot, but of


course not when there's heat wave.)

V\
:::u

::]

28. (J pant)

r+

::r

29. (they play)

t'D

30. (J understand)

r+

c:

..,

31. (they drw)

. Give the past continuous form of the following verbs.

34

(they play)

4 (you clean)

(hejshe takes)

35

(J pss)

36.

.!

38.

6. ( letjpermit)

'

~~

1-&
i c

(they dnce)

/ \/')

!:

37 (you drnk)

5 (you open)

:,

3.(webu~

7.

32. (you complete)


33 (they gve)

1. (hejshe runs)
2.

V\

(we herjlsten)

39 (hejshe pays)

(they put)

40.

8. (we begin)

(J lose)

41. : (we rent)

9 (they collect)

42. (hejshe combs)

10. (you drive)

43 (they shampoo)

11. (they answer)

44 (you cut)

12. (hejshejit is pleasing)

13. (we greetjsalute)

45

14. (you accuse)

46.

(you wrte)

(we eat)

15. (you walk)


C. Complete the following conditional sentences using the verb in parentheses i~ the appropriate tense. Remember that the verb in the if clause
may be the present or the past continuous tense, while the verb in the
then clause may be in the future or past continuous tense.

16. (we ask)


17. ( try)
18. (they are thirsty)

1.

19. (yuswim)

20. (hejshe uses)


21.

2. ,

(it's raining)

4 ~

24. (it's blowing, it's windy)


25. (you are leaving)

- - - - - - - -----....

-"""""""""" """""""""""""""""""" ""

Greek

(-past cont.),

( ) . (Ifyou

were hungry, would gve you pece offruit.)

23 (you sing)

272

( ) . (If

()

(Ifyou woke up erly, you'd see the sun rse.)

(~~-present, you),
you re thrsty, ll gve you some juce.)

22. (we ask)

............................... ........-..............

(~-past cont.) ,

( -past cont.) ,
1

:.

____________

( )

(If she liked the sea, J'd buy her yacht.)

- - - -- --- - - --

---- - -- - - - - - -

Lesson 15

273

(-present, you) ,

want receipt, give you [onej.)


6.

(-past cont.) ,
()
. (If you had invited your brother would have come too.)

(-past cont., you) ,


()
. (If you had stuaied all night, you would have known your

lessons.)
8.

(-present, you pl.) ,

ANSWER

( ). (If you

()

; (If you go to the country, will you take me with you?)

I D D C t LE G
Congratulations! You've made it to .the end of Spoken World: Greek by
Living Language. Ifyou'd like to learn abouother Living Language
products, or if you'd like to give us feedback your experience, please
go to www.livinglanguage.com. We're always thrilled to hear from
people who have used our programs.

V'\

"

. 1. ~~,

;4

5
6. , 7 , 8. j, 9 , 10.
'

2.

~, ~ , 4 ,

"'

QJ
;:]

a.

-+

~, 2 ~, 3 ~, 4 ~, 5 , 6. ,

7
12

,, 8. , ,9 ,

t'D

11.
~, 13 , 14. , 15. '
10.

c:

-+

Q.

16. , 17. , 18. 1 . '


9
:. ~; 21. , 22. ,' 23 . :
1
4 ~ , 25. ~, 26. , 27. , 28. ,
29. ~, 30. , 31. , 32 .
3~ :~,, 34 ~, 35 p, 36. , 37. :
3 , , 39, ~ 40. , 41. , 42. ,
4 3 , 44 , 45 , 4 6.

C. 1 ~ ~,

2.

/ , 3 /

, 4; j , 5 /
6., : , 7 / 8 /~

'

Your last challe11ge has two p~rts. First, reward yourselfl Go to a nice
Greek restaurant and ask if anyone there speaks Greek. Then try to
iead the menu ~nd order in Gieek. If there's no Greek restaurant near
where yu live, how about renting a Greek movie? Movies are a,great
way to hear language in action. You can . pa.se and rewind, ang , ou
can turn 9 and off the English subtitles so t.l"at you get a lot of prac
tice out of even one short scene. Or rnaybe you prefer to find some
Greek music online. matter what, find something fun to do to celebrate finishing the course.

The second part of the challenge is to think of ways to take your Greek
further. By '11ow yoi've fo\.lnd a few 'Greek websites that are useful
to stude'h ts. Keep using them, and see if you can bookmark ,a few
magazines or newspapers~ Practice reading a few times a week, and
keep up your Language Journal so that your vocabulary cortinues to
grow. Check out cqmrp.nity resources in your area, too. Depending
on where you live, there may be plenty of practice opportunities in
your own community. There may be a culturalorgaiiization or social
club where pedple meet. There may be a local college or university
with a department that hosts cultural events, such as films or liscus
sion groups. Of course, you ca,p find a lot of this information online,
a,nd there are si.fes .that allow groups of people to get organized ard
meet to pursue theii i~terests. And there's always the option of visiting Greece!
We hope that our virtual tour has inspired you! And with that we wish
you ! (Good Luck!)
.........- - - - - - - -- - --""-..

Greek

- --

----

............................

- - - - --------------- ------........................................-...........

~---

------ --

Lesson 15

275

Glossary
Greek-English
()

()
I

egg

lecture hall

()

Ilove

()

cucumber

()

()

elbow

()

market

()

boyfriend, boy

()
()

buy

classroom

classroom

meeting room

()

()

blood

field

()

salt

farmer

paragliding

rural

()

()

game, match

true

()

sister

but, however

()

brother

thin, slender, weak

()

wind

()

butcher shop for


pork products

airport

other, else,
another, any more

airplane

American (f.)

()

()

()
I

()

sports
sneakers, tennis
shoes

hear, listen to

change channels

American football

()
I

American (m.)

istat

message

()

()

right away
sad

if

tur , light

searh

()

sigle

aswer, reply

'

busy, ccupied (a

pers)

ppsite, acrss

depart, leave

sft drik

() aftern

()
g

up

frm,

'

'

'

()

wid

data

()

save,

uemplyed

flwer shp

'

stre

save a

()

documet

laudry deterget

huma bdy

()
()

()
()

'

pen a file

'

()

exchage

instead f

COD (cash
()
delivery)

-- Greek - - -----

---

save a file
computer)

sco.re

'

leave,

leave a message

bath gel

()

statio

'

shavig

cream

()

policema/woma

pear

policeman/woman

ugly

()

vase, Jar

put

put

April

abado

(/)

.........................

boss (m.)

(/)

()

____

' ()

policema/woma

toilet (public)

()

boss (f.)

()

()

()

'
,

lightig

police

divig

he, this

()

'

()

spng

akle

scuba

()

lobster

highway, freeway

(/)

'

'

pe

()

a file

car

()

elevator

urba

ephew

()

'

sed

they (m.), these

perfume

star

it

architect

()

dedrat

ear

funy

()

()

iece

()

'

pers

()
-

()

()

white

deterget

()

strage

she

dishwashig

archaeological site

(.)

they (f.)

(/)

()

file

'

'

aciet

receipt

they

by

tmrrw

'

'

elevatr

weight lifting

()

()

()
cuple (ifml.)

sick

()

curtyard

refresh

()

.
,

'
'
f rm
j

August

()

()

fiace

' ()

ma, husbad

betwee, amg

()

fiae

()

278--

teis

()

()

hold

'
)

lamb

--

----............................

- -............................... - - -........................................

_..

___

___

.................................._,...

___

.....................................-

Glossary

279

...................................

score

()

()

volleyball

'

()

yoghurt

()

mountain

'

because

()

grade, degree

()

night, evening

' ;

why?

deep

()

bracelet

' (j)

doctor

cotton (made of
cotton)

()

rock

()

son

. 's ranng
. .

()

golf

gray

()

backside, bottom

()

cotton

()

thunder

()

ran

sweet

...

dirty

()

sculpting

'

purple

()

tongue

know

boring

am bored

I'm bored by ...

...

heavy

remove, take
out

()

come out

cough

I'm in a rush

()

book

bookend

()

brother-in-law,
groom

biology

()

shop window

see

() eyelash
()

eyelid
beef

'

stamp

()

()

glove

' ()

office, desk

()

shrimp

'

()
()

()

secretary, assistant

()

()

'

(/)

bookstore

()

knee

milk

()

()

bookcase, library

()

'

toilet (at home)

()

Hello./Good-bye.
(fml.)
Hello./Good-bye.
(infml.)
neighborhood
meal
taste, flavor

() geography

take a test

elementary school
teacher (m.)

()

forest

()

finger, toe

()

dinner

ten

nineteen

sixteen

seventeen

eighteen

fifteen

fourteen

tenth

thirteen

() December

tree

()

leather, skin

work out,
exercise

leather (made of
leather)

'
m
()

junior high school

' ()

Monday

second

namely, meaning,
that is to say

()

city hall,
municipal
building

mayor

sunglasses

()

'

'

gymnasum

()

'

()

farmer

()

()

land, earth

' ()

woman, wife

()

field

for, about

'
'
j

around

grandmother

()

()

gym, gymnastics,
exercise

()

elementary school
teacher (f.)

() ng

find

()

return, go back
(/)

'

m-

journalist

'

(/)
280 j-.... . .... . . . . -..- Gr-ee_k_

. . . ._... . . . . . . . -- _ _... . . . . . . . ...._. ____ _ _. . . .. . . . . . . . .- --

---. . . . . . . . . .-..- - -

. . ......-.-

. ... . . . . . . _

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-

. . . . . . . . . . .._. __,___. . . . . . . ____ . . . . . . . .----i-.. ... . .... . .


Glossary

I 281

read

passport

()
I

()

deletion

test, exam

delete

()

() internet

free, available
(a perso.n)

decoration

()

()

tooth

job, work

()

()

()

drama

() olive oil

()

()

street, road

n ()

work

strong

two

difficult, hard

twelve

()

modem

have fun

intersection
()
I

divider

()

'

human resources

'

lawyer

(/)

!
r

give
give information,
inform

()

~ --282

Greek

without
........................

outside, out of

Greek (language)

flat screen

Greek (adj.)

bottled water
one, a, an

(.)

also, too, the same


toyou

'

y ()

document

()

brain

one, a, an (m.)

ninth

eleventh

n () textbook

-j-

'

here

twenty
Iam

()

one hundred

()
I

..................._,

attach a file

table tennis

()
I

souvenir

businessman/
woman

allow

.
nne

all right

() business

eleven

(j)

business card

()

that

()

cousin (f.)

church

() cousin (m.)

()

sixth
-

return

ninety

adult (m.)

those

Finally!

()

collection (of fees)

go sightseeing

adult (f.)

()

ticket

interesting
(m.jf.jn.)

()

furniture store

()

wish

()

grandchildren

diploma

'
I

y ()

beside, next to

intelligent, smart

()

Greek woman

()

correction fluid

V)

()

week

::3"

room

we

--

rural

bandage

<

q ()

seventh

payment in full

Greek man

()

()

twelfth

seventy

C')

exit

() skin

()

""

""
..,

Greece

()

famous

QJ

report card, (the)


control

SIX

'<

()

printer

G"\

(j) passenger

()

printout

sixty

free, vacant (a
seat, a phone line,
a person)

()

print

()

apartment

---

.....................

test, exam
--

---

next .
seven

~-Glossary
283

work

factory

hot

desert

()

couple

come

you (pl./fml.)

() painting

restaurant

()
I

you

() underwear
()

ready

easy

()

Mrs.

(the art of)

sea blue

()

()

painting

water skiing

frame, picture
( wall)

()

life

()

()

belt

()

clean

vew

'

every

()

theater

()

aunt

()

the (f.)

(/) actorfactress

Thank you very


much.

()

!
I

greeting card

()
(/)

teenager

want

()

desk

()

storm

s sunny

have

e-mail

remember

everything, each
thing

(m.)

chest

teacher, professor

()

(f.)
weekday

()

mrror

'

() January

and

' ()

internet

()

()

July

'

()

June

sun

' ()

()

day

horseback riding

date

()

computer

()

old (person)

'

-y

until, up to

windsurfing

()
nited

states of

America

()

history

..................................

__

...................................

new
weather

burn

bad

fine

wastepaper basket

'

()

____

For sure !/Of


course!

()

..................................-

()

sugar

everything,
everyone (m .jf./n.)

' () teacher, professor

()

jacket, cardigan

:c)
;

unfriendly

each, every,
everyone, each
one

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+-----"" . " -- ""'"""'"'""'-" ___


Greek

temperature

()

()

electrician

z
()

()

.newspaper vendor

'it's cloudy

iron

()

uncle

(/)

() newspaper

284 1

Thank you!

()

stove, range

() website

record

sea

live

company
stepson

() webpage

()

sound system

()

you, of you, to you

()

()

()

()

pastry shop

.................

--~

___

.........................

..............................

_____

......................

____________..........................._.._____

___

............................

Glossary

__
285

................ ......

'

Welcome !

()

someone,
somebody

squid

Welcome! (pl./fml.)

' ()

karate

brown

()

heart

' ()

cafe, coffee shop

()

chair

' ()

coffee

' ()

carrot

coffee brown

wrist

'

()

coffeemaker

basketball

()

Have a nice
vacation!

Have a good stay!

Good morning!
(fml.)

! Welcome ! (sg.)
I

()

toilet (home or
public)

some

Good morning!
(infml.)

couch, sofa

()
I

it's windy

I
'

it's hot

Good night! (fml.)

it's cold

no one, anyone,
anything, none,
one, any (m./f./n.)

Good night!
(infml.)

()/
I

Good evening!
(fml.)
Good evening!
(infml.)

()

play (a sport)

.'

copy

art

()

artist (f.)

()

paste

go camping

Have a good
weekend!

m
I

Have a nice trip!

summer job

()

good

()

()

sock
cover

take a bath

walnut

earn, win

()

scarf (smaller)

score

'

according to, on,


upon, against,
during
I

understand

() menu

Greek

store, shop

()

electronics store

()

'

clothing store

'

shoe store

'

()

con

()

head

()

panties

movie, film

'

movie theater,

'

()

cnema

()
I

shredder

have a party

come down

go hiking

busy (a phone line)

'

cell phone

()

yellow

cry

.. .,.' ,..
I
V\t

close a file

'

download

traffic

()

()

hat

'

take a shower

()

()

play (a sport)

'
j

y ()

()

hang up (the
phone)

inherit

(by) express (mail)

()

leg

anything,
something, some

()

abdomen

cut

cable
-------

-1-

deposit

()

cherry

do the laundry

() summer

()

cut (computer
term)

() watermelon

()

'

do, make

artist (m.)

under, below,
beneath

286

------------- -

- - - - - - - - - -

----

---~---

----'-- -

Giossary

287

'

sleep

look, see

watch television

look, see

:: ()

bone

red wine

()

red

()

necklace

()

cologne

swimming pool
()

'
j

street vendor who


sells rolls
move

'

()

()

neck, throat

receive

swimming
swim

'

'

'

can

near

nearby

short

()

daughter

()

girlfriend, girl
jewelry

()

() vegetables

()

jewelry shop

()

it costs

()

sui t (men' s)

chicken

()

()
()
.....................- ..........-

------['...................... .

Greek

place setting
blanket

minute

()

can,box

thin, slender, slim

()

wne

()

club

reservation

()

cheek

(together) with

learn

()

'

()

white wine

'
()

white

bus

art (as school


subject)

say, tell

()

meat

()

bed

()

shaving cream

()

boulevard

a little

()

port

()

lake

()

pond

bill

hanging folder

()

butcher shop

()

()

()

()

student (m.)
(elementary or
high school)

()

student (f.)
(elementary or
high school)

()

May

cricket

veterinarian

...

()

building

()

So ...fWell ...

far from, away


from

flower
amusement park

()

traffic

pasta

() software

cold

mathematics

()

()

()

lesson, course,
class, school
subject

()

take notes

cook

bathing trunks,
bathing suit

lemon

(j)

store, shop

spoon

()

()

()

()

'

()

violet

computer

() lamp

()

curtain, drape

288

()

kitchen, stove,
range

()

'

'

()

far

long

yes, of course,
certainly

()

hair

()

hill

hurricane

()

high school

Sunday

()

comedy

I'm sorry

()

mom, mother

rowng

sad

()

lettuce

()

()
I

()

solve

() ,

- - ----..----------- -

...............................

--

- - - - -...................................

-.........................................._.

____ __
,

______

...............................................

Glossary

289

()

March

silk (made of silk)

our, u s, to u s

cash

()

armpit

()

eye

'

black

()

knife

with, me

'

I'm interested

. .. I

lll .. .

'

...

'

()
()
I

()

()

museum
museum of fine
arts

()

mother

(/) musician

musc

stepmother

search engine

()

ball

()

dad, father

'

()

(j)
I

one, a, an (f.)

banana

()

bathroom, bathtub

news

young

()

water

()

kitchen sink

()

median

()

bathroom sink

think, believe

hospital

()

() baseball
I

memory

()

mauve

()

()

carpet

()

()

()

pencil

midweek (adv.)

'

pencil holder

through, from
inside, in, into

speak, talk

() pool, billiards

()

blue

()

blender

()
I

documentary

()

tomato

()

closet

blouse

()

cupboard

bowl

()

shower

checkbook

lunch

after, then
silk

(+ gen.) between, among

()

one-way street

()

- - - --- -------------------- - - - ---------------------------

...

dress myself,
get dressed

()

nail

()

()

night

thigh

house

can ... ,
may .. .

() bottle

()

single-family
()

Greek

()

basketball

. ()

()

church, temple

()

inside

()

street vendor

monument

yes

'

stay, live

()

salary

()

to, that, in order to

() November

()

band

()

some, a few, a
small quantity of
I

baby

onelane

nose

menu

small, little

'

come in

() balcony

engineer

()

part-time

like

message

290

()

()

honey

'

my, to me

()

()

apple

muscle

()

()

()

()

veal (adj.)

unfriendly

eggplant

s ze

()

beer

until, up to

study

()

big

()

forehead

modem

()

subway, metro

()

arm
in front of

--------

- - - - - - - ------------------------------------ -- - -- --------------------------.......................

...............................................................

Glossary

291

mountain

(/)

tour guide


()

(foreign) language

dentist

hotel

as much as

(j)

that

toothbrush

()

()

sky blue

()

sky

youth hostel

()

know

/_ forget

sour

() family

(/)

construction
worker

()
I

eight

() October

bench
counter

()

ice skating

fencing

everything, all

()

()

vinegar

()

team

()

game, match

wooden

()

club

()

child

()

wood

()

fog

play

carpenter

(/)

()

wake up

()

()

alarm clock

()

razor
shave

electric razor

()

()

the (m.)

0 1

whatever

()
I

eighty

eighth

taxi driver

umbrella
however
name
filename
username

()

beautiful

()
I

top of, over,


above, upon,on

'
()

shoe

' ()

grandfather

'

in spite of, less


than

'

opera
whoever,
whomever,
whatever,
whichever
who, whom,
which, that

()
I

()
I

take

take a picture

you're welcome/
please

receive, get

beach

complain

Friday

()

'

()
I

park

()

party

'

()

father

' ()

stepfather

()

floor

'

()

pause

'

fat

old (thing)

() go

()

wrestling

' ()

old (thing)

()
I

coat
we go, let's go

university

()

() pants
I

What did you say?/


Pardon? (fml.)

(/)

player (f.)

player (m.)

Here you are!/At


your service! (fml.)

()

()

() window

'
'
j

toothpaste

()

..

drive

()

go to the movies

go camping

go shopping

'

'

()

'

()

pedestrian (f.)

sidewalk

married

()

marry (someone)

()

pedestrian
walkway

()

pedestrian (m.)

-------------............................................................................__ - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - -- -. .........................-........._.. _________.................................................

..,...._.....................,...................-.-

292 \

Greek

Glossary

---'"""'""""}'"""''"'""""""""""
1

293

()

mother-in-law

()

dishes

()

in-laws

()

plate

()

father-in-law

I'm hungry

()

customer (m.)

() customer (f.)

()
I

Thursday
fifth

()
I

I '

pay

rich

()

pepper

() sweater

()

cantaloupe
Come in !/Go right
in!
guided tour

()
I

()

fork
bottom, butt, rear
end
credit card

lungs (more
formal)

()

Iung

mountain biking

()

beside

information
I
center

()

plastic

()

plastic (made of)

Excellent!

pass, go
throw

volleyball
()

()

back

wide

wash myself,

fall

wash (something)

brush my teeth

do the dishes

go

()

chin

jump

catch

_________ _

......................................................................................................

it must ... , it
ought to ... , it's
necessary .. .

before

() armchair

department store

()

stepdaughter

()

ancestor

apartment
()
building
()

television
program

()

mouse

()

door

()

orange

suburban

()

very, much

boss (f.)

boss (m.)

()

orange (fruit)

()

coach (m.)

()

how much ?, how


many?

()

. coach (f.)

()

ver

when?

.................-.....................

...

school yard

-------

must ... , have


to . . .

town, city

crochet, knitting

...

()

()

forearm

who?

,
do the laundry

green

()

get washed

()

towel, napkin

it's hailing

()

square (town
square)

tip

()

soccer (football)

Greek

shirt

magazine

() newsstand

294

dishwasher

()

pepper (vegetable)

()

....., ....

powder

()

pajamas

()

() washing machine

()

()

where?

more

foot, Ieg

drink

()

()

that, which

behind

'

drink

full-time
employment

()
()

()

()

()

()

five

table tennis

glass

art gallery

()
-

()

()

fifty

keyboard

towards

notice

.............................................. ...................................... ,. ............................, _ , _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


~

____ ,_....

""-----------..............

Glossary

..

J
................ /.................................

/ 295

invite

()

try

() clothing

staff

clothes, clothing

()

()

bedsheet

September

()

()

nce

()
I

()

morning

()

Saturday

breakfast, morning

weekend

()

champion

first

()

()

degree

w ()

boxing

()

()

wood burning
(pyrography)
salesman

I
'i!
t

saleswoman

... ; How doyou


say ... ?/What do
you ca ... ?
'i!

t;
I

W hat 1s your
name?

how?

blazer

soap

()

forty

()

scarf (larger)

()

()

reception desk
pink
clock, wristwatch

take your
temperature

student of a
technological
educational
institute (f.)

()

stadium

steady job

movie theater,
cinema

()

CD-RM

train station

stop

drive CD-ROM drive

chess

()

station

()

grape

staircase

ash-colored

stair

dryer

()

()

stairs

()

send

e-mail send an e-mail

'

shooting

eraser

()

: ()

student of a
technological
educational
institute (m.)

()

Thank you. (fml.)

you (sg., acc.),


to, at

sport

:::r-

()

train station

()

Thank you, the


same to you.

()

~
' c:;;
1

()

house, home

()

()

shelf

ironing board

()

()

() appointment

the (m.jf. pl.)

Thank you very


much. (fml.)

rugby

you (acc.), to you,


your (pl./fml.)

()

today

dishwashing
detergent

()

note

()

()

()

()
()

~
~
I

:r

bra

()

shampoo

~
~
i

traffic light

living room

()
:: ()

-,

()

~ ~

supermarket

()

traffic signs

()

pick up the
phone

V\
V\

()

get up

I '<

temporarily
forward

face

souvenir

ask

()

/ C)

your, to you (sg.)

aim

send an e-mail

:
I

{)
()

score

send an e-mail

earring

()

()
............................ -..-------

296

Greek

---------

broom

---- ---------- -------..---- ---""--...----..----- ......

.__ ____

,_.,,_ ,,.,.

...

-.........--.-............................

............

.,....... ,., _.,~-...............................

,_.,

_.--..... _._

Glossary

...

.,

--

........................... ........

297

send by mail,
mail

()

breast

()

personal
information
(name, etc.)

()

()

(}

stomach

(/)

()

()

trip

pen

(}

() traveler

relative

(}

writer

retired person

' ()

(/}

'

()

roof

post office

(}

(}

husband, spouse

(}

fig

(}

(}

liver

(}

CD-ROM

(}
/ complete

'

' (}

synagogue

'

stapler
drawer
dial

(}

school

(/)

textbook

(}
(}

postal check
(postal money
order)

mail carrier
send by mail,

(}

underpants

them (.) , the


(. pl.}
eyeglasses
ceiling

C'\

four

V'l
V'l
QJ

'

()

'

()

Wednesday

C')
i

fourth

t)

i "-"'
i
i

r,

i :::S

notebook

:
;

()

mosque

ii :::s-

()

Jeans

()

judo

I
I
I

()

her (acc.), the


(f. acc:)

() pre-paid calling

card
-

i
i

fax

' ()

postal code
: : ()

appointment
meet (a person}

' ()

'

traveler's check

'

fax machine

'

'

()

() television

colleague

(}

()

agree

(/)

staple

()

(}

cloud

'
:

fill out a form

password

wife, spouse

powder

taxi

attachment .

()

couple (fml.}

'

fellow passenger

: ()

()

spread, cover

(}

_m eeting

talented

grade (grade level)

(/}

'

it matches

()

mattress

movie, film

classroom, class

make the bed

'

' ()

suit (women's)

()

'

yt ()

' ()

backgammon

teller

()

paper clip

()

'

(/)

'

concert

()

mouth

()

fascinating,
exciting

mail

: ()

()

answering
machine

operator
()

'
:
()

pre-paid phone
card
telephone
conversation

it finishes

last

()

()

end

car registration
fee

'

video
conferencing

conference call

'
:
()

call center

'
:
()

()

'
()

tennis

'

()

tendon

voicemail

'

()

Glossary

299

'

phone booth

()

tour bus

'

(j)

()

plumber

autumn

()

adopted

()

girlfriend

()

friend (f.)

friendly

song

()

athletics field,
open-air training
ground

train

employee

tip

()

How are you?


(pl./fml.)

()

bank

what?

()

.
pnce

'

phone book

()
() telephone

her, to her

'
;

menu
()

'

nothing, none,
anything, any

them (f.), the


(f. pl. acc.)

- ()

T-shirt

()

department

shipping
department

()

'

marketing
department
sales department

()

it, the (.)

()

him

()

wall

()

archery

()

()

them (m.), to
them, their

()

to him, to it, to
the, his, its
toilet (home or
p\lblic)
tourist

'

()

()

literature

hospitable

over and above, in


favor of, for

()

friend (m.),
boyfriend

' ()

grocery store

() philosophy

'

long-distance call

'

'

()

table

banker

(j)

()

there is, there


exists

(+ gen.)

cards

()

coarse

'

three (m., f.jn.)

()

thirty

'
y
()

basement

()

Tuesday

computer

'

'

'

()

(/)

dining room

bedroom

()

philately, stamp
collecting

()

cup

I'm afraid

'

()

university student

(m.)

()

'

()

third

univ~rsity

student

(f.)

'

scary

'

()

food

'

'

()

eat

()

chickpea spread

()

teakettle

' ()

food, meal

()

tea

()

envelope

()

circus

()

traffic light

()

cheese

()

undershirt

()

()

fax

()

pharmacy,
drugstore,
medicine cabinet

()

February

()

'

'

()

glassware shop

()

'

'

healthy

()

water polo

y ()

()

'

laptop computer

()

'

'

bakery, oven

'

mcrowave

'

'

income tax
declaration
tax

()

'

dress
cordless phone

-------+-------------...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Greek

'

()

()

'

300 \

skirt

moon
Ileave

.. --

........................................................................................................................................ ....,,_, __-- .,_,_,.,.........................,_.. ............_,,_ ,,,....................................................................,_,,,.................................._..,..........._.............._.._,_..........----.... ..------.. .


,

Glossary

301

' ()

dress

' ()

engraving, etching

' ()

fruit

'

happy

()

eyebrow

()

map

sneeze

'
(

poor

() brochure

'

it's windy

()

nature

m' ()
m'

physics

' physical education

()

plant

()

light

bright

()

streetlight

' ()

toilet paper

toi1et paper

()

()

'

cards
carton

bill (money)
()

'

yellow pages

()

lip

'

()

winter

()

grill house

'

digital camera
'

' ()

'

()

octopus

()

'

()

comb

'

comb my hair

()

JUICe

()

hallway

()

divorce
(someone)

'

' ()

' ()

bread

'

'

()

'

village
without

' ()

' ()

chemistry

'

()

' ()

snow

it's snowing

' ()

()

bleach

fish restaurant

pork (adj.)

photographer

()

' ()

photocopy

()

'
'

photocopier

'

()

'

fish

()

'

look for

,. shoulder
time

nice, beautiful

'

hours of operation

()

till, as

fat

'

dance

vegetable

()

rug

() chamomile
() handball

need to ...

...
'

debit card

'

()

lose

- ----f----..................................................................................................................................................................................

Greek

'

ocean

hockey

'

'

()

get a divorce

photo

amusement,
recreation,
entertainment

'

()

refrigerator

' ()

'

()

'

hand, arm

camera

CD-ROM

()

'
()

'

CD

()

' ()

()

'
'

golden

tall

()

'

photography
studio

()

30'2 j

()

paper

handball

year

()

' ()

(),

----------,---------..------------------------------- ...----""...--..-------~-----...-----~.......... - ---

Glossary

303

Glossary
English-Greek

a, an

'
'

(m.)j,
'
(f.)j
(.)
'

alarm clock

()

all

All right.

.
I

abandon(I)

allow ()

abdomen

()

am (), be

about

American

c)

above

according to
across from

(+ gen.)

'

j
I

actress

among

actor

'

()
()
I

adopted

adult

()/
()

afraid ( am)

after

'

amusement

()

amusement
park

()

ancestor

()

ancient

and

ankle

()

another

answer ()

'

afternoon

()
I

against

agree ()

aim ()

answenng
machine

()

any

'

()jj
(m.jf.jn.)

'

airplane

()

airport

()

any more

anyone

anything

assistant

(/)

basement

'

()

black

() ;;
(m./f.jn.)

at

basketball

blanket

()

At your
service!

'
!

()j ()

blazer

' ()

bleach

()

blender

()

blood

'

()

blouse

()

'

'

'

, ,

'

'

()j;
(m./f.fn.)

apartment
apartment
building

()

~ ()

apple

()

appointment

()/
()

April

()

archaeological
()
site
archery
architect
arm

attach a file

()

'

'

'

attachment
August

'

bathroom

'
.

bathtub

'

()

beach

()

blue
bone

()

book

()

Ii

bookcase

()

Ii

()

()

because

'

aunt

()

bed

()

autumn

()

bedroom

available
(a person)

away from

()

' ()

beef

()

(/)

beer

()

()/

before

behind

()

'

'

'

' ()

armpit

()

back

()

around

' f
' '

backgammon

()

backside

()

b.ad

bakery

'

()

()

balcony

()

art gallery

' ()
m

ball

()

artist

()
()

banana

'

()

band

()

'

as

as much as

ash-colored

ask ()

'
'
f

Greek

' ()

'
'

baby

----~------------------

bathing suit,
bathing trunks

beautiful

()

art (as school


subject)

()

()

armchair

art

bath gel

bedsheet

' ()

306 1

'

'
)

'

'

'

'

believe

'

'

'

()

'

bookend

()

bookstore

bored ( am)

bored by ...
( am)

...
.. .

boring

boss

belt

()

bench

' ()

beneath

'

()

'

bottle

()

bottled water

' ()

beside

between

'
;

()

(+ gen.)

bowl

()

big

box

' ()

'
()

bill

()

boxing

' ()

bandage

()

bill (money)

boy

' ()

bank

()

boyfriend

()f

banker

(/)
()

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

'

..

boulevard

baseball

( )/
( )/ :
( )/ :

'

'

()

below

j
.

'

()

bHliards

()

biology

()

()

bra

'

()

------------------------- -

Giossary

------1--307

bracelet

()

brain

()

'

bread

()

breakfast

()

breast

'

bright

cell phone

cable

()

cafe

' ()
:

call center

i1.
'
:
()

'

camera

brochure

()

broom

'

()

brother

()

brother-in-law

' ()

brown

' ()

()/

can

:' ()

can ...

'

brush my
teeth ()

building

'

()

()

'

()

busy (a phone
line)

but

butcher shop

()

buy


()

clothing store

'

()

:
()

'

cloud

'

()

'

'

chess

' ()
:

chest

()

coarse

' ()

chicken

'

()

coat

()

carpenter

(j)

chickpea
spread

()

COD (cash on
delivery)

carpet

' ()

child

()

coffee

: ()

carrot

' ()
:

chin

' ()

coffee brown

carton

'
:
()

church

()/

coffee shop

()

cash

'
j

coffeemaker

'
:
()

COlll

'
:
()

'
:
()

cold

()

cold (it's)

: :

city hall

()

colleague

()/
()

class

()j

collection
(of fees)

()

cologne

()

comb

' ()

combmy
hair ()

catch ()

CD
CD-ROM

'

()

coach

()

: <?":

.
ClfCUS
city

'
' ()/

'

()

()

'

()

classroom

()

'

'

()/

()/
()

()

clean

'

( )/

()j ()

( )j:

ceiling

' ()

c1nema

..

' ()

cherry

' ()

by

change
channels

'
:

CD-ROM drive drive

'

()/

' ()

()

()

clothing

chemistry

butt

()

()j

()

butcher shop
(for pork
products)

champion

clib

'

busy (a person)

'

()

' ()

'

businesswoman

clothes

cheese

'

()

()

()

'

()

business

'

chamomile

car

()/

()

cantaloupe

cards

businessman

closet

()

'

()

()

cloudy (it's)

bus

'

chair

'

'

()

()

V\G

cheek

cardigan

business card

'

.....'). ,..'

' ()

'

()

'

()

()

...

burn

close a file

certainly

checkbook

car registration

fee

()

clock

() ()

()

'

'

'

()

'

'

'

'

'

'

.. ...................................................................................................................,...,.,... .......,,.,,,,,.............-...........................................................................................................................................,......................-...-........................................................................,..-" ..._...., . .............................

~"'-

308

,.

Greek

Glossary

309

come ()
come down
come in

()

()

'

course

()

courtyard

()

cousin

()/
()
;

'

'
!

Come in!

cover ()

come out ()

comedy

()

company

()

complaih ()

complete

()

computer

' ()/

()

'

()

'

()

conference call
()

(/)

cook ()

copy ()

cordless phone

'

do the laundry

dentist

()

(/)

doctor

(/)

deodorant

' ()

document

'
y
()

depart ()

documentary

()

department

'

()

door

()

department
store

download ()

drama

()

drape

'

()

drawer

' ()

dress

'

()/

'

()

cry ()

cucumber

y ()

deposit ()

cup

()

desert

'

()

cupboard

m ()

desk

' ()/

customer

()/

'
'
(computer term)/

difficult

digital camera

'

'

'

()

dad

()

()

dinner

()

diploma

()

costs (it)

dance ()

dirty

cotton

()

data storage

'

dishes

m ()

dishwasher

cotton (made
of cotton)

couch

' ()

'

()

date

()

daughter

()

day

' ()

counter

debit card

couple

()
(fml.)j
()

(infml.)/

()

decoration

()

deep

~---G;;~~---------------------------------------------------------------- - - -- - - --

()

drink ()

'

'

()

drugstore

' ()

dryer

'

'

during

'
m
()

'

()

drink

'

'

()/

'

'

December

'

()

()

()

dress myself ()

dishwashing
detergent

cough ()

'

()

drive

'

'

dining room

'

dial ()

'

correction fluid ()

()

()

'

'

()

crochet

' ()

') !...

\..t

deletion

()

cut ()

()

do the dishes

cricket

curtain

()

()

construction
worker

'

'

'

()

delete

'

credit card

do

()

()/
()/
()

concert

degree

()

each

'

ear

' ()

earn ()

.
earnng

()

divider

()

divorce
(someone)

()
()

earth
easy
eat

()

()

'

.........................................................................................................................................-....- ......................._.,..........._ _______ ................................................................................................ .........................................


,,,,,

,_.,,

-................................. .................................

.........-...............

-..-

Glossary

311

egg

()

eggplant

()

everything

, ,
/

eight

eighteen

eighth

Excellent!

eighty

exchange ()

exam

father-in-law

()

fish restaurant ()

fax

five

flat screen

()j ()

(),
()

fax machine

'

()

February

()

fencing

()

few, a few

fiance

()

elbow

exciting
exercise ()

electric razor

(j)

exit
express (mail)
(by)

()

fiancee

eyebrow

()

()j ()

eyeglasses

()

eyelash

eleven

eleventh

else

eyelid

e-mail

employee

()/
()

()

end

()

engneer

(/)

engravng

()

entertainment

J'( ()

envelope

()

eraser

()

etching

()

F
face

()

factory

()

family

)' ()

famous

fifth

fifty

fig

()

'

far from

()

filename

farmer

()

fog

()

folder
(hanging)

()/

'

foot

()

football
(American)

football
(soccer)

()

for

forehead

'

()

foreign
language

()

()

forest

()

forget

fork

' ()

fine

forty

()

film

()

()

evenng

finger

()

forward

every

fat

'
'
rj

finishes (it)

four

'

()

'

()/
()

. . . . . . .... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .---- -. -----------..-----. . . . . . . __. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -.. . . . . .--.. . .-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-.. . . . . .-Greek

()

()

()

father

forearm

'

fascinating

, rj
j

()

everyone

'

find

()/
)' ()

flower shop

For surel

Finally!

()

for (in favor of) (+ gen.)

file

flower

food

'

'

()

'

()j

far

floor

()

fifteen

fill out a form

fall ()

312

()j

field (athletics,
training)
()

()

()

()

()

flavor

()
I

field

eye

()

()

()

()

()

elevator

electronics
store

()

electrician

'

first

fish

()

fourteen

Glossary

313

'

fourth

gve

Good-bye.

information () !

frame

()

free (a person)

'

glass

free (a seat,
a phone line,
a person)

glassware shop ()

'

'

freeway

go ()

grape

()

friend

()j ()

go camping ()

'

friendly

from

fruit

()

full-time
employment

'

funny

Greece

Greek

(adj.)

go hiking ()

Go right inl

'
!

Greek
(language)

go shopping () ()
'

go sightseeing

-y ()

p/
'

get(I)

()

get dressed ()

'

get up

get a divorce

()

go to the
movies ()

'
()

girl

()

girlfriend

()/
()

give ()

()

go, let's go,


wego
golden

'

'

()

good

Good evening

'

(fml.)/

Greek

()

hang up (the
phone) ()

happy

hard

hat

()
()

!
!

Greek man

()

Have a nice
trip!

Greek woman

()

green

Have a nice
vacation!

greeting card

'
'

have a party ()

'
'

()

have fun ()

grill house

' ()

have to ...

grocery store

' ()

he

groom

' ()

head

()

guided tour

healthy

'

'

()

gym,
gymnastics,

' ()

exercse

gymnasum

'

()

hear

...

'

()

'

'

heart

()

heavy

Hello.

her

()

her, to her

(fml.)/
(infml.)

(acc.)

(infml.)

hailing (it's)

here

'

hair

()

Here you are!

'
!

hallway

()

high school

()

(infml.)

hand

' ()

'

'
(fml.)/!

Good night!

'

Have a good
weekend!

(infml.)
Good morning !

'

'
!

(fml.)/

---------------------------314

'

Have a good
stay!

'

golf

'

'

()

go up

geography

:j

()/

have

gray
'

()/
()

()

' ()

game

'
n
()

grandmother

go back ()

grandchildren

j/

' ()

furniture store ()

(grade level)

()

()

'

handball

()j

grade

glove

Friday

'

(fml. )/
(infml.)

grandfather

()

()

()

'

- - -------------- -

_________ -- -- -.. ..

Glossary

315

.........

highway

hungry

'

()

hill
him
him, to him

()

hurricane

()

husband

()/
()

interesting

()

hockey

()

home

()
()

'

ice skating

()

if

(m.jf.jn.)
internet

( )('

intersection

()

into

'

()

()

lfO

ironing board

()

it

horseback
riding

()

hospitable

in favor of

(+ gen.)

it, to it

hospital

()

in front of

its

hot

in a rush ( am)

hot (it's)

hotel

(~)

hours of
operation

house

()

how?

How are you?

How doyou
say ... ?

'

()

'

... ;

inform

()

'

'

()

'

()

January

'

()

'

Jar

()

'

'

inherit ()

'

in-laws

()

inside

'

'

'

()

'

'

()

'

------t----------------------- -

J
jacket

human body

Greel<

'

()

hundred, one
hundred

income tax
declaration

information
center

'

however

human
resources

'

in spite of

'

'

instead of

intelligent

interested
in ... ( am)

()

'

...

...

----...------------.....-------""'-----------

'

karate
keyboard

QJ
..,

()

'<

knife

' ()

knitting

()

know

()

judo

()

JUICe

' ()

July

()

jump

()

June

'

()

junior high
school

'

()

~ ---..-----..-~---.-

lake

()

lamb

' ()

lamp

()

land

()

laptop
computer

()

last

laundry
detergent

(/)

learn ()

(/)

~ ~
~

"'"

C)

'

jewelry shop

journalist

()

lawyer

()

:::s-

knee

()

job

V)

()

jewelry

()

--

kitchen

()

'

:::s

()

Jeans

instant
message

G)

"r

invite

'

-j-

history

how much?

'
'
j

()

how many?

316 \

am)

()

his

honey

'

'

'

()
.

leather

()

leather (made
of leather)

leave ()

//
'

leave a
message ()

lecture hall

'

'

'

()

leg

( )j
()

---------.. -----'--..t..

Glossary

1317

()

lemon

less than

lesson

()

lettuce

()

light(I}

lightning

()

literature

()

()

mail carrier

()

make ()

make the
bed (}

live (),
reside ()

living room
lobst~r

()

meeting

()

mouth

()

meeting room

market

()

move

()

mov1e

()

()/
I

()

()j ()/

movie theater

()/

()

()

message

()

metro

()

()

m1crowave

married

()

marry
(someone) ()

match, game

()

()

Mrs.

()

much

municipal
building

()

muscle

()

()/
v ()

midweek

(adv.)

museum

()

milk

()

museum of
fine arts


()

minute

matches (it)

mathematics

()

mattress

()

mauve

mom

()

May

()

Monday

()

may ... ()

monument

()

moon

yt ()

more

morn1ng

()j

m1rror
modem

ffiU SlC

1C1l ()

muscan

(/)

must (it)

must ...

my

()

()/
I

()

long-distance
call
look ()

1C1l

()

, /
I

look for ()

lose ()

love ()
lunch

()
()

lung
lungs (more
formal)

()

me

me, to me

meal

meanng

- - - - - - - - - - -- - - -

; . . . . . . .t. ....-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-re-ek

...

()/
()

mayor

menu

()
()

()

long

mouse

()

liver

live(I)

()

memory

March

()

()

mountain
biking

marketing
departm.e nt

()

meet (a person)

map

listen to ()

little, a little

( )/

mountain

man

()

little, small

()

lip

median

mail ()

like(I)

()

medicine
cabinet

(p ()

light

mother-in-law

()

()

life

()

magazne

1C11 ()

library

meat

..........................

..............................................................

...

nail

()

name

()

namely

napkin

()

nature

()

()

()/
()

--"""'"'""'_

mosque

()

mother

()j

()

- - - - - - - - - ..........................................................._...............

-_ _ _ _ _
........

Glossary

- ---ri--

I319

near

nearby

necessary (it's)
neck

()

need to ... ()

ephew

new
ews

ewspaper

octopus

vedor

()

ewsstad

()

ext

extto

occupied
(a perso)

()

()
()

(perso), ,
(thig)

()

olive oil

ight

(),

inetee

ith

()
(m), (f.)
I

oelae

(.)

() (m.),
(f.),
(.)

ore-way

street

ope ()

ope

a file

320

(q)

nose

()

opera

pay(I)

paymet i

()

pedestria

( )/ ()

()

pedestria

()

(the art of)/

walkway

pe

()

pecil

()

paJamas

()

paties

()

pecil

Q ()

pepper

()

pepper
(vegetable)

()

paper clip

()

paraglidig

pats

(~)

()
Pardo?

park

()

part-time

()

perfume

()

perso

()

persoal

()

(ame, etc.)
I

pharmacy

()

philately

()

philosophy

()

()

- - - - - - - -......................................
....

()

holder

iformatio

________

()

()

party

_,

pause

pear

()

____....................................................................................,....

Greek

()

()

()

paper

pastry shop

(m.),
(f.), (.),
()
(m.), (f.),
(.)

()

()

paste

()

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .t. . . . . . . . . . . .

pasta

()

outside

paitig

iety

top of

out of

, ~ ,

()

password

(fruit)

full

()

our

()

over ad above (+ ge.)

old

ece

()

()

passport

over

office

ce

(color )/

(/)

ove

()

of course

(fellow)

other

October

ewspaper

orage

()

ocea

()

ought to (it)

()

passeger

()

(/)

...

passeger

November

opposite

otice ()

()

pass

()

nothing

()

operator

()

notebook

necklace

neighborhood

()

ote

........

~--

........

- - - ' - .

_ , _ ,,

__ - - - - - -..--......,..................- ......._

..................................

Glossary

321


()

phne bok

()

phne both

plicewman

()

pht

'

phtcpier

()
()

phtocpy

phtgrapher

()

phtography

()

studi

()

physics

' ()

pick up the
phone ()

picture
wall)

'

'

physical
education

pl,

billiards

'

pr

prk

(adj.)

prt

()

pst ffice

()

pstal

' ()

()

pstal cde

()

()j

pwder

()

()

settig

()

rder)

()/
()/
()
() _

pnd

check
(pstal money

'

pik

place

()/
()/
()

pliceman

()/
()

pre-paid
phe card

range (stve)

()/

right away

razr

read

()

()

ng

()

ver

road

C)

()

'

()
()

rock

C"

()

t't)

rof

'
()

receipt

()

rom

()

,
;

rw1ng

()

rug

()

rugby

'
c
()

rural

'
)

'

desk

'

()

recrd ()

recreation

' ()

red

red wine

'

'

5
'

()

sad

refresh ()

salary

' ()

refrigeratr

' ()
~

sales

relative

y' .()

departmet

()

remember ()

salesma

()

saleswoma

()

'
'

salt

()

same to you,
also, too

'

plant

()

plastic

()

pce

' ()

plastic
(made of)

prit ()

prit~r

' ()

pritout

()

report card

y ()

purple

reservatio

'

()

sand

'

()

put ()

restaurat

'

()

Saturday

()

retired person

( )/

save

save a

()

documet ()

plate

' (.)

play (a sport)

()

'

play ()

()/
()

player (of a
sprt)

put

hold

()


'

please

(j)

police station

'

'

()

()

ra1n

______ ..............................................................-- - - -

(it's)

____

......................................................-................

()

'

()

'

'

'

ce

()

say ()

rich

'

'

save a file (
a computer) ()

raiing

reply ()

return

plumber

--;;--- - Greek

'

()

'

remove

I~

' ()

receptin

,,.,
~ ~
-

(.I')
I! -

rear end

()

OJ

! tc:)

receive

V\
V\

'<

'

ready

'

'

- - -.. . . . . . . . . .-..----.. .-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,_,_____. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._. .._ _ _'""t"--..Giossary


I323

()
(larger);

scarf

()

(smaller)

'

scary
school
school yard
score

()

seven

'

seventeen

seventy

()/

()

shaving cream

scuba diving

'

~ ()

'

sculpting

()

sea

()

sea blue
search
search engine

()

'

second

secretary

(/)

()

j,

send

()

send a file ()

'

send an
e-mail ()

e-mail/

'

'
/

send by mail ()
/

-- -----------

324

Greek

shipping
department

'

()

'

'

soft drink

' ()

software

()

()

(bathroom)/

some

'
jj

somebody

someone

something

son

()

song

()

sixteen

sixth

sixty

sze

'

()

'

sorry

()/
()

shirt

()

skirt

'
()

shoe

()

sky

()

shoe store

sky blue

'

/
()

sleep

am)

sound system

' ()

sour

souvenr

'

()/

speak

()

spoon

()

sport

()

sports

()

spouse

()/
()

small

smart

spread

sneakers

()

spnng

()
()

square
(town square)

snow

'
()

squid

()

snowing (it's)

shrimp

()

so ...

sick

sidewalk

()

silk

()

shower

()

shredder

------------

---

sneeze

'

'

------

'

()

soap
soccer
(football)

()

'

()

stadium

()

' ()

staff

' ()

()

stair

()

staircase

()

...

~ ~

slim

()

""'

()

'

c;;"\

()/
()

shoulder

:::s-

'

shop

'

--

'

'

slender

short

'<

j rt)

()

()

a.
...,

shooting

shop window

V'l

! rt>

'
'

'

()

'

()

SlX

()

solve

()

skin

I! V'I~

sister

'

()

see

shelf

' ()

(kitchen)

'

she

' ()

sofa

'

()

()

'

sink

()

sock

'

'
()j

'

()

single-family
house

'

shave

silk (made of
silk)
single

seventh

shampoo

()
()

()


()

()/

score

September

----------- - - - - - ----------- - - - ---------................

i
----------

Glossary

325

stairs

()

stamp

'

()

stamp
collecting

()

staple

student
(university)
student
(technical
institute)
study ()

'

' ()

stapler

' ()
c'

subject (school)

' ()/

()/
()
;

'

()

'

take a test

'

store
store

()

sun

()

Sunday

'

()


()

supermarket

()

'

()

'

()

sweet
swim ()

()

'

()

sweater

SW lffiffiig

()

SWlffiffiig

pool

()

synagogue

' ()

'

student
()/
(elementary or ()
high school)
-------

Greek

- - - - --- ------

()

temple

' ()

temporarily

ten

tendon

'

()

tennis

'

()

'

'

take notes

()

'

'
()

'

take out ()

'

()

'

'

'

(),

()

strong

' ()

stove

streetlight

sunny (it's)

()

street vendor

summer job

()

storm

street

()

(),

temperature

summer

sunglasses

'

(j)

(men's)/
() (women's)

'

teller

take a shower

steady job

'
;

'

()

'

()

tell ()

'

()

'

()

' ()

suit

stepson

television
program

take a picture

'

'

'

()

()

()

take a bath ()

sugar

stop ()

326

()

stomach

----L! ..................

take

stay ()

stepmother

television

( )/ -y-

station

' ()

()

'

' ()

stepfather

()

subway

'

telephone
conversation

table tennis

'
()

()

()

()

' ()

stepdaughter

telephone

table

star

'

()/
()

'

()

suburban

'

teenager

----- --- - - ------

take your

temperature ()
talented

talk ()

tall

taste

'

()

tax

'

()

taxi

()

()j ()

tennis shoes

..

()

tenth

test

()/
()

textbook

()/

()

taxi driver

(j)

tea

' ()

Thank you
very much.

.j
'
.

'

(fml.)

teacher
(elementary
school)

()/

teacher,
professor

()/

'

()

Thank you, the ,


same to you.
.

teakettle

'
p

that

team

()

--- - - -

...

()

Thank you!

/
I

()

(fml.)

j/

()

- - - ---- - - -------

-------- --

Glossary

327

till

that (relative
pronoun)

that is to say

that, so that

()

(m.)/ (f.)jo

(m.jf. pl.)/

(. pl.)/()

(f. acc. )/ (f. pl.


acc.)
I

theater

()

them

jj

then
there is, there
exists

order to

today
toe

toilet (home
or public)
toilet (public)

toilet paper
I

tomato

thigh

()

thi

thik ()

third

()

'

()
I

traveler

()

until

traveler's
check

up to

upo

j ;

()

true

us, to us

()

try ()

'

username


()j

T-shirt

- ()

Tuesday

()

tur ()

twelfth

twelve

twety

two

'

' ()

'

()
()

()

ticket

' ()

'

'

()

v
vacant (a seat,
a phone line)

vase

()

veal

'

()

vegetable

()

vegetables

()

ugly

'

very

tour guide

(j)

umbrella

()

veterinarian

'

(/)

tourist

'

()

ucle

()

video

uder

conferecig

()

towards

tow

traffic

traffic light

' ()

uderpats

()

()

undershirt

()

'

()/

understand

()

----

'

()

'

Thursday

urban

tour bus

()

Greek

()

()

()

'

towel

thuder

trip

' ()/

()

'

()

()

toothpaste

through

university

()

'

throat

--t---
328 1

togue

toothbrush

(m., f./.)

throw

tomorrow

tooth

three


()/

tree

those

train statio

this

()

thirty

United States
of America

()

, ,

thirtee

()

they

to,

trai

toilet (at home) ()

their

them, to them

to

()

'

'tip

unfriendly

( )/

(n.)jo

()

time

the

traffic signs

()/

'

()

- - - - -----------

()

VleW

()

village

' ()

1egar

()

underwear

()

violet

unemployed

'

voicemail

()

- - - - -- . ------- - - --- -r
.. ---

Glossary

--

329

()/
()

volleyball

w
wake up ()

weekend

()

()

weight lifting

()

window

'

()

Welcome!

!/

windsurfing

()

!/
!

windyiit's) .

'
'

j
()

well ...

...

walnut

()

What did you


say?

'
;

want ()

wash
(something)

What do you
call ... ?

'

what?

wall

()

wash myself (),


get washed ()

... ;

'

'

'

whatever

,j

()

What's your
name?

' ';

wastepaper
basket

when?

'

()

where?

watch (wrist)'

()

which

watch
television ()

which (relative
pronoun)

water

' ()

whichever

water polo

white

washing
machine

()

water skiing


()

watermelon

()

we

weak

weather

' ()

'

'

webpage

()

website

'

()

Wednesday

'

()

week

()

weekday

' ()

33~1--6;~-~--k---

'
'

( )j

wind

'

'

'
'

()

'

white wine

()

who, the one


who

'

who?

whoever

whom

' ()

whomever

why?

wide

wife

()/

()

'

wrist

' ()

writer

'
y
(j)

-y ()/

year

w1ne

()

winter

'

()

yellow

'

yellow pages

wish

()

'

()

()

with

wi th, together
with

without

woman

' ()

wood

()

wood burning
(pyrography)

' ()

wooden

work

()

, work

()

work out ()

yes

yoghurt

'

()

you

'
(sg.)j

'

(pl./fml. )/ (sg.,
acc. )/ (pl.jfml.,
acc.)
you, to you

(sg. )j

'
(pl.)j
you're
welcome

young

your

'

'

(pl./fml. )/

(sg.)

youth hostel

wrestling

'

.,

()

()

'
'

'

'

()

win

-.. . . . . . . . . . .--- . . . . . . . . ..

---~

()

. . . . . . . . . . . . .--

..................................

---

...........................

- -

____

..................................

,,.... ..............

..........................

__

----..........................................--....

.................................

____

.....................................

Glossary

........................... ..

331

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