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Senior Lecturer in Russian School of Slavonic and East European Studies University College London





Introduction Acknowledgements LEARNING TO READ RUSSIAN Alphabet and Pronunciation; Transliteration; Street Signs 2 RUSSIAN HANDWRITING; MORE ON PRONUNCIATION

xi xiv

I 12 24

3 EVERYDAY PHRASES; BASIC GRAMMAR Naming Things; Basic Grammar; Gender; Map of Russia
4 DOING THINGS - VERBS; PERSONAL PRONOUNS Present Tense; Conjugations; Word Stress; Nouns and Cases; Conversation in the Metro

36 46 56



POSSESSION; GOING PLACES; THE ACCUSATIVE CASE Russian Personal Names; Dialogues DESCRIBING THINGS: ADJECTIVES Masculine, Feminine and Neuter Adjectives; 'What kind of ... ?'; 'This' and 'That'; Prepositional and Accusative Cases of Adjectives; Adverbs; Moscow Street Map

68 81

8 PLURALS; SPELLING RULES; BUYING THINGS Spelling Rule I; 'Is There ... ?'; Spelling Rule 2; Map of Europe 9 NUMBERS; THE GENITIVE CASE l-5,000; Genitive Singular and Plural; Quantities; Roubles and Dollars; Buying Things; Street Market



'TO HAVE'; MORE ON THE GENITIVE Genitive Pronouns; 'There Isn't'; Prepositions Taking the Genitive; Genitive of Adjectives; 'Whether'; Dialogues 107



11 12


The Founding of

THE FUTURE; ASPECT; THE DATIVE CASE Imperfective and Perfective; 'To Want'; Dative; 'To Give'; 'To Please'; Spelling Rules 3 and 4; Prepositional Plural; In the Restaurant; Visiting Friends ASPECT IN THE PAST; USE OF TENSES Aspect of the Infinitive; Reported Speech; More about 'Whether'; Dialogue ASPECT IN THE FUTURE; IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTIONS Dialogue REQUESTS AND THE IMPERATIVE Summary of Aspect Use; Two Lost Tourists; Phoning a Bureaucrat

13 14


16 THE INSTRUMENTAL CASE 3TOT and TilT; Declension of Surnames; A Family at Home; Volodia and the KGB

TIME, DATE, AGE; ORDINAL NUMBERS Months; Years; The Daily Life ofChaikovskii (Tchaikovsky) THE COMPARATIVE; SUPERLATIVES; RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH KOTOPLlA ('Who', 'Which'); Victor Wants to Meet Mary; Siberian Superlatives; Map of Siberia PREFIXES
Mary Seeks an Absent-Minded Professor



20 21

VERBS OF MOTION: GOING, RUNNING, BRINGING Travelling Around; Tania in Motion POSSESSION (CBOA); PURPOSE (qT6JiLI) Mr Thornthwaite Doesn't Like His Hotel; Was Turgenev a Revolutionary? FUN WITH NUMBERS Declension of Numbers; 'Both'; Collective Numerals; Fractions; Soviet Divorce Statistics TIME EXPRESSIONS 'When?', 'How Long?'; Vadim and Eva; Mr Kuznetsov and Mr Pope NEGATION; PLACE OF HE Nothing, Nobody, Never; HHKaKoii, aeKoro, ue'lero; A Pineapple, but No Bananas DIMINUTIVES; PROPER NAMES; POLITENESS 'The Fox and the Rolling-Pin' INDEFINITE PRONOUNS; WORD ORDER; WRITING LETTERS A Letter to Mrs Pope PARTICIPLES: TYPES AND STRESS
A Classic Film








Mushroom Solianka

Peter the Great; A Recipe for




Vladivostok; The Winter Palace


30 ABBREVIATIONS; NAMES OF RUSSIAN LETTERS; PARTICLES A Complete Chekhov Story: Tlmcn.di H T6HKRii (Fat and Thin)
Grammatical Tables The Four Spelling Rules Russian-English Vocabulary English-Russian Vocabulary Key to Exercises and Translation of Texts Glossary of Grammatical Terms Index

368 378 387 388


503 508


Notes on Russian Prices. Since the fall of Communism, Russia has been afflicted by serious inflation. Rouble prices have risen a thousandfold in the last few years and continue to rise at an alarming rate. In the sections of this book which deal with money and shopping (Lessons 9 and 10), we have decided to leave the stable pre-inflation prices. These provide better practice for beginners, since they do not involve large numbers in the hundreds and thousands; they are also very much part of Russian folk memory (for example, the price of the standard loaf of bread did not change for thirty years). Some of the dialogues give prices in US dollars, which Russians have used since Communist times as a parallel 'hard' currency for trade, the tourist industry, and 'black market' deals, and as a sensible way to store savings 'under the mattress' (or, as Russians say, a '4ynKlt 'in a stocking'). If/when Russia returns to financial stability, the author hopes that Russia's central bank will remove several zeros from its hopelessly inflated currency, restore the old rouble-dollar exchange rate which was (officially) about one to one, and enable a grateful population to return to the days of three-rouble notes and two-kopeck coins.


Like its Penguin predecessor, the New Penguin Russian Course is a grammar of Russian for adults which aims to take the reader to the equivalent of A-level standard. It is designed primarily as a self-tutor for all those who intend to study this important language without a teacher. This means that there is plenty of explanation, a concern for completeness, a key to all exercises and English translations of all the Russian texts. It can thus also serve as a reference work for students and others who are following a more communicatively based classroom course but want to know the grammar in detail. It includes all the basic structures of the language, a fairly large vocabulary of over 1,500 words, a variety of exercises, and a good number of texts (including conversations) intended both to illustrate the use of the language and also to give information about life in Russia. Unlike its predecessor, the NPRC emphasizes functional and communicative aspects of language learning, in tune with current developments in language teaching. Exercises involving translation from English into Russian include only things the learner might actually need to say (or write) in Russian. Furthermore, the lessons try to distinguish material which is essential for basic competence in Russian from less important points (marked EXTRA), which can safely be ignored by those in a hurry. The grammar is presented in an order which, in the author's experience, works well with university students. The overall intention is that all the basic grammar of Russian should be covered, but the main concern is usefulness for the foreign learner. The examples and exercises concentrate on the kind and level of Russian which can reasonably be attained by serious students who wish to make themselves understood and to speak correctly but who are not necessarily aiming to become master spies or pass themselves off as Russians. The Russian in the texts, which has all been written xi


and/or carefully checked by native speakers, is in some cases more complicated than the Russian which learners will be able to produce themselves, but one's ability to understand a foreign language is always greater than one's ability to speak or write it. Each lesson begins with examples of expressions which the learner is likely to need in dealing with Russians and which contain grammar points to be dealt with in the lesson. If you, the student, begin each study period by trying to memorize these expressions, you will have a good functional basis with which you can begin to communicate. The explanations then give you a basic understanding of how the grammar works, with further examples and reading texts. The theoretical basis of the book as a teaching aid is the notion that traditional structure-based grammar (e.g. 'present tense', 'genitive singular of nouns') and communicative grammar (e.g. 'how to address Russians', 'how to complain about something') should as far as possible be combined. Thus the functional usefulness of each structure is made the main reason for learning it, and the examples which the student is asked to memorize are clearly relevant to the needs of a foreigner.

Exercises. Each lesson contains one or two grammar exercises to let you check that you have understood the main points; some sentences for translation into Russian concentrating on things you might need or want to say or write in Russian - so the sentences are functional and short; and a comprehension exercise which asks you to find particular information in a text. For those who find Russian-English translation a useful exercise, all the Russian texts in the lessons are translated in the key at the end of the book. There are revision exercises at five-lesson intervals. Vocabulary. Russian grammar is interesting and fairly easy to follow. Your most demanding task will be the vocabulary. At first, you will feel you are forgetting words as fast as you learn them - but persevere, and the task gets easier. The number of new words is lower in the early lessons (350 in the first ten) and then increases to give you a good working vocabulary of around I ,500 by the end of Lesson 30. A Note on Modern Russian. Despite all the changes which have taken place in Russia this century, the essentials of the language have been


almost unaffected. The spelling reform of 1917-18, whose main effect was the abolition of a number of redundant letters (notably the replacement ofo by e), is probably the only major example of government interference - and it is worth noting that the plans for the spelling reform were put forward before the 1917 socialist revolution. Under the Communists, many new vocabulary items were introduced, particularly political and industrial terms, but there was no attempt to alter the grammar of the language. The standard remained that of the educated Moscow classes, not the workers or the peasants. Indeed, in contrast to their economic and socio-political failures, it can be argued that Russia's Communist rulers had considerable linguistic success. They managed to maintain linguistic continuity with the past while spreading literacy throughout the population, turning Russian into a world language and making it a lingua franca for a sixth of the land surface of the globe. This important language is in all essentials the one used so richly by Tolstoi and Chekhov a hundred years ago; it remains, and will remain, the key to a rich culture, a world-class literature and communication with 150 million native speakers. In the new post-Cold War Europe, we must recognize that Russian is both an important part of the European cultural heritage and also the first language of more Europeans than any other. SSEES,London, 1996



I wish to thank the School of Slavonic and East European Studies of the University of London which granted me a year's leave from teaching and other duties in order to complete this book. I am particularly grateful to Dr Lyudmila Ivanovna Matthews, who read and discussed two separate drafts and made many valuable suggestions. Thanks are also due to Aleksei Il'ich Prokhnevskii and Tat'iana Aleksandrovna Golova, who checked all the Russian, and to Shirley Adams, Joan Fernald, John Garrett and Sarah Hurst, who commented on the manuscript from the learner's point of view.



Before you finish this lesson you'll be able to pronounce the Russian heading above, which means 'the Russian alphabet'.

1. 1 The Russian Cyrillic Alphabet

Russian Cyrillic is based on an alphabet invented around AD 863 by a Macedonian monk, who spoke a South Slavonic language closely related to Russian and also knew Greek; the inventor was later canonized as Saint Cyril, hence the name Cyrillic. This original Slavonic alphabet was based on the Greek one, so some of the letters will be familiar, e.g. n, the Russian p, which you may recognize as the Greek pi, used in mathematics. The alphabet is the first hurdle when you tackle Russian, but it is not a daunting one. Once you know the sounds of the thirty-three letters, you can read Russian words comprehensibly; unlike English, it is generally true to say that Russian words are pronounced as they are written. In this lesson, you will learn the essentials for reading and pronouncing Russian. In Lesson 2, you will find details of the regular minor differences between Russian spelling and pronunciation.

1.2 Learning the Russian Alphabet

To make thirty-three letters easier to learn, we'll divide them into four groups.


(a) The first group contains five letters which are easy to learn:
Capital A Small a K M

[a] as in father [k) as in kangaroo [m] as in man [o] as in bottle- but note that in unstressed" syllables (i.e. with no stress mark ') standard Moscow pronunciation of o is closer to [a]. For 'stress', see 2.2.


[t] as in tan

So now you can read Russian words such as:

TOT KOT TaK TaM KT6-TO [tot] [kot] [tak] [tam] [kto-ta]
'that' 'cat' 'so' 'there' 'someone' (second o pronounced [a) because it is unstressed). This word has the same rhythm as English 'totter', which is stressed on the o.

(b) The second group contains seven letters which look like English ones but have different sounds:


[v) as in vet [ye] as in yes [n) as in never [r] as in error (rolled as in Scottish English)

E H p


1 Words marked are technical terms which are explained in the lessons and/or in the glossary on page 503. The is inserted when a term is first used and occasionally thereafter as a reminder that the term is defined in the glossary. Syllables' (a syllable is a vowel plus preceding consonants) are separated by hyphens (-) in the [bracketed] English transcriptions.




[s] as in sit [oo] as in boot [h] pronounced like the ch in Scots loch or German Bach

Words for practice:

HeT MocKaa MeTp6 6H oHa cecTp8 pecTopaH [nyet] [mask-va] [mye-tr6] [on] [a-na] [sye-stra) [rye-sta-ran)
'no' 'Moscow' 'metro', 'underground railway' 'he' 'she' 'sister' 'restaurant'

Now try these ones, covering the pronunciation on the right with a piece of paper:
Translation caxap BaM

jrpo Heaa Kacca KSpTa MSpKa

'sugar' 'to you' 'Vera' 'morning' 'Neva' 'cash desk' 'map' 'postage stamp'

Pronunciation [sa-har] [vam)

[vy8-ra) [o'o-tra]

[nye-va] (river in St Petersburg)


[kar-ta] {mar-ka)

It is worth going through these lists twice, since you will meet all these useful words again. (c) The third group contains thirteen letters which look unfamiliar but have familiar sounds:
Capital 5 Small 6 r Pronunciation [b] as in bet [g] as in get
[ d] as in debt [yo] as in yonder. (Note: Russians normally omit the two dots, so in books, newspapers etc. this letter


looks the same as e [ye]; however, the dots are printed in dictionaries and books for foreigners)




[z] as in zoo [ee] as in eel [y] as in boy; i forms diphthongs, so 6i sounds like [oy] in boy, ai sounds like the igh in sigh, yi [ooi] sounds like oui in the name Louis


n n

n n ctJ

[I] as in people

[p] as in pet
[f] as in fat [e] as in fed [yoo] as in universe [ya] as in yak

3 10

MMp A8


[meer] [da] [foot-bol] [spa-se'e-ba] ' [da svee-da-nee-ya) [yoo-ga-sla-vee-ya] [a-lye-ksandr] [spo'ot-neek] [vla-dee-va-st6k] [ra-sse e-ya] [tal-st6y] [zee-ma] [byel-fast] [ya zna-yoo] [a-e-ra-fl6t] [lee-kyor]

'peace', 'world' 'yes' 'football' 'thank you' 'goodbye' (AO has no stress, so is pronounced [da]) 'Yugoslavia' 'Alexander' 'sputnik', 'travelling companion' 'Vladivostok' 'Russia' 'Tolstoi' (author of War and Peace) 'winter' 'Belfast' 'I know' 'Aeroflot' (the Russian airline) 'liqueur' (i always carries the stress, so there is no need to print the mark on i)


C8MOniT 6oMK6T napK

[sa-ma-lyot] [bay-kot] [park]

'aeroplane' 'boycott' 'park'



Teneci6H npaaAB

[kee-osk] [bay-kaiJ [tye-lye-fon] [prav-da]

'kiosk' 'Baikal' (lake in Siberia) 'telephone' 'Pravda'(= truth)

(d) The last group contains eight letters which take longer to learn:


[zh] pronounced like the [s] in pleasure [ts] as in its [ch] as in church [sh] as in shut [shsh] as in Welsh sheep 'hard sign' -this letter has no sound of its own but represents a very short pause


'f w



[i] as in bit, but with the tongue tip further back 'soft sign'- [y] as in yet, but pronounced simultaneously with the letter before it - so Hb sounds like the [ny] in canyon. Try not to separate the [y] from the preceding letter, particularly at the ends of words; to remind you of this, we shall show the b as a small raised v in our transcriptions, e.g. conb 'salt' [sol]





[zhoor-n81] [tsa-ry8-veech] [ga-ste e-nee-tsa] [chay] [droozh-ba] [shshee] [borshsh]

'magazine' 'son of the tsar' 'hotel' 'tea' 'friendship' 'cabbage soup' 'beetroot soup'


waMnSHCK08 WoTnSHAMA WOCTaK6BM'4 o6'biiKT CbiH peCTOpSHbl KpbiM K6cle 6onbw6l4

[sham-pan-ska-ye] [shat-lan-dee-ya] [sha-sta-k6-veech] [ab-yekt] [sin] [rye-sta-ra-nl] [krlm) [k6-fye] [bal-sh6y]

'champagne', 'sparkling wine' 'Scotland' 'Shostakovich' 'object' (the 'hard sign' simply separates the [b) from the [y)) 'son' 'restaurants' 'Crimea' 'coffee' 'big' (I' is l+y pronounced simultaneously, likely in the name Lyuba) 'the Kremlin' 'tsar' (pb = r+y pronounced together, one of the most difficult of Russian sounds)

KpeMnb LI8Pb

[kryemiY) [tsarY)

If you learn the values of the thirty-three letters given above, you will be understood when you read any Russian word. Read them by the syllables', as in the transcriptions above: [VIa-dee-va-st6k]. A syllable' is a vowel plus any preceding consonants; consonants at the end of a word go with the last vowel; if a word contains a large or awkward group of consonants, split the consonants so that some go with the preceding vowel and some with the following one, e.g. MocKaa 'Moscow' can be read [Mask-va]. While you are learning to read Cyrillic, use that slow pronunciation, syllable by syllable.

Now try this practice exercise. Cover the transcription (and the translation) on the right.
Bn&AMMMp yYaneT M8Tp6 Tponnel46yc K8n8HASPb nepecTp6l4Ka rnaCHOCTb YKpaMHa Pronunciation [VIa-de 8-meer] [too-a-lyet] [mye-tr6] [tra-llyey-boos] [ka-lyen-darY) [pye-rye-str6y-ka] [glas-nastY) [oo-kra-e 8-na] Translation 'Vladimir' 'toilet' 'metro', 'underground' 'trolleybus' 'calendar' 'perestroika', 'reorganization' 'openness' 'Ukraine'


CM6Mpb Bonra M6H'I8CT8P &MpMIIIHr8M n111aepnjnb A68PAMH nopTCMyt' CDMn&A8nbCIIMJI MaiJiaMM ronyaiJi Ay6nMH Menb6ypH nepy A6'1a xopow6 A66poejTpo

[vol-ga) [man-chye-styer] [beer-meen-gyem] [lee-vyerpo 'ol'] [a-byer-de en] [part-smoot] [fee-la-dy81r.fee-ya) [ma-ya-mae] [go-loo-ey] [do 'ob-leer.] [my81r-boorn] [pyert] [da-cha] [ha-ra-sho] [d6-bra-ye o '0-tra]

'Siberia' 'the Volga river' 'Manchester' 'Birmingham' 'Liverpool' 'Aberdeen' 'Portsmouth' 'Philadelphia' 'Miami' 'Galway' 'Dublin' 'Melbourne' 'Perth' 'country cottage' 'good', 'well', 'OK' 'good morning'

1.3 The Russian Alphabet in Dictionary Order Here is the Russian (Cyrillic) alphabet in its nonnal dictionary order. Cover the transcription on the right and check your pronunciation of the thirty-three letters again. To help you learn the order of the letters, notice that it is similar to the Latin alphabet as far as letter no. 21 (y), so you should concentrate on the letters from ~~ 1 2 3 4

Aa &6 Ba rr AA Ee

6 7 8 9 10

[a] (b] [v] [g] [d] [ye] [yo] [zh] [z] [ee] [y]



14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

MM HH Oo nn Pp Cc TT Yy CDei

[k] [I] [m] [n] [o] [p]

[r] (s] [t] [oo] [f] 7

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33


"4'1 Ww lQJq "b'b bl bl bb 33

>KJK 33
M111 AiJi



[h] as in loch [ts] [ch] as in church [sh] [shsh] hard sign - brief pause [i] [y] as in canyon [e] [yoo] [ya]


1.4 Russian Italics

NOTE: In Russian italic printing, r is z, A is o, M is u, iii is u, n is A, n is n, ism. You will see in Lesson 2 that most of these resemble the handwritten forms.


Read the following words. Can you translate them? The pronunciation and translations are in the key at the end of the book. I 5oplilc ....................................................... . 2 A8 ........................................................... . 3 H8T .......................................................... . 4 6onbW6M .................................................... . 5 cnaclil6o ..................................................... .
6 pjCCK8R a36yKa (the heading Of the lesson) ...................... .

7 66paq ........................................................ .

~aiil .......................................................... . 9 caxap ........................................................ .

l 0 *YPHSn ...................................................... .


Here are some common signs. Check your pronunciation in the key at the back of the book. I A3POn0PT 2 5YcJ)ET 3 rOCTMHM4A

4 5 6 7 8





10 11 12 13 14 15 16





What do these say?

1 &AP

2 nPAB,qA


4 CTOn 7 nM'-'i.V' XAT

10 HbiOMOPK 13 &MTn3



12 Ponnc-Polilc 15 XEnbCMHKM


In addition to the main material of the lesson, this book will also give you extra information which is not essential to a basic competence in Russian. If you choose to skip these parts, marked EXTRA, or to return to them later, your progress through the lessons will not be hindered.

(1) The names of the Russian letters

Above we gave only the pronunciation of the letters. You need the names of the letters only when you read abbreviations (see Lesson 30), just as in English the letters pronounced [1], [b), [m] are read [ay-bee-em] in the abbreviation IBM.
a [a], 6 [be], B [ve], r [ge], A [de], e [ye], i [yo], [zhe], 3 [ze], M [ee], it [ee knit-ka-ye ('short ee')], K [ka], n [el], M [em], H [en], o [o], n [pe], p [er], c [es], T [te], y [oo], CIJ [ef], x [ha], ~ [tse], '4 [che], w [sha], 114 [shsha], 'b [tvy6r-di znak ('hard sign')], bl [yerf], b [mya.h~kee znak ('soft sign')], a [e], 10 [yoo], R [ya]

So CCCP, the name of the country, is pronounced [es-es-es-er]. KrS (=the KGB) is pronounced [ka-ge-be].
(2) Transliteration of Russian In English letters

Transliteration is the representation of Russian letters by English ones, for example when spelling the names of Russian people and places in English 10


newspapers. Transcription (or 'phonetic transcription') is the representation of Russian sounds, for example to help foreigners learn to pronounce correctly. Since there are a number of differences between Russian spelling and Russian pronunciation (see Lesson 2), transliteration and transcription can never be the same thing. There are various standard ways of transliterating Russian into English letters. The American Library of Congress system is now generally preferred by those professionals, e.g. co.mpilers of library catalogues, who need to worry about such things as how to spell Russian names consistently in English. Most of the equivalents in the list below are obvious from the pronunciation; those which are not, or which are transliterated differently in other systems, are marked with an asterisk (*):
a = a, 6 = b, a = v, r = g, A = d, e = e,

e = e, = zh, a= z, *M = i, *iii = i, K = k,

11 = I, M = m, H = n, o = o, n = p, p = r, c = s, T = t, y = u, c1J = f, x = kh, 1.1 = ts,

= ch, w = sh, aq = shch, *'b = ", *bl = y, *b = ', 3 = e, *10 = iu, *R = ia.

Example of transliteration' (a woman's name):


EareHbeB& Xpyaqeaa = Natal'ia Evgen'eva Khrushcheva

This system is used in this book for proper names (i.e. 'Vania' rather than 'Vanya' for BaHR), except where traditional spellings are likely to be much more familiar, e.g. 'Yalta' (rather than 'Ialta') for the town of SI11Ta in the Crimea.

' For comparison, in the phonetic transcription used in this book, this name would be [na-ta-lya yev-gye-nrye-va hroo-shshy6-va].



(If your aim is not to speak or write Russian but only to be able to read Russian books and periodicals, you can skip the whole of Lesson 2 - or skim through it now and come back to it later.)

2.1 Russian Handwriting (Even if you decide not to copy out the examples written here, this section Will give you some useful alphabet revision and reading practice.) Russians all learn the same rather florid handwriting style at school. You should form the letters as indicated here, though you will not be misunderstood if you choose not to join the letters or if you make fewer loops. Here are the handwritten forms of the letters in alphabetical order:

..If: a

6 6 [b) .}) cf


686a [baba] 'Peasant woman'


J3 .8

r r [g)


A8 [da] 'yes'

AA[d] J)



There is also an old-fashioned form of small A:

E e [ye]



~ rAe [gdye) 'where'

~e [yo]


>K [zh]

~ AB-e [da-zhe] 'even'

33 [z]
MM [ee]

u ?4al

MAMI [ee-dee] 'Go!'



11 u
Aail [day] 'Give!'

K K (k]

Jl "'-

The initial short downstroke is an integral part of this

letter and must be present, whatever the preceding letter. Look at these examples:
[ee-lee] 'or'


3an [zal] 'hall', 'large room' U.{W


M M [m]


As in the case of n, the initial short downstroke must

be present;


"AiM 'Adam'


KnMM 'Clement' (if

the downstrokes on n and M are omitted, the letters become indistinguishable: H H [n]

JCt.uu )



6H 'He' If the following letter is n or M, do not try to join them:

A6M 'house' MOdOk.O MOnOK6 'milk'

n n [p]
p p [r]


j'J .p


c c [s)
T T [t]

Cnacr.t6o [spa-se8-ba] 'Thank you'


JJl m

Note the difference between the printed and handwritten

JJ/om ToT 'That' J<ITJOmO KT6-To [kt6-ta] 'someone'



[nyet] 'no'

Some Russians 'cross their t's' by putting a bar over the letter, like



but they are in a minority. Another minority

writes T as
Yy [oo]

and 4

!P rp

CD ell [f)

Notice that, like all Russian capital letters except


with their small 'tails', capital CD does not go below the line. You don't need to spend long practising capital rare in Russian .

fP , since initial ell is

.E-e.l(f/JfJOI'Z &6ncllacT 'Belfast' ynuro<~~ ellyt66n [footb61] 'football'


X x

~ 4 [ts]

&ax 'Bach'


1+ Keep the loop small, much smaller than the loop of y

lf [oo] UJCI11JJ,IUJI.I,f rocTMHM48 [ga-ste8-nee-tsa] 'hotel' ~ ~PM48 [tsa-re'e-tsa] 'Empress' "i 't [ch] 'If, 't Note that the bottom stroke of the capital fonn turns the
opposite way from:Y looks different from r


[oo]. Make sure that your small fonn


W w [sh]

"ialii 'Tea'


Aiota [dli-cha] 'country cottage'

otenoaeK [chye-la-vyek] 'person'

7Ji uc

Unlike an English w, the last stroke ends at the foot of



the letter:


Xopow6 'Good' [ha-ra-sh6]. Some


Russians put a bar under w '!!1: to make it clearly distinct from


u :


~ 114 [shsh]

lJ4 w,

As in the case of 4

4 , keep the loop small:

"b'b [-] 'Cr

~M (shshee] 'Cabbage soup' d'optu, 66p114 [borshsh]

'beetroot soup' There is no need to practise a capital form, since this letter

never starts a word.

orf'f!uan o6'b8KT [ab-yekt] 'object'


[i] l1t

No capital form, since it never starts a word.


[sin] 'son'


No capital form required. Make sure your b b is half the

height of B -8- : -u,ap6 48Pb [tsar'] 'tsar'

3 3 [e]

npoK641beB 'Prokofiev'


3mom 3-roT [8-tat] 'This' cftapof/MOttt AapCJCI)n6T 'Aeroflot'


10 10 [yoo]


lOtoC.JtaStul IOrocniiBMR 'Yugoslavia'

S1 R [ya]

MeHib 'menu'

!i ,g;

Liken .tt and M . , this letter must always have a

distinct initial short downstroke. To help you remember those three letters, here is a word with all three of them together:
g..R 38Mnil [zye-mlya] 'earth'

Read and copy:



~- [da svee-da-nee-ya] (Goodbye)

(pree-vyet] (Greetings/Hi) [spa-se'e-ba za vsyo]


Cnactii6o 38 ace.

Crta.tfloo p .&i.

(Thank you for everything)



rAe JK8 nMCbMO?



1li.I('MW? [gdye zhe pees-m6) (Where

is the letter?)
3To MOM CbiH "tapnM.

Jmo .HDiJ C/JIH 'l.fa,oMJ.

[da-ra-ga-ya kla-ra] (Dear Klara)

[e-ta moy sin char-lee] (This is my son Charlie) AoporaH Knilpal lJopo1-u ~ /

~M AB Kilwa - minqa Hilwa. ~ p ~<.a.JJJa - nu-tJ+a HtliJJO.

[shshee da kil-sha- pe8-shsha nil-sha] (Cabbage soup and

kasha are our food)

S1 mo6mo c~JyY66n.

~ rpym.OM.

[ya lyoo-blyo'o

foot-b61] (I love football) 3To xop6waH rocntHM48.

3mo JJfJtJUJa& u1c~.

[8-ta ha-r6-sha-ya ga-ste'e-nee-tsa] (This is a good hotel) no'leMy?


[pa-chye-mo'o) (Why?) [ab-ya-vlye-nee-ye] (Announcement)



2.2 More on Russian Pronunciation: Stress1

As in English, some syllables1 are pronounced more prominently than others. Compare the English word 'ph6tograph', where the first syllable is stressed, with 'phot6graphy', where the stress is on the second syllable. Although normal Russian spelling, like English, does not show the place of the stress, it is important to learn the stress when you learn the word. Be careful with those Russian words (particularly names) which are sometimes used in English, since the traditional English pronunciation often does not match the Russian. A good example is the name BnBAMMMp 'Vladimir'. In English we often say Vladimir, but in Russian the stress is always on the second syllable [VIa-de'e-meer]. Other examples: The writer Pasternak is nacTepHiiK (not Pasternak) Nabokov is Ha66Koa (not Nabokov) Oblomov, the man in the dressing-gown in Gonchar6v's famous novel, is 06n6Moa (not Oblomov).



Russian stress is heavier than in English and it is also much harder to predict which syllable is the stressed one. You will find that different forms of the same word may have different stresses. For example, the Russian for 'hand' is pyK8, stressed on the end [roo-ka], but 'hands' is pyKM, stressed on the first syllable [roo-kee]. If you have to read a word whose stress you do not know, the safest thing is to read it with no stress at all, syllable by syllable.

2.3 EXTRA: One-Syllable Words and Stress

Dictionaries and most grammar books do not put a stress mark on onesyllable words, since there is obviously only one place for the stress to fall. We shall follow that practice except in the case of one-syllable words containing the letter o. There are some short Russian words, particularly prepositions (words like 38 'for', OT 'from', AO 'until'), which are normally pronounced with no stress, as if they were joined to the following word. As you learnt in Lesson 1, o sounds very different (like [a]) if it is not stressed, so AO 'until' is pronounced [da]. Practise:

[dasve~da-nee-ya] 'goodbye', literally 'until meeting'. I

The preposition AO 'until' is unstressed and pronounced as if joined to the word CBMA{IHMR. So to help you pronounce correctly, when o is pronounced [o], we give it a stress mark (e.g. 66pLq). Pronounce unstressed o as [a]. The pronunciation of the vowel letter o as [o] only when it is stressed (marked 6 in this book) and elsewhere as [a] (like the first letter of the alphabet) is a notable feature of Moscow pronunciation.'

' To be more precise, o and a in the syllable before the stress both sound like the vowel in 'cup', phonetically [A]; in most other unstressed positions they both sound like the a in 'about', phonetically [a). But for practical purposes think of both vowel letters as being equivalent to unstressed [a].



2.4 EXTRA: Other Non-Essential Pronunciation Features

If you simply want to be understood, you can ignore the following details. If you read Russian words as they are spelt, you will not cause misunderstandings. But if you are interested in the details of the small differences between the way Moscow Russian is written and the way it is pronounced, study these six points.

2.5 Softness'

Probably the most important feature of a 'good' Russian accent is the correct pronunciation of soft1 consonants. 'Soft' means that the consonant is pronounced with a simultaneous y sound. A consonant is soft if it is followed by e e M 10 R or the soft sign b. So the two consonants in A8Hb [dxenY)'day' are soft. The main thing is to pronounce they simultaneously with the consonant; English speakers tend to pronounce them separately. The word coaeT 'council' is pronounced [s-a-vY-8-t]- five sounds. The v (soft a) is one sound. In English we known this word as 'soviet' -six sounds s-o-v-1-e-t.

2.6 Hard' Consonants versus Soft' Consonants

'Hard' means pronounced like most English consonants, with no [y] sound. In the alphabet you learnt in Lesson l, there are twenty consonant letters. All of these, except 'I and ~. represent hard sounds. l.f and ~ are always soft (i.e. they always contain a [y] sound). Of the other eighteen consonants, fifteen regularly have soft equivalents. If a consonant is to be pronounced soft, it will have e e M 10 R or b written after it. So n is hard' [1], while nb is soft' [IY). To a Russian, [I] and [I'] are completely different sounds, while to an English speaker they may simply sound like variant pronunciations of the same letter 'I'. If you compare your pronunciation of the I in 'people' and the I in 'leaf', you are likely to find (depending on your dialect) that the 'people' I is liken while the 'leaf' I is like nb. If you



have a tape or a teacher, listen for the difference between these two Rus&ian words:
MMno [mee-la] 'nice'- hard' n MMnA [mee-lya] 'mile'- soft' nb

Then try:
nyK [look] 'onion'- hard' I n10K [lyook] 'hatch'- [ly] is soft' I

More examples of contrasting hard and soft consonants:

MaT [mat] 'bad language', 'abuse'- hard' T MaTb [matY) 'mother' - soft' Tb MaTb [matY) 'mother' -hard' m MATb [myatY) 'to crumple' -soft' [my]

Before M the [y] element is less audible but the consonant is none the less soft'.
6MTb [beetY) 'to beat' - soft' b If the 6 was hard, the vowel would be not M but bl, as in: 6b1Tb [bltY) 'to be' -hard' b

A possibly helpful note on hard' versus soft'

The difference between the English pronunciations of 'booty' and 'beauty' is close to the difference between 6 and soft 6b in Russian. 'Do' and 'dew' give you a good comparison with AY and AIO in Russian. Compare 'fool' and 'fuel' with AYn and c110n, 'poor' and 'pure' with nyp and n10p. The correspondence between 'pure' and n10p is not exact, because the p andy sounds are not simultaneous in 'pure' while then and the [y] element from the 10 are pronounced simultaneously in n10p, but for practical purposes the correspondence is close enough.

2. 7 The Consonants * 4 w are Always Hard'

Although the letters e 8 M 10 A b make the preceding consonant soft', there are three exceptional consonants: 4 w. These three letters are always



pronounced hard' (i.e. with no [y] sound), whatever the following letter. So eHa 'wife' is pronounced [zhe-na]- the [y] of the letter e [ye) simply disappears. >KiHbl 'wives is pronounced as if written lKOHbl [zh6-nl]. Tbl 3H8ewb 'you know' is pronounced as if written Tbl 3Hiew [zna-yesh] the soft sign has no effect and is only there for historical reasons. You should also be able to hear that after 1.4 and w the vowel"' [ee] is pronounced as if it were .., [1]:
lKMTb [zhit'] 'to live' l4MPK [tslrk] 'circus'

2.8 Voiced' Consonants Can Become Unvoiced'

The first six consonants of the alphabet 6 a r A a are all voiced', that is, pronounced with vibration of the vocal cords. At the ends of words these six tum into their unvoiced' equivalents (i.e. pronounced with little or no vibration of the vocal cords):
Voiced 6 [b) a [v] r [g) A[d] [zh] a [z] Is pronounced Unvoiced n [p]

ct [f)
K (k) T [t)


w [sh] c [s]

So neTep6ypr is pronounced [pye-tyer-bo oris] - r [g) becomes [k] at the end of the word. rop6a~tia is [gar-ba-chyoO - a [v] becomes [f) Within words, the six voiced consonants above become unvoiced if they stand immediately before an unvoiced consonant (K n c T c1 x 1.4 't w aq). Look at the following examples:
a6AKB is pronounced [v6tka] - A becomes [t] before K aiaTpa 'tomorrow' is [zattra]- a becomes [f) before T ax6A 'entrance' is [fhot]- a is [f) before x



2.9 Unvoiced' Consonants Can Become Voiced

Similarly, unvoiced consonants become voiced before the voiced consonants 6 r A * 3 (but not B). So:
aoK3iln 'station' is pronounced [vag-zal]- K is [g) before 3 [z]

But the consonants in MOCKBB 'Moscow' are pronounced as written: [mask-va] - B does not affect preceding unvoiced consonants.

2.1 0 The Vowels o, e,

in Unstressed Syllables

As you learnt above (2.2), syllables' marked ' have a heavy stress, heavier than in English. So unstressed' vowels sound much less distinct than stressed' ones. You already know that o and a sound the same in unstressed syllables. You may also be able to hear that unstressed e is almost indistinguishable from unstressed M, so that, particularly in the pronunciation of younger speakers, neTep6ypr (St Petersburg) sounds as if it were written nMTMp6ypK [pee-teer-boork]. The vowel R, in the syllable before the stress, also sounds like M, so that R3biK 'language' at normal speed sounds like [ee-zrk], rather than [ya-zrk]. Remember:

OR IF YOU DECIDE TO LEAVE THEM UNTIL LATER, YOU WILL NOT CAUSE MISUNDERSTANDINGS. As we said in Lesson I, to get by it is sufficient to know the values of the thirty-three letters of the alphabet and to read words as they are written. There is nothing wrong with a foreign accent, as long as you are comprehensible.

2.11 Pronunciation Practice

Slow [lye-neen-grad] Normal Speed [lye-neen-grat] ('Leningrad')- soft nb, soft Hb, A becomes T at the end of the word [mask-va] ('Moscow')- [o] becomes [a] when unstressed







[kee-ev] [do-sto-yev-skeey]

[keHf) ('Kiev')- [v] becomes [f]

at the end of the word [da-sta-yef-skee] ('Dostoevskii') - [v] becomes [f] before s; [y] is inaudible after [ee]

nacTepHiiK BOAK8

[pa-styer-nak] [vod-ka] [pee-tse-ree-ya] [bryezh-nyev] [gor-ba-chyov] [pro-ko-fY-yev] [na-bo-kov] [byer-nard sho-oo] [leedz]

SpeJKHea rop68'1iB npoK{$b8B Ha66Koa EiepH8PAW6y .n.tA3

[pa-styer-nak] ('Pasternak')- [ty] is one sound, soft Tb [v6t-ka] ('vodka') -A devoiced' before K [pee-tse-ree-ya) ('pizzeria')- no [y] sound after~ [bryezh-nyef) ('Brezhnev') - a devoiced at end of word [gar-ba-chy6f] ('Gorbachev') [pra-k6-f'yef] ('Prokofiev' or 'Prokof'ev') [na-bo-kaf) ('Nabokov') [byer-nart sh6-oo] ('Bemard Shaw') [leets] ('Leeds')

2.12 Exceptional Pronunciation Features

In addition to the above list of regular divergences between spelling and Moscow pronunciation, there are a few less predictable irregularities. Here are some common examples - these are all words which you will meet again:
'ITO 'what' pronounced [shto], not [chto] noJKanyicTa 'please' usually pronounced [pa-zhal-sta]. without the yi 3APiiBCTayiTe 'hello' pronounced [zdra-stvooy-tye] without the first a ero 'his' pronounced [yev6], not [yeg6] cer6AHR 'today' pronounced [sve-v6d-nya] not [sye-g6d-nya] PSAMO 'radio' pronounced [ra-dee-o] not [ra-dee-a], because of its foreign origin

In many recently borrowed words, educated Russians pronounce e as a, e.g.

T8HHMC 'tennis' [te-nees] (not [tye-nees]) KOMnblbTep 'computer' [kam-p'o 'o-ter] (not [-tyer])




Write out the Russian words in 2.11.


Read the following words, fairly new to Russian. Then check your pronunciation (and the translations) in the key.
I BMCKM. 2 MHcilnRLIMR. 3 MBpKeTMHr. 4 MI03MKn. 5 H6y-xay. 6 nepCOHBnbHbiM KOMnbiOTep. 7 npMB8TM384MR. 8 p6KMy3bJK8. 9 CTpMnTM3. 10 3KCKnJ03MBHOe MHTepBbiO.


Here are some reading practice words which English learners sometimes find amusing for one reason or another. Check your pronunciation with the key:
llqMT 'shield'. 2 WMT 'sewn'. 3 6paT 'brother'. 4 30noToaon6coe

'golden-haired'. 5 38J.14MJqBIOJ.14MM 'defending'. 6 HOK&YTMPOB&Tb 'to knock out'. 7 3KcnepMMeHT.tpoaaTb 'to experiment'. 8 AOCTOnpMM8'tBTenbHOCTM 'sights'. 9 'fenOBeKOHeH&BMCTHM'IecTBO 'misanthropy'.



3.1 Some Everyday Words and Phrases

Here are some useful words and phrases to read and learn. If you've studied the handwriting in Lesson 2, you can also write them out and check your version with the key (exercise 3/1).

HeT 3-ro Cnaclil6o ,Q66poe j'rpo ,Q66pbiM A8Hb Ao caMA{IitMH npoCTMTe

[da] [nyet] [8-ta] [spa-se'e-ba] [d6-bra-ye o'o-tra] [d6-brl dyen'] [da svee-da-nee-ya] [pra-ste 8-tye]

Yes No This{fhat/lt Thank you Good morning Good day Goodbye Excuse me/l'm sorry

With special pronunciation features:

Please/Don't mention it/You're welcome usually pronounced without the yi as [pa-zhal-sta]

3APBaCTayliiTe Hello (the commonest greeting) pronounced without the first a as [zdra-stvooy-tye] What pronounced [shto] Where [gdye], if pronounced carefully, but if you simply say [dye] without the r (g), no one will notice



And the numbers up to five:

I OAMH [a-de'en]
2 AB8 [dva] 3 TPM [tree) 4 'leTblpe [chye-tl-rye] 5 nHTb [pyat']

3.2 Some Simple Questions and Answers

A: 4T6 [shto]3To?

What's this/What's that? That/This/It is tea. Thank you. Don't mention it. What's this? It's a rouble. Where is Vladimir? There he is. Where is the tea? Here it is/There it is. Where is the vodka? Here it is/There it is. Where is the menu? Here it is. Thank you. Don't mention it. Excuse me, is this wine? No, it's vodka.

B: 3-ro '18M.
A: Cnacr.il6o. B: noJKanyMcTa. A: 4T6 3TO? B: 3-ro py6nb. A: rAe Bn&AMMMp?

B: 86T6H.
A: rAe '18M?

B: 86T6H.
A: rAe B6AK8?

B: B6TOH8.
A: rAe MeHIO? B: B6TOH6. A: Cn8d6o.

B: noJKanyMCT8.
A: npoCTMT8, 3TO BMH6? B: HeT, 3To B6AK&.

3.3 Some Culture: no>KanyilcTa In Reply to Cnacil6o 'Thank you' If someone says cn8cr.i16o 'thank you' you should always reply noJKanyMCT8 [p8zhalsta] 'you're welcome'/'don't mention it'.



3.4 More on no*anyicTa 'Please'

nounyiCTa is a .versatile word. It also means 'please', and 'here you

are' when you give something to somebody. Customer: Assistant: Customer: Assistant:

Aaa, noanyicTa. noanyiCTa. Cnacril6o. no:IKilnyiCT8.

Two please. Here you are. Thank you. You're welcome.

3.5 Some Grammar: No 'Is', 'am', 'are'

You will see from the examples above that Russian manages without any equivalent of the present tense of 'to be' ('am', 'is', 'are')
~o This (is) tea.

Note: If both parts of the sentence contain nouns ('Mary is an Englishwoman'), the missing verb can be represented by a dash (MtpM [noun] - &HrnM,.ilHKaifioun]).

3.6 And No Equivalent of the Articles 'a' and 'the'

B6T M&HIO. Here (is) (a or the) menu.

3.7 'Thls'/'That': 3To

~o is a useful word corresponding to both 'this' and 'that'. It also translates 'it' when 'it' can replace 'this' or 'that' in English, for example in naming things:


A: "tr6 tTo? What is this/that/it? ~o B6AKB. That/This/It is vodka.



A: 'ITo 3To? What's this?/What is it?

8: 3To 66paq. It's beetroot soup.

A: A 'ITO 3To? And what's this?

B: 3To CMeTaHa. It's sour cream. [8-ta smye-ta-na]

(Russian soup is nearly always served with a spoonful of sour cream floating on the top.)

3.8 Here he/she/it is: BoT oHioHBIOHO. Gender

All Russian nouns' (i.e. words like 'Ivan', 'vodka', 'taxi', 'beauty') belong to one of three different categories, depending on what the last letter is. These three categories are masculine (m), feminine (f) and neuter (n). Most male beings, like Bn&AMMMp, are masculine, but so are days, towns and languages; all these are referred to as 'he' OH. Most females, like MaMa 'mother', are feminine, but so are vodka (B6AK8), truth (np8BA&) and Moscow (MocKail), which are all called 'she' OHil. The neuter category is the smallest one and includes such .things as morning (jTpo), wine (BMHO) and taxi (TBKCM); they are all called 'it' oH6. If you know about gender from studying French and German, you will be glad to know that the gender of Russian nouns is much easier to learn since you can nearly always tell the gender from the ending. Here are the details: (a) Masculine nouns normally end with a consonant or il:
66paq 'beetroot soup' lllaaH 'Ivan' '!ail 'tea'

(b) Feminine nouns normally end -a or H:

cMeTaHa 'sour cream' HaTanbH 'Natalia' [na-ta-l>ya] MOCKBS 'Moscow'



(c) Neuter nouns end -o or-e:

OKH6 'window' BMH6 'wine' ynpa*HeHMe 'exercise' [oo-prazh-ny8-nee-ye]

So you can normally tell the gender of a noun just by looking at it. However, there are awkward cases: (d) Most nouns ending b (soft sign) are feminine, but there are many masculine ones too, so you have to learn the gender of soft-sign nouns. Feminine examples:
CM6Iilpb 'Siberia' [see-be"er"] MaTb 'mother' [mat'] AB8pb 'door' [dvyer"]

Masculine examples:
py6nb 'rouble' [roobl'] lilropb 'Igor' [e'e-gar"] A8Hb 'day' [dyen']

(e) Nouns ending -a or R which denote males are masculine: nllna 'father', 'dad' Bon6AR 'Volodia' (a familiar form of Vladimir)

ARAfl 'uncle'
(f) If a noun ends to be neuter:
M or

-y or -10, it is likely to be a foreign borrowing and

TaKCM 'taxi' MeHIO 'menu'

(g) Foreign words denoting females are feminine, whatever their endings:
neAM (f) 'lady' M3pM (f) 'Mary' MllprapeT (f) 'Margaret'



But if they do not end -a, -R or-b, they are indeclinable' (see 5.10).

3.9 It When you're talking about something which has already been named, 'it' will be 6H/oHa/oH6, depending on the gender' of the noun to which 'it' refers.
A: B: A: B:

rAe'laM? B6T6H. rAe BMH6? B6TOH6.

Where is the tea? There it ('he') is. Where is the wine? There it is.

3.10 Vocabulary

Here is the essential vocabulary for this lesson. These are words which you should try to learn:


8HrnM'IBHK8 66paq 6paT BaHR (m) BMHO BOAK8 Bon6Af1 ra36Ta AB8Pb(f} A8Hb (m) AOM AHAR (m) M8Tb (f) MeHib (n) MOCKBB

[an-glee-chlin-ka] [borshsh] [brat] [va-nya] [vee-n6] [v6t-ka] [va-16-dya] [ga-zye-ta] [dvyer] [dyen] [dom] [dya-dya] [matY) [mye-nyo'o] [mask-va]

Englishwoman beetroot soup brother Vania (familiar form of Ivan) wine vodka Volodia (familiar form of Vladimir) newspaper door day house uncle mother menu Moscow



OKHO nana (m) py6nb(m) CM6Mpb(f) CM8Ti1Ha TBKcM (n) ynpa:IKH6HM8

[ak-n6] [p&-pa] [roobl'] [see-beer] [smye-ta-na] (tak-see] [o"o-tra] [chay) [sha-ka-lat]

window father, dad rouble Siberia sour cream taxi morning tea chocolate

[oo-prazh-ny&-nee-ye] exercise

ttai WOKOnSA



[gdye] [shto]

where what

OH OHB OHO :iTO [on] [a-na] [a-n6) [8-ta] he she it (referring to neuter nouns) this/that/it

a BOT Aa A06pbiM A8Hb AO CBMASHMJI :fAP8aCTayMT8 H8T no:IK&nyMcT8 [a] [vot] [da] [d6-brl dyen'] [da svee-da-nee-ya) [zdrast-vooy-tye] [nyet] [pa-zhal-staJ and/but (indicating a slight contrast) here/there (when pointing) yes good day goodbye hello no please/don't mention it/ here you are



npOCTiotTe cnaq.t6o

[pra-ste e-tye] [spa-se'e-ba]

excuse me/l'm sorry thank you

The main problem in learning Russian is making all these unfamiliar words stick in your memory. Unlike French or Spanish, the basic vocabulary of Russian looks quite different from that of English. YTpo does not look or sound like 'morning', and 3APilBCTBYMTe looks like nothing on earth. For many of the words, as well as listening to them being spoken, repeating them, writing them down, you will have to make up deliberate links. Some links are easy: a word like AOM 'house' can easily be connected to its English equivalent by a link word such as 'domestic'; ra3eTa [gazye-ta] can be linked to its meaning 'newspaper' by the word 'gazette'. But a wvrd like cnac.t6o [spa-se'e-ba] 'thank you' takes a little longer, because a link has to be invented. For example, think of thanking Sarah for passing the butter.

3.11 Dialogues. (Cover the translation on the right and test yourself.)

A: npoCTMTe. l.fTO 3TO?

B: 3To BMHO.

Excuse me. What is this? lt's!That's wine. And this? That's vodka. And what about this? Pepsi-Cola. Thank you. Don't mention it.

A: A3To? B: 3TOBOAK8. A: A3To?

B: nenCMK6na.

A: Cnac.t6o. B: noJIUinyMCT8.

A: npocntTe, noilnyitcTa, 'tTO 3To? Excuse me, please, what's this? B: 3To woKonilA. It's chocolate.

A: TpM, noilnyitcTa. B: noilnyMCT8. A: Cnac.t6o. B: noanyitCTa. A: fA8T8KCM? B: B6TOHO.


Three, please. Here you are. Thank you. Don't mention it. Where's the taxi? There it (neuter) is.


B: B: B:

A: rAeM3pM? BOTOHS. A: rAe ~AH BaHR? 86T6H. A: rAeCM6Mpb? BOTOHS.

Where's Mary? There she is. Where's Uncle Vanya? There he is. Where's Siberia? There it (feminine) is.

3.12 EXTRA: Different Equivalents of 'It'

In identifying sentences (e.g. 'What is this/it?' 'It's a rouble'), 'it' is translated as 3To. In such English sentences 'it' can be replaced by 'this' or 'that' ('lt{fhis(fhat is a rouble'); 'this' and 'that' are also 3To in Russian. So if the predicate' (the verb and the part after the verb, e.g. 'is a rouble') contains a noun, 'it' is always 3To. If you're saying something about a noun which has already been identified, then you refer to it as OH, OHS or OHO, depending on the gender:

A: rAeBMH6? B: B6TOHO.

Where is the wine? There it is.

Remember always to translate 'it' as 3To in identifying sentences in which the predicate' is a noun (e.g. 'It's wine'): A: "fT63To? B: 3To a6AJ<a. 3To (not oHa) CT&pKa.
A: rAe BOAK8 (feminine)? What's this? It's vodka. It's Starka (a type of vodka). Where's the vodka? There/Here it ('she') is.



Answer the questions, using BoT: 'Here(fhere he/she/it is'

l rAe AHHa? 2 rAe 6paT? 3 rAe T8KCM?
4 rAe~ BaHR? 5 rAe BOAK8? 6 rAe BMHO?




Answer the questions in Russian, using the words in brackets:

1 "'T6 \iTo? (It's tea.) 2 "'T6 \iTo? (It's a rouble.) 3 3To B6AK&? (No, it's wine.) 4 rA8 TBKCM? (There it is.)


Say in Russian:
2 3 4 5 Hello. Excuse me, what's that? lt'swine. Thank you. Don't mention it.

6 No, this is beetroot soup.

7 Where is the sour cream? 8 Excuse me, please, where is Vanya? 9 There he is. 10 Thank you. Goodbye.


Read the names of these towns on the Trans-Siberian Railway and say which are 6H ('he'), which OHB ('she') and which oH6 ('it'):
1 BnfiAMBOCT6K. 2 CKoaopoAMH6. 3 06njolb8. 4 "'MT8. 5 CniQAIIHKa. 6 &aiiiKam:.cK. 7 MocKaa.


Which of the following are male names and which female? 1 XpMCTMaH [hree-stee-an]. 210nMaH [yoo-lee-an]. 3 ApK&AMiii [ar-ka-dee]. 4 MaiiiR [ma-ya]. Can you guess (or do you know) which of these names in-bare masculine and which feminine?
5 Mropb [e'e-gar']. 610Aticlb [yoo-de'ef]. 7 nl066ab [lyoo-b6f']. 8 HMH6nb [nee-nyel']. 33


. .tl:; .
8 .

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\<I--\ --~-\,
.~\.) ~f'\. ..r../ .:.....J"-'7



~ .'::::r-::::":'>'

0 0


._... ..,_.r-..--

500 Miles


/ /

/ /

---I I
I ..



e'\// (}0:/ ~c~".-/ - -9'i~- / 9-Q~>d-!- / ne11a

Ox6rCKoe ,_6pe (Sea of Okhotsk)




4. 1 Useful phrases
CKalKii'ITe, no>K&nyitCTa . Sl He nOHMMiliO. Bbl MeHR noHMMllere? Bbl roaopli'ITe no-pyccKtt? OH He roaopli'IT no-pyccKM. rlpoCTMTe, KBK BBC 30BjT? MeHR 30BjT Bon6Af1. Oo!eHb npMRTHO. Bbl 3HlleTe, rp.e Eaa? Sl He 3HSIO. rp.e Bbl lKMBiTe? Sl lKMBY B 5pllMTOHe. HeKypli'ITbl
Tell me, please ... Could you tell me ... I don't understand. Do you understand me? Do you speak Russian? He doesn't speak Russian. Excuse me, what's your name? My name is Volodia. Pleased ('Very pleasant') to meet you. Do you know where Eva is? I don't know. Where do you live? I live in Brighton. No smoking!

4.2 The Eight Personal Pronouns' ('1', 'you' etc.)


Tbl you (when speaking to a friend, relative or child). This is called the 'familiar' (tam) you.


6H oHa oH6
Mbl Bbl


he you met she those in it Lesson 3 we you (when speaking to someone you do not know well or to more than one person). This pronoun is the polite or plural (pol/pi) you. they


4.3 Verbs

To do things, you need verbs. A verb' is a word expressing an action or state, the kind of word which would fit in the gap in the sentence 'She - - - i n New York', e.g. works, worked, was, lives, drives. In Russian dictionaries, verbs are listed in their infinitive' form (this corresponds to 'to drive', 'to be' etc. in English). Russian infinitive forms normally end -Tb (e.g. KYPMTb 'to smoke', 3H8Tb 'to know').

4.4 Conjugation' of Verbs in the Present Tense. Type 1: 3H8'Tb 'to know'

The present tense' describes actions taking place at the moment of speech ('I work in Moscow', 'She is walking to school'). In Russian there is only one present tense, corresponding to both 'I do' and 'I am doing' in English. The list of verb forms which go with the eight personal pronouns is known as the conjugation' of the verb. The form to which the personal endings are attached is called the stem' of the verb. Most (not all) 3H8Tbtype verbs have a stem which is simply the infinitive form minus the -Tb. So 3HSTb has the stem 3Ha-. The endings are underlined.
fl 3HSJ2

[zna-yoo] [zna-yesh] [zna-yet] [zna-yet] [zna-yet] [zna-yem] [zna-ye-tye]


I know you (familiar) know he knows she knows it knows these three forms are always the same in the present tense

Mbi3HSDt Bbi3HSiffil

of .all verbs we know you (polite/plural) know




they know

Note: In colloquial (infonnal) Russian, the pronoun can be omitted, so that 'I know' can be siinply 3H{uo. But remember that this is infonnal usage and rare in stylistically neutral' Russian.


Mba 3HileM, rAe BaHR. Bbl 3HileTe MeHil?

We know where Vanya is. Do you know me?

The majority of Russian verbs have this type of conjugation, and we shall call it the 3H&Tb type or Type 1.

4.5 Type 2: roaopriiTb 'to speak'

The standard example of the second type of present-tense conjugation is roaopMTb 'to speak'. The stem' is roaop-:
R roaopm Tbl TOBOpMWb 6H roaopMT oHa roaop.tb: oH6 roaop.!U Mbl TOBOPHM BbiTOBOplflg OHM roaopill
I speak/am speaking you (familiar) speak he speaks she speaks it speaks we speak you (polite/familiar) speak they speak

Note the ending RT of the OHMfonn.

~ roaoplb no-pyccKM. OHM roaopiiT no-cllp&HL!Y3CKM. Bbl roaopMTe no-aHrnMiiiCKM?

I speak Russian. They speak French. Do you speak English?



4.6 Type 18: exaTb 'to go (by transport)', >KMTb 'to live'
The third (and last) type is a variant of the 3H8Tb type. These verbs have much the same endings as the 3H&Tb type, but the problem is to predict the stem' from the infinitive'. Our first example is the verb exaTb 'to go (by transport), to ride'. The stem happens to be 8A- (you just have to learn that, you couldn't guess it) and the conjugation' is:

Tbl 6Ae.!lll! 6Hc!MI oHa eruu

I go/am going You (familiar) go he goes she goes

oH6eruu Mb18MJ!4 Bbi8At."m oHM eA)!!

it goes we go you (polite/plural) go they go

You can see that the fl and OHM forms have -y where the 3H&Tb type has -10 but otherwise the endings are the same. Here is another example, the verb )I(MTb 'to live' (despite its -MTb ending, it is a exaTb-type verb). The unguessable stem is )I(MB- [zhiv] (2.7) and the conjugation is:
fl )I(MBX

Tbl )I(MB~ OH)I(MBfn OHS )I(MB]:

I live/am living you (familiar) live he lives she lives

OH6 )I(MBH Mbl )I(MBif! Bbi)I(Mam OHM )I(MBfi

it lives we live you (polite/plural) live they live




He's going home. I live in London.

The endings are the same as the endings of ex&Tb except for the change of

e to e. This change is conditioned by the place of the stress: if the letter e

in a verb ending is stressed, it always turns into e (though remember that Russians don't normally write the dots- see l.2c). Another useful example of the exaTb type is the verb 3BBTb 'to call', whose stem is aoa-. The first two forms are a fl aoay, Tbl aoaiwb, but the one to remember is (OHM) aoajT '(they) call', which turns up in the idiomatic question:
KaK aac aoajT?

'How you (they) call?'(= What's your name?).



Bac is the accusative' case' of Bbl 'you'; the details of the accusative are in Lesson 6.

These three sets of similar endings in 4.4-4.6 give the present tense of nearly all Russian verbs. These endings don't take long to learn; the main problem is remembering the stem (and the stress pattern) of verbs like ex&Tb, lKMTb and 3B&Tb. Although most verbs are like 3H&Tb or rosopliiTb, there are many irregular infinitives like lKMTb. In the vocabularies, we give the Hand the Tbl form of each verb (since you can work out the other forms from these two).

4. 7 Verb Summary Table

Infinitive Stem

3H8Tb (1) 3H8


rosopliiTb (2) rosop-

lKMTb (1 B) lKMB

eX&Tb (18) eA-y


-ewb -i!T -i!M -eTe

Tbl Mbl Bbl OHM

-ewb -eM -eTe lOT

-ewb -eT -eM -eTe

6HIOH8/0HO -eT



Stress notes. (l) A few 3H&Tb-type verbs are stressed on the.end, so each e turns into e. An example is ASBBTb 'to give' (12.4), which has the stem AS The stressed endings are: ASlQ, ASeWb, ASH, ASiM, ASi!Te, A&!Sl!. (2) Many rosopliiTb-type verbs are stressed on the stem (see 4.9). but the spelling is not affected.

4.8 Negation ('not')

To make a verb negative ('I don't know') simply put He 'not' in front of the verb:
s:l He 3HSIO.
OH He noHMMaeT.

I don't know. He doesn't understand.



4.9 EXTRA: Stress Patterns

As you have probably noticed by now, stress is a very tricky subject in Russian, because of the difficulty of predicting where to put it in any word - and to make things even more awkward (or interesting, depending on your point of view) Russians often disagree about the correct place of the stress. As a comparison, English speakers argue about 'controversy' versus 'controversy', but there are hundreds of such debatable cases in Russian. Even at this early stage, a few general rules may help: (a) if the word contains e, the stress always falls on thee, e.g. )I(MBeT 'lives', so we don't need to put a stress mark on words with e; (b) if the infinitive of a verb is stressed on any syllable except the last one, e.g. exaTb 'to travel', the stress is fixed (i.e. always in the same place in all of the forms of the conjugation- ep,y, ep,ewb etc.); (c) if the infinitive is stressed on the last syllable, e.g. roaopMTb 'to speak', KypMTb 'to smoke', the fl form is stressed on the ending (fl roaop!O, fl Kyp!O); the other five forms will either all have the stress on the ending (Tbl roaopMWb, OH roaopMT etc.) or all have the stress on the stem (Tbl KYPMWb, 6H KypMT etc.).

4.1 o A Brief Survey of Russian Grammar: Nouns and Cases'

Russian is an inflected language, which means that the endings of words change according to the grammar of the sentence. For example, the name lllaaH (nominative' form) becomes lllaaHB if you mean 'of Ivan'; it becomes IIIBiiHX if you mean 'to Ivan'; l/laaH becomes IIIBiiHB in a sentence such as 'I (S1) know (3HBIO) Ivan (lllaaHa)'. Nouns and adjectives each have six different endings, called cases' (nominative', accusative', genitive', dative', instrumental', prepositional'). English has a genitive case ending's, used with people, e.g. 'Ivan's house'(= 'the house of Ivan') and pronouns have accusative forms (he/him, she/her, they/them), but there are very few such changes in comparison with Russian. Like English, Russian also distinguishes singular and plural (as in 'book'/'books'). Verbs (words like 'to do', [she] 'wants', [they] 'know') have different endings depending


on who is doing, wanting, knowing etc. and on the tense. All this means that to a speaker of English, Russian seems to have a 'lot of grammar'. However, although learning all the endings is a burden at first, the system is not difficult to understand; you will find that learning vocabulary is a much bigger task. To make the sets of endings more digestible, we shall take them in small doses. However, if you want to tackle the whole system in one go, you will find grammar tables on pages 378-86.

4.11 Prepositional' Case

As an example of the way nouns change their form, look at these sentences:
Sl )IOtBy B 5pSMTOH. 6H )I(MBeT B MOCKBj. Sl 8AY H8 8BT66ycg.
I live in Brighton. He lives in Moscow. I'm going on a bus (by bus).

After the prepositions a 'in' and Ha 'on', most masculine nouns add -e and most feminine nouns change their last -a or-R to -e.
MocKaa 'Moscow' &paiiToH 'Brighton' aaT66yc 'bus' B MOCKB 'in Moscow' a &paiiToHg 'in Brighton' Ha aaT66ycg 'on a bus'

There are more details of these case endings in Lesson 5.

4.12 Vocabulary (In alphabetical order)

aaT66yc [af-t6-boos] bus )I(MTb [zhlt'] to live Jl )I(MBy, Tbl )I(MHwb
388Tb to call

a in
aac you (accusative' - explained in
Lesson 6)

30By, Tbl 30HWb

Bbl you (polite or plural 4.2) roaopMTb [ga-va-re et'] to speak R roaoplb, Tbl roaoplilwb TOCTMHMI.l8 hotel AOM6ii home, to one's home ltxaTb [ylt-hat'] to go (by transport) Jl fJAY Tbl fJA8Wb

3A8Cb [zdyes'] here

3APBaCTayii [zdra-stvooy] hello (to someone you call Tbl see 4.13,

3H&Tb to know Jl 3HSIO, Tbl 3HB8Wb

M and



M3'f'I8Tb to study f. M3Y'I{ll0, Tbl M3Y'I{lewb



no'leMy [pa-chye-mo'o] why npMiiTHO pleasant npocneKT avenue, prospekt

(wide street)

KYA8 (to) where (whither) KYPMTb to smoke Jl Kyplb, Tbl KjpMWb n6HAOH London MeHil me (accusative' -explained
in Lesson 6)

npocneKT MMpa Peace Avenue

(Avenue of Peace)

MeTp6 (n indeclinable 5.1 0) metro,


Mbl we (4.2) Ha on H6 but He not OHM they 6'1eHb very no-aHrnMMCKM in English [pa-an-gle e-skee]' noApyra (female) friend noHMM8Tb to understand Jl nOHMMaiO, Tbl nOHMM88Wb no-pyccKM in Russian no-c1Jp8HLIY3CKM in French [pa-fran-tso o-nee)

pa66T8Tb to work H pa66Tal0, Tbl pa66Taewb POCCMJI Russia pyccKMM J13b1K Russian language [ro o-skee ee-zfk]' CK81KMTe [ska-zhf-tye] tell/say
(imperative' form)

Tenepb now T61Ke [to-zhe]' too Tponnei46yc trolleybus Tbl you (familiar 4.2) ynMLIB street ynMLI8 B6nrMHa Volgin Street
(Street of Volgin)

xopow6 [ha-ra-sh6] well J1 I (4.2) J13biK [ee-zfk]' language

4.:13 AMan6rM Dialogues. (See Key for Translations.)

111 M3pM P66MHCOH. OHM a MocKae, a roCTMHML18 POCCMJI. OHM roaopiiT no-pyccKM. BC: 3Ap8acTayi4Te, MeHil3oajT Bon6AJ1. A KaK aac 3oajT?

I. Pronunciation notes: in MM and biM the M is inaudible; Jl [ya] before the stress sounds like [ee] (2.10); for Wb, JK8 and JKM see 2.7.






M3pM. Sl aHrnM"'BHKa. Bbl xopow6 roaop.tTe no-pyccKM. Sl M3Y'JBIO PYCCKMM R3biK :fAeCb B MOCKB&. A roaop.tTe no-aHrn.tMCKM? Sl noHMMBIO, H6 He roaoplb. rAe Bbl )I(MBiiTe, M3pM? Ha yn1o14e B6nrMHa. A Bbl? Ha npocneKTe M.tpa. 3ApaacTayM', HaTawa. Tbl liAeWb AOM6M Ha aaT66yce? 3ApaacTayM, BllHR. HeT, R iiAY Ha TponneM6yce. no"'eMy M3pM &AeT Ha TponneM6yce, a He Ha MeTpo? Sl He 3HBIO. KaK aac 30ByY? MeHJ1 30BYT Eaa. A KaK aac 30ByY? BaAMM. 3To HaTawa. 6"1eHb npMRTHO. MeHJ1 30BYT BaAMM. 6'teHb npMRTHO.


(2) B:

(3) A:





(5) E:



Put on the correct endings and translate:

I Sl He 3Hil( ). 2 6H He roaop( ) no-pyccKM. 3 Bbl xopow6 roaop( ) no-aHrnMMCKM. 4 rAe Bbl )I(MB( ) ? 5 Sl )I(MB( ) B n6HAOH( ). 6 Mbl M3Y"'B( ) PYCCKMM R3biK. 7 M3pM )I(MB( ) B MOCKB( ). 8 liiBBH iiA( ) Ha aBT66yc( ), a M3pM iiA( ) Ha TponneM6yc( ). 9 OHM EIA( ) AOM6M.

I. 3APBBCTBYM 'Hello', to someone you call Tbl. 3APiiBCTBYMD is for people you call Bbl. 3APBBCTByiiiTe is literally an imperative (a command) meaning 'Be healthy'. All imperative forms, such as npocTMII 'Excuse me', drop the -Te (npocTM) when you're speaking to someone you call Tbl (Lesson 15).



EXERCISE 4/2 Say in Russian: I Excuse me. English? 2 I don't know. 3 I don't understand. 6 What is your name? 4 Do you speak

5 Where do you live?

COMPREHENSION EXERCISE 4/3 (Translation in key) See if you can find the answers to the following three questions in the text below. The text contains some points you won't meet until Lessons 5-7, but these should not prevent you finding the information you need. What are the names of A, 6 and B? 2 Where do A and 6 live and where does B study? 3 What are we told about B's knowledge of languages? Pa3roa6p a MeTp6 (Conversation in the metro) A bumps into his fellow student 6, who has a companion B. A: 3Ap8acTayi4, BaHR. KyAa Tbl 8Aewb? AoM6i4, Ha ymt4Y B6nntHa. A Tbl 8AeWb a yHMaepcMTeT? HeT, R TOlKe 6AY AOM6i4. R Tenepb lKMBy Ha ynM4e Baarilnoaa. no3H8KOMbT8Cbt. 3To MORt nOApyra Mapril, OHS aHrnM'ISHKa. 0Ha M3Y'IS8T pyCCKMM R3biK 3A8Cb B MOCKBe. Mapril, 3TO Mrilwa. B: A: B: 3Ap8aCTayi4Te, Mrilwa. npocTriiTe, aac 30BYT M3pM? HeT, Maplf. 3To c1JpaH4Y3CKoet MMR. H6 R He roaoplb noc1Jp&H4Y3CKM. t Extra vocabulary for Exercise 4/3 no3HaK6MbTBCb Let me introduce you ('Become acquainted'). MORmy ciJp&H4Y3CKoe MMR French name

I>: A:




5.1 Phrases
rAe BOK3lln? KorAfl pa66T&eT My3ili? no'leMy pecTopllH He pa66TaeT? KT6 3To? 3To BOAK&? npRMO M Hanpllao. OHM B CM6r.tpM. Ha T&Kclil.
Where's the station? When is the museum open (When works the museum)? Why is the restaurant closed? Who is that? Is this vodka? Straight on and turn right. They're in Siberia.
By taxi.

5.2 Asking Wh-Questions

Wh-questions are questions with question words such as 'what', 'who' 'when', 'why', 'how'. You already know rAe 'where', 'ITO 'what'
no'leMy 'why'. KorAfl is 'when'. KorAfl pa66TaeT pecTopllH? KT6 is 'who'. KT6 3HlleT?
When is the restaurant open?

Who knows?

Often the emphatic particle e is added after the question word:



Where is she?

>Ke emphasizes the previous word, so the effect is like pronouncing 'Where~ she?' with extra emphasis on 'is' (or on 'where').

5.3 Yes-No Questions'

These are questions which expect the answer 'yes' or 'no'. In Russian they look the same as statements, apart from the question mark:
3TOBOAK8? 3To a6AKB.

Is this vodka? This is vodka.

In the spoken language, it is intonation which distinguishes 3To BOAK&? (yes-no question') from 3To B6AK8 (statement). 3To BOAK&? is pronounced with a sharp rise-fall on a6- like saying in English 'Oh, this is vodka, is it?', with a sharp rise and fall on the vod. This intonation pattern sounds surprised or indignant in English, but in Russian it is the normal way of asking such questions. Practise the intonation, making sure that your voice goes up and down on the stressed syllable of the word you are asking about:

6H &Hrmt~HMH? OHa aHrnM~Ka? OHi aHrnM'tSHKa?

Do you know? Is this coffee? Is he English? Is she English? Is she English?

Notice the voice does not go up at the end of the question, unless the key stressed syllable happens to be the last thing in the sentence:
3To 't~M?

Is this tea?

In this case the Russian and English sentences sound very similar in their intonation.

5.4 Prepositional Case

In Lesson 4 we met the question 'Where do you live' rAe (Where)



(you) JKMBire (live)? [Gdye vi zhi-vyo-tye?]. And we met answers such as a &piiiToHe 'in Brighton', a MocKa6 'in Moscow', a rocn1HM48 POCcMR 'in the Hotel Russia'. The Russian for 'in' is a (the same as the third letter of the alphabet), but after B meaning 'in', following nouns have an ending (usually e) called the prepositional case. This case.ending does not mean anything; it is simply a grammatical ending which must be added after certain prepositions if you want to speak correctly. These prepositions are:


npM (fairly rare)

in on about, concerning attached to; in the presence of

So neTep6ypr 'St Petersburg' with a becomes a neTep6ypre [fpye-tyer bo'or-gye)' 'in St Petersburg'. 8 plus MocKBi becomes a MocK&6 [vmask-vye]' (a changes into e). 'In Bristol' is a &plo1cTon. 'On a trolleybus' is Ha Tponn6ii6yctt.


Nouns which end with a consonant add -e; nouns which end -iii, -a or -o change the vowel to -e.
n6HAOH London Mya6ii museum MOCKBi Moscow nMCbMO letter B n6HAOH8 in London a Myaee [vmoo-zy6-ye] in the museum B MOCKB6 in Moscow a nMCbM6 in a/the letter

The awkward category is nouns which end b; if the noun is masculine the b changes to -e. but if it's feminine the b changes to M.
&pMCTOnb (m) Bristol CM6Mpb (f) Siberia qapb (m) tsar

a &pMCTone in Bristol a CM6MpM in Siberia

o qap6 [a-tsa-ry6] about the tsar

I Pronunciation note. Russian prepositions are read as if they are joined to the following word. So B [v] sounds like [f) before unvoiced consonants. See 2.3 and 2.8.



Nouns which end JI or-e also have the prepositional ending -e unless the letter before the JI or-e is M, in which case the ending is a second M:
Mope sea BaHJI Vania AHrnMJI England ynpa>KHeHMe exercise a MOpe in the sea npM BaHe in Vania's presence a AHrnMM in England a ynpa>KHeHMM in the exercise


Those few nouns, mainly male names, which end MM in the nominative have the prepositional ending M, e.g. IOpMM: o IOpMM 'about lurii';
BaclilnMi4: Ha BaclilnMM 'on Vasilii'

5.6 Exceptions (Russian Grammar Has Many)

A few masculine nouns, usually short ones, have -y (always stressed) instead of -e in the prepositional case after B 'in' and H& 'on'.
KpbiM Crimea C&A garden, orchard nee wood, forest AOH the Don River KnMH Klin (town NW of Moscow) a KpbiMj [fkrl-mo'o] in the Crimea B c&Aj [fsa-do'o] in the garden a necj [vlye-so'o] in the forest PocTOBHa-AoHj Rostov-on-Don a KnMHj in Klin

But after o 'about', these nouns have the normal -e ending:

Mbl roaopliiM o c&M.

We're talking about the garden.

The two nouns M&Tb 'mother' and AO<Ib 'daughter' always add -ep- before any ending. So their prep. case forms are MBTtiH! and AO'-~tiHI



5. 7 Prepositional Case of Personal Pronouns

The eight pronouns. we met in 4.2 have the following prepositional forms:
nom R Tbl OH OHS OHO Mbl Bbl OHM prep MHe Te6e HeM HeM HeM Hac aac HMX example o6o MHe [a-ba-mnye] oTe6e o HeM [a-ny6m] H8H8M a HeM [vnyom] OH8C oaac H8 HMX

about me (o6o is a variant of o used with MHe) about you (tam) about him on her in it about us about you (pol/pl.) on them

5.8 Band Ha: 'in', 'on', 'at'

'In' is a, 'on' is Ha, 'at' will be a with enclosed spaces or buildings ('at school' a wK6ne) and Ha with open spaces and activities/events ('at work' Ha pa66Te, 'at a concert' Ha KOHI.IepTe). Note that English 'in' sometimes corresponds to Russian Ha when the place (e.g. a street) is an open space or was originally an open space (e.g. BOK38n 'station'). in the street in the square in/at the station
Ha ynMI.Ie Ha nn61q8AM H8 BOK38ne

Unpredictable uses of Ha for 'in'/' at', e.g. Ha YKpaMHe 'in the Ukraine', are shown in the vocabularies.


"'To as a Conjunction'= 'that'

As well as 'what', 'ITO is also a conjunction' which joins clauses':

0H8 roaopMT, 'ITO BliHR a CM6MpM. She says that Vania is in Siberia.



Note that the 'tT6 cannot normally be missed out in Russian, though you can say 'She says Vania is in Siberia' in English. Note also that the comma in front of 'tT6 is compulsory - Russian schoolchildren get bad marks in their exams if they miss out the commas.
5.1 o Indeclinable Nouns

Some nouns borrowed into Russian from other languages are indeclinable, that is, they do not obey Russian grammatical rules and never change their endings regardless of the grammar of the sentence. The principal categories are these: (a) words ending -M, -y, -10 e.g. TaKclil 'taxi', MeHtb 'menu' -these words are neuter; (b) female names ending with a consonant (or anything other than -a, R, b), e.g. AHH 'Anne', AJKeliiH 6CTMH 'Jane Austen', M3pM 'Mary' these words are of course feminine. So, while names like 'John Smith' AJK6H CMMT are treated as normal masculine nouns and decline (Mbl roaopliiM o AJK6He CMiiiTe), 'Jane Smith' AJKeliiH CMMT is indeclinable (Mbl roaopliiM o AJKeliiH CMMT). (c) many (but not all) foreign words ending -o, e.g. nanbT6 'overcoat' (from an old French word paletot), KMH6 'cinema', MeTp6 'metro', 'underground railway', PBAMO 'radio' (in this word the last letter is pronounced [o] not [a]). These words are neuter; B KMH6 'in the cinema'. (d) Note the unusual case of K648 'coffee'. This indeclinable word is masculine in formal, educated Russian: rAe K6cJ!e? B6T 6H. Although in informal colloquial Russian it is sometimes neuter, foreigners are advised to keep to formal norms. In other cases, foreign words are treated like native ones. n6HAOH 'London' and KOMnbtbTep 'computer' are normal masculine nouns (Ha KOMnbtbTepe 'on the computer'); Ae6opa 'Deborah' and nencM-K6na 'Pepsi-Cola' decline as feminine nouns.



5.11 Vocabulary

aHrnM"'iiHMH Englishman AHrnMR England (also, loosely, 'Britain') aoK3iln [vag-zal] station, terminus Ha BOK3ilne at the station BOH T&M over there (pointing) "'e (emphasizes previous word) MHCTMTjT institute (university-level institution specializing in one area, e.g. physics or foreign languages) KOrAil when K6t!Je (m indeclinable} coffee KpbiM prep. case a KpbiMY Crimea (Black Sea peninsula} KTO prep. case KOM who nee prep. case a necy wood, forest Mope sea My3eM museum Haneao to the left Hanpilao to the right HOMep number

o + prep. case about. concerning

o AHrnMM about England (o becomes o6 before aM o y 3) nMCbM6 [pees'-mo] letter nn61148Ab (f) [plo-shshat'] square H& nn6tq&AM [na-plo-shsha-dee] in/on a square n6"1Ta post office Ha n6"1Te at the post office npM + prep. case attached to; at the time of npiiMo straight on pecTopiiH restaurant CBA prep. case a C&AY garden. orchard TaM there (opposite of :JAecb 'here') TyaneT toilet YKp&MHB Ukraine Ha YKp&MHe in the Ukraine yHMaepcMTeT university 48Pb (m) tsar (emperor) 4eHTP centre

5.12 Dialogues (Translation in Key)

2 3 4

A: Ei: A: Ei: A: Ei: A: Ei:

rAe MocKail? 8 POCCMM. rAe n6HAOH? B AHrnMM. rAe K.tea? Ha YKpBMHe. rAe Sima? B KpbiMy.



6 7

A: rAe pa66TaeT ARAH BiHH? 5: B neTep6ypre.

A: 0 'liM' Bbl roaopliiTe?

5: 0 POCCMM.
A: 5: A: 5:
Bbl roaopliiTe o M3pM? HeT, Mbl roaopliiM He o Heii, a o Te6e. rAe Bbl )I(MBi!Te? B rocTMHM4B ccPOCCMH.'

A: A rAe )I(MByY AJK6H


5: Toe B ccPOCCMM. 2
9 A: 5: A: 5:
rAe lilpKjTcK? B CM6MpM. rAe )I(MaeT M3pM P66MHcoH?



B Moc:Kae, H8 ynMI.l8 B6nrMH8. A a AttrnMM oHi *"BiT a 5plilcrone. A: CK8)1(MTe, noanyiicTa, rAe ynM48 BonrMHa? 5: npHMO M Hanpaao.

A: CKaliiTe, noanyiicTa, rAe :JAecb yYaneT?

5: Haneao.
A: 5: A: 5: A: 5: A:
Cnaclil6o. no)l(anyMCT8. rAe abl *MBeTe, lilaaH neTpoaM'I? Sl )I(MBY B Bop6He)l(e, B 48HTpe. M3pM M3Y'IieT pyccKMiii H3ti1K a yHMaepcMTeTe? HeT, OHB M3Y'!BeT pyCCKMM H3biK B MHCTMTjTe. npocTiiiTe, noanyiicTa, abl He 3HieTe, rAe 3A&Cb n6'1Ta?



5: A6M H6Mep ABa.

A: A rAe3To?

5: B6H TaM, Hanpaao.

A: Cnaclil6o.

5: noanyiicTa.

I L4iM is the prepositional case of 'ITO. 2 A name in quotation marks is not declined if its generic noun (hotel, newspaper, novel etc.) precedes it (B ra38Te ccnpilaA& 'in the newspaper Pravda'). It is declined if the generic noun is omitted (B ccnpiiBAB 'in Pravda').




Answer the question rAe oHa? 'Where is she?', putting the correct ending on the word in brackets:

1 B (n6HAOH). 2 B (Poccr.1R). 3 B (rocTMHM48). 4 B (Hb10-lil6pK).

5 B (ABCTpanMR). 6 B (AMepMKB). 7 B (r6poA). 8 B (CM6Mpb).

9 B (KpbiM). 10 B (A6M). 11 Ha (jnM48). 12 Ha (nn61J.1Ab).

EXERCISE 5/2 0 K6M Bbl roaopr.1Te? About whom are you speaking?

1 0 (BaHR). 2 0 (MapMR). 3 06 (r.1a8H). 4 06 (AHH &payH). 5 0 (OHS). 6 0 (6H).


Say in Russian:

1 Where is the toilet? 2 Is this beetroot soup? 3 Do you live in the centre? 411ive in England, in Oxford. 5 We're talking about you.


Work out what the names are in the following and write them out in English and Russian (nominative form):
I R lKMBY B Ay6nMHe. 2 0Ha lKMBeT B raM6ypre, B repMSHMM. 3 Mbl roaopr.1M o6 AHT6He naanoaM'Ie 1.!exoae. 4 OHM cei'lac a PocT6ae-Ha-AoHy.


(Refer to the numbered sections if you need to check something.)



Pronounce: I MocKBll ( 1.2). 2 3APBBCTBYMTe! (3.1 ). 3 ~T6 3To (3.1 ). 4 noJKanyMCT8 (3.1). 5 3To K6cj)e? (5.3). Say in Russian: 6 Thank you (3.1). 7 Please (3.1). 8 Goodbye (3.1). 9 Excuse me (3.1). Ask:
10 What's this? (3.2). 11 Is this tea? (5.3). 12 Excuse me, what's your name? (4.1). 13 Do you know where the metro is? (4.1). 14 Do you speak English? (4.5).

Answer: 15 I live in England/Manchester/Dublin (4.6, 5.4). 16 I don't know (4.7). 17 I speak Russian (4.5). Put on the required endings: 18 SUA-- Ha 8BT66yc _ _ . (4.4, 5.4). 19 OHM 8A--AOM6M (4.6). 20 6H JKMB _ _ B MOCKB _ _ (4.6, 5.4). 21 OHM JKMB _ _ B CM6Mp _ _ (5.4). 22 Ha nn61q8A _ _ (5.4.) 23 0Ha M3y'la _ _ pyccKMM H3btK a PoccM _ _ (4.12, 5.4).



6.1 Phrases
3J-o MOM CbiH. rA8 MOR rocntHML!Il? 81:11 3HlteTe Hariwy? 81:11 nlb6MTe Mj3b1Ky? nOAO~ MMHjTy. n030ar.fre, no)l(jnyiiCTB, rf11110. n030BMT8 llla8Ha flerp6BM'f8. Cnacr.t6o 38 nMCbMO. Sl 6p,y B MOCKBJ. KaK a8we MMJI M6'rteCTBo?
This is my son. Where is my hotel? Do you know Natasha? Do you like music? Wait a minute. Please call Galia = May I speak to Galia? (when telephoning) Gallivan Petrovich. Thank you for the letter. I'm going to Moscow. What are your name and patronymic?

6.2 Possessives


f MoA

n Moe

TBOM H8W aaw

TBOR Hiwa aiwa

TBoi Hiwe aiwe

my your (tam) our your (pol/pl.)



These words agree' with the gender of the noun: M6iil CbiH my son MOil AO&Ib my daughter Haw CbiH our son Hilwa AO&Ib our daughter
mlf/n er6 [Yll6]

Moi nttCbMO my letter Hilwa nttcbMO our letter

ei[yy6] er6 [Yll6]


his (NB: r pronounced [v] in this word) her its their

These words are indeclinable', so they do not vary, whatever the following noun or the grammar of the sentence.
er6 CbiHIAO'tblnttCbMO MX CbiHIAO&IblnttCbMO

his son/daughter/letter their son/daughter/letter

6.3 The Accusative Case

The accusative case is a set of endings which do not have any precise meaning but which are required in the kinds of grammatical situations where we use 'her' instead of 'she' in English. For example, the object of a verb is typically in the accusative. We say 'I know her', not 'I know she'. 'Her' is the accusative of 'she', used after verbs like 'know', 'like', 'hit'. But unlike English, it is not only Russian pronouns (R '1', Tbl 'you', Mbl 'we' etc.) which have special form~ for the accusative, but also many nouns, particularly nouns ending -a and -JI. Nouns ending -a or R, whether masculine or feminine, change -a to-y and -R to -10 in the accusative. So MocKail becomes MocKay in a sentence like:
Sl mo6mo MocKay. 0Hil n106MT ARAIO BilHIO.
I love Moscow (like 'I love her'). She loves Uncle Vanya.

Feminine nouns ending in a soft sign (b) do not change:

6H mo6ttT AO'tb.

He loves (his) daughter.

Masculine nouns ending in a consonant, soft sign (b) or iii do not change (unless they denote people or animals- see 6.4). Neuter nouns (including lliiMR 'name') do not change.



SI3H810 neTep6ypr. Sl n1o6n10 BMH6. Eaa mb6MT 't&M.

I know St Petersburg. I love wine. Eva loves tea.

6.4 Animate' Masculine Nouns

Nouns denoting people and animals (but not plants are called animate' in Russian. Animate nouns have certain special grammatical features. One of these features is a special accusative ending for masculine animate nouns: -a added to nouns ending with a consonant -R for nouns with the soft' endings -b or -M, which are replaced by the R; notice the -b or -M are not needed because the [y) sound they represent is contained in the R [~a)
Ill BaH: Bbl 3HaeTe lllaaHa? Mropb: Bbl 3H8eTe MropR? AHApttM: Bbl 3HaeTe AH#U)8R?
Do you know Ivan? Do you know Igor'? Do you know Andrei?

6.5 Feminine Animate Nouns

Notice that feminine animate nouns behave just like inanimate ones (a-y
R-+10 b-+b): Bbl 3HaeTe MocKaj? (inanimate) Bbi3H8eTe Mawx? (animate)

6.6 EXTRA on Animate Nouns Although it is usually obvious whether a noun is animate or not, there are non-obvious cases. For example, singular nouns denoting groups of people, e.g. H&P6A 'a people, nation', apMMR 'army', are inanimate. Also inanimate



are nouns denoting parts of animate beings: mu~6 'face' is inanimate (but mt46 meaning 'person' is animate). There are doubtful cases: MMKp66br 'microbes' are inanimate for most people, but sometimes animate for biologists; dolls and other anthropomorphic toys, e.g. M&TpeWKM, the wooden

dolls which fit inside each other, are usually animate, as are the court-cards 'ace', Kop6nb 'king', AiiMa 'queen', aaneT 'jack') in card-games.

6. 7 Accusative Case of Pronouns

Just as 'me' is the accusative of 'I', so MeHR is the accusative of fl. Here is the full list of personal accusative pronouns:

Accusative you he she it we you they


MeHR Te6R er6 [ye-~6]

me you him her it us you them

er6 [ye-v6] H8C B8C MX

6.8 Uses of the Accusative

(I) After verbs, where you would use 'him' not 'he' in English ('I know

him' not 'I know he'):

Sl 3Hiuo MaaHa.
Bbr 3H8eTe er6

I know Ivan. Do you know him?

(2) In time expressions of duration and frequency:

noAOJKArirTe MMHj'Ty.
Wait a minute. I've been here for a week. (literally 'I am here already a week' HeAenfl 'week')

Sl 3A8Cb Y*e HeAenm.



pa3 a r6A

once a year (pa3 'once', 'one time')

(3) With a 'into' and Ha 'on to' to express motion to somewhere:

Mbl liAeM a MocKay.

We are travelling to Moscow.

(4) With the prepositions 'tepe3 'through', 'across', 38 'for' (in return for)
'tepe3nec 'fepe3 ynM4Y Cnacti6o 38 nMCbM6.

through the forest across the street Thank you for the letter.

'tepe3 'through' is also used with time words to mean 'after the named

period of time has elapsed':

'-tepe3 HeAllniO Mbl liAeM B CM6Mpb.

In a week's time we're going to Siberia.

6.9 'To Go on Foot': HATM

You already know ex8Tb 'to go by transport' (a Type-lB verb- see Lesson 4). 'To go on foot' is the verb MATH, an unusual verb as you can see from its ending TM. The stem is MA. and the endings are the same as those of >KMTb 'to live':

As mentioned in 6.8 (3) above, to describe motion to some destination, you use the same two prepositions a and Ha which you met in Lesson 4, but in this meaning of motion from place to place, you use them with the accusative instead of the prepositional. So a MocKaj (ace.) means 'to Moscow', while a MocKaj (prep.) means 'in Moscow'.

st MAY B 48HTp.
M3pM MA6T a rocTMHM4Y Bbl MA6Te Ha pa66yY?

I am going (on foot) to the centre. Mary is going to the hotel. Are you going to work?




Put the possessives in the correct forrn:

I (My) __ CbiH. 2 (Our) _ _ AO.. b. 3 (His) _ _ MBTb. 4 (Your) _ _ rocntHMLIB. 5 (Her) _ _ MY*


Where necessary, change the endings of the nouns:

1 s:1 mo6mo (Mj3b1Ka) - - 2 0Hit mb6MT (MYlK) __ ?

3 4 5 6

no308MTe, nolKitnyMCTB, (Jlto60Bb) __ (Bn&AMMMPOBHB) - - noAO*AMTe (MMHyYB) - - Cnaclil6o 38 ('fBM) - - Cnaclil6o 38 (BOAKB) - -

6.10 Russian Names and How to be Polite (or Familiar)


The first Russians you meet socially are likely to give you their names as HaTltwa 'Natasha', BonOAJI 'Volod!a', TilHH 'Tania' and so on, all ending in the sound [a]. These are short or 'intimate' forms of their 'official' first names. On her birth certificate HaTitwa is HaTitnbH (f), Bon6AJ1 is Bn&AMMMp (m), TaHil is TaTbRHB (f). Here are some of the commonest Russian first names: Females 'Official' EneHa HaTitnbH (or -MH) T8TbRH8 On bra MapliiH MpMHB CaeTnaHa ranMHB 'Intimate' JleHa HaTitwa TitHH OnH Mawa Hpa CaeTa ranH




AneKCBHAP 5oplo1c ElnBAMMMp Iii BaH MMX8MI1 HMKOI1BM nllBen Ceprelii

Cawa 56pH Boi16AH BllHH Mloiwa K611H nawa CepibKa

Strictly speaking, these 'intimate' forms are only to be used when you are on Tbl terms with your new acquaintance, but Russians (for example tour guides or street traders) will often introduce themselves to you with their intimate names because these forms are easier for foreigners.

6.11 Patronymics

However, in more formal circumstances a new Russian acquaintance will be introduced with his or her full first name and middle name, which is formed from the father's official first name and is called a 'patronymic' (in Russian OT'feCTBO from the word OT(U.j 'father'). Male patronymics end OBM'f or -eBM'f (meaning 'son of'), female ones end OBHa or -eaHa ('daughter of'). The ending OBM'fiOBHa follows hard consonants (IIIBaHlflaiiHOBM'IMBiiHOBHa); -eBM'f/-eaHa is the corresponding 'soft' ending, replacing the Iii or b of names such as lltropb (MropeaM'fiMropeaHa) or AHApeM (AHAPHBM'fiAHApeesHa). Note that if the name ends MM (BaCMI1MM), theM is replaced by a soft sign (BacMI1ReBM'f/Bacl.imzeBHa). So you may hear:
- no3HaK6MbTecb, nolKanyliicTa, 3To BnaAMMMP SoploicoaM'f. 'Let me introduce you (become acquainted), please, this is Vladimir Borisovich ('son of Boris').' lflsaH IIIBiiHOBM'f Ivan lvanovich (son of Ivan) Soploic CepreeBM'f Boris son of Sergei (-eBM'f for names ending b or Iii) BcesonoA BnBAMMMposM'f Vsevolod son of Vladimir HaTill1bH lflaaHOBHa Natalia daughter of Ivan MapMH CepreesHa Maria daughter of Sergei (-eaHa for names ending b or Iii)



These long double names are in such common use between people who call each other Bbl that patronymics are usually shortened in speech, dropping the -oa- or -ea- (unless stressed). So CepreeBM"' is normally pronounced CepreM"', lllaaHOBHa is pronounced lllaaHHa. However, a patronymic such as neTp6BM"', stressed on the -6a-, cannot be shortened in that way. Russians do not expect you as a foreigner to have a patronymic, though there is nothing to stop you creating one - (PliAJKMH&nbAOBM"'/AJ!t6HOBHa/ A8P3HOBM"'/AJ!t6pAJKeBH8 or whatever). If you do not want to leave a blank against 6T"'ecrao on Russian forms, you can put in your middle name(s), if you have any.

6.12 EXTRA: Exceptional Patronymics

A small number of male official first names (i.e. not intimate forms) end -a e.g. HMKMTa. Such names are rare. They form patronymics as follows:
lllnbH (Elias): lllnbM"'!IIInbMHM"'H8 Ky3bMa:Ky3bM.t...n<y3bMMHM"'Ha nyKa (Luke): nyd"'/nyKMHM"'H8 HMKMTa:HMKMTM"'iHMKMTM"'Ha <I>OMS (Thomas): <I>OMM"'i<I>OMMHM"'H8

6.13 EXTRA On Choice of Names

Russians are conservative when naming children, keeping to a relatively small number of old, safe names such as EneHa, HMKonalit, Bn&AriiMMp, HaTanbR. You will probably find that all the Russian men you meet share about a dozen names, while the women have about two dozen. There was a fashion in the thirties for more 'international' names such as P66epT, 3AYBPA and immediately after the revolution for new, revolutionary names, but now people prefer to play safe. In the case of boys, parents always bear in mind that an 'unfortunate' choice of name (CnY,.HMK 'Sputnik', TpaKTOP 'Tractor'), which seemed all right at the time, will be inflicted on the grandchildren too through the patronymic. Some relics of



the revolutionary names survive: BMnopa (from the initial letters of lin&AMMMP .!llnbM't lleHMH QpraHM38Top QeBOnKil.jMM- 'V.I.L. Organizer of the Revolution'; PMKC (Pa60'tMX M Kp8CTbRH COI03 'Union of the Workers and Peasants'), PeM or PeMa (PeaoniOI.IMR MMpoBliR 'World Revolution') MapneH ('Marx and Lenin'), Bn&AneH ('Vladimir Lenin'), HMHenb ([nee-nytW] a female name- neHMH backwards).

6.14 Surnames
Every Russian has a surname or family" name (cj)aMMnMR), typically ending -oa, -ea, -ea, -MH or -biH for men (6pelKHea, rop6aotea, KapeHMH, Con>KeHMI.IbiH), and -oaa, -eaa, -MHa, -biH& for women (6pelKHeaa, rop6aoteaa, KapeHMHa). The commonest Russian surnames are 111BBHOB/111BaH6Ba, non6a/non6aa, CMMpH6BICMMpH6Ba (though in Russian jokes the equivalent of 'Smith, Jones and Brown' is 111aaH6B, neTp6a M CMAOPOB). Some surnames, for example AocToeacKMM, are adjectives, so the feminine form ends -aR (AocToeacKaR- see 7.3). Surnames with other endings, e.g. naCTepHliK, r6ronb (the writer Gogel'), WMMAT (Schmidt), 6pllyH (Brown), noyn (Pope) do not have feminine forms. As you might expect (5.10), they decline for males, but as female names are indeclinable: Bbl 3HlleTe PM'tBPA@. n6yna? 'Do you know Richard Pope (ace.)?'; Bbi3HlleTe 6llp6apx noyn? 'Do you know Barbara Pope?'

6.15 Etiquette
Acquaintances who call each other Bbl will normally use the first name and patronymic. So if 111aliH 111aiiHOBM't CMMpH6B meets his acquaintance 111pliiHa neTp6aHa non6aa, the conversation may begin:
111.111.: 3ApiiBCTBYMTe, 111pMHB neTpOBHS. 111.n.: 3ApiiBCTBYMTe, 111BliH 111BiiHOBM't.

Children use Bbl to adults and call their teachers by their MMR-6T'teCTBO. Adults reply with Tbl, and use the intimate form of the first name. So if little Tat'iana meets her friend's mother Klara Aleksandrovna, the conversation may start:


T.: 3ApaacTayiTe, Knapa AneKCBHAPOBHa. K.A.: 3APBBCTBYM, TBHR.

Although you, as a foreigner, may not be expected to handle the long double names, your politeness will be appreciated if you make the effort. When you meet someone you are likely to have to deal with again, ask npocn4Te, K8K aawe MMR M OT'IeCTBO? 'Excuse me, what ('how') are your name and patronymic?' If you address MaaH MaaHOBM't CMMpH6B as MaaH MBBHOBM't, that is the equivalent of calling him Mr Smirnov in English. Although every Russian has a surname, there are no generally used equivalents of Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms. When talking to or about foreigners, Russians usually use Russified versions of foreign titles: MMCTep CMMT, MMCCMC/MMCC Y6nKep for 'Mr Smith' and 'Mrs/Miss Walker', MOCbll for 'monsieur', c~Jpay for German 'Frau', and so on.

6.16 Vocabulary (in Alphabetical Order)

aaw your (pol/pl. 6.2) r6A [got] year prep. a rOAY [vga-do'o] in a year A6AYWKa (m) grandfather AO'tb (f) prep. AO'tepM (5.6) daughter er6 [ye-l6] his; its (6.2) ei [ye-y6] her (6.2) JKeHa wife 38 +ace. for (in return for) cnaclil6o 38 +ace. thank you for (sth) ailaTpa [zaf-tra] tomorrow MATM [eet-te'e] to go (on foot) R MAY Tbl MAiWb MMR (neuter!) forename, first name MX their (6.2) mo61i'1Tb to love, be fond of R nl06l!lb, 1 Tbl nlb6MWb Mara3li'IH shop MMHjTa minute MOM (6.2) my MYJK [moosh] husband MY3b1Ka music Haw (6.2) our HeAenR week Hennoxo not bad, not badly OTe4 (ace OT48) father 6T'IecTao [6-chye-stva] patronymic

I. Every roaopli'ITb-type (type 2) verb whose stem ends 6 B M n or cjJ (all labial [lip) consonants) has this extra -n- in the 'I' (R) form.



nOAO*AMTe (nOAO*AM with Tbl) wait (imper') nolKMBBTb to live. get along KaK nolKMa&er ... ? How is . . . ? no3AJ)aansnol congratulations! (=I congratulate) no3H&K6MbTecb meet (become acquainted) (imper') [pa-zna-k6m'-tyes'] n030BMTe (n030BM with Tbl) call (imperative form)

pa66Ta work Ha pa66Te H& pa66-ry CbiH son T8K


at work to work

celiiotac now, at the moment

TB6iii your (fam 6.2) ylKe [oo-zhe] already



otac hour otepe3 + ace. through; across; after (a period of time)

6.17 Dialogues (Translation in Key)

B&AMM: Bbl ntb6MT8 MY3b1Ky? Eaa: Eaa: KM: Mn: KM: Mn: KM: Mn: KM: Mn: KM: Mn: 6oteHb. Jl nao6ntb rnMHKY M &opOAMHa. He 6oteHb. 3APSaCTBYMT8, MMX&Mn neTpOBM't, K8K Bbl )I(MBiTe? Henn6xo, KOHCT8HTMH MMxBMnOBM't. A Bbl? T6lKe Henn6xo. KyA8 aba MAiTe? Ha pa66-ry. A Bbl? B&AMM: A npoK6~beB8?

Jl MAY a Mara3MH. A K&K nolKMaaeT aawa lKeHa, HaTanbJI 50pMCOBH8? Xopow6. 3aaTpa oHa 8AeT a MocKay. Hawa AO'tb H.tHa
lKMBiT TaM ylKe r6A. Bbl 3HB8T8

ee MYlK8 AHAP8A?

Aa, J1 er6 3HSIO.

A MX CbiHa 30BYT M.twa. CbaHa?! TaK aba ylKe A8AYWKa, KoHcTaHTMH MMxilliinoaMot. aac!




Using n030BMT8 'call' and the accusative fonn of the name, call the following 1o the telephone:
I 2 3 4 Call MB8H, please ( =May I speak to Ivan, please?). Calllilropb neTpOBM'f. Please call HaTawa. Please call HaTlu1bA AneKcSHAPOBHa.


Say in Russian:
I 2 3 4 5 Good morning, Ivan Petrovich. Where is our hotel? Thank you for the wine. Please wait a minute. Is that your (pol) wife?


What are the nominative fonns of the names of the five people mentioned in these two dialogues?
A: no30BMT8, no:JKanyliiCTa, MMxailna Cepr8eBM'f8 MniOAMMny AHAJ)HBHy. &: Celil'fBC. A: Bbl m06MTe MilpKa TaeHa? &: HeT. .A n106mo C~nMHA'f'&pa MArayY KpMCTM.



7.1 Phrases with Adjectives

6onbWOM TeaTp pyCCKMM R3b1K ,Q66pbiM A8Hb TaepcK8R ynMLIS ,Q66poejTpo B 60nbWOM TeaTpe Ha KpacHoiii nn6aq&AM

Bolshoi (Big) Theatre Russian language Good day Tver' Street (Moscow's main street) Good morning in the Bolshoi Theatre in (on) Red Square

Pronunciation note: the iii in the endings biM and -Miii is inaudible, so there's no need to make an effort to pronounce it.

7.2 Adjectives
An adjective is a word such as 'good', 'interesting', 'Soviet' which can describe a noun, that is, any word which fits in the gap in a sentence such as 'It's a ___ thing'. In Russian, adjectives have endings which must agree with the noun, that is, if the noun is neuter (jTpo 'morning'), then the adjective must have a neuter ending too (the ending -oe on A66poe in ,Q66poe jTpo 'Good morning'). If you look in a dictionary, you will find adjectives in their masculine nominative' form. There are three possible masculine endings: biM (the commonest), -Miii and -6iii. These endings are all related: bliii is the



commonest one, -Miii is the ending if the last consonant of the adjective is soft (7 .5) or one of the spelling rule consonants (8.3), and -6iii replaces bliii and -Miii if the adjective is stressed on the ending. Three standard examples are:
H6Bbliii pyCCKMiii BTOp6iii

Russian second

Russian adjectives are much simpler than nouns. First, once you know the basic endings, you find that there are really no exceptions. Second, once you have learnt the stress on the masculine form, the stress is on the same syllable in all other forms of the adjective.

7.3 Feminine Adjective Ending: -aA

Here are the feminine forms of our three typical adjectives:
H6B8R pyccKBR BTOpBR H6auynM48 pyCCKIB ra36Ta BTOpja AB8Pb
new street Russian newspaper the second door

7.4 Neuter Adjectives: -oe

H6aoe pyccKoe &Top6e H6aa MMR pjccKa MMR BTopa ynpaJKH6HMe
new name Russian name second exercise


Put on the required endings:

l 36n&AH(bliii)_ CM6Mipb (f) Western Siberia. 2 pYccK(Miii)_ ~taiii
Russian tea. 3 H6a(bliii) __ rocTMHM48 new hotel. 4 KpacH(bliii) __

nn6aq&Ab Red Square. 5 &onbw(6iii)__ K&apdpa large flat.



6 MiuleHbK(MM) __ OKH6 small window: 7 nywKMHCK(MM) __ nn6~q&Ab Pushkin Square. 8 EipMTltHCK(MM) __ noc6nbCTBO The British Embassy.

7.5 Soft Adjectives (HMM)

There are a few 'soft' adjectives ending -HMM. These have MM where HOBbiM has biM, fiJI where HOBbiM has -aH, -ee where HOBbiM has -oe. Most 'soft' adjectives have a time meaning, e.g. the parts of the day and the seasons. Here is a list of the commonest: m
nocneAHMM jTpeHHMM B8'1epHMM aeceHHMM 3MMHMM lleTHMM OCeHHMM B8'1epHJIJI ra3eT8 aeceHHMM A8Hb 3MMHee n&llbTO lliiTHJIJI HO'Ib oceHHHH nor6A&

n last morning evening spring winter summer autumn

nocneAHJIJI jTpeHHJIJI ae'lepHHH B8CeHHJIJI 3MMHJIJI lleTHJIJI OCeHHJIJI nocneAHee jTpeHHee ae"'epHee B8CeHH88 3MMHee lliiTHee OCeHHee

evening newspaper spring day winter overcoat summer night autumn weather

For xop6WMM 'good' see 8.1 0.

7.6 An Exception: the Tplmtlit ('Third') Type

The only important exception is TpeTMM 'third', whose endings do not fit in any of our categories above. This adjective has the ending bJI in the feminine and -be in the neuter:

third day third night third morning



7. 7 EXTRA: More Examples of the Tplmtlil Type

The other (rare) adjectives of the Tplmdi type are nearly all derived from the names of living things, particularly animals, e.g. co6ii'IMiii 'dog's' (co6il'lbSI :IKM3Hb 'dog's life'), KOWii'IMiii 'eat's' (Kowil'lbSI wepcTb 'cat fur'). One to note is 66:1KMiii from 6or 'god' (66:1KbSI MMnOCTb 'God's mercy').

Put on the required endings: I nocn6AH__ MMHjTa The last minute. 2 3MMH__ jTpo Winter morning. 3 TpeT__ yp6K The third lesson. 4 TpeT__ ynM4a The third street.

7.8 KaK6M 'What (kind of) ... '?

If you want to ask what something is like, use the adjective K&K61ii (same endings as aTopolii):
KaKiiSI 3To Mawi~Ha? KaKiiSI nof'6Aa a MocKae? KaK6e 3To BMH6?

What kind of car is it? What's the weather like in Moscow? What wine is this?

7.9 'This' and 'That': 3TOT and ToT

When used in noun phrases ('this house', 'that woman'), 'this' and 'that' are translated by 3TOT, which agrees' with its noun like this:
m 3TOTAOM this house

3Ta KH!otra this book

n 3TO nMCbMO

this letter This house is old. This book is mine.

3TOT AOM CTilpbiM. 3Ta KHMra MOR.



If you wish to contrast 'this' (i.e. near me) with 'that' (i.e. not near me), you can translate 'that' with the word TOT, which has the same endings as 3-roT:
that house

TB KHrilra
that book

To mtCbMO
that letter

3Ta KHrilra Moil, a Ta KHrilra aawa. This book is mine and that one is yours.

7.10 EXTRA: 3Ta KHiilra MOR versus 3To KHiilra Note the difference between 3ToT/3Ta in sentences such as 'This book is mine' 3Ta KHrilra MOR and indeclinable 3To in sentences such as 'This is my book' 3-rQ Moil KHrilra (Lesson 3). In 3Ta KHrilra Moil, 'this' and 'book' are part of the same noun phrase and therefore agree. In 3To MOR KHrilra 'This is my book', 3To and KHrilra belong to different parts of the sentence. Note also that because 3To, the neuter form of 3TOT,looks and sounds the same as indeclinable 3To, 3To nMCbMO has two meanings: it means both 'This letter' and 'This is a letter'.

7.11 Prepositional Case of Adjectives

If the noun is in the prepositional case, the adjective must agree', i.e. be in the same case as the noun. The endings are:
m and n (always the same): -oM for the HOBbiMipyccKMMIAPyroiil types

-eM for soft adjectives (with -HMil) and adjectives like xopowMiil 'good' (see 8.1 0)
a HOBO ropoAe!Kacl' a pyccKU r6PQAe/Kacl' a APvru ropoAefKacl' a aMMHBt ropoAefnanbTO l"p8TMiil 'third' has -b8M a Tp6TJ18M AOMelnMCbMe
in a new town/cafe in a Russian town/cafe in another town/cafe in a wintry town/winter overcoat

in the third house/letter



The f equivalent of OM is -olii; the f equivalent of -eM is -elii:

B H6BQB KHMre B pyccKQB KHMre B APYr2H KHMre B 3MMHU wanKe a TpeTt.elii KHMre
in a new book in a Russian book in another book in a winter hat in the third book

7.12 Accusative of Adjectives

Masculine (m) and neuter (n)

If the noun doesn't change, the adjective doesn't change:

PjCCKMiii HabiK (m nom.) KpacMBbllii. s:I3HSIO pyccKMiii H3biK (mace.). 3To Hawe H6aoe MeTp6 (n nom.). s:ln106.niOttluueH6aoeMEnp6(nacc.).
Russian is beautiful. I know Russian. This is our new metro. I love our new metro.

With masculine animate' nouns (people and animals), adjectives of the H6BbrliilpyccKMiiiiBTOp61ii types end -oro (note that r in this ending is pronounced [v]):
Bbr aHaeTe H6Boro pyccKoro COCeAS? 0HS nr06MT BTOp6rO MjlKa?
Do you know the new Russian neighbour? Does she love her second husband?

Adjectives of the nocniiAHMiii and TpeTMiii types have -ero (r again pronounced [v]):
Mbi3HSeM nocnt~AHero 48PH. Bbl aHaeTe ei TpeTt.ero Mj:IKa?
We know the last tsar. Do you know her third husband?

This alternation of o and e in the endings -oro and -ero is part of a pattern in adjective endings. Compare the endings OM and -eM of the prepositions in 7.11 above.
Feminine (f)

-u becomes -y10 HH becomes -1010 TpeTbH becomes TpiiTbiO



nom.: xon6AH&H 3MMHHH nor6A& cold winter weather

Bbl ni06MTe xon6AHnQ 3MMH.!Q!2 nor6Ay? Do you like cold winter weather?

7.13 Accusative of MOM, TBOM, Haw, saw, 3ToT, TOT

m inanimate and n: same as nominative

Bbl 3HaeTe M6M!Haw/T6T r6poA? Do you know my/our/that town? OH mb6MT Hawe/3To BMH6. He loves our/this wine.
m animate

Bbl 3HaeTe Moer6/Hawero APvra? Do you know my/our friend? 0Ha nlb6MT 3Toro/ She loves this/that Englishman. TOr6 &HrnM'IBHMH&.

Bbl 3H8eTe Molb/Hawy A6'1b?

Do you know my/our daughter? I know this/that woman.

s:l 3HBIO 3yY/Ty )l(eH&qMHy.

7.14 Prepositional of Possessives (MoM etc.), 3TOT and TOT


B MOiM/TBoif! A6Me/nMCbMe
(note the dots)

in my/your house/letter in our/your house/letter in this/that house/letter

a HaweMiaaweM A6Me/nMcbMe a 3ToMfrm.t_ A6Me/nMcbMe

B MOii/TBOU KHMre B HBWU/BBWD KHMfil a 3T2i!/Tmt KHr.tre

in my/your book in our/your book in this/that book

7.15 Example Phrases

3-ra KHMra H& pyccKm.! H3b1Ke.
This book is in Russian (Russians say 'on' a language, not 'in').



Ha KpacH2!i nn6aq&AM

on Red Square at the Bolshoi Theatre in flat number three (the third flat) in the evening paper in the summer cafe (street cafe)

6onbWmot TeBTpe B Tp6Tbd. KB&pntpe B B8'f6pHgj r&38Te B n6THel!t K&cl6


7.16 Adverbs

Adverbs' are words which can fill the gap in a sentence such as 'She speaks Russian ___ ', e.g. quickly, well, often, impressively. English adverbs are often formed from adjectives by adding -ly (nicely, cleverly, coldly etc.). The commonest adverb ending in Russian is o, replacing the -biMIMM/6M adjective ending. Adverbs are always indeclinable'. Examples:
Kp&CMBbiM beautiful MHTepecHbiM interesting xon6AHbiM cold xop6wMM good (see Lesson 8.10) OHa roaoplliT xopow6. Kpacloiao beautifully MHTepecHo interestingly x6nOAHO coldly (NB stress) xopow6 well (NB stress)
She speaks well.

7.17 Vocabulary (with Pronunciation Check)

aMepMKBHCKMM American (adj) [a-mye-ree-kan-skee] 6onbw611t [bai'Sh6y] large 6pMTBHCKMM [bree-tan-skee] British BBHH&JI (f adj) [vil-nna-ya] bathroom ae'fepHMM [vye-chyer-nee]
evening (adj)

3MMHMM [zeem-nee] winter 3H&MeHMTbiM [zna-mye-ne e-tl]


MHTep8cHbiM [een-tye-ry6-snl]

K&K6M [ka-k6y] what kind of KB&pTioipa [kvar-te 8-ra] flat,


BTop611t [fta-r6y] second rniiBHbiM (glav-nl] main r6poA [g6-rat] town, city A66pbiM [d6-brl) good, kind A6Ma [d6-ma] at home ecTb [yest'] is/are (8.9) 38n&AHbiM [za-pad-nl] western

KH!oira [kne'e-ga] book KpacloiBbiM [kra-se'e-vl] beautiful,


KpilCHbiM [kra-snl] red KpeMnb (m) [kryeml'] the Kremlin




KYXHfl [ko "oh-nya] kitchen B or Ha KYXHe in the kitchen neTHMM [lyet-nee] summer MilneHbKMM [ma-lyen'-kee] small MOCT [most] bridge

pyccKMM [ro o-skee-] Russian


[rya-dam] nearby, alongside

cer6AHfl [NB: sye-vod-nya] today cnilnbHfl [spal'-nya) bedroom cTilH4Mfl [stan-tsl-ya] station

prep. Ha MocTj [na-ma-sto"o) on a bridge

HOBbiM [n6-vl] new nanbTO (n indeclinable) [pal't6]

(on metro or in country)

Ha cTilH4MM [na-stan-tsi-ee] at

a station
cTilpbiM [sta-ri] old TilK>Ke [tag-zhe] also, in addition TeilTp [tye-atr] theatre TennbiM [ty6-pli] warm TOT [tot] that (7.9) TpeTMil [trye-tee] third (7.6) xon6AHbiM [ha-16d-ni] cold wK6na [shk6-la] school 3Til>K [e-tash] floor, storey Ha 3Ta>K [na-e-ta-zhe] on

nepBbiM [pyer-vi) first nnaH [plan] plan, street map nor6AS [pa-g6-da] weather noK83biBaTb (+ace.) [pa-ka-zi-vat']

to show (something)
fl nOKS3biB810, Tbl nOKS3biBa8Wb nocneAHMM [pa-slyed-nee) last noc6nbCTBO [pa-s61'-stva] embassy peKil ace. peKy [rye-ka rye-koo]

a floor
3TOT [8-tat) this (7.9)


7.18 TeKCTbl Texts (Translations in Key)

A: MocKBil- 6onbw6il ropoA. B MocKBe KpacliiBafl peKe, 3HaMeHMTbiM yHMBepcMT8T. Bbl y>Ke 3HileTe KpilcHyiO nn6tq&Ab, 6onbw6il TeiiTp, TBepcKyiO ynM4Y 6: 3H810. TBepcKilfl ynM48- 3To rnilBH&fl ynM4a. A: (noKil3biBaeT Ha nniiHe) BoT TBepcKilfl, BOT H6BbiM Ap68T, a BOT CTSpbiM Ap68T, O'f8Hb CTapafl ynM48. 3-ro rOCTMHM48 ccPOCCMfl, O'f8Hb 6onbWilfl rocTMHM48. 3A8Cb KpeMnb, PRAOM Sonbw6il KSM8HHbiM 1 MOCT, a 3TO 6pMTSHCK08 noc6nbCTBO, Ha Ha6epe>KHoil 1 BoT aMepMKilHcKoe noc6nbcTBo, a BOT KaHSACKOe*.



A: 6: A: 6:

Ao6poe jTpo. Ao6pbiM A8Hb. no'feMy Bbl B 3MMHeM nanbTO? noroAB cerOAHR TennaR. 3-ro He 3MMHee nanbTO, a neTHee.

Mbl lKMBeM B MOCKBe. Mbl - 3TO R, naBen naBnOBM'f neTpOB, MOil :IKeHa CBemaHa AneKCBHAPOBHa M Hilwa AO'fb EneHa. B WKOne ee 30ByY neHa, a AOMa Mbl ee 30BeM neHywa. Moil MaTb, 3MHaMAB EropoBHa, TOlKe lKMBeT B MocKBe. OHa lKMBeT B cTapoM AOMe B 4eHTpe, a Mbl lKMBeM B HOBOM KBapTilpe B HOBOM AOMe Ha lbro38n&Ae'. HaWAOM Ha npocneKTe BepHSACKoro. Bbi3HileTe CTBH4MIO t0ro-38naAHaR'? Mbl lKMBeM Ha TpeTbeM 3Ta:IKe. 8 HBW8M KBapTMpe ecTb npMXO:IKaR", 6onbwilR KOMHaTB, cnanbHR. EcTb TilKlKe ManeHbKaR KYXHR, BBHHaR " TyaneT.

Extra Vocabulary for Texts lbro-38n&A [yo o-ga-za-pat] the


KiiMeHHbiM [kfl-mye-ni] stone (adj) KaHBAcKMM [ka-nat-skee] Canadian Ha6epe:IKHaR (f adj) embankment [na-bye-ryezh-na-ya] npMXOlKaR (f adj) [pree-ho-zha-ya]
entrance hall

Ha lbro-38n&Ae in the south-west tOro-38n&AHaR (f adj) 'South

Western' (metro station)

[yo o-ga-za-pad-na-ya]


Put on the required endings and translate:

1 6H lKMBeT B 3iln&AH __ CM6Mp __ 2 Bbl 3HaeTe HOB __ rOCTMHM4 __? 3 OHM "A--Ha KpilcH __ nnOaq&Ab. 4 0Ha B 3MMH __ nanbTO. 5 Bbl 3HBeTe MO __ BTOp __ lK8H __ ? 6 8 3T__ _ Mara3MH __ pa6oTaeT Mo __ AO'fb. 7 OHa noK83biBaeT HOB __ 3MMH __ nanbT6. 8- KaK __ cer6AHR nor6A&?- Tenn __


nnaH IIIIH.,..... -""bi!Oii 'IScTII r{)poAa (Map of the city centre)




Say in Russian:
I Where is Red Square?
2 She is in (on) Red Square. 3 We're going to Red Square. 4 Is this book yours?


1 What is the most direct route from GUM to Miasnitskaia Street? 2 On which square does the Natsional' Hotel stand? 3 Tell an English visitor who knows enough Russian to read the street names how to get from Great Stone Bridge to Pushkin Square.



8.1 Key Phrases

rAe HilwM MeeT&? Where are our seats (places)? Aflihe, noJKiulyMCTS, anenbCMHbl. Give (me) (some) oranges, please. rAe MOM APY3bR? Where are my friends? Are there (any) American newspapers? ECTb 8M8pMKSHCKM8 ra3eTbl? (Some) pies, please. nMpO>KKM, no>KanyMCT8. ECTb 6nMHbl? Are there pancakes? Here is the money. B6TAeHbrM.

8.2 Nominative Plural of Masculine and Feminine Nouns

All the phrases in 8.1 contain nouns in the fonn of the nominative plural ('seats', 'oranges', 'friends' etc.). To make nouns plural, the basic ending for both masculine and feminine nouns is bl. Masculine nouns add bl, feminine nouns replace their -a with bl. So:
6nMH 'pancake' becomes 6nMHtli'pancakes' ra38Ta 'newspaper' becomes ra38TI!J. 'newspapers'

The ending bl has the variant -M, depending on the last consonant of the noun. If the masculine noun ends with a soft sign (b) or M, then the plural ending replaces the soft sign or Mwith -M. If the feminine noun ends b or 11, then the ending replacing the b or 11 is also M:



ABepb door HeAenR week

AB8P.!!t doors HeAenM weeks

8.3 Spelling Rule 1

In addition, you have to know the so-called 'spelling rules', which affect the spelling of endings right through the grammar. The first spelling rule, which we need to form plurals correctly, is as follows: After the following seven letters, where you would expect -bl, for example in the plural, you always find -M instead.


} }

these three letters are all pronounced in the same place, at the back of the mouth these are two of the three consonants which are always hard (see 2.7) these are the two consonants which are always soft (2.6).



This rule has no particular logic to it. It is simply a result of sound and spelling changes in the history of Russian. But it is worth learning, since you will need it frequently. Because of this rule, the plural of AlbiK 'language' is AlbiKM (not RlbiKbl), the plural of KHiilra 'book' is KHiilrM 'books' (not KHMrbl). (This rule also explains why the ending of the adjectives pyccKMIIii 'Russian' and xop6WMM 'good' is -Mil and not -biM as in HOBbiM 'new'- see 7.2.)

8.4 Nominative Plural of Neuter Nouns

Replace the ending -o with -a and (usually) change the place of the stress. Nouns ending -e replace the ending -e with -R.
MecTo 'place'
OKHO 'window' BMHO 'wine' ynpa>KHeHMe 'exercise'

MeeT& 'places'
OKHB 'windows' BrotH& 'wines' ynpa>KHeHMA 'exercises'



8.5 Plural Exceptions (Nouns We've Met So Far)

&HrnM'faHMH AOM 6paT r6pOA AO'fb APYr MMR M8Tb MY>K CbiH R6nOKO

Englishman house brother town daughter friend name mother husband son apple

&HrnM'faHtl AOMB 6paTbfl ropoAI AO'fmll! APY3bR MM8HA MaTRM


Cb1H21l.!J!. t16nOKM

Englishmen houses brothers towns daughters (that extra -ep-) friends names mothers (extra -ep-) husbands sons apples

These are unpredictable. The biggest category of exceptions is short masculine nouns ending in a consonant and stressed on the stem in the singular, many of which end in -a in the plural. A6M 'house' AOMa 'houses' is a good example. Many names of professions and jobs also end -a, for example npo<Jeccop 'professor' npo<Jeccopa 'professors', AMpeKTop 'director' AMpeKTopa 'directors'; in this type of case, which is getting more widespread, the stress of the singular is not a factor. You will meet variants. MH>KeHep 'engineer' in dictionaries has the plural MH>KeHepbl, but many engineers call themselves MH>KeHepa. Irregular plural forms will be shown in the vocabularies.

8.6 Mobile' or 'Fill' Vowels: oT(e)4 pl. OTI.4bl

Some masculine nouns which end consonant+ e (oro)+ consonant, e.g. oTe4 'father', drop the e or o whenever an ending is added. So the plural of oTe4 is not OT84bl but OT4bl. These disappearing vowels are called 'mobile' or 'fill' vowels and they are shown in parentheses in the vocabularies like this: oT(e)4 Other examples:
8MepMKSH(8)4 npoA&a(e)4 nMpO>K(O)K

American sales assistant pie

pl. 8MepMKBH4bl pl. npoA&B4bl pl. nMpO>KKM



A(e)Hb(m) pbiH(O)K

day market


Ha pbiHKe (prep.) at

the market The ending -ell. common with names of nationalities, nearly always has a mobile e, e.g. sm6H(e)ll 'Japanese' pl. sm6Hybl. The endings -eell [ye-yets], -&ell. -6ell. e.g. in eapone(e)ll 'a European', also have a mobile e, but when the e drops out it leaves the consonantal (y) sound in the form of the letter M. So the plural of eapone(e)ll 'European' is eaponeMllbl. Other examples:
KMTa(e)ll Chinese pl. KMT8Mllbl aannr.t(e)ll Welshman pl. aannMMllbl

8. 7 Nominative Plural of Adjectives

All adjectives in the nom. plural end ble (or Me for soft adjectives and those whose stem ends with one of the seven 'spelling rule' letters r, K, x, >K, " w, ~-see 8.3 above).

CTSP~l!il APY3bR

6onbw!Ul AiiHbrM nocneAH.!Hl AHM pyccK.o 6nMHbl

new books old friends big money (a lot of money) last days Russian pancakes

8.8 Nominative Plurals of Possessives and Demonstratives

M6MJMOR/Moi TB6Miraoillraoi H&w/Hawa/Hawe aaw/aawa/aawe 3TOT/3Ta/3TO T6Thah6 Mo.!! [ma-e' e) TBOJ! (tva-e'e) HSW.I! [na-shl] aaw.l! [va-shl] 3T.I! (e-tee] T~ [tye]

my your (lam) our your (pol/pl.) these those

Er6, ei and MX are indeclinable, so do not change in the plural.



MOMAPY3bR HSWM A8HbrM 3TM R6noKM er6 cnoaa
my friends our money these apples his/its words


Make the nouns plural and translate: Regular examples: 1 ynM48. 2 Tponnei116yc. 3 yHMaepcMTeT. 4 WKOna. 5 My38M. 6 npOA&B(e)L\. 7 nMCbMO. 8 nn61J48Ab. 9 MMHp8. 10 HeAenR. 11 ~aMMnMR. Spelling-rule examples: 12 KHMra. 13 R3biK. 14 nMpo>K(6)K. Irregular examples: 15 AO'tb. 16 AOM. 17 aHrnM'tSHMH. 18 nee. 19 T&KCM. 20 CbiH. 21 MMR. 22 R6noKo. 23 APYr.


Make the adjectives and possessives nominative plural and translate:

I pyccKaR KHMra. 2 3TOT R3biK. 3 neTHMM A8Hb. 4 H8W CbiH. 5 CTSpbiM
ropoA. 6 M6iil APYr. 7 6onbw6iil Mara3MH. 8 TOT r6A. 9 aawe MecTo.

l 0 3TO ynpa>KHeHMe. The nominative plural forms you met above are also the endings of the accusative plural except for all phrases involving animate nouns.
AliiiiTe 3TM R6noKM, no>KiinyiiiCTa. Please give (me) these apples. s:l n106mo pyccKMe 6nMHbl. I love Russian pancakes.

Animate accusatives, e.g. 'I love Russian girls', are in Lesson 10.

8.9 EcTb 'is', 'are'

If you want to ask if something is available, use ecTb, with the rise-fall intonation you met in 5.3:




eCTb? or ECTb t.taM? 6nMHbl eCTb? or ECTb 6nMHbl? Kocj)e eCTb? ECTb.

Is there tea? Are there pancakes? Is there coffee? There is. Are there pies? There are pies. (Pies are available.)

nMpOlKKM eCTb? nMpOlKKM ecTb.

Although Russian does not nonnally require an equivalent of 'am', 'is', 'are' (6H pyccKMM 'He (is) Russian'), ecTb is used for all fonns of the present tense of 'to be' when 'to be' means 'to exist' or 'to be present'.

66reCTb. eCTb.

God is. (God exists.) There is tea.

8.10 Spelling Rule 2

Spelling Rule 1 (8.3) concerns the occurrence of M where you would otherwise expect bl. So the nonnal nominative adjective ending is biM (HOBbiM 'new'), but 'Russian' is pyccK.ttM and 'good' is xop6w.ttM. Rule 2 accounts for the occurrence of e where you would expect o. It affects xop6WMM and all adjectives ending lKMM, WMM, t.tMM, lqMM, e.g. CB6lKMM 'fresh', ropilt.tMM 'hot', cn6AYtolqMM 'next'. After lK, t.t, w, 114 and 4 (the last four of the letters in Rule 1 plus 4), you find e where adjectives like HOBbiM have o. So the nominative neuter ending of xop6wMM is xopowee (not -oe), and the prepositional endings are -eM and -eM (7 .11 ), not -oM and -oM.
xop6wte pyccKoe BMH6 CBelKte RM40 B ropilt.tgM BOA6 B XOpOWM pjCCKOM peCTOpiiHe

good Russian wine a fresh egg in hot water in a good Russian restaurant

This rule also explains why Haw 'our' and aaw 'your' never have o after thew:

in our new house

Rule 2 also applies to 4, as we shall see when we meet the rule again in grammatical endings involving nouns (16.2). There are almost no




adjectives ending l4biM, but should you ever meet KYl4biM 'tailless' or KpacHOnMl4biM 'red-faced', the neuter forms will be Kj4ee and KpaCHOflMl4ee. Note. Rule 2 does not apply to stressed 6, so 6onbi&I2M 'big' has o, not e, after w. However, 6onbw6MI is unique. There are no other adjectives ending -w6MI, and none ending )I(OM, -'tOM, lqOM or l40M.

8.11 Vocabulary
anenbCMH orange 6enbiM white 6mtH pancake pl. 6mtHbl 6yTep6p6A [boo-tyer-brot] open sandwich BKjCHbiM (fko o-snl] tasty BOAS ace. BOAY water acerAS [fsyeg-ds] always ropjutMI hot A8MITe give (imperative') A8naTb to do; to make fl Aena10, Tbl A8naewb A8HbrM (pl.) [dyen'-gee] money AOpor6M dear, expensive APYr [drook] friend pl. APY3bR ecnM if ecTb [yest'] (there) is, (there) are KapT6ciJenb (m) (no plural) potatoes Kecj)ilp fermented milk drink KMn6 (n indeclinable) kilo(gram) KMnorp8MM kilogram Kon6acs salami Mscno butter, oil MecTo pl. MeeTs place, seat MOflOKO milk MOflO'fHbiM milk, dairy (adj) Milco meat OTAltn [ad-dye!] section (of a shop) nMPO*(o)K [pee-ra-zh6k] pie nnox6MI bad noKynsTb to buy fl noKynsiO, Tbl noKynsewb npOA&BSTb to sell (3H8Tb -type, stem npoA&-. stressed on the end- 4.7) fl npOA&IO, Tbl npOA&iWb npOA&B(8)l4 sales assistant npoAjKTbl (m pl.) groceries, food pbiH(O)K market Ha pbiHKe in/at the market caxap sugar cae*MM (8.10) (svy&-zhl] fresh cn&AyiOiqMM (8.10) following, next cnoao word Cblp cheese T6nbKO only cj)pyKT a piece of fruit xne6 bread xop6WMM (8.1 0) (ha-r6-shl] good 'fipHbiM black



il6noKo apple pl. R6nOKM

HMI40 [yee-ts6] egg pl. ilit148 [yay-tsa]

8.12 Dialogues (Translation in Key)

M3pM: Bon6Af1:

KaKMe npOAYKTbl pyccKMe noKynatOT a Mara3MHe? B Mara3MHe Mbl noKynaeM Kon6acy, Cblp, MonoK6, RM148, Macno, KapT6ctenb, caxap. M xne6, KoHe'IHo, 'lipHbiM M 6enbtM. pYccKMM xne6 6'1eHb BKYCHbiM, acerA& cae1KMM. Mbl O'leHb mo6MM Al!n&Tb 6YTep6p6Ab1.

M3pM: Bon6Af1: M3pM: Bon6Af1:

A CiPYKTbl? Cl)pyKTbl Mbl noKynaeM Ha pbiHKe. OHM AOporMe, H6 cae1KMe. Mbl noKynaeM il6noKM ManenbCMHbl, ecnM ecTb. rAe Bbl noKynaeTe Milco? B Mara3MHe Milco nnox6e. Xop6wee, caeee Milco ecTb TonbKO Ha pbiHKe.

2 Cl)pyKTbl AHHa: &opMc: AHH8: &opMc: rAe npoA&IOr anenbCMHbl? TonbKO Ha pbiHKe. A i16noKM? Sf6nOKM eCTb B M8f83MHe, HO OHM nnode.

* Where do they sell oranges?/Where does one sell oranges?/Where are

oranges sold? If you use the third person plural (the 'they' form) of the verb without OHM, the meaning becomes impersonal. roaopiiT, 'ITO pyccKMM xne6 acerA& cae1KMM 'It is said that Russian bread is always fresh'.

3 Ha pbiHKe
A: 6: A: 3TM nMp01KKM aawM? MoM. OHM ca61KMe?



6: A:

CaeJKMe, o.. eHb xop6wMe.

Aiuihe, noJKanyicTa, KMnorpiiMM.

4 B Mara3MH8
CK&JKMTe, noJKanyicTa, a K&KOM OTAene npoAfiiOT npoAf1Be4: 8 MOnO.. HOM. M3pM: A RM48? npOAf1Be4: T6JKe B MOnO.. HOM. M3pM: Cnac..t6o. M3pM:


Say in Russian:

I Is there (any) coffee? 2 Are there (any) fresh sandwiches? 3 Where are
your friends? 4 I love Russian pancakes. 5 Black bread, please. 6 Give (me) these oranges, please.


Here is a list of fifteen of the peoples of Europe. Guess who is who and see if you can work out the masculine singular form of each nationality, bearing in mind the example aMepMKiiH(e)LjlaMepMKiiHL!bl in the section on mobile vowels (8.6 above). The capital city of each nationality is given in brackets.
B Eapc)ne JKMBjT 6enopycbl (MMHCK), aannMML!bl (KiiPAMcjJc!J), aeHrpbl (6yAflnewT), MpniiHAL!bl {Ay6nMH), MCniiHL!bl (MSAPMA), n8TbiWM (Piotra), nMTOBL!bl (BMnbHIOC), HeML!bl (6epnMH), nonRKM (Bapwaaa), c!JpaHL!Y3bl (napMJK), pyccKMe (MocKaa), yKpaMHL!bl (K.tea), wa8Abl (CTOKr6nbM), WOTniiHAL!bl (3AMH6ypr), 3CTOHL!bl (TilnnMHH).


te' .. ... :17. m]iiiui tt.aW!a>

.. 1~ !1"}.116,

. .~. <;~.lS!ovllkiil)


21 n611bllia (POialldl

.. 1!4Y~~f



'~ rP~tG~>

.~ . ~;<~>.





. "~l ~~~~>,,.


{~~f~} 'c. :It ........ . ......


<:~ ;fitJU / , ~~..<~. ' ......... .. . . . 4i ~~<!laM.



~ ~'<Hilnqliry .




9.1 Key Expressions

CKonbKO 3To CTOMT? OAMH py6nb AB&py6m1 't8Tblpe py6nfl nSJTb py6neM C aac A8CSJTb A6nnapoa. OAH8 KoneMKa ABe KoneMKM nSJTb KoneeK nSJTb 't8COB 't8COB nSJTb HecKOnbKO 't8COB KaapTIIipa HaTawM AO CBMASHMSI H8T BMHS
How much does this cost? one rouble two roubles four roubles five roubles You owe ten dollars. one kopeck two kopecks five kopecks five hours about five hours several hours Natasha's flat goodbye(= until meeting) there is no wine

9.2 Numbers
1 OAMH (m)/OAHS (f) OAH6 (n)
2 AB& (m and n)/AB8 (f)




'18Tblpe nHTb W8CTb C8Mb B6ceMb A6BHTb A6cHTb OAMHH8A48Tb [a-de 8-na-tsatY) AB&H~Tb [dvye-na-tsatY) TPMHBA1.48Tb [tree-na-tsatY) '18TiiiPH8Al48Tb [chye-tfr-na-tsatY) nHTHBA1.48Tb [peetna-tsatY) wecTHBA48Tb [shes-na-tsat] ceMHSAI.48Tb [syem-na-tsatY) aoceMHSAl48Tb [va-syem-na-tsatY) A8BHTHSA48Tb [dye-veet-na-tsatY) ABSAI.48Tb [dva-tsatY) ABSAI.48Tb OAMH (m)IABSA1.48Yb OAHB (f)IABBA1.48Tb OAH6 (n) AaSA48Tb A88 (m and n)IAaSA48Tb A88 (f) ABBAI.48Tb TPM TpMAI.48Tb [tre.e-tsatY) c6poK nHTbAeclrr [pee-dye-syat] WecTbAeciiT [shez-clye-syat] C6MbA8CHT B6c8MbA8CHT A8BHHOCTO CTO CT6 OAMH (m)/CT6 OAHB (f)/CT6 OAHO (n) CT6 ABSAI.48Tb nHTb AB6CTM TPMCT8 '18TbapeCT8 nHTbCOT (peets6t) wecTbC6T [shes-sot] C8MbCOT BOC8MbCOT A&BHTbC6T [dye-veet-sot]




2000 5000

TbiCR'ta [ti-sya-cha] or (faster) [ti-shsha] TbiCR'ta TpiiCTa nRTt.A&CIIT ceMb ABe TbJCR'tiJI ORTb TbiCA't

To help you spell: Notice that no Russian one-word number has more than one soft sign (e.g. 50 nAT~IIT- no soft sign at the end). In numbers below 40, the soft sign is at the end (e.g. 10 AKRT.t!. In words above 40, the soft sign is in the middle.



(of) roubles': Numbers are Used with the Genitive Case

The genitive case, whose basic meaning is 'of' as in 'the name ofthe girl', is in Russian used with numbers and other quantity words. That is, Russians say 'five of books', 'ten of roubles', 'much of money'. In English we use similar constructions such as 'a lot of money', 'a great deal of work', 'hundreds ofbooks'.

9.4 Formation of the Genitive Singular (abbreviated')

These forms are straightforward:
Masculine (m) and neuter (n) nouns have -a or A
-a is added to masculine nouns ending in a consonant and replaces the -o

of neuter nouns:
APYT 'friend' DIJICbMO 'letter'

APYTJI 'of a friend' nMCbMB 'of a letter'


replaces the nouns:

py6nb 'rouble' Mropb 'Igor'

(soft sign) or i of masculine nouns and the -e of neuter

py6nfl 'of a rouble' (note stress) Mropa 'of Igor'

uy36i 'museum'
Mope 'sea' CBMABHMe 'meeting'

uy36a 'of a museum' uopa 'of the sea'

CBMABHMB 'of a meeting'



Note: The ten neuter nouns ending -MR have genitive -eHM:
ap6MR 'time'


apeMmm 'of time' liiMI!D!. 'of a name'

Feminine nouns (and masculine nouns with feminine endings) all

have bl or -M

Replace nominative -a with bl:

MocKail 'Moscow'
nina 'dad'

MocKal!! 'of Moscow'

nin.lll 'dad's'

Replace -R or b with M:
HeA6nR 'week' ABepb 'door' BiiHR 'Vania' HeA'nl! 'of a week' ABepa 'of a door' BiiHI! 'of VaniaNania's'

Remember that Spelling Rule 1 (8.3) will apply to nouns ending -Ka, -ra,

-xa, -a, 'ta, -wa, -aqa. They all have genitive M instead of bl.
KoneiKa 'kopeck'

KoneliiKI! 'of a kopeck'



'of a book'

Cawa 'Sasha'

CiwM 'of Sasha/Sasha's'

Note. Aootb 'daughter' and MaTb 'mother' always add -ep- before any case ending, so their genitive forms are A6otepM 'of daughter' and MaTepM 'of mother' (same as the prep. case).

9.5 Uses of the Genitive

The genitive, the commonest case after the nominative and accusative, has five main uses: (a) With numbers and quantity words:
TPM py6nR 'three roubles' (lit. 'three of rouble') MH6ro ap6MeHM 'a lot of time'

If you invert the number and the noun, the meaning is 'about', 'approximately'



py6ns1 TPM 'about three roubles'

After the numbers ABaiABe 'two', TPM 'three', '48Tblpe 'four' and any number ending ABaiABe, TpM, '48Tblpe (e.g. AHA48Tb TpM 'twentythree'), the noun is genitive singular:
AB& py6ns1

two roubles = two of


Numbers from nHTb 'five' upwards are followed by the genitive pluralsee 9.9 below. (b) Possession, corresponding to 's' in 'Ivan's house', and related meanings, corresponding to of, e.g. in 'map ofthe town':
AOM 1.1BSHil nnaH ropOAI

Ivan's house map of the town daughter's name

(c) After a large number of prepositions- see lesson l0.6:


goodbye ('until meeting')

(d) With H8T meaning 'there isn't' (see l0.5 for more examples). HeT 'there isn't' is the opposite of ecTb 'there is' (8.9). It is a different word from H&T 'no' (the opposite of AS):
EcTb is used with the nominative: EcTb 148M 'There is tea'

HeT is used with the genitive: HeT '48H 'There is no tea' HeT apeM&HM 'There is no time' ('There is not of time')

(e) The genitive is also used after negated transitive' verbs. This topic is dealt with in Lesson 24.
0Ha He 3HS8T H3biKS.

She doesn't know the language.


Put the bracketed nouns in the genitive:

1 .Qaa (py6nb). 2 TpM (nMCbMO). 3 MMH (CbiH). 4 TpM ()KeHiqMH&). 5 YnM4bl (MocKaa) 'The streets of Moscow'. 6 .Qae (KHMra). 7 .Qae (A6'4b).



8 CT&KSH (MonoK6) 'a glass of milk'. 9 P,o (CBMASHMe). 10 HeT (K) 'There's no coffee'.

Say in Russian: 1 Two kopecks. 2 There's no sugar. 3 Three words. 4 Two sons. 5 Two weeks. 6 Volgin Street (= street of Volgin). 7 Masha's husband. 8 A bottle (6yYblnK8) of wine. 9 The number of the house. 10 There is no tea.

9.6 Genitive Plural (abbreviated '')

This is the most complex ending in Russian. The five main rules are given here. Other, less important, rules are given in the 'EXTRA' section. The genitive plural form of awkward nouns (e.g. KoneMKB- KoneeK 'of kopecks') is given in the vocabularies. (a) All nouns ending -b, whether m or J, replace the soft sign with -eM (which is often stressed, i.e. -eM, particularly if the noun is short, but the stress is hard to predict).

py6nb (m) 'rouble' A(e)Hb (m) 'day' nn611(8Ab (f) 'square' *MTenb (m) 'inhabitant'

py6nti{ 'of roubles' AHU 'of days' nnoi1(8AU 'of squares' )I(MTend 'of inhabitants'

Remember that M&Tb and AO'tb always have -ep- before endings:

M&Tb 'mother' AO'tb 'daughter'

MaTegtii 'of mothers' AO'teRti 'of daughters'

(b) Nouns ending -, -'t, -w, -aq add -eM (as in (a), often stressed -eM):

3TS* 'floor' Bpa't 'doctor' ToaapMaq 'comrade'

3T8)1(jj 'of floors' apa'tji 'of doctors' TOBapM!qi 'of comrades'



(c) Most other masculine nouns ending with a consonant add -oa (so the common ending -oa, by coincidence, means 'of')
A3biK 'language' aaT66yc 'bus' A3biKQg 'of languages' aaT66ycm~ 'of buses' Spelling Rule 2 (8.10) applies to nouns ending -1.1. i.e. their gen. pl. is -~ when stressed, otherwise -1.@!1 (the has the same stress as the OTI.Iful 'of fathers' aMepMKiiHIUUl 'of Americans' MKAIUUl 'of months'

OT(6)1.1 'father' aMepMKiiH(&)LI 'American' MKALI 'month'

(d) Feminine nouns with -a in the nominative and neuter nouns with -o simply lose their -a or-o (so they have a 'zero ending'):
ynMLI8 'street' TbiCAota 'thousand' cn6ao 'word' ynMLI_ 'of streets' TbiCA't_ 'of thousands' cn6a_ 'of words'

(e) All nouns ending -MA and -Me replace the -A or -e with -it (and the stress never shifts):
ciJaMMnMA 'surname' ynpaJKH6HMe 'exercise' <J&MMmtM 'of surnames' ynpaJKH6HMM 'of exercises'

9.7 Genitive Plural of Other Nouns

Apart from these five main rules, covering most nouns, there are minor rules, given in EXTRA section 9.8. However, if a noun does not obey one of the rules above, its genitive plural ( is always given in the vocabulary list, and you will probably find it easier to learn such forms as exceptions. Here are the exceptional nouns we have met so far:
aHrmtotiiHMH 'Englishman' aHrnMotiiHKa 'Englishwoman' A6AYWK8 'grandfather' nMCbM6 'letter' OKH6 'window' cnllnbHA 'bedroom' 8HrnMotiiH8HrnMotiiH~

A6AYWU n.tco 6K2.!1 cnllnmt

CbiH 'son' APYr 'friend' AAAA 'uncle' M6pe 'sea' 6paT 'brother' My36it 'museum' CbiHOU1i

MOpmt 6piiT.IzU. My36ea



Riii46 'egg' A8HbrM 'money' KoneiiiKa 'kopeck' HeAenR 'week' KYXHR 'kitchen'

R.l1.y A8HI[




r6A 'year'

H8A8ll.!l KjXOH.Iz

neT(Iit. 'of summers')

9.8 EXTRA: Further Details of the Genitive Plural

If you do wish to know what the minor rules behind many of the exceptions are, here is a list. But, as stated above, it is probably simpler to learn the gen. pl. of awkward nouns as you meet them.
(t) Nouns with irregular nominative plurals ending unstressed bR (e.g. 6paT- 6piiTbR 'brothers') repeat the irregular stem (6p8Tb-) in all forms

of the plural.
6paT 'brother' 6p8TbR Aepeao 'tree' nom. pl. AepeabR

'of brothers'

A8i)8BI2ml 'of trees'

(g) Nouns with forms ending stressed -bJi have -eiii (with no soft sign- note that the gen. pl. ending -eiii never has a soft sign before it):
CbiH 'son' CbiHOBbH MY* 'husband' MYJKbH CbiHOBii! 'of sons' MyJKeiii 'of husbands'

(h) Nouns ending -iii have ~ea:

My38iii 'museum' My38M My38ea 'of museums'

(i) Nouns ending -JKK&, '"IK&, -wKa have -JKeK, -'teK, -weK in the Nouns ending 4K8, bK& (rare) become -4eK, -eK. That is, rule (d) applies (i.e. delete final-a), and the final consonant group is split with a 'mobile' e:
n6JKKa 'spoon' A8ByWK8 'girl' A6'"1Ka 'little daughter' n6nbKa 'Polish woman' n6JKU 'of spoons' A8ByJ.YU 'of girls'

'of little daughters'

n6nu 'of Polish women'



(j) Other consonants + K8 become consonant + OK:

aHrnM'4BHKa 'Englishwoman' MBpKa 'postage stamp'
&HrnM'4BH~ Map~

'of Englishwomen' 'of postage stamps'

(k) Other -a and -o nouns with 'awkward' consonant groups also split the final consonants with o or e.
OKH6 'window' nMCbM6 'letter' 6KOH (same stress as 6KH8) n.tceM (e replaces the soft sign)

Note: The consonant groups -Ta, -rp, -pT are not split. So the of noc6nbCTBO 'embassy' is noc6nbCTII (by rule (d)).
(l) Nouns ending -MKa have -eK:

Konei1Ka 'kopeck'


(m) Nouns ending consonant + H generally replace the H with b, but if the ending is consonant + HH, the ending of the gen. pl. is consonant + eH:
HeAenH 'week' KBCTpKmH 'saucepan' neCHH 'song' cnanbHH 'bedroom' H8Ael!1! K8CTplbl!J! neceH cnaneH

(n) Nouns ending -&HMH or HHMH, and six other animate nouns ending -MH lose the final -MH:
aHrnM'4BHMH 'Englishman' rp&JKA8HMH. 'citizen' 6oRpMH 'boyar' 8HrnM'4SH rpBJKA8H 6ot1p

There are plenty of unpredictable cases. Even native Russian speakers are sometimes unsure of the genitive plural of rare words - and, like foreigners, have to check in a dictionary.

9.9 Genitive Plural after Numbers 5, 6 etc.

While ABB, TpM, '48Tblpe and numbers ending 2, 3 and 4 are followed by



the genitive singular (AS& py6nH 'two of rouble' 9.5), nHTb and upwards are followed by the genitive plural, e.g. nHTb py6nelii 'five of roubles'.
AKHTb AOnnapos eTO AHALI&Tb enos
ten dollars ('of dollars') a hundred and twenty words


Translate and put the required endings on the bracketed words:

l nHTb (py6nb). 2 AeeHTb (AoM). 3 WecTb (HO'-Ib). 4 TpliiCTa (lKMTenb).

5 CeMb (3TBlK). 6 CTo ASBALI&Tb wecTb (KHiilra). 7 AseHSAL\8Tb (ynp&lKHeHMe). 8 AesHTHSALI&Tb (spa'-1). 9 nHTb (6yYep6p6A). lO
As8A4&Tb (MecTo). II CopoK (ra38Ta). 12 AesHTb (anenbCiiiH). 13 Aseent (aMepMKilH(e)4). 14 nHTb (TbleH'-18). 15 KMnorpaMM (H6nOKO).

16 WeCTb (Apyr). 17 HeT (AeHbrM). 18 C6poK (KoneliiKa). 19 0Aii!HH8AL\8Tb (nMebMo). 20 CeMbAecHT (aHrnM'-IBHMH). 21 0AiiiHHBAL\8Tb (H8AenH). 22 YeTblpeeTa nHTbAeeHT (roA). 23 CeMb (Mope). 24 BoeeMb (liiMH). 25
AesHHOeTo (aHrnM'-ISHK&).


Read, adding the genitive plural endings:

(I) 10 py6n __ 30 KOne __ . (2) 5 '-l&e __ . (3) 15 MMHjT__ . (4) 5 tte,q&n_. (5) 80 anenbCiiiH_. (6) 50 A(mnap_. (7) 20 {Aettb) _ _ . (8) 5 MKH4-- (9) 100 enos __ . (10) 260 KS&pTiilp __ .

9.10 One: OAMH etc. (Table 7) Note that one (OAMH, OAHS, OAHO etc.) is not a numeral (i.e. it is not a quantity word followed by the genitive case). It behaves like an adjective, agreeing 1 with the following noun, and has the same endings as 3TOT, 3Ta, 3To 'this'. The Mof OA(M)H is a mobile' vowel (8.6).
I know one girl (ace.). I know one American (animate ace.).



All numbers which end with a fonn of OAMH, e.g. 21, 151, behave in the same way and any accompanying noun is singular:
fi3H{uo CT6 ABSA48Tb OAHX A8aywKy_. I know 121 girls ('121 girl').

9.11 Last Number Determines Agreement

It is a general rule that the last number detennines the fonn of the noun:
ABBA48Tb OAMH A6nnap_ ABBA48Tb 'leTblpe A6nnapa ABBA48Tb ceMb A6nnapga '18Tblpe-nRTb A6nnapa
twenty-one dollars twenty-four dollars twenty-seven dollars four or five dollars


Put the required endings on the words in brackets and translate:

1 TpM (MMHjl'a). 2 nRTb (MMHyY8). 3 .QBSA48Tb OAHil (MMHyY8). 4 .Qaa (r6A). 5 .QkRTb (roA). 6 CT6 ABBA48Tb TPM {AeHb). 7 TbiCR'Ia ABecTM weCTbAecRT OAMH (A6nnap). 8 ~eTblpe (A6'1b). 9 CopoK (OAMH) (KoneiKa). lO fl 3Hil10 ABSA48Tb (OAMH CTYA6HT).

9.12 Other Quantity Words

Other quantity words also take the genitive- singular or plural, according to meaning:
MH6ro MH6ro APY38M (gen. pl.) MHOfO caxapa ( Milno Milno caxapa HKKOnbKO H6CKOnbKO MMHyY ( CKOnbKo? CK6nbKO ap6MeHM? (
much, many, a lot many friends a lot of sugar few, little not much sugar some. a few a few minutes how much? how many? How much time? What time is it?



CK6nbKO 'tacoa? ( CTOJ)bKO CT6nbKO pa66Tbl ( 66nbwe 66nbwe A8Her M6HbW8 M8HbW8Cn6B

How many hours? so many, so much so much work more more money less, fewer fewer words

9.13 Vocabulary
66nbwe +gen. more 6YTblnK8 6YTblnOK bottle aanlbTHbiM currency, foreign currency (adj) aererapMiiHKB aererapMllttoK (female) vegetarian B8Ab you know/isn't it/aren't you, etc. (indicating that the speaker expects agreement) apeMR apeMeHM time rpaMM rpiMMOB or rpaMM gram( me) AeaywKa AeayweK girl AO + gen. as far as; until A6nnap dollar e&qii 'tT6-HM6YAb? anything else? (lit. 'more anything') JtdiTenb (m) inhabitant liinM or MHorAi sometimes KBJKAbiM each, every Konei11Ka Kon6eK kopeck (1/100th of a rouble) uino +gen. little, not much MeHbwe +gen. less M6cRLI M6cRI.I8B month MMnnM6H million MH6ro + gen. much, many M6JKeT 6b1Tb perhaps HO'Ib (f) HO'teM (NB stress) night 6BOI.LIM oaoaqei11 vegetables OT +gen. from n6nKMn6 (indecl) half a kilo nony..iTb +ace. to receive, get R nony..luo, Tbl nony..aewb no3ToMy so, consequently pa3 gen. pl. pa3 a time p83HbiM various POAiiiTenM (sg. POAMTenb m) parents py6nb (m) rouble pyccKMM (m) (adj) a Russian (man) c aac you owe (idiom lit. 'from you') CAB'IB change (money returned) cK6nbKO +gen. how much, how many CTOMTb + ace to cost CK6nbKO :no CTOMT? How much does this cost? CK6nbKO OHM cT6RT? How much do they cost?



TO'tHO exactly

XOAMTb to go (there and back,

on foot)


there (motion 'thither')

ciYHT pound (weight and currency)

H XOlKj, Tbl XOAMWb 'tT6-HM6YAb anything

9.14 Dialogues (Translation in Key)

Buying things
(1) A: AB'he, noanyiiiCTa, TPM Koelle, TPM otiiH, nHTb 6yYep6pOAOB M OHTb nMpOlKKOB. Ei: C aac oteTblpe py6nfl ABiiAJ.I8Tb aoceMb KoneeK. A: noanyiiicTa. Ei: BoT cp.jota - nHTb py6neiii ceMbAecHT ABe KoneiiiKM. A: Cnac.t6o. Ei: nolKflnyiiiCT8.

A: A&iiiTe, noanyiiiCTa, AB8CTM rpaMMoa Cblpa M nonKMno Kon6acbl. Ei: CeMb py6neiii ABfiAJ.18Tb wecTb KoneeK.

A: CKOnbKO 3To CTOMT? Ei: AaeHfiAJ.I8Tb py6neiii KMnorpaMM. A: ~eTblpecTa rpaMMoa, noanyiiicTa. Ei: no.anyiiiCT8. ~eTblpe py6nfl BOC8MbA8CHT KoneeK.

A: Ei: A: Ei: A: Ei:

nolKilnyiiicTa, p.jiiiTe KMnO fl6noK. Ell(e 'tT6-HM6YAb? CKonbKO CTOHT anenbCMHbl? ~8TbiPH8AJ.18Tb py6neiii. nonKMno, no8nyiiicT8. c aac weCTHfiAJ.I8Tb py6neiii.



Population figures A: CK6nbKO :IKMTenei a MocKa6? AaaTPM MMnnM6Ha? &: HeT, 66nbW8. 86C8Mb MMnnM6HOB. A B neTep6ypre :IKMTeneM MeHbW8- '18Tblpe MMnnM6Ha. A: A cKonbKO a Poccr.tM? &: Sl He 3HBIO TD'IHo. M6:1KeT 6b1Tb, CTO nSITbA&e~T MMnnM6Hoa.


Read the following 1990 prices in Russian:

'laCbl (watch) BMA80MarHMTociJ6H (video recorder) MOTOl4MKn Yp8n ('Ural' motorbike) aBTOM06Mnb >KMrynM BA3 21063 (Zhiguli/Lada car) l4B8TH6M Tenearot3op (colour tv) aneKTPM'IeCKHM caMoaap (electric samovar) MMKpoKanbKynmop (pocket calculator) aneKTPOMMKcep (electric mixer) p&AMOnpMfiMHMK (radio) 21 py6nb 1 200 py6nei 1 873 py6n~ 9 ooo py6nei 755 py6nei 52 py6n~ 50py6n6i 35py6nei 36 py6n6M 60 Kon6eK


How long has Mary been in Moscow? 2 How often does she go to the market? 3 Why doesn't she buy more vegetarian food in the foreign currency food shop?

Bon6Af1: CK6nbKo MecH4ea Bbl Y*e a MocKae, M3pM? M3pM: Y:IK6 TPM M6CH48, MnM, 6cnM TO'IHO, OAMHHBA48Tb H&A6nb M 'IBTblpe AHSI. Bon6Afl: KaK Bbl :IKMBiTe? BeAb Bbl aereTapMBHKa, a pyccKMe 6'18Hb n106SIT M~CO. M3pM: Sl noKynaiO MH6ro npOAYKTOB Ha pb1HK8. Sl XO:IKj Typ.i ABa - TpM pB38 B H8A6n10*. 111Horp.i Sl XO:IKj B aamOTHbiM M8r&3MH CIIAKO. TaM 8CTb pa3Hb18 MOn6'1Hbl8 npoAjKTbl,



MH6ro oao~eM McJlpjKTOa, HO ace CTOMT A6poro*. KMnorp8MM Cbtpa CTOMT nHTb cJljHTOa, A8CHTb Htino~ cr6HT Aaa cJljHTa. Sl nonyotato OT POAMTeneill T6nbKO cT6 Aa8ALtSTb cJljHToa a MeCHI.I, no3ToMy H noKynato TaM 6oteHb MSnO. *Aaa-TpM p838 a HeAento *ace cT6MT A6poro
two or three times a week (lit. 'in week' -accusative, 6.8 (2)) everything costs a lot



10.1 Key Phrases

Y aac ecTI:t KOciJe?

Y aac eCTI:t A8TM?

~BR H8T.

Y M&HH HeT A6nnapoa.



Have you any coffee? Have you any children? There's no tea. I have no dollars. There are no seats left.

10.2 To Have In Russian there is no commonly used verb corresponding to 'to have'. When you want to say 'Have you any children?', you use a construction which literally translates as. 'By you is children?' Y aac 8CTI:t A8TM? Y means 'by', aac is the genitive form of the word Bl:tl 'you', 8CTI:t means 'is' in the sense of 'exists', and A8TM is 'children'.
Y aac 8CTI:t KOciJe? Y aac ecTI:t a6AJca?

Do you have coffee? Do you have vodka?

The answer could be simply:


This is literally 'Is' or 'Exists', but here it corresponds to 'There is' or 'We do.'



Y B8C 8CTb CbiH?


Do you have a son? I do.

Or the answer could be HeT 'No, I don't'. If you want to say 'My brother has a car', the structure is the same: y + genitive of the possessor+ ecTb +thing possessed in the nominative:
Y 6pBT8 eCTb M8WMH8.

(My) brother has a car. ('By brother is car.')

10.3 Genitive Pronouns

The genitive forms of A, Tbl etc. are the same as the accusative forms we met in 6.7: MeHtl, Te6tl, er6 [ye-v6], ee, er6, Hac, aac, MX. Remember that after a preposition, er6, ee and MX have an initial H: Hero, Hee, HMX. Here are examples of the 'have' construction with all the personal pronouns: Y M8HR eCTb CbiH. Y Te6tl ecTb A6nnap? Y Hero ecTb eHa? Y Hee eCTb My)l(? Y H8C eCTb BpeMR. Y aac ecTb AiiHbrM? Y HMX 8CTb Ai!TM? I have a son. Do you have a dollar? Does he have a wife? Does she have a husband? We have time. Have you any money? Have they any children?

You will also meet the Y aac construction without the ecTb. For example, Y aac 6onbw6l4 AOM? 'Is your house large?' In this case you are not being asked whether you have a house, but whether your house is a big one or not. That is, the question with ecTb asks about existence ('Do you or do you not have a house?'); without the ecTb, the question asks about some feature of the thing possessed.
Y aac ecTb CbiH?

'Do you have a son?' (Does a son exist?')

If you reply, Aa, ecTb, the next question might be: Y aac CbiH 6onbwol4 lilnM MineHbKMM? 'Is your son big or small?'



Exercise 10/1

I Y BfiAMMa ecTb >KeHa? 2 Y Hero ecTb pyccKaH noApyra. 3 Y Eabl ecTb 6paT? 4 6paTa y Hei HeT. 5 Do you have (any) white wine? 6 They

have a daughter and two sons. 7 Does she have (any) money?

10.4 EXTRA: MMeTb 'to have' There is also a verb MMeTb (3H&Tb-type): H MMeiO, Tbl MMeewb 'to have'. This verb is not used in the everyday sense of possession ('I have a car' is Y MeHH eCTb M8WMH8, not Sl MMeiO M8WMHy). Instead, it is used with abstract nouns in a number of fixed expressions:
MMeTb npaao 'to have the right' MMeTb MecTo 'to take place' MMeTb B03MO>KHOCTb 'to have the opportunity' MMeTb a BMAY 'to have/bear in mind' MMeTb 3Ha'teHMe 'to matter' Bbl MMeeTe npaao. You have the right. 3To He MMeeT 3Ha'teHMH (gen.). It doesn't matter.

10.5 There isn't: HeT +genitive The opposite of ecTb 'there is/there exists' is HeT 'there isn't'. This word looks and sounds the same as the word HeT meaning 'no', but it is actually a shortened form of the phrase He ecTb 'not there is'. Whatever there isn't is put in the genitive case: A: l.lai eCTb? B: l.laaHeT.
A: y B8C 8CTb caxap? B: Caxapa HeT.

Is there tea? There is no tea. Have you any sugar? There's no sugar/No, we haven't.

Note the idiomatic use of H&T +person to mean 'not here'.



8aAMMI (gen.) HeT.

Vadim isn't hereNadim isn't in. She's not at home.

Ee (gen.) H&T A6Ma.


You may guess that 'I don't have ... '/'1 haven't got ... ' is Y M&HR HeT

Y MeHt1 HeT AeTeM. Y 6p8Ta H8T M8WMHbl.

I have no children. My brother has no car.

10.6 Prepositions Used with the Genitive



6e3 MonoKj

AnR nMCbM6 AnR BSAMMI AO AO CBMA{IHMB. M3 M3 MOCKBbl OAMH M3 ei APY3U Kp6M8 ace Kp6Me EB.!!! MMMO Mb 8AeM MMMo ny6t1HKJ!.

coffee without milk, black coffee for a letter for Vadim until until (our) meeting, goodbye from (out of)- opposite of B + ace. ('into') from Moscow one of ('out of') her friends except everybody except Eva past We're passing the Lubianka (KGB HQ). near/approximately near the house from (people) letters from friends after after the lesson opposite, against opposite the shop for the sake of for the sake of the children from - opposite of Ha + ace. ('on to')

OT nitCbMa oT APY3D n6cne n6cneyp6KB np6TMB np6TMB M8r83MHB




C BOK38n y y OKHI. yHac

from the station by, near; at (someone's place), chez by the window in our house/ in our country/ at our place

10.7 EXTRA: Another Fourteen Prepositions with the Genitive

6nM3 'near', a6nM3M 'near', BAOnb 'along', aMecTo 'instead of', &He 'outside', BHYTPM 'inside', aoane 'near', BOKpyr 'around', M3-38 'because of', Ma-noA 'from under', H&KaHyHe 'on the eve of', noMMMO 'apart from'/'besides', nOCp8AM 'in the middle of', cpeAM 'among'/'in the middle of'. M3-38 nor6A1!f BAOnbpeK.ti

because of the weather along the river among one's friends

10.8 EXTRA: Partitive ('Some') Genitive

A minor use of the genitive case is to express the meaning 'some' with food and drink nouns:

A&ihe ao~BMHjfxn66a. Give me some water/some wine/some bread. (,Q8iiiTe xne6 corresponds to 'Give me bread' or 'Give me the bread'.)
A small number of nouns have a special y/10 ending for the partitive. You
may hear the question:

Bbl XOTMTe otitO? Would you like some tea?

"iatO, with a special genitive ending -10 (an alternative to -A), is the partitive' genitive of otaiii 'tea'. Other nouns which may have this -y ending are cixap 'sugar', MiA 'honey', Cblp 'cheese':

n6)1(K8 caxapl (or caxapa)

a spoonful of sugar



10.9 Genitive of Adjectives

The genitive singular for all adjectives with masculine or neuter nouns is -oro or -ero. The r is pronounced [v]. This is the same adjective ending you used with accusative masculine animate nouns in 7.12. With feminine nouns the adjective ending is -oi or -ei, the same endings as in the prepositional (7 .11). Here are the four types of adjective -yve met in Lesson 7: H6Bbli 'new' (all adjectives ending -bli or -6i) nMCbM6 OT H6agrg [n6-va-xa] a letter from a new friend APYra the name of the new female friend pjccKIIIi 'Russian' (all adjectives ending -rMi, -KMi, -xMi): books from a Russian shop KHrotrM M3 pjccKgrg Mara3ri1Ha a letter from a female Russian friend nMCbM6 OT pjCCK.Qi nOAPJfM xop6wMi 'good' (e not o after Spelling Rule letters * '1, w, ~. 4): HeT xop6wUll BMtti. There isn't any good wine. OT xop6wU. noApjrM jTpo nocni!AH~ AHA AO nocn6AHB MMHJTbl from a good (female) friend

nocni!AHMM 'last' (soft adjective- in the nominative they all end -HMi): the morning of the last day until the last minute

Remember the extra bin Tp8TMi 'third' (7.6) jTpo TpliT~ AHA M3 TpeTI!H_ KB8pTMpbl the morning of the third day from the third flat (flat three)

EXERCISE 10/2 Put the required endings on the words in brackets and translate:

1 M3pM nony'lieT nrilcbMa OT (pjcCKMi APYr). 2 0Kono (&onbw6i

TeBTp) 8CTb CTBHJ4MA M8Tp6. 3 (Bon6AJI) HeT A6Ma. 4 AnSI (APy3bJ1) Mbl noKynaeM 6yYtOJnKY (xop6wee BMH6). 5 Cer6AHA n6cne (pa66Ta) ace, Kp6Me (Ciwa), MAJT B TeBTp. 6 noJKinyiCTa, ABMTe AB8 (KMnorpBMM) (ca6JK&A Kon6aca).



10.10 Genitive Plural of Adjectives

Unlike nouns, the adjective endings are as usual simple and regular and the same for all genders: biX for the HOBbliiAPyroM types and -Mx for all the others:

Y HBC HeT HOB.!;!IX KHMr. oT pycCKU APYHM 4eHll xopowu fl6noK MMMo nocneAHU AOMOB Cao60AHbiX MeCT HeT.

We have no new books. from Russian friends the price of good apples past the last houses There are no free places. (There are no seats left.)

10.11 Genitive of Possessives and Demonstratives

MoMhaoi/Hawlaaw have adjective endings which are the same as those of xopowMM: -ero/-el'i in the singular and -Mx in the plural: Y Moero (NB stress) 6pi1Ta HeT AeHer. 6e3 TBotB_ :IKeHbl KB&pTMpa HiiWr2 APYr& nMCbMO OT MOMx pyCCKMX APYHM MMeHil BiiWMX AeTeM
My brother has no money. without your wife our friend's flat a letter from my Russian friends the names of your children

3ToT and TOT have the adjective endings of HOBbiM in the singular (3T2[Q/3T~, TmQ (NB stress)/Tmt), but in the genitive plural 3ToT has 3TMX and TOT has TU i.e. the endings (8.8) plus x. MMMO 3TQ[Q HOBQ[Q AOM8

past this new house until that day from this/that girl the price of these apples from those girls




4eHi1 3TMX fl6nOK oT TU AeayweK




1 Y a6w111x pyccKMX APY36iii 8CTb A6TM? 2 no'leMy y aac HeT ca6111x $pjKTOB? 3 0Kono H6Wero A6M8 8CTb IIIHCTIIITjT IIIHOCTp6HHbJX H3biK6a. 4 Mx HeT A6Ma. 5 Here is a letter from my Russian (female)
friend. 6 A kilo of these large apples, please. 7 We have a'few (9.12) books for your friends. 8 Two bottles of red wine and one bottle of Russian vodka. 9 He has a lot of interesting books. 10 We have no Russian money.

10.12 Accusative Plural of Animates

= Genitive Plural

In 8/2 it was mentioned that all animate nouns (people and animals) of whatever gender have special endings in the accusative plural. These endings, and the endings of any accompanying adjectives, possessives and demonstratives, are the same as the endings of the genitive plural.
St nl06nl0 pyccKMX A6ayweK. I love Russian girls. pyccKg Aeaywu also means 'of Russian girls' Mbl 3H6eM 3Tg aMepMKAHLUlllWe know these Americans. 3TMx aMepMKilH1.48B also means 'of these Americans' Eaa ni06111T aHrnt1iiicKg co68K_. Eva loves English dogs.

10.13 Adjectives with Numerals

There are no surprises with OAMH or numerals which are followed by the genitive plural:
St 3H610 IU8CTbA8CIIT OAH6 pyccKiHI ( cn6ao ( I know 61
Russian words

nHTb H6BI!!X ( cn6a ( five new words

But after ABB, Tplll, '18Tblpe, nouns are in the genitive singular (9.5) and any adjectives are in the genitive plural with masculine and neuter nouns and in the nominative plural with feminine ones:
ABBMHOCTp6HHIIIX ( H3biK6 ( two foreign languages



TPM HOBbiX ( cnoa ( three new words ABe.KpacMBJilll ( A6ByWK.!!t ( two pretty girls otenilpe HOB.t!!L( KHMrtt ( four new books

The grammar of Russian numerals has other intriguing complications. For details see Lesson 22.


Put the required endings on the words in brackets:

l 0Hil 3HileT (MOM auepMKSHCKMe APY3bR). 2 TPMA48Tb nHTb (auepMKiiHCKMM A6nnap). 3 0Hil noKynileT nHTb (6onbwaH 6yYblnKa) c6Ka M (OAHil uilneHbKaH 6yYblnKa) BMHil. 4 M3pM 3HileT TPM (MHOCTpBHHbiM Jl3b1K).

10.14 EXTRA 2, 3, 4 with Feminine Adjectives

Note: It is permissible to use the genitive plural with feminine nouns too,
which makes things a little simpler: ABe uonOAbiX A6ByWKM. However, Russians prefer to use the nominative plural of adjectives with all those feminine nouns whose genitive singular is identical to the nominative plural
- A8aywKM ( 'of a girl') = A6aywKM ( 'girls'). Those femi-

nine nouns which have different stresses in the genitive singular and nominative plural (e.g. peK.!!I 'of a river'- ptKM 'rivers') are more likely to have genitive adjectives: ABe pycCKMX ( peKM ( 'two Russian rivers'.

10.15 Question Word

mt 'whether'

Yes/no questions (5.3) can also be asked with nM (a particle' you will meet again with the meaning 'whether'). No question intonation is required, so you may prefer it if you have difficulty getting used to the rise-fall intonation pattern described in 5.3. The question particle nM is always the second



item in the question. A typical example is:

HeTnMy aac ... HeT nM y aac Aonnapoa?

Don't you have ... ? You wouldn't have dollars, would you?

This question is an alternative way of asking:

Y aac HeT A6nnapoa? with rise-fall on HeT.

Other examples: EiblnM nM Bbl a MocKae? Have you been to Moscow? (Cf. 8bl 6blnM B MOCKBe? with rise-fall on 6blnM) EcTb nM y aac .. npilaA&? Do you have Pravda? (Cf. Y aac ecTb ccnpilaA&? with rise-fall on ecTb) Do you speak Russian? roaop.tTe nM Bbl no-pyccKM? HeT nM y HMX CBe)I(MX ctPYKTOB? Don't they have any fresh fruit?
Note the colloquial phrase 'ITO nM) 'is it?'/'am 1?'/'are you?' etc., (expressing surprise or hesitation), always placed at the end.

CTo Aonnapoa, 'ITo nM? OH pyccKMM, 'ITo nM?

A hundred dollars, is it? He's a Russian, is he?

10.16 Vocabulary
aaMaKOHaepT airmail envelope aHrn.titcKMM English 6aHaH banana 6e3 + gen. without 6MneT ticket 6paTb +ace. to take R 6epy, Tbl6epiWb aci (from aecb 'all') everything 6y~T snackbar Be1J4b (f) aeiJ4tM thing acero in all/only a'lepa yesterday AHM, (sing. pe6iH(O)K) children A&Teit

AnR +gen. for 3HB'IMT so (that means) M3 +gen. out of, from MHOCTpBHHbiM foreign K coaneHMIO unfortunately K8pTa map KOHBepT envelope KOH8'1Ho [ka-nyeab,-na] of course Kp6Me + gen. apart from. except nM (question word); whether 'ITO nM? am I? is it? etc. -see 10.15 MapKa gen. pl. M8poK stamp MBWMHB car; machine



MMMO + gen. past Hanpc)TMa opposite (place adverb) HaT+ gen. there isn't/there aren't H8YA66Ho it's awkward 6Kono +gen. near; approximately nMpc)r (M3 + gen.) (large) pie (made of) (nMpoJK6K small pie) n6cne +gen. after nocMOTPMTe look (imperative) nO'fT6awi postage (adj) npMkntbli pleasant np6cTo sir,ply np6TMa +gen. opposite nyYBBOAMTenb (m) guidebook f)&AM + gen. for the sake of pa3roa6p conversation p&3Mep size. dimension pl:l16a fish pi:I16HbiM fish (adj)

c +gen. off, from CB()66AHbiM free cer6AHR jTpoM [sye-ll,6dnya] this morning cnt1wKoM too (excessively) cnoaapb (m) cnoaapj dictionary co6au dog coaceM completely coaceM HaT + gen. none at all c6K juice cne4MSnbHO specially cfJ6AHMi average; middle CT6nbKO + gen. so much, so many c10pnpt13 surprise TaK KaK since (because) TaK6i such y + gen. near; by 48H8 pl. I.46Hbl price

You have now met about 350 Russian words. If you feel you've forgotten most of them, that's normal. Just go back and learn them again. Once you've made the first few hundred stick, it then gets easier and easier to learn new ones.

10.17 Pa3roa6pbl a 6y$8Te Ma uara3ttHe Snackbar and Shop Conversations

(l) A: &: A: &:

Y aac eCTb 'lai? HaT, H6 8CTb c6K. A K6c1Je 8CTb? ECTb.

A:. ECTb nM y aac 6aHSHb1? &: HaT. &aHaHoa HaT.



A: A 'ITO lKe y aac ecTb? 5: ECTb il6noKM. Apyrilx ci'PYKTOB HeT.

A: A 'ITO y aac eCTb BblnMTb*? 5: BMHO. senoe, KpiiCHoe. BOAKM HeT. A: nolKilnyMCTB, AiliiTe 6yYblnKy 6enoro BMHil. 5: nolKilnyMCT8. *"'Toy Bac ecTb BblnMTb? What have you got to drink (alcohol)? Ha no'ITe At the Post Office A: CK&lKMTe, noanyiiCTa, HeT "" y Bac aBM&KOHBepToB? 5: ECTb. A: A cKonbKo cToMT TaKoii KOHBepT? 5: ABM&KOHBepT CTOMT nt1TbAeciiT 'leTblpe KoneiiKM. A: nolKilnyiiCTa, ABB KOHBepTa. 5: 0AMH py6nb BOC8Mb KoneeK. A: Xopowo. In the Map Section A: CK&lKMTe, nolKanyiicTa, y Bac ecTb nnaH ropoAS? 5: K colKaneHMIO, ceii'lilc HeT, HO ecTb nyreBOAMTenb. A: A KilpTbl PocciiM ecTb? 5: KapTbl ecTb. nocMoTpiiTe BOT 3TY. A: HeT, 3Ta KapTa cnilwKOM ManeHbK&H. Y B&c HeT 6onbwoii KapTbl? 5: 5onbwilx HeT. Ho ecTb B6T TaKaH, cp8AHMX pa3MepoB. A: Xopowo. s:l6epy 3TY. CK6nbKO oHil cToMT?

5: "18TbiPH8AL18Tb KOneeK.
A: Been) '18TbiPHBAL18Tb KoneeK! TaK Milno! KaK6ii npMRTHbiM CIOpnpM3! B pbi6HOM Mara3MHe In the Fish Shop (a Typical Shortage Joke) noKynaTenb*: npoA8B84: CK8lKMTe, noanyiiCTa, y Bac HeT Milca? HeT, 3TO pb16Hb1M Mar&3MH. Y HBC H8T pb16bl. Milca H8T B M8r83MH8 HBnpOTMB.

*Customer ('buyer').



10.18 Signs (Everyday Genitives)

CB066AH.!!IX MBCI.. HeT. Mecrro 'place', 'seat' 6MneTOB HBT. 6MneT 'ticket' OrAen 38K83Qil 38Kll3 'order'
There are no free seats (restaurant). There are no tickets left. Orders Section (Section of Orders) part of a shop where certain categories of people (e.g. war veterans, mothers of large families) may order scarce goods

MecTo An" KypeHMB KypeHMe 'smoking' K6MH8T8 MliTmnt .. pe68H.!Ql M8Tb 'mother' pe68H(O)K 'child' ynMLI8 lf8MKOBCKQ[g (8-l8) KaMep8 xp8HeHMB xpaHeHMe 'keeping'

Place for Smoking (Smoking Permitted here) Mother and Child Room in stations and airports (for changing nappies etc.) Chaikovskii Street (Street of Chaikovskii) Left luggage room (room of keeping)

COMPREHENSION EXERCISE 10/5 (Translation in Key)

1 What has Vadim borrowed from Eva's parents in the last two days? 2 Does Eva have any brothers? 3 Does Eva's mother like Vadim?

BSAMM: HeT nM y Te6fl no'IT6BbiX MapoK? Y MBHH TPM nMCbMa A"R 8Hrnl41iicKMx APYHiii, H6 coaceM HeT MilpoK. Ea8: Y MeHJ1 TOnbKO ABe wecTMKonile'IHble* MSPKM. Cnpoc14* y MOMx poAMTenelii. BSAMM: HeyA66Ho. Sl 6epy y* HMX cT6nbKO pli3HbiX ae&qelii - B'lepa HecKonbKO 8Hrnl41iicKMX r83eT, cer6AHR YTpoM AB8 8Hrnl41iicKMX cnoa8ps1 ... T8K K8K y HMX HeT CbiH8, Tbl AnA HMX - K8K CbiH. Tbl MMileWb* npaao 6p8Tb BCi, 'ITO Tbl XO'I8Wb*.




B&AMM: A AJ"'R Te6s1 Jl KTO- TBOM 6paT, 'tTO mt? Eaa: HeT, KOH8'4Ho. Tbl np6cTo OAMH M3 Moilx APYHM. B&AiiM: Cnac.t6o. 3Hi'tMT, Jl np6cTo OAMH M3 TBOMx APY38rli. H6 MeHR nlb6JIT TBOM pGAMTenM. Eaa: Aa, cer6AHJI MiMa A8naeT nMp6r M3 caeJKMX :R6noK, cne~MSnbHO AJ"'fl Te6R.
;Extra Vocabulary

:f:wecTMKonlle'tHblrli six-kopeck

*Tbl MMSeWb npaao you have the

right (10.4)

:t:cnpoc.t y Motilx poAti!Tenerli. Ask

my parents ('Ask at my parents').

:f:aci, 'tTO Tbl x6~~teWb everything

that you want

:f:SI 6epy y HMX. I borrow from them

('I take at them').


You should be able to say the following in Russian:

I I don't understand.
2 Do you speak English? 3 Do you live in Moscow? 4 Do you know where the post office is?

5 He doesn't speak Russian.

6 Thank you for the letter. 7 What are her. name and patronymic? 8 I'm going to Red Square. 9 I'm not very fond of Borodin. 10 I think that McDonald's (MBKAOHBnAC) is in Pushkin Square. II My friends live in this street. 12 Twenty-five dollars. 13 There is the house of my friend Ivan. 14 There is no milk today. 15 Have you any English books? 16 Excuse me, do you have any coffee?



17 I have many Russian friends. 18 Natasha has two small sons. 19 Give rr.e a bottle of good white wine, please. 20 Do you know these girls?



11 . 1 Key Phrases
Ba. 6bii1M a n6HAoHe? S1 He 3Han.
S1 He 3H8na. KaK :ho H83biBBeTcH?
Have you been in London? I didn't know (man speaking). I didn't know (woman speaking). What ('How') is this called?

11.2 Talking about the Past

MaaH 61>111 3Aeca. aotepil. HaTawa 6bii1B B nap.tlKe.
Ivan was here yesterday. Natasha was in Paris.

When you want to talk about the past in English, you use forms like 'I was', 'She knew', 'We were talking', 'I have been to Moscow'. These verb forms are all forms of the past tense. The past tense of verbs is very easy in Russian, much easier than the present tense. To make the past tense of most verbs, there are two simple steps. First, you take off the Tb of the dictionary form (the infinitive, corresponding to 'to know') and replace it with -11. Second, you make the ending match (agree with) the gender (m, for n) and number (singular or plural) of the subject, according to the following table:
m sing

f sing

n sing

m/f/n plural




So the past tense of 3H8Tb 'to know' is:

OH 3H&n he knew
6H H&3Han




she knew

it knew

they knew

he didn't know Other examples

pa66Tafrb 'to work' R pa66Tan, R pa66Tana, Mbl pa66TanM 'worked' npo,qaaatrb 'to sell' R npo,qaaan, R npo,qaaana, Bbl npo,qaaanM :Sold' >KMhb 'to live' R >KMn, R >KMna, 6H >KMn, oHa >KMna 'lived' 6b1Tb 'to be', which does not have a normal present tense, forms its past

tense like any other verb:

6H 6bln OHa6bln8 OH06blnO OHM 6blnM

he was

she was (NB stress)

it was

they were

Remember that the gender of the subject must be shown if the subject is singular. So if you are a man, your past tense forms end -n, but if you are a woman, the past tense forms of all your verbs end -na. So if you want to say 'I was in Moscow', the Russian will be either R 6bln a MocKae (man speaking) or R 6b1n8 B MocKae (woman speaking) And if you're using Tbl, the verb ending will also depend on the sex of the person you're talking to:
Tbl 6bln B n6HAOHe? Tbl 6bln8 B n6HAOH8?

Were you (man) in London? Were you (woman) in London?

However, Bbl always takes a plural past tense ending, even if you are talking to one person:
MB8H neTp6BM'I, Bbl6blnB. B CM6MpM? Ivan Petrovich, have you been

in Siberia? Here is the complete list with 6b1Tb:

R 6bln (m), R 6blna (f) Tbl 6bln (m), Tbl 6bln8 (f)

I was you were (fam)



oH6bln oHll6blnll OH06blnO Mbl6blnlll Bb16WnM

he was she was it was we were you were (pol./pl.)

Remember Bbl always takes plural past tense endings, even if you are talking to one person.
they were

Note that the negative forms of 6b1Tb have an unusual stress pattern. The stress moves to the He except in the feminine:
A.Hi6bln A H8 6blnB oHo Hi 6blno Mbl J:lj 6blnM
I wasn't (m) I wasn't (f) it wasn't we weren't

11.3 Past of ecTb and HeT 'there Isn't'

Since ecTb 'there is/are' is the present tense of 6b1Tb, the past-tense forms of ecTb are those of 6b1Tb:
Y Hac ecTb A6nnapbl. Y Hac 6blnM AOnnapbl.
We have dollars (10.2). We had dollars ('By us were dollars').

The past of H8T +genitive is He 6blno (note stress)+ genitive

HaT ocllA.
There's no tea (10.5). There was no tea.

He 6blno ocllA.

Y H8C coaceM H8 6blll0 A6nnapoa. We had no dollars at all.

11.4 EXTRA: Stress of the Past Tense

As a general rule, if the infinitive has only one syllable (*IIITb, 6paTb), the feminine form will be stressed on the -6 (oHii nll, "she lived'; OHB 6panll 'she took'), while the other forms will be stressed on the stem (OHM



JKMnlll, OHM 6pan111). 3H&Tb is an exception: oHa 3H8na 'she knew'. Where the stress moves, this will be shown in the vocabularies. Longer verbs (nPOA&Blrrb 'to sell') are likely to have fixed stress (oHa npGA&aina 'she sold'). But verbs with prefixes (Lesson 19) normally have the same stress pattern as the root verb; so M36p6Tb 'to pick out', 'to elect' has the past tense OHil M36panj 'she elected' because it is derived from the verb 6paTb 'to take', which has the past tense OHS 6panj 'she took'. The shift of the stress to He with 6b1Tb (see examples above) is found with a small number of one-syllable verbs, e.g. :IKIIITb 'to live' (6H He JKIIIn, Mbl He :IKIIInlll) and A&Tb 'to give' (12.7), but the only important one is 6b1Tb, because its negative forms are so common.

11.5 Exceptional Verbs

If the infinitive ends in something other than -Tb (e.g. MATM 'to go' 6.9, M6'fb 'to be able' 11.8), then the masculine singular past tense stem cannJt easily be predicted (them past of MO'fb is M6r 'was able'). However, once you know the masculine form, the other forms always end -na, -no, -n111:
M6'fb 'to be able' A M6r, A Morn&, oHo Morl!Q, OHM Morrui (was able, could)

Note the odd past tense of MATM 'to go on foot', which has both an unexpected stem w(i) and a fleeting vowel.
6H win, OHa wna, oH6 wn6, OHM wn111 'he/she/it/they was/were going'

No other Russian verb has such a difference of stem between the infinitive and the past tense.


Make the verbs in brackets past tense and translate:

1 MasH (6b1Tb) a MocKae. 2 Mawa T6JKe (6b1Tb) a MocKae. 3 Sl (6b1Tb) a KMeae AB8 AHA.


4 OHM (pa66TBTb) aecb AGHb.

5 Sl (pa66TBTb) &'tepa.
6 Bbl (3HBTb), 'tT6 OHB (6b1Tb) a &epnMHe?

7 Bbl (BMAGTb 'to see') uoer6 uya? 8 OHa He (M6'fb) pa66T&Tb.

9 10 11 12 l3 14
Mbl (MATM) M8AneHHo. KorA8 R (BMA8Tb) er6, 6H (MATM) B Mara3MH. Y sac (ecTb) APY3bR a MocKa6? Y Hei (eCTb) pyccKMM APYr. 8 6ycfleTe (HeT) MOnOKB. Y Hac (HeT) pyccKMx A6Her.

11.6 Reflexive' Verbs

Many Russian verbs have a suffix -cR, which is short for ce6R, meaning 'self' (21.4). Our example is OAeBaTbCR [a-dye-va-tsa] 'to dress oneself'. Note that TbCR is always pronounced [tsa]. These verbs are called reflexive'. The suffix CR (pronounced [sa] after T), which becomes Cb [s'] after a vowel, is simply added to the endings you already know (present tense- Lesson 4; past tense above). 0AeBBTb 'to dress (someone)' has the 3H8Tb-type endings OA&BBIO, OA&Baewb, so the endings of OAeB8TbCR 'to dress oneself' are: R OAeBBIOCb I dress myself [a-dye-va-yoos'] [a-dye-va-yesh-sya] OH OA&BaBTCR he dresses himself [a-dye-va-ye-lH] Mbl OAeBaeMCR we dress ourselves [a-dye-va-yem-sya] [a-dye-va-ye-tyes'] OHM OA&BBIOTCR they dress themselves [a-dye-va-yoo-IU]

Tbl OAGBB&WbCR you dress yourself Bbl OAeaaeTecb you dress yourself

0Ha OA&BileT Milnb'fMKa. She dresses the boy. 0Hil OAGBB&TCR KpacMao. She dresses (herself) well. The past tense works in the same way ( CR added after consonants, Cb after vowels): R OA&BancR I dressed myself (man speaking) R OA&Biln&Cb I dressed myself (woman speaking) Mbl OAeBilnMCb we dressed ourselves



In English we often omit the 'self' ('I dressed') but in Russian the CJI is not optional. Apart from OA8BlrrbCH, MbJTbCJI 'to wash oneself' (H MOIOCb, Tbl MOeWbCJI), 6pMTbCJI 'to shave (oneself)' (JI 6pe10Cb, Tbl 6peeWbCH), there are a large number of verbs which have a reflexive suffix CJI for no obvious reason:
ynbl6ilTbCJI ynbi6SIOCb, ynbi688WbCJI CM8RTbCJI CM81bcb, CMHWbCJI C8PAMTbCJI cepJKjcb, cepAMWbCH pyrilTbCJI pyriliOCb, pyrilewbCH

to smile to laugh to be angry to swear

You simply have to learn that these verbs have -cJI suffixes, even though there is no meaning of 'self'. Another common use of CJI is with verbs like OTKpbiBSTb 'to open', 38KpbiBSTb 'to close', H&'tMHSTb 'to begin', when they are used 'intransitively', that is, the thing which opens, closes, or begins is made the subject of the sentence and there is no object in the accusative case. Compare transitive' (a) with intransitive' (b): (a) (b)
lllailH H8'tMH8eT KOH46pT. KoH4epT HB'tMH8eTi<B..

Ivan begins the concert. The concert begins ('itself').

KoH~pT H&'tMHaeT is an incomplete construction to a Russian, who expects to hear an object in the accusative case or a following verb, e.g. K0H46pT HB'tMHileT H8A08AflTb 'The concert begins to bore' or K0H4epT HB'tMHileT H6ay10 cepMIO 'The concert begins a new series'; if there is no following noun or infinitive, then the reflexive ending is added 'The concert begins itself' (KOH48PT HB'tMHileTi<&). This structure is common with verbs (e.g. OTKpbiBSTb 'to open') which are normally followed by an accusative noun ('He opens the door') or an infinitive verb ('He continues to talk') but which can also be used with an inanimate noun as subject ('The door opens'):


OTKpbiBSIO AB8pb. Aaepb OTKpbiBileTi<&.

Mbl npoAOnJKSeM yp6K.

I open the door. The door opens. We continue the lesson.



Yp6K npoAomKileT~. Mbl npoAOnJKileM pa60T&Tb. Pa60Ta npoAonJKaeT~.

The lesson continues. We continue to work. The work continues.

11.7 Common Phrases with Reflexive Verbs

KorA3 OTKpbiBS8TCfl M8r83MH? KSJK8TCR . . . (from Ka38TbCR 'to seem') KilJKeTCR, 6H A6Ma. Ka38nocb ... OH, Ka38nocb, C8PAMnCR.
When does the shop open? it seems (often corresponding to 'I think') I think he's at home. It seemed ... He seemed to be angry.

('He, it seemed, was angry.') Take a seat. (Sit yourself down.) CSAMT8Cb. (CSAMTbCR 'to sit down') What is this called? (What does this KaK 3To H83btaileTcR? call itself?) (Ha3b1BilTbCR 'to be called' of things, not people) Take your coat off. (Undress Pa3Ae&iliTecb. yourself.) (pa3AeailTbCR 'to undress') I hope (so). HSA610Cb. (H8A6RTbCfl 'to hope') He TonKiliTeCb. Don't push. (TonKSTbCR 'to push', 'to shove')


Translate the verbs:

l no..eMy OnR He (smiles)? 2 Mbl (got dressed). 3 Aaepb (opens).
4 AaepM (opened). 5 KorAil (begins) ciJMnbM?



11.8 Vocabulary
&ann41iicKoe M6pe Baltic Sea 6on63Hb (f) disease 6brrb (only present form ecTb) to be aenMKMiii great aecb gen. pl. acex (Table 4) all ati!AeTb: att:IKy, aMAMWb to see ace paaH6 nevertheless, all the same ace (pl. of aecb) everybody
AO*Ab (m) AO*A& rain A6nro for a long time 38XOAMTe come in (to guest) M3-38 (+gen.) because of M3aMHMTe 38 (+ace.) excuse me for MCKBTb (+ace. or gen.): MU4y, MIJ48Wb to look for, to seek Klfl:IKeTcR [k8-zhe-tsa] it seems, I think KMHO (n indecl) cinema KOH48PT concert Ha KOHL\epTe at a concert KpacoTil beauty KpeCTbRHMH KpeCTbRHe peasant gen. pl. Kp8CTbRH MaMa mother, mum(my) MO'Ib: Morj, M6:1K&Wb, M6QT to be able (past M6r, Morna, Morn6, Morntll) H&3blai1Tb (+ace.) (like 3H&Tb) to name (sth) H&3blaiiTbCR [na-zl-va-tsa] to be called (of thing, not person) H8'1MHSTb(Cfl) (11.6) (like 3H8Tb) to begin HSA8fiTbCfl: HSA810Cb, HSA8eWbCfl to hope Heail Neva River HeAiiaHo recently HM'Ier61 [nee-chye-~6] it doesn't matter/that's all right HM'Iero [nee-chye-v6] He + verb nothing HY:IKHO it's necessary OAeaiiTb(CR) (like 3H&Tb) ( 11.6) to dress (oneself) O:IKMASTb (+gen.) (like 3H8Tb) to expect (something/someone) onoaAiiHMe lateness OTKpblaiiTb(Cfl) (like 3H8Tb) (11.6) to open n6pT prep. a nopTj port npilaA& truth npiiBA&? Is that so? npoAOn:IKBTb(Cfl) (like 3H8Tb) (11.6) to continue npoXOAMTe go through (imper) np6wnbllii previous, last a np6wnoM rOAY last year pa:JAeaaliiTeCb take your coat off C8PAMTbCfl: cep:IKycb, cepAMWbCfl to be angry CnbiW8Tb: CnbiWy, CnbiWMWb to hear CMBRTbCfl: CM81bcb, CMeiWbCfl to laugh CMOTp8Tb (+ace.) to watch; to look at (the content of)



CMOTpJO, CMChpMWb CMOYpeTb Ha (+ace.) to look at

)'*e HeT (+gen.) there is/are

no more
ynbl6aTbCH [oo-llba-tsa] to smile ynbi6810Cb, ynbl68eWbCH <JMnbM film x6noA cold 'tac hour a ceMb ~tac6a at seven o'clock wjrKa wjroK joke 3pMMTI'iJK the Hermitage

(the surface of)

coc&A pl. coc&AM coc&Aelii

neighbour CTOHTb: CTOJO, CTOMWb to stand CTpOMTb: CTpOIO, CTp6MWb to build

cTp6MTbCH to be built ('build itself') T{lnO'IKM Tano~teK slippers yYMBH mist, fog

(St Petersburg museum)

11.9 AManorM
Bn: Eaa: an: Eaa: Bbl 6blnM a neTep6ypre?

Aa B np6wnoM rOAY s:t 6blnl'i T&M 'teTblpe AHH.

"iT6 abl TaM aliiAenM?

s:t aliiA&na HeacKMiii npocneKT, Heay, neTponaanoacKyiO KpenOCTb, 6blnB a 3pMMTaJKe, KOH&'tHO. s:l He 3HBn8, 'tTO neTep6ypr T&KOM KpaclilabiM r6pOA. s:l MH6ro cnbiW&na 06
3TOM r6pOAe, HO ace paaH6 H He OJKMA&na T8KOM KP8COTbl.

Eaa: KorA& H8'tMHS8TCH KOH48pT? B&AMM: Kl'iJKeTCH, a CeMb 't&C6a. no'teMy Tbl ynbl6aeWbCH?


s:t 3Hal0, 'tT6 6MneToa Y*e HeT. H6 a KMH6 MAeT xop6wMiii

&MepMKBHCKMM <JMnbM. MaMa a'tepa CMOTpena. 0HI'i roaopMT, 'tTO ace CMeHnMCb.

KM: MlilnocTM np6cMM~I 3aXOAMTel Pa3Aeal'iliiTecb. B6T Tl'inO'IKM. Knapa MMxaliinoaHa, M3aMHMTe 38 ono3AI'iHMe. H&AeiOCb, abl He cepAMT8Cb. s:t O'teHb A6nro MCKI'ina T8KCM. KM: HM'ter6, HM'ter6. npoXOAMTe, noJKI'inyliicTa. CB066AHbiX M8WMH He 6blnO coaceM. s:t He 3Hina, 'tTO Ac!n&Tb.





KM: A&: an: A&: an:

no3H8KOMbT8Cb, 3TO H8W Coc8A, anSAMMMp neTpOBM't. 6H HeA{IBHO 6bln B n6HAOHe. 6oteHb npMRTHO. MeHil 30ByY AHHa &opMCOBHa. A otTO Bbl TaM BMAenM? K COJKaneHMIO, M338 yYM8Ha R HM'tero He BMAen. npllBAS? nooteMy Bbl CMeiTecb? 3To wjTKa, KoHeotHo. TyMaHoa He 6b1no. Ho nocToiiHHo win AOJKAb.

i:MMnOCTM npocMM! welcome! (to guests)

COMPREHENSION EXERCISE 11/3 (Translation in key) 0CHOB8HMe neTep6ypra The Founding of St Petersburg (1703) 1 Was St Petersburg founded on a completely empty site?

2 What hardships did the peasant labour force endure?

PyccKMiii 48Pb niTp aenMKMiii cotMTan, otTo HYJKHO cTp6MTb HOBbliii nopT Ha &amMiiicKoM Mope. 3To r6poA CaHKT-neTep6ypr, MnM neTep6ypr, KaK ero o6blotHo H83biB810T. 3To H6aoe OKH6 a Eapony* CTpOMnM H8 peKe Heae, rAe H8 OCTpoae* yJKe CTOilna neTpona&nOBCK8R* KpenOCTb. neTep6ypr CTpOMOCR 6biCTpO. AnR noCTpOiiiKMi: r6pOA8 CO BC8X KOHI.lOBi: POCCMM KllJKAbliii fOA noCblnMM TbiCR'tM KpecTbHH. OHM pa66TanM B x6nOA8, nOCTOHHHO wen AOJKAb M AY"i: aeTep. OHM CTOHnM no KOneHMi: B BOAe M rpR3M. KBJKAbiM fOA TbiCR'tM OIOAeiii norM6llnMi: OT 6one3Heiii, ronoAS M HenocMnbHOroi: TPYAB i:Extra vocabulary (less common words and phrases, not worth learning at this stage). In alphabetical order:

aeT(e)p wind r6nOA hunger rpR3b (f) mud a rpR3M in mud

AYTb to blow CO BC8X KOHI.lOB (KOH(e)l.l end)

from all corners ('ends')



Henocl4nbHbliii excessive,

OHK6 a Eap6ny window on

('into') Europe

6crpoa pl. OCTpoaa island nerpon8&nOBCK8JI KpilnOCTb

Peter and Paul Fortress

no KoneHM up to (their) knees norM66Tb to perish nocTp6iiiKa construction nocblniTb to send C'IMTiTb [>") to consider TPYA labour, work




12.1 Useful Phrases

5I no3BOHIO 38aTpa. 5I npM6AY B


Bbl H8M CKUceTe?


I'll phone tomorrow. I'll come on Wednesday. Will you tell us? I want to go to the Kremlin. I like Moscow.

12.2 Aspect: Imperfective (i) and Perfective (P) Verbs

If you look up any verb, e.g. 'to write', in an English-Russian dictionary, you will usually find two Russian verbs. 'To telephone' is both 3BOHMTb and no3BOHMTb. 3BOHMTb is called the imperfective aspect form of this verb, and no3BOHMTb is called the perfective aspect form. The imperfective and perfective forms are usually, but not always, fairly similar to look at. All the verbs you have met so far in this book (apart from some imperative' forms) have been imperfective. From now on imperfectives will be marked;, and perfectives . The present tense is always formed from imperfective verbs. The future is most often formed from perfective verbs, as in this lesson. The meaning of the two aspects, their use in the past tense, and the imperfective future are dealt with in Lessons 13 and 14.



12.3 Future Tense

A major use of perfective verbs is the formation of the future tense. If you add to perfective verbs the same verb endings which you met with imperfective verbs in Lesson 4, the meaning is future.

3BOHMTb' to telephone
present tense R 3BOH!b I phone/am phoning

no3BOHMTbP to telephone
future tense

Tbl 3BOHMWb you phone 6H 3BOHMT he phones Mbl 3BOHMM we phone Bbl 3BOHMTe you phone OHM 3BOHRT they phone Another example

R 003BOH!b I'll phone Tbl 003BOHMWb you'll phone OH no3BOHMT he'll phone Mbl 003BOHMM we'll phone Bbl no3BOHMTe you'll phone OHM no3BOHHT they'll phone

The perfective of OTAbiXSTb' 'to rest' is OTAOXHYrbP. 0rAOXHjTbP is a lKMTb- type verb with the stem OTAOXH-. So: R OTAbiXSIO is 'I rest' and R OTAOXHY is 'I shall rest'/'1'11 take a rest' Tbl OTAbiXSeWb 'you rest' Tbl OTAOXHiWb 'you'll rest'

12.4 More Pairs of Imperfective and Perfective Verbs

Notice that a perfective (e.g. noexaTbP) formed from an imperfective (ex&Tb;) by the addition of a prefix (no- in this case) always has the same conjugation (endings) as the imperfective: AenaTb' to do R Aena10, Tbl A8naewb I do etc. MATH' to go on foot R MAY Tbl MAiWb I go etc. eX8Tb; tO go by transport R iJAy, Tbl eA&Wb I go etc. noK83biB8Tb' to show R OOKil3biB810, Tbl OOKil3biB88Wb CAenaTbP R CAenaJO, Tbl CAenaewb I'll do etc. nOMTMP R noiAY Tbl noiAiWb I'll go etc. noex&TbP R no6Ay, Tbl no6Aewb I'll go etc. OOK83iiTbP R noK8lKy, Tbl noKillKewb I'll show



noKynaTb' to buy A noKYniiiO, Tbl noKYnilewb BMA8Tb' to see A BMJKY, Tbl BtfAMWb noMoriTb' to help A noMoriiiO, Tbl noMoraewb A&BiiTb' to give (stem AS) A A&lb, Tbl A&iWb Mbl MAiM' Ha KpicHyiO nnolq&Ab. Mbl noiiiAiM 0 Ha KpicHyiO nn61q&Ab. S1 BMJKY' ei KBJICAbiM A8Hb. S1 yaMlKY 0 ei 3llaTpa. OHM He noMoriiOT.' OHM He noM6ryu

KynMTb 0 A Kynnlb, Tbl KjnMWb I'll buy YBMA8Tb 0 A YBMlKy, Tbl YBMAMWb I'll see noM6'1b0 A nOMOrj, Tbl nOM6lK8Wb, OHM nOMOryT I'll help
A&Tb0 (irregular verb)

A A&M, Tbl A&Wb, 6H A&CT, Mbl ABAMM, Bbl ABAMTe, OHM ABAfT
We're going to Red Square. We'll go to Red Square. I see her every day. I'll see her tomorrow. They're not helping. They won't help.

Very occasionally, the i and p partners look very different:

roaopMTb; to say A roaoplb, Tbl roaopMWb 6paTb' to take A 6epj, Tbl 6epiWb 0Hi roaopMT' cnacM6o. 0Hil CKD8T 0 cccnacM6o. Mbl 6epiM' waMniHCKoe. Mbl B03bMiM 0 waMniiHcKoe. CK83i1Tb 0 A CKBlKj, Tbl CKD8Wb I'll say B3ATb 0 A B03bMj, Tbl B03bMiWb I'll take
She says 'thank you'. She'll say 'thank you'. We're taking champagne. We'll take champagne.


Translate into Russian:

1 I'll help. 2 Will you help? 3 We'll see her tomorrow. 4 We'll go to Red Square. 5 They won't go (by transport). 61'11 buy this book. 7 We shall rest. 8 He won't come. 9 I'm taking this book. 10 I'll say two words.



12.5 XoTeTb' 'to want'

There are very few irregular (unpredictable) verb conjugations in Russian (though there are plenty of awkward infinitives). One unpredictable verb is xoTeTb, which has exaTb-type endings in the singular and roaoplliiTb- type in the plural:
RXO'Ij Tbl xl<tewb 6H xl<teT
I want you (fam) want he wants


we want you (pol./pl.) want they want

Most commonly this verb is used with an infinitive ('I want to go to the circus'). If what you want to do is a single event, use the perfective infinitive:
Sl XO'Ij noiiiTM 0 B 3pMMTSlK. Sl XO'Ij noeX&Tb0 B Kllilea.
I want to go to the Hermitage. I want to go to Kiev.

If what you want to do is to be repeated or has no specified duration, use the imperfective:
Mbl XOTMM roaopMTb' no-pyccKM.
We want to speak Russian.

Sl xo'ly npo'IMTSTb" :hy KHMry. Sl XO'Ij 'IMTSTb' pyccKMe KHMrM.
I want to read (and finish) this book. I want to read Russian books (in general, no specified number)

Note also:
Sl XO'Ij nMTb' . Sl XO'Ij BblnMTb 0
I'm thirsty. I want a drink (a strongly alcoholic one, not beer).

XoTeTb can be used with a noun in either the accusative case (with specif-

ic objects) or the genitive (with abstract objects, or in the partitive meaning - see 10.8), but constructions with an infinitive are much commoner:


What do you want? (The questioner supposes you want something definite.) I want a sandwich (a specific thing). We want peace (abstract noun). Like some tea? (partitive 10.8)

Sl XO'Ij 6yYep6p6A.



Xo:re:rb' is a good example of a verb whose meaning (a state, not an

action) is naturally associated with the imperfective aspect. However, there is a perfective 38XOTeTb", which means 'to start to want', 'to conceive a desire', and is used quite frequently to form the future:

Moe:r 6b1Tb, a8a:rpa OHM 38xo:rfi:r noiiril a :rea:rp.

Tomorrow they may decide that they want (lit. 'perhaps they will begin to want') to go to the theatre.

Translate into Russian: 1 What do you want? 2 I want to go (p) to Siberia. 3 We don't want (to). 4 They want to buy vodka. 5 Do you (tam) want to have a drink (p)?

12.6 Dative case: Pronouns

The basic meaning of the dative case endings is 'to' as in 'She gave it to

me'. The dative forms of the personal pronouns are:


MH8 Te68 eMy ei &My HBM BBM MM


tome to you (tam.) to him to her to it to us to you (pol/pl.) to them

H&My H&i

after prepositions' after prepositions after prepositions



after prepositions

0Hi ABCT" MH8 nJITb py6nei. K HeMy

She'll give (to) me five roubles. towards him

BbiP/IAWre" 8Mj A6cJJno py6nei? Will you give him ten roubles?

12.7 Aa:rb 'To Give': Another Irregular Verb

Like xorin.; in 12.5 above, ABTb" is an awkward verb:




I'll give you'll give he'll give


we'll give you'll give they'll give

The only other verb of this type is eCTb' 'to eat' - see 12.18.



'To Please'

Note the use of the dative in the Russian structure corresponding to 'Do you like ...?' using the verb HpiiBMTbCR (third person HpiiBMTCR/HpiiBRTCR)
'to please':


Do you like Moscow? (lit. 'To you pleases Moscow?') I don't like Moscow ('Moscow to me

does not please'). MHe aawM AitTM O<feHb HpSBRTCR.IIike your children very much. ('To me your children very please'). A common question is: What do you think of ... ? K&K BBM HpSBMTCR ...? KaK BBM HpBBMTCR 3TOT ciJMnbM? What do you think of this film?

ni06MTb 'to like/love' (with the accusative) can be used when the feeling is


Sl nl06n10 MOCKBj.

I love/am very fond of Moscow.

12.9 Formation of the Dative Singular of Nouns

The dative is an easy case to fonn: Masculine nouns ending in a consonant add -y:

APYI'X to a friend

Masculine nouns ending -b or -iii replace the b or iii with -10:

Mropb Igor Bac..tnMiil Vasilii Mrop.m to Igor Bac..tnM.m to Vasilii



Neuter nouns replace -o with -y and -e with -10:

OKtu) window coaneHMe regret C'IBCTb8 happiness, luck

OKHX to the window K co:IKaneHM.!2 unfortunately ('to regret') K c<taCTb.!2 fortunately ('to happiness')

MMJI 'name' has dative MMeHM (same as the genitive form)

Feminine nouns (and masculine nouns ending -a/-fl) have the same endings as in the prepositional case (see 5.4):


to Natasha

AH~to Ania

CM6Mp}! to Siberia MBTmnt to mother PoccMtt to Russia B8H~ to Vanya

I'll phone (to) Ivan. I'll give (to) Masha five dollars.

Sl n03BOHIO llla8Hy. Sl A&M Mawe nfiTb Aimnapoa.

OHa noMoraeT Mj:IKy. She helps (to) her husband. OH He noMoraeT lKeHe. He doesn't help (to) his wife. (noMoraTb'/noM6'1b 'to help' is followed by the dative case)

Put dative endings on the words in brackets and translate:

l Sl A&M (Bbl) nfiTb A6nnapoa. 2 Bbl (fl) noM6:1KeTe? 3 Sl noKa:IKj nMcbM6 (lKeHa). 4 Sl no3BOHIO (Eaa M B&AMM). 5 K (c'laCTbe), pjccKMe xon1TM.tpa.

12.10 Formation of the Dative Plural

All nouns, regardless of gender, add either -aM or JIM to the stem of the
nominative plural (Lesson 8). That means: (a) If the nominative plural (see Lesson 8) ends -bl or -a, replace the bl or

-a with -aM:



AOMil houses AliByWKM girls nMpbMa letters MMeHil names

AOMBM (A6M 'house') AllsywKBM. (AesywKa 'girl') nMCbMBM. (nMCbMO 'letter') MM8HU (MMH 'name')

(b) If the nom. plural ends M or H, replace the M or H with RM:

APY3bH friends MiiTepM mothers HeAenM weeks APY3bii.M. 'to friends' (Apyr 'friend') M&Tepg 'to mothers' (M&Tb 'mother') H8A8n.HM 'to weeks' (HeAenR 'week')

12.11 The Last Two Spelling Rules (3 and 4)

Rule 3. After r, K, x, '-1, lK, w, 1q, 4 (all the eight letters involved in Rules 1 and 2), you always find A not a. So the dative plural of KHMra 'book' (pl. KHMrM) is KHMrBM. (not KMMrRM). 'They are learning Russian' from the rosopMTb-type verb YI.IMTb 'to learn' is OHM j'"laT (not y'"IRT) pyccKMM

Rule 4. After those same eight letters, you always find y, not learning Russian' is R Y'-1-i (not y'-110) pyccKMM R3biK.


So 'I am

12.12 The Main Uses of the Dative

(I) To translate to a person in sentences such as 'I wrote to my friend' (st nMciln APYrv - y is the dative ending), 'I shall give ten dollars to the waiter' (st ADM AKRTb A6nnapoa o~M4MBifT). The dative is the opposite of OT + genitive 'from'.

(2) In impersonal constructions with words like HSAO 'it is necessary', MOlKHO 'it's possible', the person affected is in the dative, e.g. EMy MOlKHO 'He's allowed to' (lit. To him it is possible'). See Lesson 14 for the details. (3) After certain verbs, including most verbs of speaking and communicating and many which have a sense of giving something:



roaoprotTb'/cKa3itTb0 'to say', 'to tell' (to someone) paccKlt3biB&Tb'/paccKa38Tb0 'to tell (a story)' (to someone) A8BBTb'IA&Tb 'to give' (to someone) npMHOcMTb'/npMHecTM0 'to bring' (to someone) noMorilTb'/noM6'1b 0 'to help' pa3pewltTb'lpa3peWMTb0 'to permit' Sl ~ CK&My. I'll tell him. 6H paccKit3biB&n .l:!ilM_O CM6MpM. He told us about Siberia.
She helps her parents. (4) After the prepositions K 'towards'/'to (a person)' and no 'along', 'according to' and various other meanings depending on context (no is the vaguest of Russian prepositions).

Sl XOAMn K APY3bRM. no r6poAl no ynMI.lll! no nnilHV. no n6'1T~ noMM8HM

I went to (see) my friends. around the town (r6pOA 'town') along the streets (ymu.j& 'street') according to plan (nnaH 'plan') by post (n6'1Ta 'post', 'post office') by name (MMR 'name')

The dative is the least common case of nouns.

12.13 Dative of Adjectives, Possessives, Demonstratives (3TOT and TOT)

Check that you know the prepositional endings of adjectives, possessives and demonstratives (7 .II, 7.14). The masculine and neuter endings of the dative simply require the addition of y to the -oM or -eM of the prepositional, i.e. the dative endings are always -oMy or -eMy. The feminine dative is the same as the feminine prepositional, i.e. always -olii or -elii.
HBW~f~X xop6weu APYrv

to our good friend (ct. prepositional o

HilweM xop6weM APyre) cne14MMMCT no pycCKQMX TeltTpy a specialist on the Russian theatre TOMy O~MI4MilHTV, to that waiter
to my Russian friend (same endings as prep.) 141


no 3MMH~ ropOAY Sl noMoriuo 3TQii AeaywKe.

across the wintry town (3MMH.ttM 'winter', 'wintry' has soft endings) I'm helping this girl.

Note: all forms of MOM and TBOM are stressed on the last syllable, so the m and n dative forms are MoeMy and TBoeMy (prepositional: MoiMfraoiM;
remember that e only occurs in stressed syllables- 1.2 (c), 4.9 (a)):
to my friend

12.14 Dative Plural of Adjectives, Possessives, Demonstratives

Adjectives ending biM or -Oi have biM Adjectives ending -Mi have -MM

HOBbiM APY3bAM to new friends pyccKg APY3bAM to Russian friends

The possessives and demonstratives (3TOTh6T) simply add -M to the ending of the nominative plural (8.8):
to my friends (MOM APY3bA 'my friends') to these children (3TM ASTM 'these children') to those girls (Te AeaywKM 'those girls')

For the forms of TpeTMM 'third', see Table 5.

12.15 Common Phrases with the Dative

KBOK38ny K noe3A{IM Toaapbl no CHMJKeHH.!!IM 48HDt BXOA nOCTOpOHHMM aocnpeU(eH
To the station To the trains Goods at reduced prices Private (entry to strangers forbidden)



12.16 EXTRA: Minor Uses of the Dative

With four rarer prepositions: 6narOASPH 'thanks to', cornacHo 'according to', sonpeKM 'in spite of', H&BCT~Y 'towards':
6narOASPH xopoweiil nor6Ae cornacHo nnaHy HascTp&'ty H8M wen AeAyWKa.

thanks to the good weather according to the plan Grandfather was coming towards us (to meet us).

In infinitive phrases (I.IT6 Aen&Tb? 'What is to be done?') you can add a subject in the dative:
I.!To H&M Aen&Tb'? What are we to do? ('What to us to do?')


Put in the dative singular:

1 MOH >KeHa. 2 aaw pjccKMM APYr Bon6Af1. 3 3TOT MHTepecHbiM &HrnM'ISHMH.


Put dative plural endings on the words in brackets:

1 K (HSWM p<)AMTenM). 2 no (3TM jnMI.lbl). 3 6H nOMOrBer (Te 8MepMKSHI.lbl).

4 Sl no3BOHIO (Mor.t APY3bH). 5 OHa cneLIManr.tcT no (C08AMHiHHble


12.17 Prepositional Plural It is convenient to deal with the plural of the prepositional case (Lesson 5) after the dative plural, since for both adjectives and nouns the prepositional endings can always be derived from the dative endings by replacing the final -M with -x.



Dative plural:


to my friends to those girls to new towns about my friends about those girls in new towns

Prepositional plural:

So the prep plural endings for nouns are always -ax or AX. The endings for adjectives are always biX or MX. Since the dat.pL of TOT 'that' and aecb 'all' are TeM and aceM, the prep. pl. are Tex and acex.


Put the words in brackets in the dat. or prep. case and translate:

1 Sl paccK83bl&ana (pyccKMe APY3bR) o (HawM AliTM). 2 Bo (ace pyccKMe AOMa) '48CTO roaopRT 0 (CoeAMHiHHble WT8Tbl). 3 npOAYKTbl B (3TM M8r83MHbl) (Mbl) He Hp8BATCA.

12.18 Vocabulary
6MctJwTeKc (beefshteks] meat rissole, hamburger 6n.0AO pl. 6n.0Aa dish, course of a meal 6YAbTe A06pttl be so good (polite phrase before a request) aereTapMaH(e)LI (male) vegetarian aereTapMaHCKMi vegetarian (adj) B3ATb 0 (6p8Tb') B03bMy, aoabMewb to take attlnMTb0 (see nMTb') ( + ace.) to have a drink BblnbiO, Bblnb8Wb r6cTb (m) rOCTji guest MATril' (noiTril 0) a r6CTM K (+ dat.) to go visiting someone 6b1Tb a rOCTRX y (+gen.) to be visiting someone rpM6 pi rpM61!! mushroom ASB8Tb'IA&Tb0 (see 12.7) to give AM8K6 (OT + gen.) far (from) eCTb' (C'b8CTb0 ) (+ace.) (past en, ena) to eat eM, 8Wb, ecT, eAMM, 8AMTe,

aaoHm' (no-") (+ dat.) to telephone (someone) 3BOH.0, 3BOHMWb KanyCTa (no pl.) cabbage



KOTneTbl no-KiileBCKM Chicken

Kiev (with butter and garlic)

npMMTMP (npMXOAMTb') to arrive,


Kp6Me Tor6 also, in addition

('besides that')

KpbiMCKMiil Crimean nMHMR line MMHepanbHbllil mineral (adj) MMP peace; world HpSBMTbCR' (no-") (see 12.8) to

npMAY npMAiWb npMHecliiTe bring (imperative) npMHecTiiiP ( + ace. + dat.) to bring

(something to someone)

MHe HpSBMTCR I like o6eA dinner; meal o6eA&Tb' (no- 0 ) (like 3H&Tb) to
dine, have a meal

npMHecy,npMH8CiWb (npMHOCMTb', npMHOWj, npMH6cMWb) npRM6Iil direct, straight p8CCK83flTb0 (paCCKSr3biB8Tb') to

tell, talk about (to somebody)

OTAb1X8Tb;/OTAOXHj'Tb0 (12.3) to

paccKa>Ky, paccKil>Kewb (+dat.) cansT salad cKamb" (roaopli!Tb') (+ace.+ dat.)

to say (something to someone)

OcilM4MBHT waiter OcilM4MflHTK8 gen. pl. OcilM4MSHTOK


nMTb' (Bbl- 0) nbiO, nbiwb ( + ace.)

to drink

CK&>Ky, CKB>K8Wb ceMbH, ceMelil family cnywaTb' (noP) (+ace.) to listen to cnywa10, cnywaewb coeAMHiHHble WT&Tbl AMepMKM
United States of America

noeX&Tb0 (eX&Tb') tO go (by transport)

noeAy, noeAeWb noliiAiM B r6cTM let's go visiting noMMA6P tomato noo6eA&Tb0 (see o6eA&Tb') to
dine, have a meal

cTpaHa pl. cTpilHbl country T6 then (in that case) TOrAfl at that time, in that case yliiTM 0 (yXOAMTb') to leave R YMAY Tbl yliiAiWb xoTeTb' (38-0 ) (see 12.5) to want '!aCTo often 'IMTSTb' (npo-0 ) (like 3H8Tb) (+ace.)
to read

noceTii!Tenb (m) customer noT6M then, next noToMy 'ITO because npeAynpeJKAilTb' (3H&Tb- type) to

waMnflHcKoe n adj champagne,

sparkling wine



12.19 AManont Dialogues

B pecTopaHe In the Restaurant OctM 4 MaHTKa: Ao6pbliii A8Hb. nocenhenb: 3APBBCTayiiiTe. 0ciM4MiiHTKa: LITo Bbl xoniTe? noceTIIITenb: Mbl xoTMM noo68A&Tb. 0ciM4MBHTKa: noJKilnyiiiCTa. noceTIIITenb: A 'ITO y aac ecTb? 0ciM4MBHTKa: Y HaC 8CTb rpM6bl B CM8TSH8, pb16Hbliii cansT, 6MciWTeKC (beefShteks), 6eciCTpOr&HOB\ KOTn8Tbl no-KM8BCKM. LITo Bbl XOTMTe? noceTMTenb: MOR JKeHil B03bMiT rpM6bl M KOTneTbl, a J1 B03bMY rpM61i M 6eclcTporaHoa. MMHepanbHaA aoAil eCTb? 0ciM4MBHTKa: noceTiiiTenb: 0ciM4MSHTKa: noceTIIITenb: 0ciM4MBHTKa: Aa A 'ITO y aac ecTb alilnMTb? Y HaC 8CTb WaMnSHCK08 M BMHO. noilnyiiiCTa, npMHecliiTe Moeiii JKeHe 6yrlinKy MMHepanbHoiii BOAbl, a MHe KpacHoe BMHo. Xopowo. st npMHecy BaM Hilwe KpbiMCKOe KpilcHoe.

*~poraHoa Beef Stroganov (chopped beef in a cream sauce)

noceTMTenb: 0ciM4MSHT: noceTIIITenb: 0ciM4MSHT: noceniTenb: 0ciM4MSHT: noceTMT8nb:

0ciM4MSHT, 6YAbT8 A06pb1. st aac cnywa10*. st aereTapM8He4. Y aac eCTb aereTapMaHCKMe 6mbA&? Aa Bbl xoTIIITe pli16y? HeT, A eM TOnbKo oaoaqM. Xopowo, Jl npMHecy BaM KapTOclenb, KanyCTY M nOMMAOPbl. Cnacl46o.

*st aac cnywa10 What would you like? ('I'm listening to you') noiiiAiM B r6CTM Let's Go Visiting Eaa: 8aAI4M: KyAil Mbl noiiiAiM? Aaaaiii noiiiAiM K TaoliiM APY3bRM.



K KOMY Mbl noiiiAiM? K Bepe "Onery. B rOCTHX Visiting Friends Bepa: Xonrre alimMTb? HeT, C08CM6o. Jl XO'tj 6yTep6!)6A MnencM, ecnM ecTb. AR BblnbiO. npttAynpe*Aflto: ecnM Tbl Bblnb8Wb MH6ro, TO R YMAY 6e3Te6H.




1 What are Vadim's three objections to going to visit Natal'ia Petrovna and Boris Karlovich? 2 How does Eva win the argument?






Aaailiii no8AeM K MOMM APY3bRM. K Bepe MOnery? HeT, K HBT8nb8 n8Tp6aHe Mei ceMb8. Jl He XO'tj ex&Tb K HMM. 88Ab* OHM )I(MBjT B CoK6nbHMKax*. 3To O'teHb A811eK6. Typ/J MAih npRMSR nMHMR MeTp6. Kp6Me Tor6, HaTBnbR neTp6aHa nOCToRHHO roaoptiT o MilneHbKMX A6TRx. MHe 3To HeMHTep8cHo*. Ee MY. p&CCKB)I(8T Te68 0 CTpilHax 3lln&AHOiii Eap6nbl. 6opMc KapnoaM't - cne4ManMCT* no EaponeiiicKoMy* Col03y, 6H '48cTO nyTew8cTayer no 3TMM CTpilHaM. J1 He XO'tj cnyW&Tb neK4MIO* no 3KOHOMMKe*. no8A&M KBepe. MHe KIDKeTCR, Tbl He xO'tewb ex&Tb K H8TBnb8 M 6opMcy TOnbKO noTOMj, 'tTO OHM He nbiOT. A Bepa ABeT* Te68 BblnMTb. KaK Te6e He CTb!AHO* ! Tbl e 3HB8Wb, 'tTO MHe HpilaMTCR ypnabliii* 66pa3* )I(M3HM HaTilnb.M n8Tp6aHbl MeiMf-8.




TorA& no8AeM K MOMM Tp83aeHHMK&M*. Ceiotac A MM n0380Hib, a nOT6M Mbl noaaoHMII 11811e M cKaeM, 'IT6 Mbl K o66AY He npttAiM.

*' Extra Vocabulary

HAlt you know A&CT T866 BblnMTb will let you have a drink ('will give to you to drink') EaponeicKMi Colb3 European Union 38n&AHaA Eapbna Western Europe n8KqMA lecture H8MHTep6cHo uninteresting, boring 66pa3 kind, type 66pa3 )I(M3HM way of life
nyYew8c:TaoaaTb' (no+ dat.) to travel (around) nyYew8cTayiO, RJTew8cTayew~o CoK6nbHMKM Sokol'niki (Moscow district north-east of the centre) cneqttanl1CT (no+ dat.) specialist in CNAHO shameful KaK Te68 He CTbiA'fO you ought to be ashamed Tp63B8HHMK abstainer Tp63Bbli sober 3KOHOMMKa economics



13.1 Key Examples of Aspect in the Past Tense

(a) MAnWnol4ntP to go (on foot) Mbl wnM' no ynM~e. BSAiiM nowenp AOM6M.
(b) 386biBBTb'/386biTbp to forget We were walking along the street. Vadim went home.

0Ha otacTo 386blailna' er6 MMR. Cer6AHR oHa 386bln&P no3BOHMTb. (c) 6b1Tb' to be OHa 6blna A6Ma.
(d) nMcilTb'/HanMcilTbp to write

She often forgot his name. Today she forgot to phone.

She was at home.

fl nMciln' aecb A&Hb. fl HanMcilnP ABB nMCbMa.

I wrote all day. I wrote two letters.

(e) 3BOHMTb'/n03BOHMTbP to telephone Eaa He 3BOHilna'. Eaa He no3BOHilnaP.

Eva didn't phone. Eva failed to phone.

(f) 3BOHMTb'/n03BOHMTbP to telephone



R 3BOHiina', HO aac He 6wno.

R n0380Hiina M cK838na, '1'1'6

I phoned but you weren't in. I phoned and said I'd come..


13.2 Use of Aspect In the Past

Both perfective and imperfective verbs have past tense forms. The rules for making the past tense of perfective verbs are exactly the same as for imperfective verbs (see 11.2). The past tense of imperfective verbs, as you know from Lesson 11, corresponds to English 'I did' or 'I was doing'. The past tense of perfective verbs, on the other hand, has an extra element of meaning. Basically, the perfective past indicates that the action was a completed whole. So, while the imperfective ott6 lfi!IT6na' means 'she read' or 'she was reading', the perfective ott6 npooti!IT6na means 'she read (and finished what she was reading or read a specific amount)'; because of its meaning, the perfective npootll'l'8no will nearly always have an object noun (e.g. nMCbll6 'letter', AfJlJ KHiillll 'two books') specifying how much was read. The six sets of sentences above are typical examples of the use of the aspects in the past tense. Here are some general rules for the use of the imperfective and the perfective, using the examples above.

(a) Actions in process (unfmished actions) are always imperfective. If you use the English continuous past (I was doing something; We were reading), the Russian equivalent will always be imperfective. 'We were walking' indicates an action in process (i.e. unfmished), so it cannot be perfective (it cannot be a completed whole). Mw wnM'-: 'We were walking'. Mill nownii, on the other hand, means 'We went (somewhere)' or 'We set off'. (b) Actions repeated habitually or an unspecified number of times are imperfective. 0Hi 'ficTo 386111aina' 'She often forgot'. Mill 3BOHMnM' iK8JKAwi A8ftb 'We telephoned every day'. But Cer6AHA oHi 386blna ('Today she forgot') indicates that we are talking about one single occasion.



(c) Verbs denoting states rather than actions are normally imperfective. 6H 6btn' A6Ma 'He was at home', OHM MlilnM' a MocKae 'They lived in Moscow'. (d) Expressions of duration ('all day', 'for three hours') require the imperfective.
s:l nMcan' aecb AeHb 'I wrote/was writing all day'. This sentence does not indicate how much I wrote or whether I finished what I was writing, so it has to be imperfective. You will find that duration phrases such 'for a long time' (A6nro), 'for three hours' (TpM 'l&ca), 'all night' (ac10 H6'1b) always go with imperfective verbs.'

(e) If there was no action, use the imperfective.

0Hil He 3BOHMna'.

She didn't phone.

(f) Actions attempted but without result are imperfective.

s:l BBM 3BOHMna'.

I telephoned you (but you weren't in).


(i) Use the perfective for completed single events.

Mbl nowntilo AOM6M.

We went home.

(ii) Sequences of actions, except when they are repeated actions (see (b) above) are perfective, since each action must be finished before the next one can take place.
s:l n03BOHiilnao M CKaaanao,

I phoned and said I'd come.

'IT6 npMAY

(iii) With negation (He) the perfective indicates failure to do something.

0Hil He n03BOHMn8.

She failed to phone (though she was expected to).

I. Except for perfective verbs with the prefix npo- meaning 'to spend a specified amount of time doing something' e.g. Mbt np6MMnM TBM TpM r6AB we lived there for three years.'



13.3 EXTRA: Minor Uses of the Imperfective

(a) The imperfective is also used in the past in cases where the fact of completion is irrelevant. Bbl 'IMTBnM' BoiiHy It MMp? 'Have you read War and Peace?' I'm not concerned with whether you finished the book or not, only with whether you have some knowledge of it. The question Bbl npo'IMTBnM0 ocBoiiHy It MMp? would correspond to 'Havtl you finished
War and Peace?'

(b) The past imperfective is also used for actions which. though completed, were reversed or undone or cancelled. This situation is common with verbs of motion:
Moil p,pyr npMe3lKiln' KO MH8. Moil APYr npMexano Ko MHe.

My friend came to (visit) me (and left again). My friend has come to (visit) me (and is here now).

In Moil APYr npMe3JKin' KO MHe my friend 'undid' his arrival by leaving again.
fl OTKpbiBM' OKHO.

I opened the window (and later closed

it)/1 had the window open.

13.4 Aspect of the Infinitive

In sentences such as 'I want to work', you have to make the same choice between the aspects of the infinitive (fl XO'IY pa60T8Tb'/R XO'IY nopa66T8Tb0 ). If you mean 'work in general (e.g. to have a job)' or aren't specifying how much work you're going to do, use the imperfective. If you mean to do a fixed amount of work and then stop, use the more specific perfective nopa66TaTb0 'to do a bit of work'.
fl pewtin 'IMTiTb' 3Ty KHtiry.

I have decided to read this book (not

necessarily all of it).

fl pewtin npO'IMTiTb0 iTY KHtiry. I have decided to read this book (and

finish it).



In many situations the choice of aspect in the infinitive will seem difficult, but, fortunately, you are unlikely to cause any serious misunderstandings if you choose the wrong one. One handy rule to note is this: after the verbs H8'tMHBTb'/Haot8Tb 'to begin', npOAOn>KBTb' 'to continue' and KOH'tBTb'/K6HotMTb0 'to finish', any infinitive is always imperfective:

0Ha npoAon,.ulna' otMTii'rb'. KorA& Bbl K6H'tMTe0 nMCBTb'?

I am beginning to understand.

She continued to read. When will you finish writing?

Say why the verbs are ; or in the following story:

Eaa M B&AMM wnM' no TaepcK6M ynMLie M roaopl4nM' o ei APY3bilx. BApyr Eaa acn6MHMna, otT6 oHa 386blna no3BOHMTb0 Bepe. 06bl'tHO oHa eM 3BOHI4na' K8JKAoe jTpo, H6 cer6AHJI oHa eM He n03BOHI4na. - Sl xa..y' no3BOHMTb, - cKa38na oHa B&AMMy. - H&Ao H&MTI4 8BTOMBT. OHM MCKBnM' er6 A{tcHTb MMHjT M H&KOHBLI Hawnl4 6Kono roCTMHML!bl IIIHTYPMCT.
Eva and Vadim were walking along Tverskaia Street, talking about her friends. Suddenly Eva remembered (acnoMMHBTb'lacn6MHMTb0 'to recall') that she had forgotten to ring Vera. Usually she rang her every morning, but today she hadn't rung her. - I want to make a phone call, - she said to Vadim. - We need to find

(H8XOAMTb'/H8MTM 0 'to find') a call-box. They searched (MCKBTb' 'to search for', 'to seek') ('for it') for ten minutes and finally found (Hawnl4- past of H&MTM 0 ) one near the Hotel 'lntourist'.

13.5 Use of Tenses: Reported Speech

He said he spoke (past) Russian. OH cKa38n, otT6 6H roaopi4T (pres.) no-pyccKM.



In Russian, when someone's words are reported, the tense (past, present or future) of the original words stays unchanged. So if Mary says Sl roaoptb (pres.) no-pyccKM, then any report of her words ('Mary said that she spoke Russian') will keep the present tense (M3pM CKa3ilna, 'tTO oHa roaopMT no-pyccKM). English grammar is more complicated here. Notice how in English a future tense statement (e.g. Vadim: I shall phone Vera) acquires a 'would' form if it is reported: ('Vadim said that he would phone Vera'). In Russian the future tense remains.
B&AMM: Sl no3aoHtb Bepe.

Reported speech: B&AMM CKa3iln, 'tTO 6H no3BOHMT (fut.) Bepe. Other examples: Vera: I was (past) in London. Report: Vera said that she had been (pluperfect) in London. Bepa: Sl 6blnS (past) B noHAOHe. Report: Bepa CK83ilna, 'tTO OHS 6b1nlt (past) B n6HAOHe. This preference for keeping the tense of the original words is extended to cover seeing, hearing and other forms of perception in addition to verbs of speaking:
I heard you were now living (i.e. are living) in Siberia. Sl cnbiW&n, 'tTO Bbl C8M'tSC lKMBiTe B CM6MpM. I knew he was Russian. Sl 3Han, 'tTO 6H pyccKMM ('I knew that he is Russian').

We thought he was in Berlin. Mbl AYM&nM, 'tT6 6H a SepnMHe (pres.). Vera realized that he was annoyed (i.e. that he is annoyed). Bepa nOHRna, 'tTO OH cepAMTCR (pres.).

13.6 Whether:


The same retention of the original tense is found in reported yes-no questions. In English, if John asked 'Does Anna speak Russian?', the question will be reported as 'John asked if Anna spoke (past tense) Russian.' Whenever English 'if' can be replaced by 'whether', 'if' must be translated



as mt (not ecmt). This is the same mt as in the structure for yes-no questions in lO.lS; mt is placed second in the clause', and the verb tense is the same as in the original question.

,Q>K6H cnpocliln: AHHa roaopliiT (roaopli!T mt AHHa) no-pyccKM? John asked: 'Does Anna speak Russian?'
Report of John's question: ,Q>K6H cnpocliln, roaop.tir (pres.) llll AHHa no-pyccKM. John asked if Anna spoke (past) Russian. More examples: I asked if (=whether) Boris was at home. (Actual question: 'Is Boris at home?')

Sl cnpoclilna, AOMa nM (present tense).

The reported question Sl cnpoclilna, 6bln nM 6oplilc AOMa would correspond to 'I asked if Boris had been at home.' This same construction with ntt is used in all structures involving 'whether' or 'if' in the meaning 'whether'. I didn't know if (=whether) she would come. (Actual thoughts: 'I didn't know if she will come.') Sl He 3Han, npMAiT (future) nM oHa.



I Mbl cnpoclilnM, 3HaeT nM oHa 6oplilca neyp{)aM'Ia. 2 Eaa He 3Hana, yBMAMT nM oHa BSAiiiMa. 3 I don't know if he speaks Russian. 4 I don't know if she'll telephone tomorrow. S We didn't know if she spoke English. 6 She asked whether I was an American. 7 I'll ask her if she wants to go to the theatre.

13.7 Learning
One of the first topics on which you are likely to become fluent is the



question of how you started to learn Russian and what other languages you know: to study: M3)"4BTb' +ace. - R M3)"4BIO, Tbl M3Y'IB8Wb or to learn )"4MTb' +ace. - R y'lj, Tbl Y'tMWb, OHM Y'tBT (note y (not 10) and a (not R) after ' I - Spelling Rules 3 and 4 (12.11)

Sl M3Y'IBIO pyCCKMM R3biK yJK6 nRTb MKR48B. I have been studying Russian for five months (lit. 'I am studying Russian language already five months'). Sl Y'4Y pjCCKMM R3biK YJK6 W8CTb neT. I have been learning Russian for six years.
Both M3)"4BTb' and Y'IMTb' mean 'to study', but )"4MTb, like 'to learn', has connotations of memorizing. Both verbs can be used of learning a language. But 'I'm learning these words' (i.e. committing them to memory) is Sl Y'4Y 3TM cnosa, while 'She's studying mathematics' (not 'She's learning mathematics') should be 0Ha M3)"4B8T M8T8MBTMKy. The perfective of M3y'I8Tb' is M3)"4MTbP (M3)"4j, M3Y'IMWb) and the perfective of )"4MTb' is Bbi)"4MTbP (Bbly'ly, Bbi)"4MWb). Since perfective verbs always describe a successful, completed act, M3)"4MTbp and Bbi)"4MTbP correspond to 'to master', 'to learn successfully':
M3pM Bb1)"4Mnap pyccKMM R3biK.

Mary mastered Russian. Boris Karlovich has KapnoBM'I M3y'lr.tnP 3KOHOMMKY AHrnMM.

made a thorough study of the British economy.

Note: If you want to say that you're studying without saying what you're
studying, use the reflexive verb Y'IMT~ 'to study' (somewhere):


Y'~Y~ B n6HAOH8.

I'm studying in London.

13.8 Vocabulary
AM6pMKa 6biCTpo aaJKHbiM

America quickly important (f) possibility,

aoMTr.tP BOMAY. BOMASWb aowin, aowna-

BAPyr suddenly

past like MATH (BXOAMTb' like XOAMTb) to enter




altogether, totally

HeMH6ro (+gen.) a little o6bt'tHO usually OKOH'tMTbP (+ace.) OKOH'ty, OKOH'tMWb (oKaH'tMB&Tb' like 3H&Tb) to finish, graduate from opMrMHan original OCT8HOBMTbP (+ace.) OCT8HOB.llt01 OCT8HOBMWb (OCT8HBBnMB8Tb1 like 3H8Tb) to stop (something) OTBeTMTbP ( + dat.) OTBe'ty, OTBeTMWb (OTBe'tBTb' like 3H&Tb) to answer (someone) OTHOCMTbCR' K ( + dat.) to relate to, regard, treat nepeBOAMTb' nepeaoJKy, nepeBOAMWb (nepeaeCTMP) to translate nepe6x&Tbpnepe6Ay,nepe6AeWb (nepee3JKBTb' like 3H&Tb) to move (house); to drive across nMciiTb' (Ha-P) nMwy, ntitwewb to write noae3n6 ( + dat. of person) (someone) was lucky MHe noaeano I was lucky (idiom) no-M6eMy in my opinion no-Her.teLIKM (in) German noHRTbpnOMMy,noMM8Wb pastnQHRn,noHRna,noHRnM (nOHMMSTb' like 3H8Tb) to understand, realize nonynilpHbiM popular

BOT nooteMy that is why BCnOMMHSTb' (like 3H8Tb) (BCnOMHMTbP BCnOMHIO, BCnOMHMWb) ( + ace.) to remember, recall BbiY'tMTbp (see yotMTb') ( + ace.) to master (13.7) A8BH6 long ago, since long ago A6no a T6M, 'tT6 . . the thing is that ... JKYpHamtCT journalist 386biBSTb' (like 3H8Tb) (+ace.) (386b1Tbp 386YAY. 386YA8Wb) to forget 38CM8HTbCRP (CM8HTbCR') 38CM8t0cb, 38CMeiWbCR to start laughing M3Y'tBTb' (like 3H8Tb) to study

M3yotMTbP M3y'ty, M3j'tMWb to master (13.7) Kypcbt (pl. of Kypc) classes, a course of study nMTeparypa literature MBnb'tMK boy MH6rMe (pl. adj.) many (people) MOnOAOM young H8'tBTbP (H8'tMHBTb' like 3H8Tb) H&-tHy, H&'tHiWb past Hj-tan, Ha-tana, HB't&nM + 'inf Ha38A ago;back H&pOA people, nation H8XOAMTb' H8XOJKy, H8XOAMWb (H8MTMP H&lfAy, H8MA8Wb past Hawen, Hawna) to find to begin



OOCMOTpeTbP (H8 +ace.) (CMOTpBTb; CMOTpiO, CM6TpttWb) to have a look (at) nocyYnMTbP (a+ ace.) noCyYnniO, noCTjnttwb (nocyYn8Tb' like 3H&Tb) to enter (university etc.) nO'ITM almost npenoA&BSTenb (m) teacher, lecturer npenoA&BSTb; (+ace.) npenoA&IO, npenoA&eWb to teach nptteX8TbPnptt8Ay,nptteA&Wb (nptte3>KSTb' like 3H&Tb) to arrive (by transport) npttKa38Tbp ( + dat. + inf) npMKB>Ky, npMKS>K&Wb (npMKS3biB8Tb' like 3H8Tb) to order someone to do sth npO>KMTbP npo>KMBy, npO>KMBeWb (>KMTb') to live (for a specified period) paBHOAYWHO indifferently, with indifference
~OCTb (f) joy

POAMTbCRP to be born pastpOAMnCR,pOAMnBCb poMaH novel; love affair caM (m)/caMa (f)/ciliMM (pl.) oneself (see Table 4) CMO'IbP CMOrj, CMO>K&Wb, CM6ryr to be able (to), manage (to) (MO'Ib;) ( + inf) past cMor, cMorna, cMorno, cMornt1 coapeMeHHbiM modern, contemporary COpBWMB8Tb' (like 3H8Tb) (cnpocMTbp cnpowy, cnp6CMWb) to ask (a question) C'IMTSTb' (like 3H8Tb) to consider, count Teneat1aop television TPYAHbiM difficult yMeTb' yMeiO, yMeewb (+ inf.) to know how to Y'IMTb' Y'fY, Y'IMWb (Bbl-") to study (see 13.7) Y'IMTbCR; Y'fYCb, Y'IMWbCR to study (somewhere- see 13.7)
woc~Jip driver

OT ~OCTM from joy peWMTbP pewy, peWMWb (+ace.) (pew8Tb'1 like 3H&Tb) to decide; to solve

13.9 Aaa TaKeTa


KorAi Bbl Hit'l&nM M3Y'fSTb pyCCKMM R3biK? "'&Tblpe r6A& Haa&A. BaM pyccKMM R3biK HpSBMTCR? 6-teHb. Ho 6H 6'1&Hb TPYAHbiM.




HH: M3pM:

KaKM8 A3biKM Bbl 3Hll8T8, KpOMe pyccKoro?

S1 roaoplb H8MH6ro no-clp&HLIY3CKM. B HllWMX WK6nax nOIIfTM

ace A6TM jllfaT 1Jp&HLIY3CKMi. M A yMeiO llfMTllTb no-HeM81.1KM, H6 He roaop.O. A pyccKMi A3biK y aac* nonynRpHbli? MH6rMe xoTRT er6 M3YIIfllTb, nOToMy llfTO ace 3Hll10T, llfT6 3To 611feHb BlllKHbli A3t:itK a coapeMeHHOM MMpe. H6 a03MOJKHOCTeM M3YIIfllTb er6 y Hac* a WK6nax MllnO. S1 C8Mll XOAMn8 H8 a8'1epHM8 KypCbl. MHe noaean6: a MOiM r6pOAe eCTb MHCTMTjT, rp.e v-e p.eaHo npenop.eiOT pyccKMi A3b1K. Boo61q6 8HrnMIIf6He OTHOcATCA K MHOCTpilHHbiM A3b1KllM paaHOAYWHO. 06blllfHO OHM CllfMTlliOT, llfT6 aecb MMp roaopMT no-aHrnMMCKM. A nOIIfeMj abl pew.tnM M3YIIfllTb pyccKMi? $nO a TOM, llfT6 HeCKOnbKO neT H83flA A H811f&nllllfMTBTb poMllHbl AOCToeacKoro- no-aHrn.ticKM, KOH811fHo. noT6M A 38XOT8n8 llfMTllTb pyCCKYIO nMTepaTjpy a OpMrMHiine. 86T nOIIfeMy R p8WMn8 38nMCllTbCA H8* Kjpcbl. S1 He 3Hll10, CMOrj nM A abiY'fMTb A3biK, Ho A ye nP011fMTllna TPM poMllHa AOCToeacKoro no-pyccKM. no-M6eMy, abl er6 ye at:ityllfMnM.

HH: M3pM:

HH: M3pM:


*y aac in your country (10.6) *aanMcllTbCA" Ha +ace to enrol for CTllpbli &HeKA6T An Old Joke )l(ypHan.tCT'* onp6c Ha ynMLI&X MocKat:it: - npoCT.tTe, rp.e abl POAMnMCb0 ? - B CaHKTneTep6ypre. -A rp.e abl OKOHIIfMnM WK6ny? - B neTporpllp.e. -A rAe abiJKMaiTe Tenepb? - B neHMHrpllp.e. -A rAe abl xoriTe JKMTb'? - B CaHKT-neTep6ypre. *npoaOA.tTb' onp6c to conduct a survey



Note: Peter's city on the Neva, founded 1703, was officially CaHKTneTep6ypr until the First World War, though the name was often shortened to neTep6ypr. CaHKT 'saint', neTep 'Peter' and 6ypr 'town' are all German borrowings; the Russian equivalents would be CBATOM, neTp and ropOA or rp&A. During the War, in 1914, the German-sounding name was Russified into neTporpflA. In 1924, after Lenin's death, the city acquired its Communist-era name fleHMHrpflA.


Translate, noting the aspects:

Bepa POAMnilcb a MocKae. OHil npoMnil TaM TPM r6A&, noTOM C8MbH nepeexana B lltpKjTCK. TaM OHil OKOH'IMna WKOny M nOCyYnMna B MHCTMTyY. KorAil OHil Y'!Mn&Cb' B MHCTMTjTe, OHS amo61iinacb a MonoA6ro npenOA&BilTenJI. TaK K&K oH npenoA&ailn' &HrnliiMCKMM Jl3biK M nepeBOAMn' &HrnMMCKMM pOMSH, OHil pew.tna, 'ITO T0)1(8 XO'I8T M3Y'ISTb' 8HrnMMCKMM. no3TOMY OHS H&'lana XOAMTb' H8 B8'1epHM8 KjpCbl. amo6MTbCJI a + ace. to fall in love with


Say in Russian:
1 I have been studying Russian (for) three months. 2 We want to master Russian. 3 Mary moved to Moscow and quickly mastered Russian. 4 I don't know if Vadim speaks English. 5 If he speaks English, I'll give him this novel.


A Brezhnev Joke (Translation in key)

Why did Brezhnev order his chauffeur to stop?



2 What was his first question to the small boy?

3 Why did the boy think Brezhnev was his American uncle?

6pe.JKH8B exan' Ha MaWMH8 no OAHOMj M3 MOCKOBCKMX npocnltKTOB. 6H pewt1n nOCMOTp6Tb0 , KaK .JKMBiT COBltTCKMM* HapOA. 6H npMKa38n wo<Jipy OCTaHoBiiiTb" Mawt1Hy y MHoroaTa.JKHoro* AOMa. 6H Bowen"* B AOM Mn03BOH111n B nepBytO KBapTMpy. ABepb OTKPiin MSn&HbKMM Milnb'tMK. 6plt.JKH8B Cnpoct1n MSnb'tMKa, 8CTb nM y Hero B AOMe TeneBt130p. - ECTb, - OTBBTMn Manb'tMK. - A xonOAMnbHMK*? - ECTb. - A MarHMTOcloH*? - ECTb. - TaK Bor, Bci :\To A&n' Te66 R! MSnb'tMK 38CM8RnCR0 OT J)&AOCTM: - MaMa, nllna, ARAR Mt1wa M3 AMepMKM npMexan! *Extra vocabulary Bowen entered (past of BOMTM 0 'to

MarHMTOci>H tape recorder MHoro3TibKHbiM many-floored

coBeTCKMM Soviet (adj) TBK BOT well then (idiom) xonoA"'nbHMK refrigerator

Note: Leonid Il'ich Brezhnev was the General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party from 1964 to 1982.



14.1 Key Expressions

Sl 6YAY AOMa. 3ilaTpa Mbi6YA8M OTAbiXSTb'. Sl 6YAY mtCSTb' 'fSCTO. Bbl 6yAeTe CMeHTbCJI, H6...
I shall be at home. Tomorrow we shall rest. I shall write often. You're going to think this funny, but ('You will laugh, but .. .') If there is time ... May I? I'm cold.

Ecmt 6yAeT apeMJI . . .

M6Ho? MHe xonOAHO.

14.2 The Future of 6b1Tb;

H6YAY Tbi6YA8Wb 6H/OHiiiOH6 6jA8T Mbi6YA8M Bbl6yAeTe OHM 6YAYT Sl 6YAY B MOCKBG. Bbl 6yAeTe 3A8Cb 3ilaTpa?
I shall (I'll) be you (lam) will (you'll) be he/she/it will ('II) be we'll be you (pol/pl.)'ll be they'll be I shall be in Moscow. Will you be here tomorrow?



14.3 Imperfective Future As in the past tense, Russian has a choice of aspects in the future too. The imperfective future is easy. Simply use the future forms of 6b1Tb (14.2) plus the imperfective infinitive of the required verb.
Sl 6YAY roaopMTb' no-pyccKM. rAe Tbl 6yAeWb M<MTb'? OHa 6yAeT roaopMTb' no-pyccKM? Mbl 6yAeM OTAbiXSTb' a KpbiMj. 8 MOCKBe Bbl 6yAeTe M<MTb' YHBC. OHM 6YAYT nMCSTb' 'ISCTO.
I'll speak/be speaking Russian (literally, 'I shall be to speak .. .'). Where will you live? Will she speak Russian? We're going to take a holiday ('rest') in the Crimea. In Moscow you will stay (live) with us. They will write often.

(Note that the future of 6b1Tb is simply R 6YAY etc., as in 14.2, never SI6YAY 6b1Tb. 'I shall be in Moscow': SI6YAY a MocKae) The choice of aspect in the future follows the same basic principles as the choice in the past (i.e. the imperfective simply names the action, while the perfective specifies that the action is seen as a completed whole). But in practice the choice in the future will seem much simpler. Rule of thumb: In most cases (90 per cent) use the perfective, as in Lesson 12. Use the imperfective only if the action will be unfinished or repeated.


Translate, using the imperfective future:

1 I shall be in Moscow. 2 Will she be at home tomorrow? 3 We shall study Russian. 4 Tomorrow I shall be working. 5 In Moscow I shall speak only Russian. 6 They will telephone every day.

14.4 Use of Tenses: Future for English Present In Russian, after the conjunctions KOrAll 'when', ecnM 'if' (never 163


'whether'), noKil . .. He 'until', the future tense (i or p) must be used meaning is future (English often uses the present):
KorA{I fl 6'JAY' B MOCKBe, fl n03BOHt0 er6 cecTpe.
When I am (will be) in Moscow, I'll phone his sister.

if the

Ecmt Bbl 6yAeTe' M3y~t8Tb' pyccKMM fl3biK, Bbl nony~tMTe0 xop6wy10 pa66TY.
If you study (will study) Russian, you will get a good job.

EcnM Bbl M3Y'tMTe0 pyccKMM fl3b1K, Bbl nony~tMTe0 xop6wy10 pa66TY.

If you master (will master) Russian, you will get a good job. s:l CK8>KY0 cecTpaM, KorA{IMX YBM>KY0 (future). I'll tell (my) sisters when I see (pres.) them (i.e. when I will see them).

EcnM 6yAeT' apeMfl, Mbl noliiAeM a PyccKMM My3elii.

If there is (will be) time, we'll go to the Russian Museum.

BaAMM He yliiAeT, noKa Eaa He no3BOHMT0

Vadim won't leave until Eva phones (will phone).

Be careful to note the aspect when translating such KOrAll and ecnM clauses:
KorA{I fl 6YAY OTAbiXiiTb', fl HB'tHY 'tMTiiTb ccBOMHY .. MMp.
When I'm on holiday ('shall be resting'- action in process), I'll start reading
War and Peace.

KorA{I fl OTAOXHj 0, fl H8'tHY 'IMTiiTb ccBOMHY M MMp.

When I've had a holiday ('when I finish resting'- completed action), I'll start reading War and Peace.


Translate: 1 KorA{I Mbl 6'JAeM B MOCKBe, Mbl 6'JAeM >KMTb B rOCTMHM4e PoccMfl. 2 EcnM Bbl HanMweTe elii nMCbM6, oHa OTBeTMT. 3 EcnM BSAMM Bblnb&T MH6ro, Eaa yliiAeT 6e3 Her6. 4 Mbl aaM cKa>KeM, KorA{I Bbl npMeA&Te. 5 KOrAil Mbl noo6eASeM, Mbl nOCMOTpMM TeneBM30p. 6
When I'm (14.4) in Moscow, I shall speak only Russian. 7 When Eva arrives, Vadim will phone us. 8 If you (pol. pl.) give him ten dollars, he'll give you the tickets. 9 I don't know if (14.4) she will be at home.



14.5 EXTRA: Planned Future Do not confuse the 'hidden' future of 'If you write (= will write) she'll answer' (14.4) with the planned future of 'I'm working tomorrow', where the present ('We're working') is used with a future time word ('tomorrow') to show that some future event is regarded as an accepted fact. In the case of the planned future, Russian and English have the same usage. 3iBTpa fl pa66Tal0 (pres.) 'Tomorrow I'm working' (pres.). ~epe3 Ml!Cfl4 Mbl l!AeM (pres.) B CM6Mpb 'In a month's time we're going (pres.) to Siberia.'

14.6 Dative in Impersonal Constructions Many English constructions such as 'It is cold today', 'I have to go', 'He needs to study' have Russian equivalents in which 'is cold', 'have to', 'needs' are translated not by verbs but by indeclinable adverb-type words usually ending -o (e.g. x6nOAHO 'is cold', HY>KHO 'is necessary'). Words like HY>KHO are often called 'category of state' words (KaTer6pMfl cocToiiHMfl), because they describe states, not actions. If you want to indicate the person who is affected by the state of affairs (e.g. 'I am cold'), in Russian the person is in the dative (12.6) case (MHe x6nOAHO literally 'To me is cold'). Look at these useful examples:
Cer6AHfl x6nOAHO. EMy x6nOAHO. B TeilTpe >KllpKo. EM Tenn6. HliAo/Hy>KHo MATM. MHe HSAO MATM. 3Aecb cKY'tHo. [sko'] HaM 3A8Cb cKY'tHo. MO>KHO OTKpbiTb OKH67 M6>KHO MH8 BOMTM?

It's cold today. (Today is cold.) He's cold. (To him is cold.) The theatre is hot. (It's hot in the theatre.) She's warm. (To her is warm.) It's necessary to go. I have to go. It's boring here. We're bored here. (To us here is boring.) Is it possible to (May I) open the window? May I come in? (Is it possible to me to come in?) 165


Now read through this list and then try to find idiomatic translations for the examples which follow, covering up the answers below with a piece of paper:
Heo6XOAMMO MHT8p6CHO caeTno HY*HO (like HBAO)
(it) is essential (it) is interesting (it) is light (it) is necessary

BaM Heo6XOAMMO KynMTb wilnKy.

2 BaM MHT8p6cHO CMOTp6Tb 4Jyr66n? 3 B 3Toi KOMHaTe O&teHb caeTno. 4 HaM Hj)I(HO KynMTb AB8 6yYblnKM MMH8pSnbHOM BOAbl.
You must buy a hat. (To you is essential to buy a hat.) 2 Do you like watching footbaii?/Do you find watching football interesting? (To you is interesting to watch football?) 3 This room is very light. (In this room is very light.) 4 We need to/have to buy two bottles of mineral water. (To us is necessary to buy ... )

Note that it is not common in Russian for a place (e.g. 'Siberia') to be the subject' when the sentence describes something that happens in the place:
B Ctt6MpM xonOAHO. B KOMHaTe caeTn6. Ha yntt1.1e wjMHO.
Siberia is cold. ('In Siberia is cold.') The room is light. ('In the room is light.') The street is noisy.

Note also Henb3R 'it is not possible', 'it is not permitted', which behaves in the same way though it does not end o.
KypMTb Henb3R. BaM Henb3R 3A8Cb KYPMTb.
Smoking is not permitted. You may not smoke here.

These indeclinable words can be made past tense by placing ,'was' after the 'state' word. (&li1no can also be placed before the 'state' word, particularly those like xonOAHO or MHTep6cHo which are also used as adjectives i.e. xon6AHbiM 'cold', MHTep6cHbiM 'interesting'.)
HaM HSAo no3BOHMTb0 HaM 61i1no x6nOAHO. Henb3R 61i1n0 HaMTM 0 TaKCM.
We had to make a phone call. ('To us was necessary to phone.') We were cold. It was impossible to find a taxi.



Similarly, to make these 'state' words future, put 6yAeT after (or before) them:

BaM HSAO 6yAeT no3BOHMTbP, You will have to phone. Mo)I(H() 6yppr aepttj'rbcRP H8 T&KCM. It will be possible to come back by taxi. It will be cold there.
Note some special features of negation with these words: The opposite of MO)I(HO is not He MO)I(HO. Use either Henb3H ('it's impossible'/'it's not permitted') or H8B03MO)I(HO ('it's impossible')

Henb3H OTKpbiBBTb' OKH6. Henb3HIHeB03MO)I(HO 6blno OTKpbiTbP OKHO.

It is not permitted to open the window. It was impossible to open the window.

(Note the use of the i infinitive in the meaning of 'not permitted' and the use of the p infinitive in the meaning 'it's impossible'- see 15.11.)

He HSAO and He HY*HO both have the meaning 'one shouldn't'/'don't' (as well as 'it is not necessary'): He HSAO roaopMTb' o6 3TOM. He HSAO TaK MH6ro pa66TaTb'.
Don't talk about that. You shouldn't/it's not necessary to work so much. A: EcnM XOTMTe, R a&M paccK&)I(j If you like, I'll tell you about the economy of Siberia. o6 3KOH6MMKe CM6MpM.

B: HeH8Ao.
Other 'state' words:

I'd rather you didn't.

>Kanb (or *BnKo). >Kanb, 'tT6 aac TaM He 6blno. MHe )I(SflKO Te6Si (gen.). nopa ... HaM nopa MATM. Heox6Ta (coli) MHe Heox6Ta o6 3ToM roaopMTb'. CTbiAHO. KaK BaM He CTblAHO?! EcnM Bbl HamJiTecbP, aaM noT6M 6yAeT CTbiAHO.

It's a pity. It's a pity you weren't there. I'm sorry for you. it's time ... It's time for us to go. one doesn't feel like + verb I don't want to talk about it. It's shameful. You should be ashamed of yourself! If you get drunk, you'll feel ashamed afterwards.




Translate: 1 -BaM He x6nOAHO?- !'teT, MHe AS1K8 Tenn6. 2 B MoCKBe 8 aarycTe

H8M 6bln0 1KBpKO.

3 - M61KHO OTKpbiTb OKH6? - no1KanyMCT8, H6

6yAeT WYMHO. 4 3aaTpa HY1KHO 6yAeT KymfTb wanKy. 5 Is it possible to buy vodka here? 6 This room is very cold. 7 You will not be bored. 8 Vadim is not allowed to drink.

14.7 Vocabulary aarycT August 6ecnoK6MTbCR' 6ecnoK610cb, 6ecnoK6MWbCR to worry He 6ecnoK6icR don't worry aepHjTbCRaepHycb,aepHeWbCR to return, come back (8038p8IJ.I&TbCR' like 3H8Tb) B03p81KBTb' (like 3H8Tb) (B03p83MTb0 B03pa1Ky, ao3p&3MWb) to object aoMHB war apeAHO harmful, it's harmful (14.6) rOAOBIJ4MH8 anniversary r6noc pl. ronoca voice rp6MKMM loud M61KHO it's possible, one may

MY1KCK6M male HBAO (= HY1KHO) it's necessary, one must (14.6) H8nMTbCR 0 H&nbtOCb, H&nb8WbCR (H&nMBBTbCR' like 3H8Tb) to get drunk H8CTpOeHM8 mood AnR HacTpoeHMR for a (good) mood ( = to relax) He&03M61KHO ( + Pinf) it's impossible (to do sth) (14.6) HeA&neK6 not far Henb3R it's not allowed; it's impossible (14.6) H8MH61KKO a little (diminutive' of H8MH6ro) Heo6XOAMMO it's essential (14.6) 6ceHbiO in autumn OCTBTbCRocT8Hycb,ocT8HewbCR (OCT8BSTbCR' OCT8t0cb, ocTaewbCR) to remain, stay OTKpbiTbP OTKp610, OTKp6eWb (OTKpbiBBTb' like 3H8Tb) to open



1K&nb (1KanKo) it's a pity (14.6) 1KBPKO hot (of weather), it's hot (14.6) 1K8HIJ4MH8 woman MHTepecHO (it's) interesting (14.6) K6MH&Ta room KOMnBHMR company Kpadao it's attractive neToM in summer



OTMe'laTb' (like 3H8Tb) (OTMeTMTbP OTM8'1y, OTMeTMWb) tO mark, celebrate noKa .. He until (14.4) noHHTHO comprehensible(= I see) nopa ( + inf) it's time (to do sth) (14.6) nbHHbiM drunk pa3B6A divorce cecTpa pl. cecTpbl, cecTep, cecTpaM sister CMA6Tb'(no-P) CMJKy, CMAMWb to sit, be sitting cKy'IHO [skoo-mna] boring, it's boring (14.6)

CTbiAHO shameful ( 14.6) cy666Ta Saturday a cy666TY on Saturday Tenn6 it's warm (14.6) Tlilxo quiet, it's quiet (14.6) TPYAHO difficult, it's difficult (14.6) yex&Tbp y6Ay, y6AeWb to leave (by transport) (ye3JK8Tb' like 3H8Tb) x6nOAHO it's cold (14.6) wanK& g. pl. wanOK hat (no brim) wyMHO noisy, it's noisy (14.6) 10r south Ha lOre in the south

14.8 Dialogues (Translation in Key)

B&AiiiM: Tbl He 6yAeWb B03paJKiiTb, ecnM B cy666TY H nOMAY K Anewe? Mbl 6yAeM OTMe'lilTb roAOBII.IMHY er6 pa3B6AS. B MyJKCKOM KOMnliHMM, KOHe'IHO, 6e3 JK6HII.IMH. Eaa: noHHTHO. 3Hii'IMT, Tbl 6yAeWb nMTb BOAKY aecb ae'lep. A Te6e nMTb apeAHO. B&AiiiM: Sl BblnbiO HeMHOJKKO, T6nbKO A"H H&CTpo6HMH. Sl 3HSIO, 'IT6 HliAO nMTb B Mepy.* Eaa: EcnM Tbl H&nbewbcH, Te6e noT6M 6yAeT CTbiAHO. B&AiiiM: He 6ecnoK6McH. *a Mepy in moderation (Mepa measure)


(Translation in key)
I What three reasons does VP give for choosing to spend the summer in his Moscow flat rather than in the Crimea? 2 What is AM's reaction to his summer plans? 3 What will VP do in the autumn?



Bn: AM: Bn: AM: Bn: AM: Bn:

rAe Bbl 6yAeTe OTAbiXSTb n6ToM? Ha lOre, a KpbiMy, H8A&neK6 OT tlnTbl. TaM O't8Hb KpacMao. MHe neTOM B KpbiMY He HpSaMTCR. 0't8Hb DPKO. 111 TPYAHO HaMTM KOMHayY. A MO)I(HO aac cnpocMTb, 'tT6 Bbl 6jA8T8 A&naTb a aarycTe? Bbl 6jAeTe CMeiiTbCR, HO Mbl pewMnM OCTSTbC:R B MOCKBe. Mbl 6jA&M CMA6Tb AOMa Ill CMOTp6Tb Tene&M30p. H6 B8Ab 6jAeT cKj'tHO [sko"o-shna]. 3aT6* 6jA8T TMXO. Bee COCeAM yflp,yr, H8 6YA8T CnbiWHO* HM* nbAHbiX ronoc6B, Hill pyraHM*, Hill rpOMKOM pOKMj3biKM*. A a HaweM AOMe aayKoMaonfi4MR* xop6waR.

AM: an:

Y Hac 6~teHb wyMHO. noT6M 6ceHbto, KorA& ace aepHjTcR a

MacKay, Mbi6YA8M OTAbiXilTb a Co'tM, y Moei ceCTpbl.

*Extra Vocabulary 38TO on the other hand (in compensation) 3BYKOM3onfi4MR sound-proofing HM .. HM neither ... nor p6K-Mj3b1Ka rock music pyraHb (f) swearing cnbiWHO audible He 6yAeT cnbiWHO + gen. we won't hear ('won't be audible')



15.1 Key Examples

CKaJKiiiTe, noJKanyiiicTa noKBlKiiiTe, noJKanyiiicTa npocTiiiTe, noJKanyMcTa. YxoAiiiTe. npliiXOAMT8 K H8M. C&AiiiT8Cb. A&iiiTe, noJKany.:tcTa. noMOrJiiTe H8M. roaopliiTe MeAneHHO. He 386YAbTe.
Tell (me), please/Could you tell me? Show (me), please/Would you show me? Excuse (me), please. Go away. Come and see us. Take a seat. Give (me), please/Could you give me? Help us. Speak slowly. Don't forget.

15.2 Asking People to Do Things: Imperative Form

When we ask people to do things in English, we tend to use such polite constructions as 'Would you pass me the bread?', 'Could you open the window, please?' Russians make such requests with a form of the verb called the imperative' (the form for giving commands), which ends -iiiTe, MTe or bTe, depending on the verb. The imperative in English is the same as the infinitive (without 'to'), as in 'Pass the bread', 'Give !Tie that book, please'. 'Give me that book please' sounds abrupt in English, but its literal equivalent A&iiiTe" MHe 3TY KHiiiry, noJKanyiiicTa is normal usage in Russian.


We have already met examples of the imperative. If you have learnt these, then you already know all the possible types.
,QauiiTe, noJKanyiiicTa . .. (B) P&3A8BBiiiTecb (11 ). CKBJKifreP, noJK8nyiiicTa ... (4.11) npocTMT&P (3). no3H8K6MbT8CbP (11) ...
Please give (me) ... Take your coat off. Please tell (me) ... Excuse (me). Meet (Become acquainted) ...

The three possible endings are -iiiTe, -MTe, -bTe, if you are speaking to someone you call Bbl. If you are speaking to someone you call Tbl, leave off the -Te. Reflexive verbs add CR after iii or b and Cb after " or Te. (a) -iii(Te) is the ending if the stem of the verb ends with a vowel (for 'stem' see 4.4), e.g.
'tMTBTb' 'to read' stem 'tMTB- imper 'tMTBiii(Te) BiHR, 'tMTiiii;, noJKinyiiicTa. Vanya, read, please. A&Tb 'to give' stem AS- imper Aiiii(Te) ,Q{liiiTe, noJKanyiiiCTa, ABB cTaK8Ha. Please give (me) two glasses. 6ecnoK6MTbCR' 'to worry', stem 6ecnoK6He 6ecnoK6iiicR'/He 6ecnoK6iiiTecb'. Don't worry.

All 3H8Tb-type verbs have this ending.


Make the verbs imperative:

I (,QaTb) MHe aaw Teneca6H 'Give me your telephone number.' 2 (nocnywaTb") MeHR, noJKanyiiiCTa! 'Please listen to me.' 3 (OAeBBTbCR'), noJKanyiiicTa, yJK6 napa 6xaTb 'Please get dressed, it's time we were leaving.'

(b) M(Te) is the ending if the stem of the Tbl- form ends in a consonant and the R-form of the present (i-verbs) or future (p-verbs) is stressed on the end. This is the ending for most roaopMTb- and JKMTb- type verbs.
npMXOAMTb' 'to come' stem npMXOA- (as in Tbl npMX6AMWb), stress of R npMxoJKj on ending, so imper npMXOAM(Te)



npMXOAM' K HaM 3ilaTpa. Come (lam) and see us tomorrow. roaopr.tTb' 'to say, speak' A roaoptb, Tbl roaopr.twb stem roaop-, stress on end, so the imperative is roaopr.t(Te) roaopr.tTe, nolKitnyMcTa, MI!AneHHO. Speak slowly, please. cKa3iiTb0 'to say' A cKalKy, Tbl cKillKewb stem CK&lK-, stress on end, so the imperative is CK&lKM(Te) CKalKr.tTe 0 , nolKitnyMCTa, rAe 3AeCb KMH6? Could you tell me where the

cinema is, please?

C&AMTbCA' 'to sit down' A C8lKYCb, Tbl C8AMWbCA stem C8A, stress on ending, so the imperative is ca,qr.tcblc&Ar.tTecb 'take a seat'


Make the verbs imperative:

l (npMHeCTM 0 ) HaM waMnitHCKOe, nolKitnyMcTa 'Bring us champagne, plsase.' 2 He (yXOAMTb') 'Don't go away!' 3 (Kynr.tTb0 ) AB& 6MneTa 'Buy tv to tickets.' 4 (nocMoTpeTb 0 ) Ha Hee! 'Look at her!'

(c) b(Te) is the ending for verbs whose stem ends in a consonant with the stress on the stem. So the difference from type (b) is determined by the place of the stress on the A-form of the present/future.
386b1Tb0 'to forget' A 386YAY Tbl 386yAeWb, stem 386YA-, stress on the stem in all forms, so imper 386YAb(Te): He 386YAbTe CKa3iiTb eM o6 3ToM. Don't forget to tell her about it. no3H&KOMMTbCA 0 'to become acquainted' A no3HaK6MniOcb, Tbl n03H8KOMMWbCA, stem no3HaK6M- (from the Tblform), stress on the stem in the A-form, SO imper n03H8KOMbTeCb (n03H8KOMbCA) no3H&KOMbT8Cb. M3pM, 3To Bon6AR. Mary, meet Volodia. 6b1Tb' 'to be' forms its imperative from the stem 6yA- of the future tense: 6YAbTe 3AOPOBbl!

Be healthy! (Set phrase)



5jAbTe A06pbl.

Be so good. (Set phrase introducing a request)

This ending -b(Te) is by far the least common of the three.


Make the infinitives imperative:

1 (0CTIJTbCR 0 14.7) :JAeCb 'Stay here.' 2 nolKanyMCTB, (OTBeTMTb0 ) HB ABB aonp6ca 'Please answer two questions.' 3 BaHst, He (3&6b1Tb0 ) no3BOHMTb Eae 'Vania, don't forget to ring Eva.'

15.3 Choice of Aspect

Rule 1: Use the perfective for commands and requests involving single events:
CK&lKMTe 0 , noanyliicTa ... no3oaii!Te0 , nolKilnyliicTa, Eay.
Could you tell me . Please call Eva.

Rule 2: Use the imperfective for commands to do something repeatedly or without time limitation, as you would expect from the general rules of aspect usage:
Write to me often. (Compare HanMwii!Te

elii nMCbMO 'Write her a letter'.) roaopii!Te' no-pyccKM, nolK&nyliicTa.

Speak Russian please. (Compare

CK&lKMTe 0 3To no-pyccKM, nolKilnyliicTa 'Say that in Russian,


Rule 3: Use the imperfective for negative commands (Don't ... ) with He:
He yxoAMTe'. He cnpilwMaaliiTe'.
Don't go away. Don't ask.



Rule 4: Use the imperfective for invitations.

npMXOAMT8' K H8M. &epliiTe' eaqi C&AMT&Cb'.
Do come and see us. Take some more (food). Take a seat.

Translate and account for the choice of aspect:

1 npMXOAMTe' K H8M B r6CTM B cy66iny. 2 0TKp6i1Te OKHO, noJK&nyiilcTa. 3 - M6Ho 38KypliiTb ('to light a cigarette')? noanyiilcT&, KypliiTe'. 4 OTaeTbTe Ha ABB aonpoca. 5 Aa\iiiTe MHe aaw Teneci6H. 6 &epliiTe1 nMpooK. 7 He yxoAiiiTe1

Translate, using the imperative forms:

1 Phone me tomorrow. 2 Could you tell me where the station is? 3 Don't
forget to bring the juice. 4 Write' to us often. 5 Do have a seat'. 6 Would you give me two tickets, please? 6 Don't open' the window. This room is cold.

15.4 Imperative Exceptions

There aren't many exceptions. Of the verbs we have met so far, only the following need to be noted:

nMTb' 'to arink' has neiii(Te) 'drink'

All prefixed forms of nMTb (e.g. BblnMTb" 'to have a drink') have the same ending:


Have a drink.

The imperative of both eX&Tb' (8Ay, 8A&Wb) and no8X8TbP 'to go by trans-

port' is noe3JK8iii(Te)"P.



noMO'IbP (nOMOrj, nOMO>KeWb) 'to help' has nOMO[M(Te) (not nOMO>KM(Te))

In this lesson you meet BbiMTiotP (BbiMAY, BbiMAeWb) 'to go out', which has the imperative BbiMAM(Te) (not BbiMAb(Te)), probably because all the other MTM ('go') verbs have M(Te) in the imperative (BbiMTM is the only one stressed on the stem). Any other exceptions are shown in the vocabularies.

15.5 EXTRA: An Unexpected Idiomatic Use of the Imperative

The Tbl imperative is occasionally used idiomatically the meaning 'If .. .'
5YAb R HB TBoiM MecTe, R 6bt ywna oT Hero. 'If I were you (in your

place), I would leave him.'

3HaM OHM, 'ITO ... 'If they had known that .. ./If they knew that .. .'

15.6 EXTRA: Two More Imperative Aspect Rules

Rule 5. Negative commands which are warnings rather than prohibitions

('Mind you don't ... ')can be perfective. There aren't many of these. Just learn the following:
He 386YAb(Te)P. He yn&Aiii(Te)P. He npOCTYAMTeCbP.

Mind you don't forget. Don't fall/Watch your step. Mind you don't catch a cold.

Rule 6. Insistent or peremptory commands may be impeifective, particularly when you are telling people to get on with something they know they ought to do. The customs officer asking you to open your case will say 0TKp6MTeP, no>K8nyMcTa 'Open it, please', using the perfective as in Rule I. If you hesitate, he may repeat the command as OTKpbtB8MTe'! 'Go on, open it (as you know you're supposed to)'.



15.7 First Person Imperative

The equivalent of 'Let's' in 'Let's go to Red Square' is Aaaati(Te) plus either the first person plural (the Mbl form) of the future perfective or the imperfective infinitive, depending on whether the proposal is for a single action (p) or a repeated one (i).
AaaatiTe noWMo Ha KpacHyiO nn6tq8Ab. Aaaati no3aOHMM KaTe.

Let's go to Red Square. (AaaatiTe to someone you call Bbl) Let's ring Katia. (Aaaati to someone you call Tbl) AaaatiTe npootMTSM0 ei nMCbM6. Let's read her letter. (Completed act of reading with amount specified) AaaatiTe otMTI:rll'. Let's read. (No amount specified) AaaatiTe noroaopuo. Let's have a talk. (noroaopMTb0 means 'to do a little talking'.) AaaatiTe roaopm' nopyccKM. Let's talk Russian. (No amount or time limit specified) The imperfective infinitive is a shortened version of the impelfective future, i.e. AaaatiTe (6yAeM) roaopMTb (14.3). If the imperative is negative ('Let's not ... '), the 6yAeM must be included. 'Let's not talk about that' Aaa8MT8 H8 6yAeM roaopMTb' 06 3TOM.

15.8 Third-person Imperative ('Let')

If you want some third person to do something, i.e. if you want to say the equivalent of 'Tell her/them to (Let her/them) come back tomorrow', you can use nycTb (lit. 'let', 'allow') with the third person of the verb:
nyCTb (OHB) npMAiT 38BTpa. nycTb roaopfiT.

Let her come tomorrow. Let them talk.


Translate: 1 AaaatiTe BblnbeM. 2 AaaatiTe no8AeM K Eae M BSAMMy.



3 He cepAilTecb. nycTb 8AYT, ecnM xon1T. 4 EcnM Bon6A:H no3BOHMT,

CK8)J(MT8 eMy, 'fTO H ywna. nycTb n03BOHMT 38&Tpa. 5 Let's speak
Russian. 6 Let's phone Eva. 7 Let's not think about work. 8 Let him study French if he wants (to).

15.9 Official Imperative

In official style (e.g. on notices), commands, particularly negative ones ('Don't .. .'), are often in the infinitive. This construction often corresponds to the English 'No' +noun structure.
He KYPMTb'! (4.1) Mon'fBTb'! He pa3rosapMsaTb'! no f830H8M He XOAMTb'! HecopMTb'!
No smoking Be quiet! No talking! Do not walk on the grass No litter

15.10 More Everyday Phrases with Imperatives

Pa3pewi4Te0 npoJiiTM. nepeCTSHbT81 06p8TMT8 BHMMSHMe. 5YAbT8' OCTOPO)J(Hbl. noKa)J(MTe' :ho, no*anyJiicTa. He KnSAMTe' Tpy6Ky. npMXOAMTe' K H8M.
Excuse me (Let me pass). Stop it! Noteffake note. Be careful (set phrase). Show me that, please (asking a shop assistant to show you something). Don't hang up (on telephone). Come and see us (invitation to visit).

15.11 Revision and Summary of Aspect Use:

Fourteen Key Examples

The imperfective is used: (I) for present-tense actions
Sl 'fMTBIO'.
I read/1 am reading.



(2) for uncompleted actions, so that English continuous forms ('I was doing', 'She will be working') always correspond to the imperfective:
Mbl WllM' AOM6M. St 6'JAY 'IMTBTb' B8Cb B6'1ep.
We were walking home. I shall be reading all evening.

(3) for states and processes:

6H )I(Mil' B MOCKB6. M3pM M3Y'IBI18' pyccKMM R3biK. Mbl 6'JAeM )I(MTb' y APYHM.
He lived in Moscow. Mary studied Russian. We'll stay with friends.

(4) for negated actions (particularly in the past), to indicate absence of action:
0Hil He npMXOAM118' .
She didn't come.

(5) with infinitives and the negated imperative (15.3, rule 3) to indicate undesirability of an action:
He HBAO noKyniiTb' 3TY KHiilry. You shouldn't buy that book. He noKynai4Te'3Ty KHiilry. Don't buy that book. St coa6yYIO B&M He noKyniiTb' ei. I advise you not to buy it.

(6) for actions repeated an unspecified number of times:

St acerA8 3BOHMI1&'B C8Mb 'l&c6a. I always rang at seven. St 6'JAY nMCBTb''IBCTO. I shall write often.
Write often.

(7) in the past tense, to indicate that the result of an action was cancelled or annulled- particularly with verbs of motion (13.3):
B'lepanpMXOAM11' M6l4 pyccKMM APYr. Sl OTKpb1BBI1' OKH6.
My Russian friend came yesterday (and left again). I had the window open (it's closed now).

(8) when the fact of completion is irrelevant:

Have you read War and Peace? (I'm not concerned with whether you finished it)



KT6 CTp6Mn' 6onbWOM T88Tp?

Who built the Bolshoi Theatre? (I want to know the name of the architect, not to stress the fact that the theatre was finished)

The perfective is used: (9) to describe an action as a completed whole, with a beginning and an end:
B cy666-ry R KynlilnP npaBAY" I bought Pravda on Saturday. Sl 3To CA(!n&IOP 38aTpa. I'll do it tomorrow. A{lMTe" AB& 6Mn8Ta, nolK8ny111CTa. Would you give me two tickets? I want to buy a dictionary.

(1 0) to indicate the relevance of the result:

Bbl KynlilnMP np{laAY" cer6AHR? Have you bought Pravda today? (I.e. perhaps I want to borrow it)

( 11) to indicate completion, particularly in sequences of actions, where each action must be finished before the next one can begin:
B&AMM npMwenp AOM6M, BblnMnp Vadim came home, drank some water BOAbl Mcenp y OKHil. and sat down by the window.

(12) with infinitives, to show that something is impossible or can't be done:

It's impossible to open the window. She couldn't find a taxi.

(13) with negation (He) in the past tense, to indicate failure to do something:
111a8H xoT6n OTKPbiTb OKHO, H6 HecM6rP. 0Ha CKa38na, ..TO npMAGT, H6 (TaK M) He npMwnaP.
Ivan wanted to open the window but failed. She said she'd come but (in fact) she didn't.

(14) perfective infinitives and imperatives are used after negation (He) (15.6) to indicate that something might happen by chance: 180


S1 He XO"'Y sac 06MAeTb0 He386YAb0 l CMoTpM He yn&AM 0 l

I don't want to offend you (by chance). Don't forget. Mind you don't fall.

These example sentences illustrate typical imperfective and perfective situations. Learn these and then try to relate other situations to this list. For example, if 'Have you read War and Peace? is Bbl "'MTilmt' BOMHY M MMp?, then 'Have you seen this film?' is the same type of imperfective situation: Bbl CMOTpenM' 3TOT 4IMnbM?
Short Summary: General Rules of Thumb

(a) In the present, verbs are imperfective. (b) In the future, use the perfective, unless the action will be repeated or unfinished. (c) In the past (where about 50 per cent of verbs are perfective and 50 per cent are imperfective), remember that the perfective always carries the meaning 'action seen as a completed whole', while the imperfective simply names the action without saying anything about completion. (d) In the imperative, use the perfective (plus noJKilnyitcTa) for polite commands and requests (CK&JKMT8", noJKilnyitCTa ... 'Could you tell me ... ' Use the imperfective for invitations, repeated or unfinished actions, and for negated commands and requests (He AenaitTe; 3Toro 'Don't do that'). (e) For the irifinitive choose the perfective for actions with an intended result (particularly after all verbs meaning 'want', 'to be able or unable', 'try', 'forget' (Sl MOfY/He MOrY npMMTM 0 3ilaTpa 'I can/can't come tomorrow'). Use the imperfective after all verbs meaning 'begin', 'continue' and 'finish' (6H Hil"'an nMcilTb1 'He started writing'), and for repeated, unfinished and undesirable actions, particularly with all phrases meaning 'one shouldn't', 'it's not allowed', 'it's not necessary' (He HSAO ee npMrnawilTb1 'You shouldn't invite her').

15.12 EXTRA: Linguistic Note on Aspect

Aspect is about how actions take place in time; tense is about when. We have aspect in English too: the difference between 'He was reading 181


'War and Peace' and 'He read War and Peace' is a difference of aspect, not of tense (they're both past tense). 'He was reading' tells us that the reading was in process, not finished; 'he read' simply tells us what kind of activity it was- perhaps he finished the book (as in 'He read War and Peace in sixty-five minutes'), perhaps he didn't (as in 'He read War and Peace for a couple of hours and realized he would never finish it').


Translate, noting the aspects:

lbpa: Wl4pnM: Bbt ntTamt' poMaH AHHa KapeHMHa? nod HeT. fl Kynl4nao ero a npownoM rOAY XoTena' npO"'MTSTb0 1 HO Sl MHOfO pa6oTana', 0"18Hb YCT8Bilna' M HM"'ero He ycneaana'. BoT 6YAY B aarycTe OTAbiXSTb', TOrAil 06S13liTenbHO npO"'MTitl0. KorAil npO"'MTileTe0 , Mbl noroaopMM 0 , o TOM, noHMMiln' nM ToncToif )l(eHcKoe cepA4e.


15.13 Vocabulary
60RTbCSI' 60tOcb, 60MWbCSI ( + gen.) to be afraid (of) ae"'epoM in the evening BHM3 down BbiMTM 0 BbiMAY BbiMA8Wb past Bbtwen, Bbtwna, BbtWnM imper Bb1MAM(T8) 0 (BbiXOAMTb' BbiXO)I(j, BbiXOAMWb) to go out BbiXOA exit AOBOnbHO fairly, quite AOMTM 0 AOMAY.AOMAiWb (AO +gen.) past AOWin, AOWnil, AOWnM (AoxoAMTb')
to reach (on foot) pa3 again


(nOAo-0) ~y, ~iWb (+ace.) to wait for (someone) )l(eHCKMM female 38nMCK8 38nMCOK note 3A{IHMe building KnMeHT client nto6oi4 any (any one you like) MO"'b' (c-0 ) Morj, MO)I(8Wb, MOYT past Mor, Morna, Morno, Mornl4 to be able HSAoeno that's enough, I'm tired (of it)




H8K83itTbP H8K8lKy, H8KillK8Wb, (H8Kit3biB8Tb' like 3H8Tb) tO punish


for a while (ct. CK&38Tbp 'to say')

Han6MHMWb (H&nOMMHSTb' like 3H8Tb) (+ dat.) to remind (someone) H8XOAMTbCSI' H8XOlKyCb, H&X6AMWbCJI to be situated rAEt HBX6AMTCR ? where is ...? o6R38TenbHO definitely, without fail OCB060AMTbCJIP OCB060lKyCb, ocao60AMWbCJI (ocao6o)I(A8TbCR' like 3H&Tb) to become free OCTSBMTbP OCTSBn~, OCTSBMWb (OCT&BnHTb like 3H8Tb) (+ace.) to leave (sth) nepeA&Tbp (like A&Tb 12.7) to pass, transmit, give a message (nepeA&BSTb' like ABBSTb') (+ dat.) (to someone) nepececTbPnepeciiAY, nepeCHA8Wb (nepecalKMB&TbCR') (Ha +ace.) to change (from one form of transport to another) nepecT8Tb ( + ' inf) nepecTaHy, nepecTaHewb (nepecTaaaTb') to stop (doing sth) nepex6A street crossing nnaK&Tb' nna1.1y, nn8"18Wb tO cry (38-P 'to start crying') noaepHYTb0 noaepHy,noaepHewb (noaopli"'MB&Tb' like 3H&Tb) to turn (change direction) noroaopMTbp (of roaopMTb') to talk

nOA39MHbllii underground nod HeT not yet (while not) npoexaTbPnpoeAy,npoeAeWb (npoe3lKSTb' like 3Hl1Tb) (BIHa + ace.) to travel to npocMTb' (no-P) +ace. + inf. npowy, np6CMWb to ask someone to do something nyCTb let (15.8) pa3pew8Tb' (like 3H&Tb) ( + dat.) (pa3pewMTbp pa3pewy, pa3peWMWb) to allow (someone) CSAMTbCJI' C8lKYCb, CBAMWbCJI (see ceCTbP) to sit down; (Ha
+ace.) to take (transport) ceKpeTapb (m) ceKpeTapil secretary (male or female)

cepA4e cepA94 heart cecTb CHAY ciiAeWb past cen, cena (see C8AMTbCSI') to sit down; (Ha +ace.) to take
(transport) cneaa ontheleft

co66p BaclilnMR SnalKeHHoro St Basil's on Red Square ('the Cathedral of Vasilii the Blessed') cnycTMTbCJIP cny~ycb, cnycTMWbCJI (cnycKaTbCJI' like 3H&Tb) to go down CTOpOHB ace. CT6poHy, pl. CT6pOHbl CTOp6H side, direction a cT6poHy (+gen.) in the
direction of

Tenecj)6H telephone



T6nbKO 'IT6 ( + past) just ( = very recently) Tp8MBSM Tp8MBS8B tram TYPMCT tourist ycneaaTb' (like 3H&Tb) (ycneTbp 15.14 AManorM Two Lost Tourists TyplilcT: B&AiiiM:

ycne10, ycneewb) to have time (to do something) yCT&B8Tb' yCT&IO, ycraiwb (ycrin'b" yCTaHy, ycTaH&Wb) to get tired '18TBepTbiM fourth

CK8JKMT8, no>KanyMCT8, K8K npoex&Tb H8 BOK38n? C&AiiiTecb Ha 'leTaepTbiM Tponnei46yc, BbiMAIIITe Ha nn61J48AM, 8 T8M nepeCRAbT8 H8 111066M Tp8MBSM.

TyplilcT: Eaa: no>KanyMCTa, CK8>KMTe, KBK AOiiiTM AO rOCTMHit4bl POCCMR. Aaaai4Te nocM6TpMM nnaH r6pOA8 B6T rocntHM48, HeAa neK6 OT KpeMIIR. Mbl H8XOAMMCR 3A8Cb, OKOIIO peCTOpBH8 M8KAOH811AC H8 nywKMHCKOM nn61J48AM. noaepHMTe Hanpaao MMAMTe npiiMo no TaepcK6M. Y rocTiiiHM4bl H84MOHSI1b Bbl yaliiAMTe nOA3GMHbiM nepex6A. CnycTMT8Cb BHM3, MAMTe npiiMO, HBMAMTe BbiXOA Ha KpacHyiO nn61J48Ab. MAiiiTe a CT6poHy co66pa BaclilnMR &na>KeHHoro. Cneaa oT co66pa Bbl yaliiAMTe 6onbw6e COBpeMeHHOe 3ASHM8. 3To MeCTb; POCCMR.

*3To MecTb that is ('that indeed is') Pa3roa6p no TeneciJ6Hy A Telephone Conversation Eaa: HH: Eaa: HH: Eaa: HH: M3BMHMTe, nonpocliiTe* B&AiiiMa K TeneciJ6Hy. 6H T6m.:c:o 'IT6 Bblwen. 3To Eaa roaopliiT? Aa 6H 3BoHiiln aaM AGcRTb MMHYT Ha38A, H6 aac* He 6blno A6Ma. CK8JKMTe eMy, 'IT6 R 6YAY A6Ma a8'1epoM. nycTb no3BOHMT e~qe pa3. 06R38T811bHO.



tnonpoct!Te (imper of nonpocMTb 'to ask') B&At!Ma K TenecllOHy. Ask

Vadim (to come) to the phone.

*BacHe 6blno A6Ma. You weren't at home ('of you wasn't' 10.5). niOAMMna neTp6BH8 M MM8HbK8JI TllHR nn: TaHR: nn: TllHR: nn: TllHR: nn: TBHR: T8HRilfT6 Tbl AEinaewb?l nepeCTBHbl HOR XO'Iy. He pa3pewa10! Henb3HI no'leMy Henb3H? TllHR, H&Aoeno! Sl Te6J1 He 6olbcb. Sl Te6H H&Ka)l(j. EcnM Tbl MeHH H8KSJK8Wb, R 6YAY nnaK&Tb.

COMPREHENSION EXERCISE 15/8 (Translation in key) Borisov seeks Ravvlnov

1 What four things did Borisov ask the secretary to do during the first call? 2 Did she carry out the four instructions? 3 What did Borisov ask her to do during the third call? 4 How did she propose to carry out his instruction?

nepBbiM 3BOH6K First Call 6optlcoa: no3oat!Te Paaat!Hoaa, noJKanylilcTa. CeKpeTapb: K COJKaneHMIO, OH 38HRT*. no3BOHMTe 'lepe3 '18C. 6optlcoa: He KnBAMTe Tpy6Ky, noJKanylilcTa. nepeA81i1Te eMy, 'ITO 3BOHMn 6opMCOB. CeKpeTapb: Xopow6, nepeA&M. 6optlcoa: nonpoct!Te er6 no3BOHMTb MHe no Tene~6Hy 125-36-47. CeKpeTapb: He 6ecnoK61i1Tecb, R nepeA8M. *oH 38HRT he's busy



BTop6i 3BOH6K Second Call Bac 6ecnoK6MT* Ean!HMM MaTB6eBM't &oprilcoa. nonpocriiTe P&BBMHOB8 K T8118cj)6Hy, nOlKMlfMCT8. CeKpeTilpb: OH ye ywen. &oprilcoa: KaK ywen?* no'teMy 6H He no3BOHriln? CeKpeTilpb: He 3Hil10. Sf eMy cKa3ima, 'tT6 Bbl 3BOHMI1M. &oprilcoa: nolKill1yMCT8, Han6MHMT8 BMY eaqe pa3 3iiBTpa. CeKpeTilpb: 06R3iiTBI1bHO. *Bac 6ecnoK6MT ... &oprilcoa 'You is troubling ... Borisov'. Polite formula
corresponding to: 'My name is Borisov. Excuse me for troubling you.'


*KaK ywen? 'How can he have left?' TpeTMM 3BOH6K Third Call 3ApilaCTayiTe, roaopriiT &oprilcoa. PaaariiHoB Ha MeCTe*? CeKpeTilpb: Ha MecTe, H6 6H lKAeT KnMeHTa. KorAi16H OCB060AMTCR, Han6MHMT8 eMy, nOlKBI1yMCT8, &oprilcoa: 'tT6 R npocri111 er6 n03BOHMTb MHB. CeKpeTilpb: Xopow6, R eMy ocTiiBI110 38nrilcKy. &oprilcoa: *PaaariiHoa Ha MecTe? Is Ravvinov in ('on (his) place')?


(Tense, Aspect, Dative) Say in Russian:

I I want to buy a hat. 2 We stayed {'lived') in the Hotel 'lntourist'. 3- Have

you read the novel Anna Karenina?- No, I haven't. 4 We often telephoned Vadim and Eva. 5 - Will you come tomorrow?- I'll come if I can ('shall be able'). 6 If we have time tomorrow, we'll phone (our) friends. 7 We'll be waiting for you. 8 I'll have a rest, then I'll go (on foot) to Red Square. 9 It's impossible to open this door. 10 Please bring me a bottle of mineral water. 11 Please don't open the window. We're cold. 12 Write (lam) to me often. I shall write to you every week. 13 Don't forget that tomorrow we are going to



(see) Natal'ia Petrovna. 14 Take a seat (pol). I'll come in (lfllpea) a few mir .qtes. I have to telephone0 the children. 15 Let's not talk about children.



16.1 Useful Phrases

ae<tepoM C H6BbiM r6AOM I C YAOBOnbCTBMeMI Me.JKAy HSMM no3H8KOMbTecb c MOMM APYrOM. PydMM He Tp6r&Tb
fl MHTepecjiOCb pjCCKOM in the evening Happy New Year! (lit. 'With New Year') With pleasure! between us Meet my friend. Don't touch (with your hands) (sign in museums) I am interested in Russian literature.


16.2 Instrumental' case

Here we meet the last of the six cases. For many learners it is the one which is most distinctively Russian. Its primary meaning is 'with' (in the sense by means of) as in the sentence 'He wrote with(= by means of) a pencil' - OH nMcan Kap&HASW6M. The ending OM on a masculine noun is the instrumental case. It has a number of other uses (see 16.5), particularly with six prepositions including c 'with' in the meaning 'accompanied by' or 'together with'.



16.3 Formation of the Instrumental Singular

For m nouns ending in a consonant and neuter nouns ending o, the instrumental is -oM:
K8p8HASW 'pencil' K8p81fA8WQM

with (by means of) a pencil in the evening in the morning

a6olep 'evening' jTpo 'morning'



If the m noun ends with a soft sign b or Iii, replace the b or Iii with -eM ( -iM if stressed); if the neuter noun ends -e or -i, add M:

Mropb 'Igor'' A(e)Hb 'day' M6pe 'sea'


by Igor' in the daytime/in the afternoon by sea


For m and f nouns ending -a the instrumental is -olii:

B8CHB 'spring' nana 'dad'


in the spring with dad

c nanm!

If the noun ends R, replace the R with -elii. Stressed R becomes iii:




by Valia with the family

C8MbR 'family'

Feminine nouns with -b add 10:

H6"1b 'night' 6ceHb 'autumn' A6'1b 'daughter'

H6'1b)Q 6ceHbJ2 c A6'lepbJ2

at night in autumn with a daughter (remember the extra -ep- 5.6)

Remember that Spelling Rule 2 (8.10) will apply to nouns (with unstressed endings) whose last consonant is lK, '1, you find e instead of unstressed o:

w, aq or 4

After these consonants

Mawa 'Masha' c Mawli (not Mawolii) with Masha ToaapMaq 'comrade' c TOBBPMUUUI (not -aqoM) with a comrade aMepMIC&tte4 'American' c &MepMKBHI.UlM with an American (but 'with father' is c OTI.46M because the ending is stressed)
There are no exceptions to these rules.




Put the nouns in brackets in the instrumental: 1 LlaA c (aap8Hb8) Tea with (together with) jam. 2 Bap6Hb8 8ART (n6Ka) One eats the jam with (by means of) a spoon. 3 OH npMAiT (jTpo) He'll come in the morning. 4 fl npMAY c <eHa M A6&tb) I'll come with (my) wife and daughter. 5 C (Cawa) With Sasha. 6 C (~pb HMKonaA) With Tsar Nicholas (1.48Pb is stressed on the ending).

16.4 Instrumental Plural

To form the instrumental plural, you need to know the nominative plural (see Lesson 8). If the nominative plural ends bl or -a, replace the bl or a with -aMM; if the ending of the nom. pl. is M or R, replace the M or R with RMM. The gender of the noun does not matter.
M8f83MH 'shop' AOM 'house' 6paT 'brother' H&A6nR 'week' CbJH 'son' M8f83MHbl AOMS 6pSTbR H&A6nM CbiHOBbR

Don't forget Spelling Rule 3 (-a not R 12.11):

KHiilra 'book' ToaapMut 'comrade' KHiilrM TOBSPMutM KHJilraMM (not -RMM) TOBSPMutaMM

There are four exceptions (apart from some cases with unpredictable stress). These have the ending bMM:
AfibMM (from A6TM 'children') AO'tepbMM (from A6'tepM 'daughters') noW&AbMM (frorn n6WSAM 'horses') nJOAbMM (from n!OAM 'people')

A few nouns have alternative forms in -RMM (neutral style) and bMM (bookish style) AHPRMM- ABepbMM 'doors'.




Put on the required endings:

1 C (cicTpbl) 'With sisters.' 2 C (6yrliJnKM) 'With bottles.' 3 C (A6TM) 'With the children.' 4 C (aMepMKiiH4bl) 'With Americans.'

16.5 Uses of the Instrumental (In Russian Taopr.tTenbHbJM n&A8 'creative case'}

( 1) To indicate the instrument used to carry out an action:

OH nMcan KBp&HABWmt. He wrote with ( = by means of) a pencil. 3-ro MO)I(HO ecTb noKml.. You can eat this with a spoon.

(2) After six prepositions:


Me)I(Ay HBA n8peA

behind, beyond between above in front of under with


38 ABepbJO behind the door Me)I(Ay necoM M peKolii between the wood and the river HBA r6pOAOM above the city n6.,eA A{MOM in front of the house "OA 38Mnilii under the ground c YAOB6nbCTBM8M with pleasure

(3) The instrumental is used with parts of the day and the seasons of the year answering the question 'when?':
jTpo A8Hb a6&tep HO'tb (f) B8CHS n6To Oc8Hb (f) 3MMS jTpoM AHiM a6olepoM HO'tbiO aecH61ii nfiOM OceHbiO 3MM6Jii
in the morning in the afternoon in the evening at night in spring in summer in autumn in winter

(4) The instrumental is used after certain verbs, e.g. 6bJTb 'to be', 38HMM8TbCJ1' 'to occupy oneself with/to study', KB38TbCJI' 'to seem',



H83bla8n.cR' 'to be called', CTaHOBMTbCR'ICTBTb" 'to become', RBnRTbCR' lit. 'to appear' (frequently used in formal style with the meaning 'to be'): 0Ha CTina IIIHlK8HSPQM. Mbl 38HIIIMBeMCR MCT6plllai POCCMIII. 6H RanAncR AlllpSKTOpgM.

She became an engineer. We are studying the history of Russia. He was the director.

The most important of these is 6bJTb 'to be'. As you will remember from Lesson 3, the verb 6b1Tb is normally omitted in the present tense (st &HrnM'IBHIIIH 'I am English') but it has normal past and future forms (6bln, 6blna etc.; 6YAY 6jA8Wb etc.). The past and future forms, and also the infinitive, are normally followed by the instrumental:
Er6 OT84 6bln apa'IQr!. Haw CbiH 6YABT Y'IMTeneM. Er6 cnjTHMKRM6bln pyccKMM 61113H8CM6H.
(5) Note the idiomatic use of

His father was a doctor. Our son will be a teacher. His travelling companion was a Russian businessman (see 16.8(b)).

c + inst.

to join two human subjects where

English uses 'and': Ivan and his wife came. English 'X and I' is in Russian Mbl c X ('we with X'):
Mbl cMjlKeM Mbl c EaoM pewlotn111 no6xaTb a C11161otpa..

my husband and I Eva and I have decided to go to Siberia.

16.6 Instrumental of Adjectives, Possessives and Demonstratives

Singular. If the nominative adjective ends biM or -6M, the masculine and neuter instrumental ending is biM. Adjectives with nominative 111M have instrumental MM. Feminine adjectives have OM or eM, exactly the same endings as in the feminine singular of the genitive, dative and prepositional.
c H6Bil!M pjcCKJ:tM APYrOM c H6Bmt pyccKgi noAPyroM

with a new Russian friend with a new Russian girlfriend



Plural. All genders have


-biMM (-biM



adjectives) or -MMM (-MM


with new Russian friends

etc. all have -MM (m and n sg.), -eM (f sg.), -MMM (pl.) with your children


They were our travelling companions.

Two tricky words: 3TOT and T6T (see Table 4).


'this' has m/n 3T}tM, f 3TOM, plural3T.!!MM

'that' has m/n TIM, fT6M, plural TtMM with those people

16.7 Instrumental of Pronouns



Tbl OH

after prepositions) after prepositions) after prepositions)

OHO Mbl Bbl OHM Sl38 BllMM.

after prepositions)

I'm behind you (phrase used to book a place in a queue). What's the matter with him?


Note also: KTO 'who' has inst. KeM; 'ITO 'what' has '18M (Table 4):
LleM Bbi38HMMlleT8Cb?

What are you doing? ('With what are you occupying yourself?') Who was Dzerzhinskii?

KeM 6bln A3eplKMHCKMM?




Put the words in brackets in the instrumental and translate:

l fl ,qaaH6 38HMMSIOCb (pyccKIUI MY3bJKa.). 2 Mbl c (6paT) OTAbiXBnM a KpbiMy. 3 BBAMM nbiT K{)cpe c (MonoK6), a M3pM nb8T BOAKY c (anen~o cliiHOBbiM 'orange' COK). 4 fl XO'fY no3H8KOMMTb aac C (MOM pyccKMe APY3bR). 5 l.h-6 c (OHS)? nO'feMy OHS He XO'teT pa3roaapMB8Tb c (Mbl)?

16.8 EXTRA: Instrumental with 6b1Tb: Two Problems

(a) With 6b1Tb the nominative may be used instead of the instrumental (M6it OTel.\ 6bJn apa't instead of apa'tQM 'My father was a doctor'). The nominative is common if the complement (the phrase after 6b1Tb) denotes a permanent characteristic of the subject, i.e. if your father was a doctor all his life. Ltep'tMnnb 6bln aHrnM'fSHMH 'Churchill was English' (all his life). The nominative is also very common if the complement is an adjective rather than a noun, e.g. noro,qa 6bJna xop6waR (nominative) rather than xopoweit (instrumental). (b) The second problem arises with sentences such as 'The main problem was the grammar'. Which noun, npo6neMa 'problem' or rpaMMSTMKa 'grammar', is in the nominative and which in the instrumental? Generally, the more specific word will be nominative, the more general one instrumental. A good test is to replace the verb 'to be' with the verb 'constitute' and see which order sounds more natural: 'The problem constituted the grammar' or 'Grammar constituted the problem'? The latter, you should agree, so 'grammar' is the subject': rnaBHOM npo6neMOM (inst.) 6blna rpaMMSTMKa (nom.). The word order in neutral Russian requires the new information to come at the end (see 26.8), so if you are stressing 'the grammar', it comes after the verb. If you want to stress 'main problem', you turn the sentence round: rpaMMSTMKa 6bJna rnaaHoliii npo6neMoM. In the example MoMM. cnjTHMKQM 6bln pyccKMM 6M3HecMeH 'My travelling companion was a Russian businessman' you are saying 'A Russian businessman constituted my travelling companion' and you are indicating that the new information is 'Russian businessman'.



16.9 Declension of Surnames

Russian male surnames nonnally end -biH, -IIIH, -oa, -ea or -ea. These were originally possessive adjectives (MaaH6a meant 'belonging to Ivan'). They have nonnal noun endings except in the instrumental, where the ending is the adjectival biM (not -oM). So Sl n106ntb ~exoaa 'I love Chekhov' but SI38HIIIMBIOCb ~6XOBIII.M 'I am studying Chekhov'. Female surnames (biH&, IIIH&, -oaa, -eaa, -eaa) are more adjectival. Apart from the accusative (ending -y, like a feminine noun), all the other cases have -oM, like adjectives. In the plural ('the Ivanovs'), all endings except the nominative are adjectival.
N A G D I p
Mr Ivanov MaaH6a MaaH6aa MaaH6aa MaaH6ay MB&HOB.!!IM (not OM) MaaH6ae Mrs/Miss/Ms Ivanov MaaH6aa MaaH6ay MaaH6a.Qi (not bl) MaaH6agi (not e) MaaH6aoi MaaHoa_mt (not e) the lvanovs MaaH6Bbl MBBHOBbiX MaaH6BbiX MB&HOB.I!I.M MaaH6&tdiUI MB&HOB.Idl

16.1 o Vocabulary
61iiBWIIIM former aap6Hbe jam, preserves aM6CTe (c + inst.) together (with) aM6CTo (+gen.) instead of apa'l apa'la* doctor BCT8BBTb' &CT&tb, BCT&iWb (BCT8Tbp BCTBHy, BCTBH8Wb) to get up rliiA guide (person) rMTapa guitar roTOBIIITb' (np111-) rOTOBDIO, roT6&111Wb (+ace.) to prepare; to cook A&nbwe further AO'IK& A6'1eK (little) daughter 38 (+ inst.) (16.5) behind; for ('to fetch') 38B6A factory Ha 38B6Ae at a factory 3iiBTp&K breakfast 38 3ii&Tp&KOM at ('behind') breakfast 3ii&Tp8K8Tb' (nD-") (like 3H8Tb) to breakfast 38HIIIMBTbCJ1' (+ inst.) (like 3H8Tb) to study (something) 3H&K6MIIITb' (nD-") (+ace.; c + inst.) 3H8KOMDIO, 3H8KOMIIIWb to acquaint someone with



someone, to introduce someone to someone 3H8K6MiiiTbCR; (no-) (C + inst.) to beome acquainted with, to get to know, to meet lilrpaTb' (Cblrp6Tb0) (like 3H8Tb) to play IIIHJK8H6p engineer
liiHOCTp8H(e)4 foreigner IIIHTep6c interest liiHT8p8COBBTbCR' (38-") (+ inst.) IIIHTepecjiOCb, IIIHTepecyewbCR to be

neTb' (c-) nolO, noiwb (+ace.)

to sing (sth)
noiT see neTb (he) sings n63AHo late n03H8K6MIIITb(-cR)- see 3H8K6MiiiTb(CR) npeAC&A'Tenb (m) chairman npliiBbi'IK& npMBbi'I8K habit npocl)eccliloHan professional

paaroaapliiB&Tb' (like 3H8Tb)

(c + inst.) to converse with, talk to

p8Ho early p6HbW8 before; earlier peaon1041110H6p revolutionary peaoni04111R revolution piiAOM (c + inst.) beside cnY'IMTbCR" (c + inst.) to happen (to)
~ ~rilnocb?

interested (in)
IIICT6p111R history K8p&HA6W K8p8HA8WB*

pencil K6wa kasha, Russian porridge

n111M6H lemon mo6ri1Mblil favourite n!OA111 n10A6il niOARM, niOAbMM,

What happened?

CH&'I6na first, at first cn&Tb' (no-) cnn10, cn111wb

to sleep
cnjTHIIIK travelling companion CT8HOBMTbCR' CT8HOBlJIOCb, CT8H6BiiiWbCR (CT8Tb0 ) ( + inst.)

prep. pl. niOARX people (pl. of

'lenoa6K 'person') M6JKAY (+ inst.) between (16.5) MOn'I6Tb' (38-") MOn'lj, MOn'IMWb

to become
CT8Tb CTBHy, criH8Wb (+ inst.)

to keep silent, say nothing

MY3b1KBHT musician H83BBHIII8 name H83biBBTbCR' (like 3H8Tb) (+ inst.)

to become
CTeHa ace. CT6Hy, pl. CT6Hbl wall CT6n CTona* table T6Ma theme, topic yaneK6TbCR' (like 3H&Tb) (+ inst.)

to be called H&CTOHiqlllil real, genuine

HliiKorA6 (He) never opr&HIIIU4111R organization n6n(e)4 nan~a48, pl. n8nJa4bl

to be keen on, enthusiastic (about)

YAOB6nbCTBiile pleasure,

jJKIIIH supper jJKIIIH8Tb' (nO-") (like 3H8Tb)

finger n6p&A + inst. before, in front of


to have supper



ypoK lesson yxoAMTb' yxolKj, yxoAMWb (yliiTr.t) to leave \"'MTenb (m) pl. \"'HTenR teacher, schoolteacher xod although

RBnRTbCR' RBnRIOCb, RBnReWbCR (+ inst.) to be (something) (used in formal style, not in conversation) RM'IHH48 [ye"eshnee-tsa] fried eggs

*Stress Note. If the genitive singular of a masculine noun is shown as

stressed on the end (CTona), that means all forms of the word are stressed on the end (pl. CTonbi, dat. CTony etc.)

16.11 TeKCT (Translation in Key)

YTpoM Mbl c 6p8TbRMM CepreeM .. AneKc8HAPOM acTaiiM paHo, OAeaaeMcR 111 MAiM Ha KYXHIO. Mbl 3ilaTpaK&eM o6bi"'HO aM6cTe c OTI"'OM. 6H CMAMT 38 CTOnOM 1, nbiT KOCIe C MOnOKOM Ill C HHTepeCOM "'MTSeT ra38yY. C HSMM OH nO"'TM HHKOrAS He pa3roaapMB&eT 38 3ilaTpaKoM. PaHbWe oH 6bln y~o~r.tTeneM 111 38 3ilaTp&KOM seerA& roT6aHn yp6KH. BoT no~o~eMy y Hero T&KSR npMBbi"'K& - "'HTSTb 111 MOn"'STb 38 CTOn6M. H6 KOrAS Mbl C&AMMCR 38 CT6n1, OH roaopMT: - 3ApSBCTBYMTe, MBnb"'MKM! 3ApSBCTByM, AO"'K&I KaK cnanH? - Xopowo, nana,- OTBe"'aeM Mb1 1 noTOM Mbl H&"'MHBeM eCTb. MOM 6pSTbR 06bi"'HO 8ART KSWy. Cepii*a ecT n6*KOM, a Cawa- nanb4BMM, T&K K&K oH 3H8eT, "'TO oT64 H& Her6 He CMOTpMT .R eM 6yYep6p6Ab1 C CblpOM. Mbl nbiM "18M C nMMOHOM r.tnM c aapeHbeM. MHorA& MaMa A6naeT MHe RM"'HM4Y c Kon6acolil, Ho o6bi"'HO oHa acTaiT n63AHO. Hawa MBM& He n106MT 3ilaTp&K8Tb. 0HS BCT&iT n6cne H&C M6AeT H& 3ilBOA, rAe pa66TaeT rnaBHbiM MH*eHepoM1 Be~o~epoM OHS 803 apaaqlleTcR AOM6M, nana roT6BMT Y*MH, M Mbl ace Y*MH&eM BMecTe. n6cne Y*MH& Mbl CMAMM n6p8A T8neBM30pOM, HO 06bi"'HO Mbl He cMoTpMM. MaMa cHAMT M6*AY MHolil .. 6p8TbRMH, .. Mbl pa3rOBSpMB&eM. 3-fo O"'eHb npMRTHO. K CO*&neHMIO, HHOrAS BMeCTO pa3roa6pa Cepe*a MrpaeT H& rHTape 111 Cawa noiT. XoTR R



MHTepecyiOCb My3biKOM, Sl He MOrj MX cnyWBTb, KOrAS OHM ABIOT T8KOM KOH48pT. OHM rosopHT, 'ITO XOTHT CT8Tb npociJeCCMOHilnBMM, HO no-MoeMy OHM HMKOrAil He 6YAYT H&CTOHiqMMM MY3biKllHT&MM. KorAil OHM H&'IMHiiiOT, H roaopiO, 'ITO MHe HBAO 38HMMiiTbCH, "' " yxo>Ky M3 KOMH&Tbl. Ho nilna O'leHb yaneKileTCH 3TMMM KOH~.tepT&MM "' cnywaeT cb1Hosei1 c YAOsonbCTaMeM. 'cMA8Tb 38 cTonoM (inst.) to sit at ('behind') the table (place) 'cBAMTbCH'IcecTb 38 cTon (ace.) to sit down at the table (motion) 'oTBe'llleM Mbl 'answer we'. After direct speech the verb and the subject are nearly always in that order in Russian. 'pa60T&Tb + inst. to work as something


Volodia and the KGB

I Which three places mentioned by Volodia have new names? 2 What organization did Dzerzhinskii head? 3 Why does Mary ask if Dzerzhinskii was a foreigner? 4 Of the 'old Bolsheviks' listed by Volodia, which two were women? 5 What two opposing views of the Chekists does Volodia mention?

KyA8 Bbl XOTMTe noi4nt cerOAHH? s:l XO'Iy D03H8KOMMTbCSI C AOCTOnpMM8'18TenbHOCTSIMM' MOCKBbl. Bbl 6yAeTe MOMM rMAOM?

c YAOBOnbCTBMeM. Aaslli4Te noeAeM B ~.t8HTp. Cei4'18C Sl

B03bMy nnaH ropOAB B6T. noeAeM CHB'Iilna HB 0XOTHbiM' PHA. 3To 6biBWMM npocneKT MilpKca. no HeMy Mbl AOMAeM AO TeaTpilnbHoM' nno~qBAM - oHil pilHbwe H83biB8nacb nn6~qBAb10 CsepAnOBa. A BOT "'' 3HaMeHMTbiM SonbWOM TellTp. PHAOM c HMM - MilnbiM' TeiiTp. noTOM Mbl nOMAeM Ailnbwe, HB ny6HHCKYIO nnOiqBAb. nocne peaoniO~.tMM ny6HHKa AOnroe' speMH HB3blsllnacb nno148Abl0 A3ep>KMHCKoro. KeM 6bln A3ep>KMHCKMM? no-M6eMy, OH npocniiBMnCH' 'leMTO' He 0'18Hb npMHTHbiM.




cNmtKC 3AMYHAOBM't AMP:atUtHCKMM 6bln OAHMM* M3 nepBbiX 't8KMCTOB*. TO'tHee*, OH 6bln nP8AC8AlrreneMBcepoccMMCKOi* 'lp83Bbi'IBMHOM KOMMCCMM no 60pb66* C KOHTppeaonlb4Jiei* Mca6oTiJKeM* - BI.4K* [ve-chye-k8]. M~pM: CDenMKC 3AMYHAOBM't? 6H 6bln MHOCTpaHeLf? Bon6Af1: no npOMCXO*A6HMIO* OH 6bln nonfiK*'. M~pM: A 'ITO cny'IMnOCb c er6 1.4pe3Bbi'IBMHOM KOMMMCCMeM? Bon6AR: 3Ta opraHM381.4Mfl H6CKOnbKO p83 M8HRna* H83BSHMe: Tenepb tro Kr& [ka-ge-be)- KOMMTer rocyA8pCTB8HHOM* &e3onacHOCTM*. Ecntt xoTMTe, R aaM paccKaJKy 6ttorpa~MIO* A:tep:IKMHCKoro. M~pM: Cnac.t6o, R 6ecc6HHML(ei* He CTP&ASIO*. Bon6Af1: llt3BMHMTe, He n6HRn. M~pM: 3TO 6blnS WJTK82 A nO't8Mj Bbl T8K yaneKieTeCb ~TOM TeMoM? Bon6Af1: MoMM n106MMbiM npeAM6ToM* a wK6ne 6bln8 MCT6pMR. Sl 6'teHb MHTepecoaancR cTapbiMM 6onbweaMK8Mtt*neHMHbiM, KpynCKOM, Tp6L(KMM, 6yxapMHbiM, KaMeHeBbiM, 3MH6Bb8BbiM, KonnoHTSM, A38PJKMHCKMM MAPYrMMM. B 'ISCTHOCTM*, fl yJKe A8BH6 38HMMSIOCb A3epJKMHCKMM Mer6 noM61qHMK8MM*. XOTH Tenepb MHorMe C'IMTSIOT* '18KMCTOB* npeCTjnHMK8MM*, ASJKe y6MML(8MM*, fl C'IMTSIO, 'ITO OHM 6blnM H8CTOHiqMMM peaoniOL(MOHep&MM, np(IA&HHbiMM* MA6RM* neHttHa. M~pM: M6JKeT 6b1Tb, a6olepoM aepHiMCR K ~TOM T6Me. A K&K* c HSWMM MapwpjTou* no MocKae? Bon6Af1: Xopow6. noT6M Mbl nOMAiM no HMK6nbCKOM ynttl(e. nepeA BSMM OTKpoeTCR* BMA* H8 KpacHyiO nn61q&Ab, M8B30n6M* neHMH8 M, 38 M8B30neeM, KpeMniBCKYIO* CTeHy C 68WHRMM*.

I After 6b1Tb the nominative can be used for permanent features of the subject (see 16.8). 2 In 'It was/will be something' sentences, it is normal to make 6b1Tb agree with the noun. 3To 6blno WyYKOM (inst.) is possible but less common.



*EXTRA Vocabulary for Comprehensl~n Exercise (in Alphabetical Order) 6awHR tower 6e30nacHOCTb (f) security, safety 6ecc6HHML48 insomnia ('without sleepness') 6MorpllciJMR biography 6onbW8BMK gen. 60flbW8BMKA Bolshevik 6opb68 (c + inst.) struggle with/against BMA H& +ace. view of Bcepoccr.ticK&R 'tpe3Bbl'tliMHaR KOMMCCMR All-Russia Special Commission BliK the Cheka (Lenin's secret police 1917-22) rocyAllpcTBeHHbiM state (adj) A6nroe apeMR for a long time AOCTonpMM8'tliTenbHOCTM (f. pl.) sights M and; even; (used for emphasis) a a6T M and here is MAeR idea K&K (c + inst.) what about ... ? KOMMTeT committee KOHTppeaoniOJ.4MR counterrevolution KpeMniBCKMM Kremlin (adj) M&B3onei mausoleum MllnbiM small (rarer form of MSn8HbKMM) MapwpjT route MeHRTb' to change H83biBliTbCR' (+ inst.) to be called something OAHMM (inst. of OAMH) (Table 7) one (same endings as 3TOT) OTKpbiTbCR to open (intrans) Ox6THbiM PRA 'Hunting Row' nonfiK Pole nOMOIJ4HMK assistant npeASHHbiM (+ dat.) devoted to np&AMeT subject (of study); object (thing) npecTjnHMK criminal npOMCXO*AeHM8 origin npocnaaMTbcR npocnaanJOcb, npocnaaMWbCR (+ inst.) (npocnaanRTbCR' like 3H8Tb) to become famous (for) ca6oTa* sabotage CTPBAliTb; (like 3HaTb) (+ inst.) to suffer (from) C'tMTliTb' (+ace.)(+ inst.) to consider sth to be sth TeaTpllnbHbiM theatre (adj), theatrical TO'tHH more precisely y6MML48 (m and f) murderer B 't8CTHOCTM in particular 't8KMCT Chekist (member of secret police) 'teMTO (inst. of 'tTOTO) by something



17.1 Phrases: Time, Date, Age

MHe Aa8Aq&Tb neT. a np6wnoM rOAY a cn6Ayl01q8M (6YAYII48M) rOAY npMXOAMTe a nkrHM4Y Mbl npM6AeM nkroro MD. a TbiCJI't8 A8afiTbCOT A8aJIHOCTOM rOAY a anpene A8aJIHOCTO nepaoro r6A& KoT6pbiM o.tac? CKonbKO apeMeHM? Lfac. Aaa o.taca. nJITb MMHJT aTop6ro &e3 nRTiil ASaJITb.
I am twenty. last year next year Come on Friday. We'll arrive on the fifth of May. in 1990 in April (19)91 What time is it? What time is it?/How long? (It is) one o'clock. (It is) two o'clock/Two hours. (at) five past one (It is/At) five to nine.

17.2 Days of the Week

Monday 'after Sunday day' from the old word for Sunday HeA&nR which now means 'week' Tuesday

aTOpHMK [ftO-)

'second day' - aTop611 'second'



Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday



nJlTHM48 cy666Ta BOCKp8C8Hb8

'middle day' - cp8AHMM 'middle' 'fourth day' - 't&TaipTbiM 'fourth' 'fifth day'- nRTbiM 'fifth' 'Sabbath' 'resurrection' ( aocKpeceHMM)

On a particular day is a + the accusative:


on Friday on Tuesday (a~ao before a word beginning with a+ consonant) on Wednesday (note stress)

17.3 Time of day


or CK6nbKO apeMeHM? What time is it?

If the answer is a full hour, say:


nATb ~tac6a.

(It is) one o'clock. (It is) two o'clock. It is now five o'clock.

See Lesson 9 for the forms of nouns after different numerals.

17.4 From the Full Hour to Half Past If the answer is between the full hour and half-past, Russian says 'It is so many minutes of the xth hour'. The hour from twelve to one is called nepabiM 't&C ('the first hour'); from one to two is 'the second hour' BTop6M 'tSC, and so on. For the list of the Russian equivalents of 'first', 'second' etc., see 17.5 below. 'Ten past one' is 'ten minutes of the second', using the genitive case of BTOpOM, i.e. BTop6ro:
A8cATb MMHjT BTOpOrO (OV8) ABBA48Tb MMHYT nfiToro W8CTb MMHjT TpeTb8rO

ten past one twenty past four ('twenty minutes of the fifth') six minutes past two



'Half' is nonoar.tHa, and 'half past six' is 'half of the seventh' nonoar.tHa C8AbM6ro.

17.5 Ordinal Numerals (Number Adjectives)

nepabnii first BTop6i second Tp6nti (see Table 5) third 'teTBipTbiM fourth nRTbiM fifth wecT6i sixth C8AbM6i seventh BOCbM6M eighth A8BRTbiM ninth A8CRTb1i tenth OAMHH&AL!IlTbiM [a-tsa-ti] eleventh AB8Ha\AL18TbiM [-8-tsa-tl) twelfth TPMHSAL!IlTbiM thirteenth 't8TbiPH8ALI8TbiM fourteenth nRTHSAL!IlTbiM fifteenth WecTHSAL!IlTbiM sixteenth ceMHSAL!IlTbiM seventeenth BOC8MHSALI8TbiM eighteenth A8BRTHSALI8Tb1M nineteenth AB8Ai48Tbli twentieth ABSAL!IlTb nilpBbiM twenty-first TPMAI.48Tbli thirtieth copoKoa6i fortieth nRTMA8cRTbiM fiftieth W8CTMA8CRTbiM sixtieth C8MMA8CRTbiM seventieth BOCbMMA8CRTbiM eightieth A8BRH6CTbiM ninetieth c6Tbli hundredth CT6 n6pBbiM hundred and first

17.6 Half-past to the Full Hour

From half-past to the full hour, Russian says 'without so many minutes x hours', so 'ten to eight' is 'without ten eight' 683 A8CRTM a6ceMb. After 6e3 'without', numbers, like nouns (see 10.6), must stand in the genitive case. The genitive of the numbers up to twenty-five is:
nominative genitive OAHOr6 (m/n)/OAH6i (f) ABVX Tpix 't8TblpiX nstTM W8CTM


2 ABaiAB8 3 TPM

5 nRTb 6 W8CTb



7 C8Mb 8 BOC8Mb


10 II I2 13 I4 I5 I6


I7 C8MHSAl.j8Tb

I8 I9 20 2I 22

23 ABSAl.j8Tb TPM 24 ABBALI&Tb '18Tblpe 25 ABBAL\BTb nRTb


twenty to nine

Celii'lac 6e3 ABBALI&TM nRTM nRTb. It is now twenty-five to five.

As in English, if the number does not divide by five, it is normal to add the word for 'minutes' (MMHY'ra: MMHYrbl ( /MMHYr ( It is nineteen minutes to one. It is now one minute to four.
&e3 A8BRTHBAL\BTM MMHYr 'lac. Celii'lac 6e3 OAH61ii MMHYrbl '18Tblpe.


B aocKpec8Hb8. 2 Celii'lac wecTb 'lac6a. 3 Celii'lac ABBALI&Tb nRTb

MMHYr Tp8Tb8ro. 4 On Wednesday. 5 It's ten past four. 6 It's twenty to




17.7 At a Time
To say at an hour, simply put a in front of the time:

B '18C 8 A6cRTb '18C6B

at one o'clock at ten o'clock

At half-past a nonoaMHil (prepositional case):

B nonOBMH8 nATOro

at half past four

For 'at any other time', use the same form as for 'It is such and such a

He came at ten past six. OH npMwin A6CRTb MMHjT C8AbM6ro. (Ceill'lac AKRTb MMHYT C8AbM6ro. It is now ten past six.) st npMAY 6e3 nRTM OAMHHBALIBTb. I'll come at five to eleven. (Ceiii'IBC 6e3 nRTM OAMHHBAL!BTb. It is now five to eleven.)

17.8 a.m./p.m.
Either use the twenty-four hour clock (a ABBALIBTb OAMH 'lac 'at 9 p.m.'21 hours) or the following divisions of the day and night:

4 a.m.- midday: YTP' ('of the morning' from jTpo 'morning') midday- 6 p.m.: AHR ('of the day' from A(e)Hb 'day')

6 p.m.- midnight: a6'1epa ('of the evening' from a6'1ep 'evening') midnight- 4 a.m.: H6'1M ('of the night' from H6'1b 'night')
10p.m. He came back at 3 a.m. (three in the morning).

A6cRTb &~ac6a a6'1epa 6H aepHjncR a TPM 'laca H6'1M ('at three of the night').


1 0Ha npMAiT 683 nRTioi a6ceMb. 2 Aaaaill noiJIAiM -ryp.i a cy666-ry a nonoaloiHe Tp6Tb8ro. 3 CIMnbM H&'IMHaeTCR AKRTb MMHYT BOCbM6ro. 4 Mbl npM6AeM a AKRTb 'lac6a a6'1epa. 5 I'll come on Wednesday at six.
6 The film starts at ten to seven. 7 He'll telephone at half past four. 8 In London it is 11 p.m.



17.9 EXTRA: Some Alternatives

'Midday' can be AB8HSA48Tb 'lac6a or n6nAeHb; 'midnight' can be AB8HSA48Tb 'lac6a or n6nHO'Ib; 'a quarter' can be nf!THSA48Tb MMHYr or 'leTaepTb (f). He came at midnight. OH npMwen a ABeHSA48Tb 'IBC6a/a n6nHO'Ib. Sl n03BOHIO 6e3 nSITHSALIBTM/6e3 I'll call at a quarter to seven. 'leTBepTM C8Mb. There is also an official style for giving times, used in station announcements and on the radio. This uses the twenty-four-hour clock and gives the hours and minutes as follows: 14.53 ~8TbiPHBA48Tb 'IBC6B nfiTbAeCRT TpM MMHyYbl 10.02 AecSITb 'lac6a ABe MMHYrb 23.00 ABSA48Tb TPM H6nb-H6nb
MOCKOBCK08 BpeMSI- BOCeMHSA48Tb 'IBCOB nSITHSA48Tb MMHyY. Moscow Time is 6.15 p.m.

17. 10 Months
The months, all masculine, are: January February March April May June July August Nominative SIHBSpb

Genitive SIHBBPR

Prepositional B SIHBape


MSpTa anpenfl MSSI MJOHSI MJOnSI aaryCT8

B MllpTe a anpene a Mae B MlbHe a MIOne B aarycTe



September October November December

ceHTi16pb oKTil6pb HOH6pb A&Kll6pb

C8HTH6pH OKTR6pR HOR6pH A8K86pil

BC8HTR6p6 BOKTR6pe B HOR6pe BA8K86p6

Note that the first two months and the last four have the stress on the end in the genitive, while the six in the middle have fixed stress on the stem. 'In a month' is a+ prepositional. Since all the months are masculine, all end -e in the prepositional case: in March a MllpTe in December a A&Ka6pe What is the date today? is KaK6e cer6AHR 'tMcno? ~Mcno means 'number'. A day in the month is the adjective form of the numeral (see 17.5 above) in its neuter form (agreeing with the word 'tMcno 'number', 'date', which is usually omitted). So 'the first' is nepaoe. The month is then in the genitive ('of April').
CerOAHR BTOp6e RHBapil. ABllA48Tb TpeTbe MU

Today is the second of January. the twenty-third of May

On a date is expressed by the genitive ending of the adjective:

I'll come on the eighth of May.

17.11 Years
The year is an adjective too, so once again we need the ordinal numerals from 17.5. The year 1991 is 'the thousand nine hundred ninety-first year'
TbiCR't8 A8BRTbCOT A8BRHOCTO nepBbllli r6A. TbiCR't8 A8BRTbCOT copoK nRTbiM r6A TbiCR't8 nRTbCOT nRTbA8CRT BTOp611i rOA

1945 1552

Note: It is perfectly acceptable to omit the century if it is obvious:


I was born in 1948 ('in forty-eighth

year'). 'In a year' is a + prepositional case. (Note prep. of r6A is a roAi.)




If the month is included, say 'In May of the year (gen.)'

Sl POAMnacb a MlbHe c6poK BOCbMOro r6A8.
I was born in June 1948 ('in June of 48").


Translate: 1 rnaBHbl8 np83AHMKM B CCCP 6blnM nepaoe RHB8pR, nepaoe MBR, A8BRT08 MiiR, C8AbM08 HOR6pR. 2 neHMH POAMnCR ABSA48Tb BTOp6ro anpenR TbiCR't8 BOC8MbCOT C8MMA8CRTOfO r6A8. 3 OHM npMexanM B weCTb '48COB aer.tepa B noHeAenbHMK TPMA48Tb nepaoro A8K86pil TbiCRr.ta A8BRTbCOT A8BRHOCToro r6AB. 4 On the sixth of April 1991. 5 At
9 a.m. on Friday the eleventh of January. 6 At 5.45 on the tenth of October 1977.

17.12 From (c +gen.), Until (AO +gen.), After (n6cne +gen.)

These three prepositions are used with all the time words in the preceding sections.
c wecTM (gen.) r.tacoa AO nRTOro OKTR6pil AO BTOPHMKa C W8CTbA8CRT C8AbMOrO rOAB
from/since six o'clock until fifth October until Tuesday since (19)67

c weCTM r.tacoa AO OAMHH8A48 from six o'clock until eleven OT (+gen.) ... AO can also be used

With dates, no+ ace. (meaning 'up to and including') is the equivalent of 'inclusive' (American 'thru'):
c AeCiiToro MBR m nRTHSA48Tml from the tenth to the fifteenth of May



17.13 Age
To give your age in Russian, you say 'To me (dat.) is twenty-five years'. Remember that the genitive plural of r6A is neT (from naTO 'summer'):
MHe (dat.) ABBALI&Tb nRTb neT. CK6nbKO BaM neT? EMy TPMALI&Tb TPM r6AS. Elii 6blno ( - see 22.12) ABSALI&Tb neT.
I am twenty-five. How old are you? ('How many to you of years?') He is thirty-three. She was twenty.

For other expressions of time and duration, see Lesson 23.


(1) A: 5: A: 5: A:

CK6nbKO aaM neT? MHe TPMALI&Tb 'leTblpe r6AS. KOrAl! aaw AeHb PO>KA8HMR? .Qa&ALI&Tb Tp8Tbero MapTa. CK6nbKO neT aawMM AliTRM? 5: CbiHY A8CRTb neT, a AO'IepM a6ceMb. A: Bb ASBHo a MocKae? 5: C npownolii niiTHM~bl.

A: BaHR, B K8KOM fOAY Tbl CTan Y'IMTeneM? 5: a wecTbAeciiT TpeTbeM. A: CK6nbKO Te6e 6blno neT TorA&? 5: .QBSALI&Tb TpM.

A: CKIUKiiiTe, nolK&nyliicTa, KorAl! pa66TaeT 3TOT Mara31iiH? 5: C AeBRTiil YTPB AD AeCRTiil all'lepa.

A: Celii'lac nRTHSALI&Tb MMHYT niiToro.



5: KaK?I Ha Moilx 'facllx" eLqe HeT 'f8Tblpex. ''f&Cbl watch

TypMCT: CK&>KMTe, no>KanyMCT8, KOrA{I pa66T88T PjCCKMM My3eM? Eaa: Eaa: Kii>KAbiM A8Hb, Kp6Me aT6pHMKa, c A8BRTM AO wecTil. no>KilnyMCTa. TypilcT: Cnacil6o.

A: CKa>KiiTe, no>KilnyicTa, KorA{I OTKPbiBlleTCR 3TOT Mara3MH? 5: B OAMHH8ALI8Tb 'f8COB.

A: A KorA{I nepepl01a Ha o68A?


c ABYX AO Tpex.

A: KorA{I a rYMe nepepl01a Ha o68A? 5: rYM pa66TaeT 6e3 nepepl01aa.

A: KorA8 a racTpoH6Max BbiXOAH6i A8Hb? 5: racTpoH6Mbl pa66TaiOT 6e3 BbiXOAHbiX AHeM.

17.14 Vocabulary
(See also Days 17.2, Months 17.10, Ordinal Numerals 17.5)
6onbWMHCTB6 majority 6YAYLqMM future (adj) 610p6 (n indecl) office ao apeMR (+gen.) during (23.3 (h)) BbiXOAHOM A8Hb day off racTpOH6M food shop ryniiTb' (no-0 ) ryni110, rynt1ewb 38Kp6ewb to close 38M8'fST8nbHbiM remarkable 38py68>KHbiM foreign 38TeM then, next(= noT6M) KT6 KT6 some ... some MOCKBM'f gen. MOCKBM'fil (stress)

MOCKOBCKMM Moscow (adj) HeKOTOpbiM some, certain (adj) nllMRTb (f) memory nepepbiB break

to take a walk AliTCTBO childhood 38KpbiBllTb(CR)' (like 3H8Tb) 38Kpb1Tb(CR) 0 38Kp010,



neTep6yprcKMiii Petersburg (adj) nMcaTenb (m) writer n6e3A (pl.) noe3A8 train nonoaMH& half np83AHMK [praz-neek] national
holiday; festival

cMepTb (f) death cH6aa again C03A8aSTb' C03ASIO, C03A8iWb (C03#\&TbP like A8Tb 12.7) to

npMp6AS nature (scenery) npoaOAMTb' (npoaecTMP) apeMR npoaoJKy, npoa6AMWb to

spend ('conduct') time

c(6)H sleep; dream nepeA CHOM before bed

('before sleeping')

nporjnKa nporjnoK walk npOAOa6nbCTa8HHbiM food (adj),


cpeAM (+gen.) among cTeneHb (f) degree, extent AO T&K6iii cTeneHM to such a

np6MTOa8pHbiM M8f83MH nonfood goods shop (np6M is from npoMiilwneHHbiM 'industrial' and Toaap means 'goods' or

c10A8 here, hither (motion equivalent of 3A8Cb) TMWMHil silence, quiet Ypan the Urals Ha Ypilne in the Urals 'I&Cbl (pl. of 'lac) watch; clock

poaHo precisely; evenly poJKAeHMe birth AeHb poJKAeHMR birthday


3KCKypcMR excursion

17.15 Texts Moscow Working Hours M3pM: KorA8 MOCKaM'IM o68ASIOT AHiM? Bon6AR: KT6 a Aa8HSA48Tb '4&c6a, KT6 a 'l&c, KTO a Aaa, KT6 M* a TpM. HeKoTopbe Mara3MHbl 38KPbaaiOTcR c Tpix 'lacoa AO 'teTblpix, MHorA& A8JKe c 'teTblpix AO nRTM. MH6rMe M8f83MHbl pa66T&IOT 6e3 nepepli1aa. M3pM: A KorA& OHM OTKpblaSIOTCR jYpoM? Bon6Af1: npOAOa6nbCTa8HHbl8 M8f83MHbl C aOCbMM, 8 np6MToailpHble c AecRTM. M3pM: KorA& OHM 38Kpbla810TCR? Bon6Afl: n63AHO [p6-zna]. SonbWMHCTa6 pa66T88T AO aOCbMM,



H6KOTOpble AO A8CRnt. H6 fnop6 38Kpb1Bll10TCR pilHbwe, 6Kono nRTM. M3pM: A B cy666TY M BOCKpeCeHbe? Bon6AR: racTpoH6Mbl pa66T&IOT Kli>K,qbiM AeHb. 610p6 a 3TM AHM He pa60T810T. *M even (particle' -see Lesson 30). In the Hotel Service Bureau rocTb: AeaywKa: r6cTb: AeaywKa: r6cTb: AeaywKa: r6cTb: KorA& OTXOAMT* n6e3A B Bop6He>K? B OAMHH&A48Tb 'facoa ae'fepa. A KOrAS R CMOrY nonY'fMTb 6MneT? 3llBTpa jTpoM. Xopow6. Sl npMAY B BOC8Mb 'f8COB. 3To paHo. 610p6 oTKpbl&aeTcR a A6BRTb. H6 38aTpa R He cMorj npMMTM a A6BRTb. Hawa 3KCKypcMR no ropOAY H8'fHeTCR B a6ceMb TPMA48Tb. AeaywKa: TorAfl Mbl 6yAeM >KABTb sac nocne 3KCKypcMM. Mbl pa66T88M AO BOCbMM 'f8COB Be'fepa. *oTXOAMTb to depart (of a train).


1 How old is she? 2 I am thirty-six. 3 In 1988 he was forty. 4 I'll come on Tuesday at a quarter to three in the afternoon. 5 Please phone me on the tenth after six. 6 We'll be in Siberia from the ninth of May to the sixteenth of June. 7 I have lived(= am living) in London since 1973.


1 Read in Russian (or write out in full) the three dates in the first paragraph: 'in 1840', 'from 1885', 'in May 1892'. 2 Write out Chaikovskii's twelve-part daily timetable in Klin. 3 Which two dates are mentioned in the last paragraph?



4 Why are these two dates significant?

nihp lllnbM'I "'ai4KOBCKIIIM POA.tncH Ha Ypane a 1840 rOAY My3biKY 6H Ha'lan cO'IIIIHRTb* ye a A6TcTae. My3biKllnbHoe o6pa3oa8HMe' 6H nony'IMn B neTep6yprCKOM KOHCepaaT6pllllll*. C 1885 r6AS "'aMKOBCKIIIM :IKIIIn B OKpeCTHOCTHX* r6pOA8 KnMHa, H9A&neK6 OT MocKBbl. A a AOMe, rAe Tenepb AOM-My3el4 "'ai4K6acKoro, nihp lllnbM'I nocen.tncH* B Mae 1892 r6AS. 3AeCb 6bln0 BCi, K 'leMy "'aMKOBCKMM AaBHO CTpeMMnCH*: 38M9'1STenbHaH nplllpOAS, TIIIWIIIHa, B03MO:IKHOCTb nMCaTb MY3b1Ky. 6H BCTaaan B BOCbMOM* 'lacy yTpa, AO A9BHTM 3aHMM8ncH aHrnMMCKIIIM H3biK6M 111 'IMTan. B nonoa.tHe A9CRTOro npiiiCyYnan' K pa66Te. Pa66T8n neTp lllnbM'I AO 'lacy' AHH. "'ac o6eA&n, a 3aTeM poaHo ABa 'laca rynRn. rynRn o6H38TenbHO OAMH*, TaK KaK ao apeMH nporjnoK no'ITM acerA& CO'IIIIHRn MY3b1Ky. C nATM AO ceMM neTp lllnbM'I CHOBa pa66Tan. nocne pa66Tbl rynRn Mnlll lllrpan Ha c~opTenbRHO*. B BOC9Mb '18COB nOASB8ncH' Y:IKIIIH. nocne y:IKMHa "'ai4K6BCKIIIM npoBOAMn apeMH c rocTRMIII, a ecn111 rocTeM He 6blno, 'IMTan. B OAMHHaA48Tb win a cao.O' KOMHayY, n111can n.tcbMa 111 nepeA CHOM CHOBa 'IIIITSn. B 3TOM AOMe "'aMKOBCKIIIM C03AaBan CBOM nocnl!AHMe npoM3BeAiiHMH', cpeAM HIIIX reHMSnbHYIO' WecTj10 CIIIMciOHIIIIO*. Tenepb Kn111H - ropOA "'aMKOBCKOro. A6M n.lll. "'aMKOBCKoro B KnMHY cTan My3l!eM. Aaa p838 a r6A, ceAbM6ro MSH, a A9Hb po:IKAeHMH neTpa lllnbM'Ia, 111 wecToro HoH6pR, a AeHb er6 cMepTM, CIOAS npiii93:1KSIOT OTe'19CTB9HHble* Ill IIIHOCTpSHHble MY3biKaHTbl. 111 3Aecb cHoaa 3BY'!MT* '~YAilcHaH MY3b1Ka neTpalllnbM'Ia "'aMKOBCKOro. TOrAS MHOrllle cnywaTenlll BCnOMIIIHSIOT cnoa{l aenMKOro pyccKoro niiiCSTenH AHTOHa naanOBIII'Ia "'exoaa: ccSI roT6B' AeHb 111 HO'Ib CTORTb a no'liTHOM' Kapayne y Kpb1nb48 1 Toro A6Ma, rAe :IKIIIBeT nihp lllnbM'I. 'Extra Vocabulary a BOCbMOM 'lacy between 7 and 8 ('in the eighth hour'- see 17.4) reHIIISnbHbiM brilliant roT6B (m) roT6aa (f) roT6Bbl (pl.) ready (short adj- 29.7) 3BY'IBTb' 3BY'!MT to sound KOHcepaaT6pMH conseNatoire Kpblnb40 porch; front steps MY3biKSnbHbiM musical o6pa30BSHMe education OAMHIOAH8JOAH6IOAHM alone oKpl!cTHOCTIII (pl.) environs



OT6of8CTB8HHbiM home ('of the fatherland', from m'f8CTBO 'fatherland', 'Russian') noA&BBTbCR' to be served nocenMTbCRP to take up residence nO'firHbli Kapayn guard of honour npttc-rynilTb' K (+ dat.) to get down (to), start (on) npott3B8A8Htte a work (of art) a cao.O K6MH&TY to his own room CMMciJc)HMR symphony

CO'fMHRTb' (CO'fMHiirrb") to compose CTpeMMTI:tCR' K ( + dat.) to strive for, aspire to c~opTenbiiHo piano (modern equivalents are poRnb (m) ('grand piano') and nttaHMHO (indecl) ('upright')) 'f&C hour; one o'clock (17.3) AO 'facy until one o'clock (lfilcy is a variant of the genitive 'fica)



18.1 Phrases with Comparatives

3-ro 6yAeT ny"'we. KaKoe BMH6 Aeweane? TOT ciiMnbM MHTepecHee. &biCTpee! no6biCTp8el roaopliiTe M8A"eHHee! A&liiTe KOelle noKpen"'e.
That will be better. Which wine is cheaper? That film is more interesting. Faster! A bit faster! Speak more slowly! Give me stronger coffee.

18.2 Comparative of Adjectives and Adverbs: Examples to Learn

better cheaper easier larger less longer more more beautiful more difficult more expensive more interesting

nj"'we Aeweane nel"te 66nbwe M8HbW8 A"MHH88 66nbwe Kpaclilaee TPYAHH AOP6:1Ke MHTepecHee

from from from from from from from from from from from

xop6wMiii good AeweBbllii cheap nirKMiii easy 6onbw61ii large ManeHbKMiii small A"MHHbiM long 6onbw61ii large KpacliiBbllii beautiful TPYAHbllii difficult AOpor61ii expensive MHTepeCHbllii interesting



more often nicer quicker shorter simpler slower smaller stronger worse

'f8114e nploUlTHee 6biCTpee Kop6'fe npoaqe MeAJ1eHHee MeHbWe Kpen'fe xy>Ke

from from from from from from from from from

'facTo often npMRTHblli pleasant, nice 6biCTpbnii quick KOpOTKMiil short npocT6iii simple MeAneHHbliii slow ManeHbKIIIiii small KpenKMiii strong nnox6iii bad

Use these as adverbs ('Write faster') or as predicative1 adjectives, i.e. with no following noun, in sentences such as 'This hotel was/will be better'


rocntHM4& ny'fwe. In informal Russian, no- 'a little' is often added to the comparative: no6biCTpee 'a bit faster', noM6Hbwe 'a little less'
'Than' is 'feM:

Bawa KOMH&Ta ny'fwe, 'feM Haws. neTep6ypr Kp8CMBee, 'feM MocKaa. B neTep6ypre MHTepecHee, 'feM B MOCKBe. Bbl roaopMTe 6biCTpee, 'feM R. Sl 3HBIO Eay ny'fwe, 'feM Bepa

Your room is better than ours. Petersburg is more beautiful than Moscow. It's more interesting in Petersburg than in Moscow. You speak faster than me/than I do. I know Eva better than Vera does. I know Eva better than I know Vera.

Sl 3HatO Eay nj'fwe, 'feM Bepy


But in colloquial Russian, instead of 'f9M genitive (with no 'feM) is preferred:

+ the nominative case, the

Bawa KOMHaTS nj'fwe Hawu (gen.). neTep6ypr Kp&CMBee MOCKB.Ii!!


Your room is better than ours. Petersburg is more beautiful than Moscow. You speak faster than me/than I do.

Bbl roaopm 6biCTplle MeHR


SI3HatO Eay ny'fwe Bep)!! (gen.). I know Eva better than Vera does.




18.3 Formation and Use of Comparatives

If the last consonant of the adjective or adverb is H, n, p or a labial (lip consonant - n, 6, M, a) simply add the indeclinable ending -ee. If the adjective has only two syllables, the stress is generally on the -ee.

beautiful clever

Kpaclllaee yMHee

more beautiful(ly) cleverer/more cleverly

Note the stress of:

aecenbllil xon6AHbiM

cheerful cold

aecenee xonoAHee

more cheerful(ly) colder/more coldly

If the adjective or adverb has some other ending, such as KMM or TbiM, the stem changes and the ending is a single indeclinable -e. See the list in 18.2. Stress is always on the stem.

near rich tall deep far young low quiet wide

6nllle 6ora'fe BbiW8 rny6e A{tnbwe Mon6e HMlKe TMW8 wlllpe

Two common adjectives have totally unpredictable comparatives, as in English:

xop6WMM nnox6171

good bad

better worse

Since it is sometimes difficult to work out, or guess, the -e comparative of an adjective, it is reassuring to know that there is a simple alternative: just place the word 66nee 'more' (not 66nbwe in this construction) in front of the adjective, which then has its normal case, gender and number endings. So 66nee Aewe&biM (m), 66nee AeweaaH (f) or 66nee Aeweaoe (n) is another way of saying Aeweane 'cheaper'.
31-a KHIIIra 66nee A&weaaH. This book is cheaper.



However, Russians much prefer to use the indeclinable form: 3Ta KHIIira

But note that if you put a comparative before a noun ('a cheaper book'), you must use the 60nee construction:
Sl Kynmo 66nee Aeweay10 (not Aeweane) KHIIiry. I'll buy a cheaper book. 0Ha 6bJna a 66nee AnMHHOM nnaTb8. She was wearing ('in') a longer

dress. With the 66nee comparative, 'than' is always oteM, never the genitive:
Bepa 66nee MHTepecHaH JKeHiqMHa, oteM Eaa.

Vera is a more interesting woman than Eva. Russians tend to avoid using the 66nee construction, except with long adjectives (four syllables or more, e.g. YAMBMTenbHbiM 'surprising', ecTlK:TB&HHbiM 'natural' 3To 66nee ecT6CTB8HHO 'That's more natural'). So in equivalents of sentences such as 'I want a lighter room', Russians normally say 'I want a room (which is) lighter'.
Sl xooty KOMH&TY nocaeTnee' (though you can also say Sl xooty 66nee caemy10 KOMH&yY).

'Much' with comparatives is H8MH6ro (formal usage) or rop83Ao (colloquial):


H&MH6ro/rop83Ao Aeweane BMHll. Tea is much cheaper than wine.


I KaK6e BMH6 nyotwe? 2 3TM anenbCIIiHbl AOP6JKe. 3 npMXOAIIiTe K H&M
noota~qe. 4 no6biCTpee, noanyi4cTa, ye nonoalliHa aocbMoro. 5 Eaa

Mon6JKe Bepbl. 5 B MocKae nor6A& 6bJn8 nyotwe, oteM a neTep6ypre. 7 pYCCKMM H3biK H8MH6ro TPYAHH <P8HI.IY3CKOrO. 8 ccBOMHS M MMp 66nee AnMHHbiM pOMBH, '48M ccAHH8 Kap8HMH8. 9 Bepa 6b!.!"'a B 60nee

I In this construction, no- ('a little') is always added to the comparative.



AOpor6M nn8Tb8, <teM Eaa. 10 M3pM rop83Ao MHTep8cHee EBbl. 11 M3pM MHTepecyeTCR A38P:IIU1HCKMM MeHbWe BonOAM 12 no:IKanyMCT8, ABiire MHe pa66ry noner'te.

Translate the words in brackets: 1 B fl6HAOHe :IKM3Hb (is better). 2 B&AMM roaopliiT (more slowly than you). 3 B6AK8 CTOMT (much more expensive) B pecropaHe, (than in the shop). 4 Bepa 3Haer (more than Eva). 5 AocroeacKMM M'-texoa (are more interesting) nMcarenM, (than Tolstoi). 6 s:l noKynaiO BMH6 (more often), <teM (vodka).

18.4 Special Comparatives

When used before a noun, four common adjectives have declinable comparative forms which must be used instead of the 66nee construction above. They have the same endings as xop6wMii.

xop6WMM nnox6ii 60nbw6ii ManeHbKMM

good bad big small


better worse bigger (note stress) smaller

Eaa :IKMBeT a ny<twm! KBaprlilpe, <teM Bepa. Eva lives in a better flat than Vera (not a 66nee xop6weii). Eaa :IKMBeT a 66nbWD Kaaprlilpe. Eva lives in a bigger flat (not a 66nee 6onbw6ii).

Note 1: If there is no <teM 'than', ny<twMii also means 'best', XYAWMM means 'worst', MeHbWMM means 'least' (see 18.7):
Vadim is my best friend.

Note 2: Two more common adjectives sometimes behave like the four above: MOnoA6ii 'young' has the comparative Mn8AwMM in the meaning 'junior', and crapbiM 'old' has crapwMii in the meaning 'senior'. They are
also used for 'younger' and 'elder' in family relationships.



3To MOH MnSAW8R CecTpB. 66nee CT6pbliii AOM but CTSpWMM OCiM~p

This is my younger sister. an older house a senior officer

Note 3: If there is no following noun, the comparatives nj'twttiii, xjAWMiii,

66n~owe, M6H~owe

MeHbWMiii must be replaced by the indeclinables njolwe, xj)Ke, (the forms in 18.2):

3To K6MH8Ta njolwe (not njolwaR). This room is better.

(3Ta KOMH&T8 njolwaR (= 3To nj'4W&R KOMH&Ta) means 'This room is the
best/This is the best room' - Note 1)

18.5 Less
M6Hee 'less' (an alternative form of M6Hbwe) is used like 66nee. HeM6a.pc:ttiii R3JOJK MeHee TPjAH~>Jiii, 148M pjccKttiii. German is less difficult than Russian.
More colloquially, you can use He T&K6iii ... K&K ('not such ... as') with adjectives and He T&K ... ic:aK ('not so ... as') with adverbs:


French is not as difficult as Russian. not as often as before

18.6 Superlatives
If you want to say 'the cheapest wine', 'the most interesting girl', simply place c8MbJM ('the very') in front of the adjective. CIIMbJM is itself an adjective (same endings as HO&bli), so it has the same gender, number and
case as the adjective which comes after it:

A&Wiaoe BMH6 c8Moe A&Wiaoe attH6 Sl roaopliln C MHT8p6CHOM AiiBYWKOM. Sl roaopliln c c8Moi MHT&p6cHoiii A6aywKoi.

cheap wine the cheapest wine I talked to an interesting girl. I talked to the most interesting girl.



18.7 Superlative Adjectives (see 18.4 Note 2 above)

Although 'best' can be cllMbiM xopowMil (as in 18.6), 'worst' can be

cllMbiM nnox6it and 'smallest'/'least' can be cllMbiM Miln&HbKMM, it is

common to use nj'lwMIJi and (less commonly) xYAWMM and M8HbWMM (18.4) as superlatives, with or without CBMbiM:
B&AMM - MOM (CilMbiM) nyotWMM APYr. B XYAW&M cnj'lae

Vadim is my (very) best friend. in the worst case

In bookish style, these three superlatives can have the prefix HBM ('most'), instead of the word cllMbiM:
HaMnj'lwMil the very best H&MMiiHbWMM the least H&MnyotwMe rOAbl the best years c H&MMiiHbWMM TPYAOM with the least effort

HaM66nbWMM 'biggest' also exists as the superlative of 6onbw6it.



l Mbl KjnMM cllMble AOporlile 6Mn8Tbl. 2 Mbl >KMBeM B nj'lweit rOCTMHMl48. 3 5ai1Klln - caMoe 6onbw6e 638po B Mlilpe. 4 He bought (0 )
the cheapest vodka. 5 This is the easiest exercise.

18.8 EXTRA: Another Type of Superlative: aenwo~aliiwMiii

This type of adjective has the ending -eilwMil or, for certain adjectives (see below), -ailwMil. It is rarer than the cllMbiM type of superlative and differs from it in meaning by being more emotive. It can indicate a high degree of the quality expressed by the adjective ('a very great writer') without necessarily implying that no other case is greater ('the greatest writer'):
nywKMH- cllMbiM aenliiKMM pyccKMiii no3r. Pushkin is the greatest

Russian poet.



nywKMH - &enM'IltiiiwMiii pYccKMM no3T. Push kin is a very great Russian poet.

'IMCTbiM clean/pure MHTep6cHbliii interesting 'IMCT6iiiwMiii purest/very pure MHTep6cHeiiiwMiii most interesting

Adjectives whose stem ends K, r, x change the K, r, x to tively and add the ending -iliiiwMiii:
aenMKMiii great WMPOKMiii wide TMXMiii quiet AOporoiii dear

:JK, w respec-

aenM'IlliiiwMiii greatest WMpo'lilMWMM widest TMWilMWMM quietest APB:JKltiiiwMiii dearest (from AP&roiii, a rarer form of AOporoiii)

Three 3KMiii adjectives have exceptional forms: 6nM3KMiii 'near'

6nM:JKltiiiwMiii 'nearest'; HM3KMM 'low' HM:JKltiiiwMiii 'lowest'; Mep3KMiii 'foul', 'disgusting' MepaeiiiwMiii 'foulest'. It is unnecessary to learn this method of forming superlatives. But note these phrases: HeT HM Maneiiiwero COMH6HMR. There isn't the slightest doubt (from MltnbiM 'small'). 'IMCT6iiiwMiii B3AOP utter rubbish ('purest rubbish') APB:JKltiiiwaR nonoaMIHa better half (wife or husband, literally 'dearest half') c aenM'IltiiiwMM YAOB6nbCT&MeM with the greatest of pleasure a KpaT'IaiiiwMiii cp6K in the shortest possible time (from KpiiTKMiii 'short') rAe 6nM:JKaiiiwaR oCTaH6BK& aaT66yca? Where's the nearest bus-stop? HM:JKaiiiwMiii noKn6H kindest greetings ('lowest bow') Mepaeiiiwee H&CTpo6HMe foulest mood

18.9 Relative Clauses' with KOT6pblii ('Who'/'Whlch')

If you want to say 'That's the girl whom /the film which I saw yesterday', the Russian word you need is KoT6pbiM. This is an adjective with the same endings as HOBbiM.




rAe 6yTblnKM, KOT6pble croflnM 3Aecb? B6T A8aywKa, KoT6paR 6blna a pecTopilHe.

Where are the bottles which were standing here? There's the girl who was in the restaurant.

It is curious that English makes a distinction here between animate (the girl who ... ) and inanimate (the glass which . .. ) while Russian doesn't.
KoT6pbiM agrees in number and gender with the noun to which it
relates: AeaywKa, KOT6paa (f sg.) 6bln8 ... The girl who was ... ;

AeaywKM, KOT6pble (pl.) 6blnM ... The girls who were ... KoT6pbiM also has case endings, but these depend not on the preceding
noun but on the role of KOT6pb1M in its own clause'. So in the sentence 'This is the girl who(m) you saw yesterday' B6T A8BywKa (nom.),

KOT6py10 (ace.) Bbl BMAenM B'lepa the relative KOT6py10 has an

accusative ending because it is the object of BMAenM. If in English you say

'whom you saw', then you are obeying the same grammatical rule, since
'whom' is the accusative of 'who'.

86T OcllMI.lMBHT (m sg. nom.), KOT6poro (m sg., ace.) Bbl MCKBnM. There's the waiter (whom) you were looking for. rAe OcllMI.lMBHT, c KOT6pbiM (m sg., inst.) R roaoplr1n? Where's the waiter I was talking to (with whom I was talking)? Bbl 3HaeTe AliByweK (pl., ace.), c KOT6pbiMM (pl., inst.) R n03H8K6MMnCR B 6ape?
Do you know the girls I met in the bar (with whom I became acquainted)?

Put the required ending on KOT6pbiM:

>KeHU4MH&, KOT6p __ CMAMT a yrny, aMepMKBHKa. The woman who is sitting in the corner is American. 2 >KeHU4MH8, C KOT6p __ Bbl ro&OpMnM, T6lKe 8M8pMKSHK8. The woman you were talking to is also American. 3 nolK8nyMCT8, nOK8lKMT8 KHMrM, KOT6p __ Bbl Kynlr1nM. Please show me the books which you bought. 4 Mbl lKMBiM B rOCTMHMI.le, KOT6p __ nocTp6MnM cllMHHbl.



We are staying in a hotel which was built by (which built) the Finns.

5 Mbl lKMaiM a H6Mepe (m), a KOT6p __ H8T Tenea.taopa.

We have a room without a television (in which there is no television).

6 3-ro nMcaTenb, KOT6p __ R 6'18Hb mo6mo.

He's a writer I like very much. In English 'which'/'who'/'whom' can be omitted 'There's the waiter (who) you were looking for', but in standard Russian KOT6pbliii must always be present in such sentences.

18.10 Use KT6/o.tT6, not KOT6pbtlii, after the pronouns TOT 'that', aecb 'all'
After the pronouns T6T 'that' (pl. Te 'those'), ace 'everybody' and ace 'everything', KOT6pbliii is usually replaced by KT6 (for animates) or 'IT6 (for inanimates). The verb in the KT6/'IT6 clause' is singular if KT6 or 'IT6 is the subject, since KT6 is grammatically a masculine singular word and 'IT6 is grammatically neuter singular. However, some Russians make the verb plural after KT6 if the verb in the main clause is plural.

Te, KT6 (not KOT6pb18) 6bJn (possible: 6bJnM) Ha ae'lepe, aepHynMCb a TPM 'laca H6'1M. Those who were at the party came back at three in the morning. Bee, o 'liM (not o KOT6poM) 6H, Mbl YlKll aHilnM. Everything which he talked about we already knew. T6T, o K6M abl cnpawMaanM, yexan a'lepa. The one you asked about left yesterday. Cnac.t6o 38 ace, 'IT6 abl CAllnanM AJlSI Hac. Thank you for everything (which) you've done for us.

18.11 Vocabulary (See also comparative lists 18.2, 18.3) AaMR Asia aMepMKilHKa aMepMKSHOK American (woman) aHeKA6T joke, anecdote ax oh SaiiiKiln Lake Baikal 6ap bar 68per prep. Ha 6eperj pl. 6eperil bank, shore 66nee more




66nbWMiii (18.4) bigger BOAMTb' ao>Kj, B6AMWb (20.2) to

take, lead (there and back)

BOCT6K east Ha aocT6Ke in the east BOCT6'tHbiM eastern BbiC6KMM tall BbiWe taller rny66KMiii deep ropa ace. r6py, pl. r6p1>1 hill; mountain rpaHM48 border AOCTBBiiTb' AOCT8JO, AOCT8SWb (AoCTllTbP AOCTitHy, AOCTitH8Wb)
to get hold of, obtain; to reach

HanpMMep for example H&'tilno beginning orp6MHbiM enormous 63epo pl. o38pa lake 6cTpoa pl. ocTpoaa island OTAenbHbllii separate no6nMJKe a bit closer (18.3) no38a'tepa the day before

n6MHMTb' n6MHIO, n6MHMWb tO


npMrnacMTbp npMrnawy, npMrnacr.twb (npMrnawllTb' like 3H8Tb) ( + ace.) to invite (someone)

APliBHMiii ancient 38HMMSTb' 38HMMSIO, 38HMMS8Wb, (38HflTbP 38MMy, 38MM8Wb) + ace. to occupy (something) 38nBA (Ha 3llJ18A8) west (in the west) 38nilc stock, reserve 3Bepb (m) gen. pl. 3aepelii (wild)

nTM48 bird peAKMiii rare ciiMbiM very, most (18.6) ceaep (Ha ceaepe) north (in the

ceaepHbllii northern cneLIM&nMcT (no + dat.) specialist


36nOTO gold KMTlllii China KOH(e)LI end KOT6pb1M who/which (18.9) neKL!Mfl lecture ny'twe (18.3) [lo'o-tshe] better nY...wMiii (18.4, 18.7) [lo'o-tshi]
better, best

MoHr6nMR Mongolia
M}')K'IMHB (m)

TeppMT6pMR territory XYA61ii thin; bad 't&CTb (f) gen. pl. 't&CTelii part 'tenoaeK pl. niOAM (16.10) person MonoA61ii 'tenoaeK young man 'teM than 'tMCTbllii pure, clean IOJKHbllii southern

[moo-.I!:!II::J.e'e-na] man

18.12 TeKcT Vlktor Wants to Meet Mary

Bbl n6MHMTe BMKTopa? 3-ro T6T MOnOA6M 't8nOBeK, C KOT6pb1M Bbl rOBOpMnM



Bon6AJ1: M3pM: Bon6AR:

M3pM: Bon6AR: M3pM:


a'lepa a 6ape? HeT. 3To T6T, KT6 AOCTBn H&M* 6MneTbl B T8BTp H8 TaraHKe*. 3To He T6T xyA6iil MVlK'IMHa, c KOT6pbiM Mbl pa3roaapMaanM y Bepbl? LfT6 Bbll* 3To APYr6iil BttKTop. Sl roaop.O o T6M BttKTope, c KOT6pbiM Bbl XOTenM n03H8KOMMTbCR no6nt1JKe. BbiCOKMM T8K6iil*, BbiW8 M8HR, C npMRTHbiM r6nOCOM. Ax Aft, n6MHIO. KoT6pbiM nY-twe acex paccKB3biB&eT 8H8KA6Tbl. TOT CBMbiM*. TaK aor, 6H n6MHMT sac .. x6'1eT npMrnaCMTb H8 neK4MIO, KOTOPYIO 6H 'IMTB8T 8 cpiiAY Ha KaKyiO TeMy? HftAeiOCb, er6 neK~.tMR 6yA8T MHTepilcHee, '18M neK~.tMR 0 '18KMCT8X, H8 KOT6py10 Bbl M8HR BOAMnM no38B'Iepa. He 6ecnoK6iiiTeCb. BttKTOP- Haw nY-twMiil cne~.tMant1cT no pyccKOMY TeaTpy.

*AocTan HaM 6MneTbl got us ('to us') tickets *TeaTp Ha TaraHKe the Taganka Theatre (on Taganka Square in Moscow) *LfT6 Bbll Come now! (mild reproach) *BbiCOKMM T&K6iil a tall fellow (TaK6iil 'such' used colloquially for emphasis) *T6T CBMbiM that's the one ('that very') *TaK a6T well then


Siberian Superlatives and Comparatives:

l What are the boundaries of Siberia?
2 A geographical feature of Siberia is number one in the world for three things. Find the details. 3 Something else in Siberia is described as number one in the world. What is it? 4 What does A&nbHMiil BOCT6K ('Far East') mean to a Russian geographer?

CM6ttpb 38HMMB8T 66nbWYIO '18CTb CeaepHOM A3MM OT y.panbCMX* rop H8 38nftAe AD Tt1xoro* OK8BH8 H8 BOCTOK8 MOT 6eper6a


CeaepHoro' n8AOBMTOro OKeitHa H8 ceaepe AO lbJKHbiX CTenelii' M rp&H11u.lbl c MoHronMelii " KMTlleM. CM6ilpcKMe peKM 66b, EHMceti " neHa ax6Af1T a Aect!iTKy* caMblx 6onbwilx peK Milpa. Kp6Me peK, a CM6ilpM ecTb KpacilaetiwMe1 MllneHbKMe M6onbwile o3ipa c 'tMCTetiwelii 1 BOA6ii, OAH6 M3 KOTOpblX, 6aliiKan - CSMoe AP8BHee, caMoe rny66Koe, caMoe 6onbw6e a MMpe npecHoB6AHoe' 6aepo. B CM6ilpM H&X6AMTCR 66nbwe nonoaiiHbl npMpOAHbiX pecypcoa* PocciiM: yronb1, HectJTb*, ra31, aonoTo, anM83bl', peAKMe MeTllnnbl1 A no aanacaM rMAP03HeprMM* oHa 38HMMlleT nepaoe MeCTo a Milpe. CM6ilpb - :ho cliMble pa3Hble aaepM, nTMI.Ibl, 1.18HHetiwMe* ptil6bl HanpMMep, ocihp', noc6cb'. reorpactJbl* 'ta~e1 acer6'* A8nRr CM6Mpb H8 38n&AHYIO CM6Mpb, BoCTO'tHyiO CM6Mpb MA&nbHMM 1 BoCT6K, KOT6pbiM OHM C'tMTliiOT OTAenbHbiM perM6HoM1 AflnbHMM BocT6K- :ho orp6MH&R TeppMTOpMR, KOTOp&R BKniO'taeT K&M'tliTKy, SIKjTMIO MOCTpOB CaxanMH. CliMbiMM aaJKHbiMM ropoAliMM RBmliOTCR' Xa6apoBCK M Bn&AMBOCT6K. *Extra Vocabulary for Siberian Text anM83 diamond BKniO'tliTb' to include raa gas re6rpa4J geographer rMApo3HeprMR hydroelectric power AllnbHMM far Aeni4Tb' to divide A8CATKa a group of ten Kpacl4aeliiwMlii very beautiful (18.8) noc6cb (m) salmon MeTllnn metal HectJTb (f) oil, petroleum oceTp sturgeon (source of caviare) npeCHOBOAHbiM freshwater npMp6AHbiM natural (npMpOAB

pecypcbl (m pl.) resources CeaepHbiM neAOBMTbiM OK88H

the Arctic Ocean

CTenb (f) steppe (flat. dry


TMXMM oKeliH Pacific Ocean (TMXMM 'quiet') yr(o)nb (m) coal ypanbCKMM Ural (adj) 1.18HHeliiwMti highly valuable (18.8) (1.18HHblM 'valuable') 'ta~e acer6 most often ( = 'more
often than all' -comparative of

perM6H region

'tSCTO 'often' + gen. of ace 'all') 'tMCTetiwelii very pure (18.8) ('tMCTbiM 'pure') RBniiiOrCSI (+ inst.) are - see 16.5 (4)



CpeAHecMIIMpcKoe nnocKor6pt.e (Central Siberian Plateau)



0 0




Clll61i!Pb (SIBERIA)









19.1 Key Phrases

EcnM 6bl R 3Han, R ywen 6bl. Sl 6bl xoT{tn(a) aac npMrnacMTb. Sl ,q6n>KeH/,qon>KHa M3BMHMTbCH. Mbl ,qon>KHbl 6btnM OTKa38TbCH. Opoxo,qr.tTe. Bx6,q/Bblxo,q/nepex6,q/yx6,q

If I'd known, I would have left. I would like to invite you. I must apologize. We had to refuse. Go through. Entrance/exit/crossing/departure

19.2 Conditional Mood

EcnM !z!. H >KMll(B) a Poccr.tM, H !z!. no-pyccKM.

If I lived in Russia, I would speak Russian. The equivalent of 'would' in Russian is a particle' 6bl, which suggests a hypothesis or something contrary to fact or something which you would like to happen. Eibl has no meaning of its own and is never used without other words; it cannot occur first in the sentence or clause. It adds a meaning of hypothesis, doubt or wish to the verb with which it is used. So 6H 6bln means 'he was' while 6H 6bln 6bl means 'he would be' or 'he would have been'. In Russian equivalents of such conditional sentences as 'If I knew Russian, I would go alone', thereare three points to note:





(a) there is a 6bt in each clause; (b) the verbs are always past tense; (c) it is nonnal to put one 6bt after ecnM ('if') and one 6bt before or after the verb in the other clause. To convert the sentence 'If I am (=shall be) in Moscow, I'll telephone him' into 'If I had been in Moscow, I would have telephoned him', add two 6bts and make the verbs past tense: If I'm in Moscow, I'll phone him. EcnM R 6'YAY a MocKae, R eMy n03BOHtO. EcnM 6bt R 6btll a MocKae, R 6bt If I'd been in Moscow, I would have eMy no3BOHritn. phoned him. Since Russian has only one past tense, this sentence could also be translated 'If I was in Moscow, I would phone him.' The 6bt can also stand after the verb: R n03BOHMI1 6bt eMy. As in English, the conditional can be used for polite requests. 'I would like' is~ xon}n(a) 6bt ('I would want'):

xoTena 6bt noexaTb a Cy3A811b.

I would like to go to Suzdal'.


I EcnM 6bt oHa roaopritna MeAileHHee, R 6bt noHRnil. 2 EcnM 6bt Mbt 3HanM, 'fT6 Bbt 6yAeTe a MocKae, Mbt 6bt no3BOHritnM. 3 BSAritM HanMcan 6bt Eae nMcbM6, ecnM 6bt y Her6 6btno apeMR. 4 Bepa xoTena 6bt noroaopritTb c aaMM.



1 If he was in Moscow, he would phoneo us. 2 They would have cameo if you (pol) had invited 0 them. 3 If Eva knew that Vadim was (= is) drinking wine with us, she would get angry (paccepAMTbCR 0 ). 4 I would like to inviteo you (pol.).



19.3 EXTRA: On 6bl

Russian has a very restricted set of verb endings, so those of you who have struggled with subjunctives in Gennan or the Romance languages (Latin, French etc.) will be glad to know that the various contrary-to-presentreality meanings associated with the subjunctive do not involve the learning of any new endings in Russian. The 6bl + past tense construction which you learnt for the conditional above also serves in 'subjunctive'-type situations such as: I don't know anyone who could help. S1 He at1610 HMKor6, KTO M6r 6bl noMO'tb (i.e. as far as I know, there is no such person). I want you to clean up your room (i.e. at present it's a mess). S1 XO'tj, 'tTOObl Tbl y6p6n CBOIO KOMH8yY. (These 'tT66bl (='tTO + 6bl) structures are dealt with in 21.8.)

sometimes occurs without a past-tense verb: We need more people like that. We ought to ask.

no66nbW8 6bl T8KMX n10Aitliill H6Ao 6bl cnpocm.

19.4 Obligation: A6mKeH + infinitive

The closest equivalent of 'I must' is A AOnJKeH (man), A AOnJKH6 (woman). 'Ivan must go' is MB6H AOnJKeH MATM. 'Must' is a verb in English, but AOnJKeH is an adjective which literally means 'obliged'. It is a special kind of adjective (called a short fonn- see 29.7) which has only one case, the nominative, and four endings, A6nJKeH (m), AOnJKH6 (f), AOnJKH6 (n), and AOnJKHiil (pl.):

Ivan must go. Anna must/has to work. You must apologize.

A6nJKeH can also express probability or expectation ('should'): 0H6 AQnJKH6 CK6po aepHjTbcA. ~ neK6pcTBo AQnJKH6 nOMO'tb.

She should be back soon. This medicine should help. 232


Note the phrase AOn>KH6 6b1Tb 'probably', 'very likely' (lit. 'must be'):
OH, AOnJKH6 6b1Tb, )')ICe aepHyncR. He has probably already returned.

In the meaning 'have to', the construction HSAOIHY*HO +dative (Lesson 14.6) and the construction with the adjective A6neH are, with humans, nearly synonymous, though A6neH can carry the meaning of moral obligation (duty) as well as necessity. However, notice (a) that only A6neH has the probability meaning of 'must' ('If she hasn't arrived yet, the train must be late'), and (b) only A6neH is used with inanimate nouns: CaMonih A6neH BblneT&Tb 14epe3 AB& lfacil 'The plane should/is due to leave in two hours' (not CaMoniyY HSAO ...).

19.5 Past/Future of AOmKeH

Since A6neH is an adjective, the past and future are formed with 6b1Tb, but note that the forms of 6b1Tb are placed after A6neH: He had to sell the car. OH A6neH 6bln npoA&Tb M8WMHy. Mbl AOn)I(Hbi6YA8M M3BMHMTbCR. We shall have to apologize.
(A6n>KeH also means 'owing'. In this meaning, 6b1Tb is placed before A6neH: Bbl MHe AOn>KHbl nRTb py6nel4 'You owe me five roubles'; 0H86blna MHe AOn>KHa AB8 A6nnapa 'She owed me two dollars').


Put A6neH in the correct form: 1 0Ha (must) aepHjTbCR 38aTpa. 2 OH (had to) M3BMHMTbCR. 3 Mbl (will have to) cecTb Ha MeTp6.

19.6 Prefixes

Russian uses a lot of prefixes'. Prefixes (such as, in English, un-, re-, over-) are attached to the beginning of words to add an extra element of meaning



to the root'. For example, these prefixes can be added to the verb root 'do' to make 'undo', 'redo' and 'overdo'. You know that the prefix no- has the basic meaning 'a little' and is particularly common with comparatives (no66nbwe 'a little more') and as a way of making verbs perfective (noCMAeTb 'to sit for a while'). It is indeed the commonest prefix in Russian: if you come across a set of the seventeen-volume Soviet Academy of Sciences Dictionary of Russian in a library, you will see that one whole volume consists of words beginning with no-. But there are another twenty-five or so common prefixes with more or less easily learnt meanings, and they are weU worth memorizing as a way of increasing your vocabulary. You will notice that some of these prefixes, e.g. 6e3/6ec 'without' are similar or identical to prepositions you have met (6e3 +gen. 'without').

6eaanKor6nbHbiM 6e3niOAHbiM 6ecnOKOMTbCR

non-alcoholic uninhabited (mOAM 'people') to be uneasy (noK6i peace) to go in entrance (XOA going) to elevate ('uplead') to beat up B36MTb cnMBKM to whip cream to inflate ('upblow' - AYTb to blow) to rise to the surface ('upswim') rising ('upgoing')- aocx6A c6nH48 sunrise to go out exit to go as far as/to reach, to call in 3&X6A c6nH48 sunset ('going behind of the sun')


aXOAMTb'/aointP BXOA

&3-/ac-t/ 803/BOCt


acnnbiTbp BOCXOA Bbl-



up to/as far as
AOXOAMTb' ( 1) behind/calling in on the way



(2) starting:


to start ringing international (HBpOA nation) to come upon, to find to make a quantity of something uninteresting to let go (nycKBTb1 to let) leave/holiday (from a job) to cross


(2) a quantity of

HBA6n8Tb" (+ace. or gen)



OTnyCKBTb1/0TnyCTMTb" 6TnycK
( 1) across (trans-)

(2) again (re-)

nep8'tMTbiB8Tb'/ nepeotMTBTb" nepeCTp61iiKa

a little

to reread reconstruction/reorganization

(CTp61iiKa construction) no66nbwe noroaopMTb

(1) under chin (6op0Ai beard) nOA6opOA(O)K nQAnMCbiBBTb'lnQAnMcBTb" to sign ('under-write') noA6Mp8Tb'/noAo6p8Tb" to pick up ('take hold of underneath') (2) approaching a little more to talk a bit


to go up to, approach offer, suggestion (no- means 'put' or 'pose') preposition pre-war (aoliiHa war) to arrive

np&AnoJKeHMe np&Anor np&AaoeHHbllii

(1) arrival




(2) proximity

npMM6pCKMM npo( 1) through/past

coastal (Mope sea) to go through/to pass pro-American divorce ('apart-taking') conversation (several people talking) to undress ('dis-dress') scattered (c6ATb to sow) to go down companion (with-journey-person' from nyYb journey)

(2) pro-

npoaMepMKiiHCKMi paa-/ pac-* f:a.nt6A paaroa6p p83A8BSTbCA pacceAHHbiM c-leo( 1) off/down

dis-/breaking up/different directions

(2) with



to go away/to leave

*spelt 68i;/a~a~pa~ before the ten unvoiced consonants K, n, c, T,cj), x,

""' '1,

**oTo/nOAO before some groups of two consonants.

w, &q.

In Lesson 20, there is a special section on prefixes with verbs of motion.


Guess the meaning of the following. The words underlined are items from previous lessons combined with prefixes from the list in 19.6 above.
1 ~ A6HbrM. 2 nepeAiTb nMCbM6. 3 p&3111o6MTb NjJKB. 4 APY3Wi M HQpyrM. 5 OCMOTp6Tb r6pOA. 6 npMropojl MOCKBbl. 7 ~ C pa66Tbl. 8 nepecip6MTb A6M. 9 pxaTb AO aoK38na. 10 6UA6MH&A co68Ka. 11 npynocniAtndi AtHb. 12 npyar.1AQTb pe3ynbTaT.





19.7 EXTRA: Rarer Prefixes &HTM- 'anti-' &HTMBOeHHbtiil 'antiwar'; BHe 'outside' BHe6pll'iHbliil 'extramarital' (6paK 'marriage'); BHyrp.t 'inside', 'intra' BHyrpMaeHHbliil 'intravenous'; e>Ke 'each' e>KeAHliBHbiM 'everyday', 'daily'; M3-/Mc- 'out' MCnMCSTb" 'to use up (paper, pencil) by writing'; HSA- 'above' HSACTp6ii1Ka 'superstructure'; H8AO- 'not as far as'/' insufficient' H8AOCTp6eHHbliil 'unfinished' (of building); HM3-/HMC- 'down' HM3nO>KMTb0 'to depose'; o-/o6'about', 'round' o6AYM8Tb" 'to consider, think about'; OKono- 'around'; non(y)- 'half', 'semi-' nony6cTpoa 'peninsula' ('semi-island'); npa- 'pre-', 'proto-' npil,qeA 'great grandfather'; npe- 'extremely; npoTMBO 'counter-'; caepx- 'super-' caepx'ienoaeK 'superman'; Tp&HC- 'across', 'trans-' TpaHcCM614pcKMiil 'trans-Siberian'; 'ipea-/'iepea-/'iepec- 'across' 'ipeaMepHbtiil 'excessive' ('across measure'); 3KCTpa- 'extra-' 3KCTpaceHc 'psychic'.

19.8 Vocabulary 686ywKa 686yweK grandmother BOCnMTbiB8Tb' (like 3H8Tb) (+ace.) to bring up (someone) ace-T&KM all the same, nevertheless BCTpeTMTbC$1 (C + inst.) BCTpe'iyCb, BCTp4!TMWbCJI (BCTp8'iSTbCJI' like 3H8Tb) to meet (someone) ax6A (a+ ace.) entrance (to) A8KBH dean (university or institute) Aeno pl. Aenit matter AepeBHJI AepeaHb village; country (opposite of town) AOroaopMTbCJI 0 (c + inst.) (AoroaitpMB8TbCJ1' like 3H8Tb) to come to an agreement, make an arrangement (with someone) A6n>KeH (19.4) must, obliged AOn>KH6 6b1Tb probably ('must be') AOCTSTO'iHO (+gen.) enough (of something) AYM8Tb (no-) (like 3H&Tb) to think KaK Bbl AYM&eTe? What ('how') do you think? >KM3Hb (f) life 3a6aii1Kitnb8 region beyond (38) Lake Baikal 38BepHjTb0 (38 +ace.) 38BepHy, 38BepHiiWb (38BOpS'iMB8Tb' like 3H&Tb) to turn (round something) 38BMC8Tb' (oT +gen.) to depend (on)



Bci 38BMCMT OT norOAbl It all depends on the weather

38nMC8TbP 38nMWy, 38nliiW8Wb (38nMCbiB8Tb; like 3H8Tb) to
note down M3BMHMTbCRP M3BMHibCb,

n6Moaqb (f) help npOMTMPnpOMAYo npOMAiWb (npOXOAMTb') to go through/past npocj)8ccop pl. np~cop{l professor p83BecTMCbPpa3BeAYCb, p83B8AiWbCR past p83BinCR, p83Benl1Cb (pa3BOAMTbCR; p83BO>KYCb, P83BOAMWbCR) (c + inst.) to get divorced (from someone) pacceRHHbiM absent-minded caeTocj)op traffic light cepbi3HO seriously cp61.4HbiM urgent Tiaqa mother-in-law (wife's mother) yr(o)n prep. a/Ha yrny corner 38 yron (note stress) round the corner

M3BMHMWbCR (M3BMHRTbCR') (like 3H8Tb) (38 + ace.) to apologize (for) KOMBHAMPOBKB business or study trip, assignment nepeMTMPnepeMAY,n&peMAiWb past nepewin, nepewna (nepexoAMTb') (14epe3 +ace.) to cross ('overgo') noAllp(o)K present, gift nOAHMMMT8Cb see nOAHRTbCR nOAHRTbCRP nOAHMMYCb, nOAHMMeWbCR (nOAHMMliTbCR' like 3H8Tb) to climb up; to rise nOAW3A entrance, doorway ('towards drive')

19.9 AManor Mary Seeks an Absent-Minded Professor

M3pM: npoCTMTe, Bbl He 3HaeTe, rAe npocpjccop MMpi4liHOB? 6H AOmKeH 6bln acTpitTMTbCR co MH6iiii 3AeCb a ABB '4aca. KaK Bbl AYMBeTe, R AOn>KHll noAo*AliTb? CeKpeTllpb:

Aa, AS R n6MHIO, '4T6 Bbl AOroaopltnMCb c lllnbil4

Er6poaM'4eM acTpeTMTbCR cer6AHR. ,Qon>KH6 6b1Tb, 6H 3&6bln. no-M6eMy, 6H y>Ke ywin AOM614. Sl6bl eMy H8nOMHMna, HO, K CO>K&neHMIO, R 6blna BCi yYpO y AeKliHa. EcnM 6bl R 3Hana, '4T6 6H TaK6M pacceRHHbiM, R 6bl n03BOHMn8 jTpoM. A KBK MH8 H8MTM ero? ,Qeno







cp6'tHOe. Sl 3llaTpa ye3810 a KOMBHAMPOBKY a 3a6&MKBnbe. Bbl AOn)I(Hbl BbiMTM M3 MHCTMTj'Ta, OOMTiof npRMO, nOTOM 38B8PHYrb 3ll yron y M8r83MH8 ccnoA&pKM. TaM nepeitAMTe ynM4y, AOMAMTe AO caeToCIJ6pa, npoitAMTe MMMO ax6A& a MeTp6, HBMAMTe A6M H6Mep wecTb, BOMAMTe a TpeTMM noA'b83A, nOAHMMMTecb Ha 't8TBepTbiM 3TU M n03BOHMTe B c6pOK BTOpjiO KB&pTMpy. Cnacr.16o, Jl ace 380MC8na.


l What does Elena Sidorova want and why?

2 What is her husband's view of her proposal? 3 Does Elena accuse her husband of doing no housework?

y EneHbl Mnaana CMAOPOBbiX r6A HBHA POAMnilcb AO'tKa TilHJI. neHa AYM&eT, 'tTO )I(M3Hb 6btna 6bl ner'te, ecnM 6bl PRAOM 6btna 6a6ywKa. - Sl 6bt He ao3paana, ecnM 6bt c HBMM Mna Moil MaMa, - roaopMT neH&.- 0Ha OOMOrana 6bl MHe rOTOBMTb MBOCOMTbiB8Tb TaH8'tKy. - no-M6eMy, Sl Te6e noMoraiO AOCTBTO'IHO,- B03paaeT naaen, KOT6pbtM C'tMTBeT, 'tT6 TiU1 AOnHa ocTaTbCH a AepeaHe. - EcnM 6bt Tbt MHe He noMoran, " 6bt c To66it pa3aenacb! cepbi3HO OTB8'tB8T neH&. - H6 BCi-T&KM 61itnO 6bl nj'twe, ecnM 6bl J1 He 38BMCena TOnbKO OT TBOeM n6MOtqM.



20.1 Key Examples

B np6wnoM rOAY R 83AMn(a) B MOCKBy. Sl otilCTO XO:IKy B KMHO. B'lepa Mbl HMKYAil He XOAMnM. KyAil Bbl MAiTe? Sl MAY a rocTMHM4Y noliiAeM. MAeT AO:IKAb. Kil:IKAbllii AeHb MAeT cHer. KaKMe celii'lilc MAYT ci>MnbMbl? KaK npoliiTM Ha KpacHyiO

Last year I went to Moscow. I often go to the cinema. We didn't go anywhere yesterday. Where are you going? I'm going to the hotel. Let's go. It's raining. It snows every day. What films are on ('going')? How do I get to Red Square?

KaK AOexaTb AO yHMaepcMTeTa? How do I reach the university? KorAil BblneTileT caMoneT? When does the plane leave?

20.2 Basic (Unpreflxed) Verbs of Motion: XOAMTb', MATM' etc.

'To go on foot' is either XOAMTb' or MATM' (see 20.3 for perfective forms). XOAMTb' means 'to walk in more than one direction' (e.g. there and back), or 'to walk around'. MATM' means 'to walk in one direction'. So 'I go to the



cinema often' is S1 "'BCTO ~ a KMHO because each trip to the cinema involves coming back. But 'I'm going to the cinema' (now, or this evening) is S1 MAY a KMHO, and this means that you're only talking about the trip there. There are fourteen pairs of verbs which express this distinction between one direction and more than one direction. The eight common ones are: more than one direction' (multidirectional 'm') XOAMTb XO>Ky, XOAMWb 63AMTb e3>Ky, 63AMWb 6eraTb 6era10, 6eraewb neTSTb neTBIO, neTB8Wb HOCMTb Howy, HOCMWb BOAMTb BO>Ky, BOAMWb B03MTb BO>Ky, B03MWb nnlla&Tb nnaaa10, nnaaaewb one direction' (unidirectional 'u') MATH MAY MAiiWb past wen, wna eX8Tb 6Ay, 6A8Wb imper noe3>KSMTe 6e>K8Tb imper 6erMTe neTeTb ne"'y, neTMWb HeCTM Hecy, Hecewb pastHec,Hecna,Hecn6 aecTM B8AY B9ASWb pastaen,aena,aen6 B83TM ae3y, ae38wb pastae3,ae3nll,ae3n6 nnbiTb to swim/to sail nnblay, nnbiBSWb past nnbln, nnblna, nnblno to transport to lead (take on foot) to fly to carry to run 6erj, 6e>KMWb, OHM 6erjT to go (by transport) to go (on foot)

The other six are: na3MTb na>Ky, nll3MWb ne3Tb n63YT, neHWb past ne3, ne3na to climb



n6n38Tb n6n3810, n6n38eWb T8CKBTb T8CKBIO, T8CKB8Wb K8TBTb K8TBIO, K8TB8Wb rOHRTb rOHRIO, roHR8Wb 6pOAMTb 6poy, 6p6AMWb

to crawl non3TM non3y, non3iwb pastnon3,non3na,nonano T&lqMTb to drag Taaqy, TaaqMwb K8TMTb to roll K&'ly, KBTMWb rH8Tb to chase, drive roHib, rOHMWb pastrHan,rHana,rHano 6pecTM (6poAMTb) to wander 6peAy, 6peAiWb (6pecn1) to plo.d along past6pin,6pena,6pen6

All these verbs are imperfective forms.

Note that the multidirectional (m) verbs are generally easier to learn than the more irregular unidirectional (u) ones. Three basic rules determine the choice between the XOAMTb-type (m column) and the MATM-type (u column): (1) If the motion involves more than one direction, use the XOAMTb (m) type. If the motion is in one direction, use the MATM (u) type.

Sl xoy (m) a MHCTMTjT KB*Abllii I attend the institute every day.

A8Hb. Mbl 'lacTo 83AMM (m) a &epnMH. B'lepa Mbl 83AMnM' (m) B 3ar6pcK. Mbl XOAMnM (m) no r6pOAY AeTM 6eranM (m) ao ABope. We often go to Berlin (there and back). Yesterday we went to Zagorsk (there and back)*. We walked around the town. The children were running around in

the yard. Where are you going? Sl6erj (u) B M8r83MH. I'm running to the shop. 38BTpa Mbl neTMM (u) a MocKay. Tomorrow we're flying to Moscow.

KyA8 Bbl MAiTe (u)?

Ka*AbiM A8Hb MAiT (u) AO*Ab

It rains every day (rain goes in only one direction, i.e. down).

'Note that XOAMTb-type (m) verbs can be used for a single round trip only in the past tense.



(2) If there is no motion, the multidirectional verbs are used:

He XOAMTe Ha 3TOT ciMilbM. B'fepil Mbl HMKYAB He XOAM11M. 6H HMKorA& He neTileT.
Don't go to that film. Yesterday we didn't go anywhere. He never flies.

(3) If the number of directions is irrelevant, use the multidirectional verb:

Bbl neTBilM KorA8-HM6YAb Ha C8MOI1eTe? Slnl06mo nmllaaTb.
Have you ever flown in a plane? I like swimming.


Mark the verbs as multidirectional (m) or unidirectional (u) and translate:

2 3 4 5
6 7 8
9 lO II

I2 I3

B np6WI10M rOAY Mbl e3AMI1M B HbiO-t,/t6pK. Kii>KAbnii AeHb )l(eHa a63MT AeTelii a wK6ny Ha Maw .tHe. B'fepa oHa BOAMila MilneHbKoro CbiHa a napK. KyA8 Bbl TilutMTe 3TM orp6MHble cnoaap.t? 06bl'fHo R acTaiO a a6ceMb 'fac6a, 38aTpaKaiO .. a AeBRTb MAY Ha pa66yY. BpeMR neT.tTr 5erMTe! <I>MilbM H8'fMHSeTCR 'fepe3 nRTb MMHyY. Kii*AbiM r6A Mbl C My)l(eM e3AMM H8 Mope. BbllleTilllM KOrAii-HM6YAb (ever) Ha pyccKOM caMoneTe? Sl He yMeiO nnaaaTb. He XOAM Ha 3ToT ciMilbM. Te6e 6yAeT cKy'fHO. He MAM TaK 6biCTpo, y Hac eute ecTb apeMR. Mbl He ni06MM 6eraTb nepeA 38aTp8KOM.

You will see from these examples that the unidirectional verbs always have the specific meaning of one direction, while the multidirectional verbs are vaguer - so the m verbs are used when there is no motion or the number of directions doesn't matter (rules 2 and 3 above). So as a 'rule of thumb', use the m verbs in contexts involving repeated motion, e.g.
MHOrAil 'sometimes', 'fSCTO 'often', o6bl'fHO 'usually', KB*Abllii AeHb
'every day' (SI 'fSCTO XO)I(Y B TeaTp 'I often go to the theatre'). With



MHorA& etc. only use the unidirectional verbs if the motion is clearly in
one direction, for example:
~acTo MAiT (u) cHer. It often snows. 06bt'IHO A MAY (u) H& pa66-ry newK6M, a AOM61ii ao3apaU48tocb Ha aaT66yce. Usually I go to work on foot and return home by bus. Ka>KAbtlii A8Hb A acTaiO a a6ceMb 'lac6a, 38aTp&Kato MMAY Ha pa66-ry. Every day I get up at eight, breakfast and leave for work. (In this last case you are concerned only with the journey to work, not with the journey back.)

Choose the correct verb (in each pair, the multidirectional one is first):

KyAi Bbl (XOAMnM/wnM) B cy666-ry?

Where did you go on Saturday?

2 Mbt c >KeH61ii 'lacTo (neTaeMineTMM) a 0Aeccy.

My wife and I often fly to Odessa.

3 KyA8 (x6AMTIMAiT) m1Tbtlii aaT66yc?

Where does the number 5 bus go? (What's its destination?)

4 KaK MI!AneHHO (n6n38eT/non3iT) apeMAI

How slowly time crawls! ('How time drags!')

5 Mbt (6POAMnM/6penM) no r6pOAY aecb A8Hb.

We wandered round the town all day.

6 O<JMI.IMBHT (H6cMT/HeciT) HaM 6YTbtnKy waMnllHcKoro.

The waiter is bringing us a bottle of champagne.

20.3 Aspect Usage with Multidirectional/Unidirectional Verbs

All twenty-eight verbs can be made perfective by adding no-. Note that no

+ MATM is spelt noliiTM.


gives multidirectional verbs the meaning 'a little', 'a limited

amount'. So noxOAMTb" means 'to walk about for a while', no6er&Tb" means 'to run about for a while'.

Celii'lac 6yAeT aHTpaKT. Aaaalii nox6AMM" no TeaTpy. It's the interval. Let's go for a little walk around the theatre.



no- gives unidirectional verbs the meaning 'to make a complete trip in one direction' or, in the right context, 'to start'/'to set off'. noiAiiMI rAe cecTplt? 0Ha nownil a TeilTp. nowiin A6JKAb. Bee no6elKltnM.
Let's go/Let's set off. Where's your sister? She's gone to the theatre. It started to rain. Everybody began to run.

To express the meaning 'to make one round trip', multidirectional verbs (except 6POAMTb) have a different prefix c-, e.g. c6er&TbP 'to run somewhere and come back'. This is a different prefix from c- 'off' (19.6).
Sl c6eraJ0 (m) a Mara3MH 38 xne60M.
I'll run to the shop for some bread (and come straight back).

Note that for single trips in the future the unidirectional verbs are much commoner than the multidirectional ones. Even if you expect to come back, it is normal to say 3ilaTpa R noiAY" a ... 'Tomorrow I shall go to ... '
JleTOM Mbl no8AeM 0 (u) Ha M6pe. In the summer we'll go to the seaside.

The perfective round-trip verbs (CXOAMTb0 (m) etc.) are used when you want to emphasize that you're coming back or that you won't be away for long:
I'll pay a call on Vadim (and come back).

Imperfective future forms of the verbs of motion are rare. As you might expect, the imperfective future of multidirectional (XOAMTb-type) verbs is used for unfinished multidirectional motion and repeated round trips, while the imperfective future of MATr.i-type verbs (very rare) denotes uncompleted motion in one direction:
Sl 6YAY XOAMTb' Ha neKLIMM npocaeccopa MMp"'llHoaa.
I shall attend Professor Mirchanov's lectures (repeated round trips).


They will be walking round the town.

38BTpa a a6ceMb "'ac6a R 6'YAY MATH' no aawei ynM4e.

Tomorrow at eight I shall be walking along your street.




Mbl noXOAMnM (m) no Mara3MH&M, noTC)M nown.t (u) a KMH6. 2 Mbl CW3AMnM (m) a napMlK H8 (for) TPM AHR. 3 AeTM no6eranM (m) a nilpKe, ycTilnM Mnown.t (u) AOM61ii. 4 Cer6AHR jTpoM Mbl caOAMnM (m) TliHIO K apa'fy. 5 Mbl 6YABM nnila&Tb1 (m) a 6acceliiHe (pool) Kii)I(Aoe jTpo. 6 C6eralii (m), nolKilnyliicTa, B M8r83MH 38 (for) xne6oM.

20.4 Verbs of Motion with Other Prefixes, e.g. BblneTaTb' 'to fly out'

If you put a prefix such as Bbl 'out' or npo- 'through' on any of the unprefixed verbs (20.2), you form a new verb which combines the type of motion (flying, running etc.) with the direction specified by the prefix. So Bbl + neTiiTb' means 'out' + 'fly', i.e. 'to fly out', 'to take off' (of an aeroplane). The equivalent perfective is ablneTeTb. The eleven prefixes (see 19.6) commonly used with verbs of motion are:

abl AO 380T-



in out as far as calling in (on the way somewhere else) away (to or from a specified place) across approach arrival through/past off (a different prefix from c- 'there and back') away

Here is the general rule for forming prefixed verbs of motion: if you add a prefix to one of the multidirectional verbs of motion (e.g. neTiiTb) you get a new imperfective verb (e.g. ablneTBTb'). The equivalent perfective verb is formed from the unidirectional verb (e.g. BblnBTBTb). 246


(Note that no- 'a little' and

c- 'there and back' behave differently and

are dealt with separately in 20.3.) Examples (same conjugation details as in 20.2):

aneTaTb' Bbln8TaTb' AOneTaTb' npMneTaTbi nponeT8Tb; OTHOCHTb' nepeBOAHTb' OTB03HTb'

aneT6TbP ali1neTeTb0 AoneTeTb npMneT6Tb0 nponeT6Tb0 OTH8CTH 0 nepeaecTH0 OTB83TH


to fly in to fly out to reach by flying to arrive (by plane) to fly past or through to take away somewhere (by carrying) to lead across/transfer

(also to translate) to take somewhere (by transport)

The plane takes off at seven. The fortnight flew past like a single day. Dad will drive you to the station. Eva will take the dirty plates to the kitchen. Eva led Vadim's hand away from the bottle.

CaMoniT BblneTaeT' a ceMb. Aae H8AenM nponeTenM KaK OAHHA8Hb. nana B8C OTB83i'r" H8 BOK38n. Eaa oTHeciT" rpii3Hble TapenKM H8 KYXHIO. Eaa oTaena PYKY BeAHM&

However, the common verbs MATH

and 83AMTb change slightly when they

are prefixed in this way: MATH becomes MTM after a prefix, and prefixes . ending with a consonant add -o-; 83AMTb becomes -e3JKirb. XOAHTb and

exaTb do not change. Examples: BXOAHTb' npMXOAHTb' npM83)1(aTb' npoXOAHTb' BOMTH 0 (NB extra o) npMMTH 0 npM6X8Tb0 npoiiTM
to enter (on foot) to arrive (on foot) to arrive (by transport) to walk through or past He always arrived early. Go through into the big room (the living-room in a Russian flat).

OH acerA& npMXOAHn' p8Ho. npoXOAHTe' B 6onbWYIO K6MH8yY.

n6e3A OTOWin OT nn&TCIKPMbl.

The train left the platform.



3aXOAMTe' K H8M.

Call and see us (when you're passing).

Ei6r&Tb, the multidirectional verb 'to run', changes its stress to -6eri1Tb when it forms prefixed imperfective verbs: y6eri1Tb'
to run away

20.5 Bring
Notice the different equivalents of 'to bring':

npMHOCMTb'/npMH8CntP npMH8CMT8, no>KilnyMCT8, Aa8 CT8Ki1Ha. npMaOAMTb'/npMB8CTM0 npMaeAMTeo APvra. npMa03MTb1npMB83TMP Sl npMai3 aaM noAilpoK M3 AHrnMM.

to bring (by carrying) Please bring two glasses. to bring (by leading) Bring your friend. to bring (by transport) I've brought you a present from England.

Similarly, 'to take away' can be yHOCMTb'/yHecntP (by carrying), yaOAMTb'/yaecTM 0 (by leading), yao3MTb'/yae3TM 0 (by transport).

20.6 Everyday Examples (Prefixed Verbs of Motion together with Prepositions That Normally Accompany Them)
npMXOAMTe K H8M. Come and see us. no AOp6re a MHCTMTjT Mbl 38MAiM a M8f83MH. On the way to the institute we'll call at the shop. 3aXOAMT8' K H8M. Do call and see us (when you're passing). Ao MeTp6 AOae3iT"? Will it (this bus/tram etc.) take me to (as far as) the metro station? no>KimyiicTa, OTH8CMT8 TapenKM H8 KYXHIO. Please take these plates to the kitchen.



S1 K aaM noAOMAY a AB& -taca.

I'll come up to you (I'll meet you) at two.

Mbl npowmt MMMO n6-tTbl.

We walked past the post office.

npoXOAMTe, noanyliicTa. Go in, please. (Go on through.) 6H c yMa cowen?

Has he gone mad? ('Has he gone off his mind?')

OHa ywna c pa66Tbi!M3 yHMaepcMTeTaloT Mya.

She has left her job/the university/her husband.

6H BbiWeno H8 A8CRTb MMHyY. noAO*AMTe, noanyMCT8.

He's gone out for ten minutes. Please wait.


I 6H CK6po npMeAeT B n6HAOH. 2 0Ha BOWna B K6MH8yY. 3 6H Bblwen M3 Mara3MHa. 4 KorAa Bbl AOMAiiTe AO yrna, noaepHMTe H&npaao. 5 no)l(anyliicTa, OTOMAMTe OT OKHS. 6 AaaaliiTe nepeliiAiiM (-tepe3) AOp6ry y caeTo~6pa. 7 6H noAowen K Helii. 8 YxoAMTe.

20.7 EXTRA: XOAMTbiiiiATM with Vehicles

As a general rule, vehicles, particularly large ones such as trains, boats, buses and trams, go 'on foot' (XOAMTbiMATM). In particular, XOAMTbiMATM is normal when you are talking about the route of a vehicle or its timetable, as in the first three examples below.
KyA& MQiT 3TOT aaT66yc? Where does this bus go? KorA& OTXMMT n6e3A? When does the train leave? TaKCM l!UWI a napK. The taxi is going to the depot (it's the end of the
driver's shift).

n6e3A Bblx2J;un M3 yYHHenR. The train is coming out of the tunnel. 86T MiD: TpaMaalii. There's a tram coming. Tennox6A BbiiWUJ. M3 raB&HM. The steamer left the harbour.



But smaller vehicles, particularly MBWMHB 'car', 'lorry', are often used with 6:JAMTblexaTb ('to ride').
MawMIHa npoU&ma otepea nee MBbiUilJII Ha wocc6. The car drove through the wood and came out on to the main road. Bo ABOP a'b~Dlifi ccB6nra. A 'Volga' (make of car) drives into the yard.

And any land vehicle can be used with &:JAMTbl6xaTb if you are stressing its movement rather than where it's going:
n6e3A 6A8T Oot8Hb 6b1CTpo. The train is going very fast.

In many situations with vehicles, XOAMTWMATM ('go on foot') verbs and &:JAMTblexaTb ('ride') verbs are interchangeable: you can also say n6e3A MAiT 6oteHb 61i1ctpo.

20.8 Aspect with Prefixed Verbs of Motion

The general rules (15.11) apply, of course, but note that it is common to use the imperfective to denote a single round trip in the past.
KorA(I Te6R He 6blno, 38XOAMnM' Eaa 111 BaAMIM. While you were out, Eva and Vadim called (and left again). neTOM npMeaanM' MOM pyccKM8 APY3bR. My Russian friends came in the summer (and have now gone home).

This is the 'cancellation of result' use of the imperfective, mentioned in Extra 13.3. That is, the result of reaching one's destination is 'cancelled' by returning. Compare:
Botep8 npMexanao MOR Tilq&. Botep8 npMea*'na' MOR Tilq&.

My mother-in-law came yesterday (and is staying with me now). My mother-in-law came yesterday (and went home).



Translate the motion verbs in brackets: 1 Mbl (are going on foot) a KMH6. 2 3ilaTpa Mbl (are flying) a MocKay. 3 nooteMy OHM (are running)? 4 Bbl 'tBCTO (go on foot) a TeaTp? 5 B npownoM rOAY Mbl (went and came back) a napM>K. 6 3aaTpa Mbl (shall go by transport) a r6poA. 7 0Ha (is taking by transport) CbiH& K 686ywKe.

8 He (go on foot) a 3TOT 6ap. nMao ('beer') TaM nnox6e. 9 6H acerA&

(arrives on foot) a ceMb otac6a. 10 Mo)l Tilq& (will arrive by transport) 38BTp8. 11 TBHR (ran away). 12 0~M4MBHT (will bring) 'tMCTbiM CT8KBH ('glass'), 13 no>KanyliicTa, (bring by transport) AB8 6yYblnKM BMHB. 1~ Mbl (got out) M3 aaT66yca H& H6aoM Ap68Te. 15 B ceHTR6pe (came and left again) MOM APY3bH M3 MMHCKa.

20.9 EXTRA: Other Changes to Verbs of Motion when Prefixed:

nnaa&Tb 'to swim or sail' becomes -nnbiBBTb' npMnnbiBBTb' npMnnliiTbp 'to arrive' (ship) n83MTb 'to climb' becomes -ne38Tb' ane38Tb' ane3Tbp 'to climb in' n6n38Tb 'to crawl' becomes -non38Tb' anon38Tb' anon3TMP 'to crawl in' T8CKBTb 'to drag' becomes TBCKMB8Tb' BbiTBCKMB8Tb' BbiT811(MTbP 'to drag OUt' K&TBTb 'to roll' becomes -KBTbiB&Tb' BbiKBTbiB8Tb' BbiK8TMTbP 'to roll OUt' 6POAMTb 'to wander' becomes -6peA8Tb' 386p8A&Tb' 386peCTMP 'to wander in'

All the imperfective forms of these verbs are conjugated like 3H&Tb.
Note that the only one of the unidirectional verbs which changes after a prefix is MATM - and its change to -liiTM is a very minor one. To drive in is Blt83>KBTb' a)lilxaTbP. Note the hard signs. If a verb begins with a [y] sound (e.g. ex&Tb [xe-hat] 'to travel', RBMTb [yee-ve'et] 'to show'), any prefix ending with a consonant (a- 'in',



o6- 'around', 'totality', noA- 'under', 'approaching') is separated from the (y] sound by a hard sign: o6'b83JKSTb'/o6wxaTb0 'to drive round', 06'bHBnRTb;/06'bHBMTb0 'to announce', nOA'b83JKBTb'lnOA'beX8Tb0 'to drive under/towards'.

20.10 Vocabulary (See also Verb list 20.2)

aar6H carriage anep&A forward Bbl6eJK&Tb0 (Bbl6er8Tb;) to run out (20.4) repMBHMH Germany rpR3HbiM dirty A083JKBTb'IAoexaTb0 AO (+gen.) to reach, go as far as (20.4) 386eriiTb'/386eJK8Tb0 to call in (running) (20.4) 38KpM'tiTb0 38KPM'tj, 38KpM'tMWb (KpM'tlm.') to shout, start shouting 38XOAMTb'/38iiiTril to call in (20.4) K&K pa3 exactly, just KMHOTeinp or KMH6 (n indecl) cinema KMTili-ropOA 'China Town' KMTaicKMi npocneKT 'Chinese Prospect' neCTHML!B staircase OKa3ilnocb0 it turned out OKBHTbCH0 to turn out; to find oneself OCTBHOBKB OCTBHOBOK stop napK park newK6M on foot no6eJKiiTb0 (6eJK8Tb') to run (20.2) nonotaca half an hour npM6eJK8Tb" (npM6er8Tb;) to arrive

(running) (20.4) npMB83TM0 (npMB03MTb') to bring by transport (20.5) npMB8CTM 0 (npMBOAMTb') to bring (by leading) (20.5) npMneTeTb0 (npMneTllTb') to arrive (by air) (20.4) npOTMaonon6JKHbiM opposite (adj) nYTb (m) (unique noun) gen./dat./prep. nYTril, inst. nYTiM way caMoneT aeroplane CBOpS'tMB8Tb' (like 3H8Tb) (caepHjTb0 caepHj, caepHiWb) to turn off CK6po soon cHer prep. a CHerj, pl. CHera snow coliiTril (CXOAMTb') c (+gen.) to get off (20.4) cocliAHMM neighbouring, next CT&AMOH stadium Ha CT&AM6He at a stadium CTpiiHHO strange; it's strange Tap(lnKa Tap(lnoK plate y6e)KirrbP (y6erim.') to run away (20.4) ycnl:iiW&Tb0 ycnl01wy, ycnl:iiWMWb (cnl:iiW&Tb') to hear 48HTp8nbHbllii central



20.11 TeKCTbl (Translations in Key)

Tania in Motion
- TilHA, OTHecM, nolKilnyliicTa, 3TY rpii3HYIO T&p8nKy Ha KYXHIO M npMHecM "'MCyYIO. TllHA y6eJKltna. '4epe3 A8cATb MMHjT A nowin ei MCKiiTb: 38XOA!o\n H8 KjxHIO, TaM ei He 6blnO, TOrAil R 38Win B cnltnbHIO K 6lt6ywKe. - TllHA c!OAil He 386erltna? - HeT. MHe KitJKeTCA, "'TO A Cnb1W&n8 ei r6noc B COC6AHelii KB8pTMpe. - CrpilHHO, - CK83iln A. - A6pilMOBbl yexanM B repMilHMIO MSCALI H83ilA. Sl n06eJKltn K COCeAAM. 0Ka3itnOCb, "'TO A6pitMOBbl TOnbKO "'T6 npMneTenM M3 cpilHKciYPTa. TilHA ycnblwana, K&K OHM npMexanM, M Bbl6eJKana H8 necTHMLIY - Aa, TilHA y H8C, - 38CMeAnMCb COC6AM. - 0Hil npM6elKitna MMHjT nATHSAL18Tb Ha3ilA. CKopo Mbl npMB&AiM ee AOMolii. - nltna, nOCMOypM, K8KM8 Kp8CMBble BlllqM OHM npMB83nMI 38KPM"'ilna TilHA. - Sl XO"'j nepe6X8Tb JKMTb B repMilHMIOI

Finding the Way

A: KaK npoex&Tb Ha ._...HTpilnbHbllii CTBAM6H? &: ny"'we acero Ao6X8Tb H8 MeTp6 AO CTilHL!MM ccCnOpTMBH8A. A: A CK6nbKO TYAil6xaTb? &: AyMaiO, non"'acll.

A: &:

Bbl He cKitJKeTe, K8K npoex&Tb B roCTMHMLIY ccPOCCMA? Bbl AQnJKHbl 6YAeTe cecTb Ha aaT66yc M npoexaTb TPM OCT8H6BKM. A: CnacM6o. &: nolKltnyliiCTa.

A: CKaJKMTe, nolKilnyliiCTa, KBK AQ6xaTb AO rocTMHML!bl ccPoccMA? &: Ha MeTp6 AO CTilHLIMM ccKMTltlii-ropoA



A: A M6lKHo T'fAi Ao8XaTb Ha aaT66yce? 6: M6lKHO. C&AriiTecb Ha ABBA48Tb <ceTaepTbiM aaT66yc. OH MAST no KMTBMCKOMY npocneKTy. H6 nj'twe Ha MeTp6.


What are Ivan Petrovich's instructions for getting to his house by metro? 2 How can Eva get there by number 57 bus? 3 Why is the number 10 less suitable?


3anMCbiB8MT8, K8K K H8M eX&Tb. HSAO ceCTb H8 M8Tp6 M AOeX&Tb AO CTBHL\MM ccnpoc~coi03H8SI. IIIAriiTe B CT6poHy nocn8AHero aar6Ha MBbiMAMTe Ha ynML\Y noaepHriiTe Haneao .. Eaa: MMHjTo<cKy. Sl aanriiCbiB&IO: BbiMTM Ha ymtL\Y MnoaepHjTb KyAfJ? Mn: noaepHriiTe Haneao, AOMAriiTe AO yrna MnepeiiAriiTe Ha npoTMaonon6lKHYIO cT6poHy. noaepHriiTe e~qe paa Haneao, MAriiTe no npocneKTy AO Haweii ynML\bl. Eaa: lltaaH neTp6BM't, Henb3Si nM HaiiTril66nee npocToii nyYb? Mn: EcnM Bbl 6yAeTe y BaAriiMa, aaM ny<cwe noexaTb Ha aaT66yce. nRTbAeCSiT ceAbM6ii aaT66yc MAST no er6 ynM4,e. H&Ao npoeX&Tb 'teTblpe OCT8HOBKM MCOMTM H8 nRTOM, y KMHOTeSTp&. MriiMO He npoeAeTe, KMHOTeBTp 60nbWOM, K8K P83 Hanp6TMB OCT&HOBKM. npOMAMTe no npocneKTy H8MHOrO BnepSA, AO Hawero AOM8. MOlKHO ex&Tb MH8 A8CRTOM 8BT66yce, HO OH caopa<cMaaeT Haneao, Ha ynML\Y Hap6AHOro onon<ceHMR, MAO KMHOTeBTpa He A083lKB8T.


Say in Russian:
1 Where are you (fam) going (on foot)? 2 I'm going to Red Square. 3 They've gone to the Kremlin. 4 I go to the cinema often. 5 I went to Novgorod on Wednesday. 6 We go to Russia almost every year. 7 I like to run before breakfast. 8 I shall fly to Tallinn in three days' time. 9 We want to



go to the market. 10 The waiter is bringing (carrying) beetroot soup. 11 Where are you taking (leading) us? 12 Does it rain often?


Translate the following and put the correct endings on the words in brackets. (You have now done all the verb, noun, pronoun and adjective endings.)
Sl He (3H8Tb). Sl HB (rOBOpMTb) no-clp8H4Y3CKM. Sl (>KMTb) B
AHrnMM. (pres. 4)

2 Sl {AaTb) nRTb A6nnapoe. (fut. 12)

3 M3BMHMTe, o.tT6 Mbl (npMMTiil) T&K n63AHO. Mbl He (M6o.tb) H&MTiil

T8KCM. (past 11)

4 (noKa38Tb) 3To, no>KimyicTa. {AaTb) AB&, no>KanyicTa. (imper 15) 5 EcnM 6bl R (3H&Tb), R (no3BOHMTb) 6bl. (cond. 19)

6 no30BMTe, no>KanyicTa, (MapliiR <D8AOpoBH8) lilnM (MBBH

neTp6BM't). (ace. 6)

7 Sl He MOrj OTKpbiTb (3T8 ABepb). (ace. 6)

8 npMHecliiTe, no>KanyicTa, nRTb (6YTiilnKa) (MMHep{lnbH&R eoA&),

TPM (o.tai) M nRTb (nMpo>K6K). (gen. 9, 10)

9 Y (R) HBT (pyccKMe A8HbTM). (gen. 10) 10 BliiKTop- cne4ManlilcT no (pyccKMM TeaTp). (dat. 12) 11
noMorliiTe (oHiil), no>KanyicTa. noMorliiTe (3TM TYPMCTbl). (dat. 12)

12 no3H8K6MbTeCb c (M6M H6BbiM APYT). (inst. 16) 13 Sl xoo.ty n03H&K6MMTbCR c (BBWM APY3bH). (inst. 16) 14 Y B8C eCTb KHMTM H8 (aHrnMMCKMM R3b1K)? (prep. 5, 7) 15 Mbl roeoplilnM o (6H). (prep. 5)

Say in Russian:
16 Come in, please (i). Take a seat (i). 17 I would like to go (p) to the Bolshoi Theatre. 18 Could you tell me how to get (p) to the institute by metro? 19 Please give (p) me two tickets. Does the film begin at half past seven? 20 I'm sorry I'm late ('for lateness' 11.8). It was very difficult to find (p) your house.



21 22 23 24 25

I spoke (i) to (with) Vladimir Smirnov yesterday. He said (p) that I should telephone (p) you. It is cold in my room. It's also very noisy. The window doesn't close. There is no toilet paper (TYan6THaR 6yM8ra). Please do not say that should buy Pravda. I have reread (p) the letter. I cannot understand (p) it. Cross (p) the road, walk past (p) the shop and turn (p) right.



21.1 Phrases
Sl n1o6n1o cs6M r6poA. 0Ha rosop.tT o csob A8TRX. OHa nowna K ce6e. ~T66bl SbiY'IMTb pyccKMM R3biK, HSAO 'IMTiiTb ~exosa. Sl XO'Iy, 'IT66bi6H ywin.
I love my (own) town.

She talks about her (own) children. She went to her (own) room. To learn Russian, you have to read Chekhov. I want him to leave.

21.2 Ca6l4: 'Own'

Cs6M means 'own', belonging to the subject of the verb. It has the same declension as M6M. It is always used instead of er6, ei, MX (4.2) and sometimes M6M, TS6M, Haw, saw, when the subject owns whatever is mentioned in the predicate' of the clause'. 6H rosop.tT o csoeM pa66Te. He's talking about his job. OHM He M6ryT Ham~ 6Mnerbl. They can't tind their tickets. B 11 'lac6s ~aMK6scKMM wens At 11 o'clock Chaikovskii went cso!O K6MHayY. to his room.

If the subject is R, Mbl, Sblt the use of csoM, instead of M6M, Haw, saw, is optional, since it doesn't make any difference in meaning.



S1 B3An ca0171 (or MOM) 6MneT. I took my (my own) ticket. Bo3bMMTe a&we (or~ nanbTO. (You) Take your coat.H

Note 1. When the subject is Tbt, ca0171 is much preferred to TB0171. Say Tbt B03bMewb caoe (not TBOe) nanbTO? 'Will you take your coat?' u Note 2. You can save effort by remembering that Russians often do not use an equivalent of 'my','his' etc. if the possessor is obvious. For example, 'I love my wife' would normally be S1 mo6nto *&Hy (rather than cao.O )l(eHy or MOJO )l(eHy) because the hearer can assume that you mean your own wife. 'Take your coat' would be Bo3bMMTe nanbTO ('Take coat'), with no translation of 'your' if it is clear from the context who owns the coat.

If the subject is third person (he, she, it, they or equivalents), you must use
ca0171 if the thing belongs to the subject. As you see in the next two examples, the meaning changes depending on whether you use ca0171 or erO. Ceprelll He 3Han, 'ITO lita&H B3An Sergei didn't know that Ivan had

taken his (Ivan's) ticket.

Ceprelll He 3Han, 'ITO lita&H B3An Sergei didn't know that Ivan had ero 6MneT. taken his (i.e. Sergei's) ticket. OHM He 3H8toT, rAe MX 6Mn8Tbt. They don't know where their tickets are.

Be careful not to misuse ca0171. Remember that it refers to the subject of the same clause' (see 'Glossary of Grammatical Terms' for 'clause'). So 'They do not know where their tickets are' is OHM He 3H8toT, rAe MX (NOT CBOM) 6MneTbt because rAe MX 6MneTbt is a different clause from the one with OHM in it. One simple rule for avoiding mistakes is: DO NOT USE CBOMIN THE NOMINATIVE CASE.


Choose the correct possessive and translate:

no'leMy litaaH He 3HaeT, rAe (ero, caoil) 6MneT? no'teMy OH He MO)I(eT H&MTM (ero, caoil) 6MneT? OH He 3HaeT, rAe 6MneT noToMy, 'ITO (ero, caoll) *eHa A&na (erO, caolll) 6Mn8T (ee, caoeil) no,qpyre.



EXERCISE 21/2 Translate the possessives:

1 0HIIi nownlli a (their).KOMH&Ty. 2 Bo3bMIIi (your) nanbT6. Ha yn.uo~e x6nQAHO. 3 no3H8KOMbT8Cb. ~0 MBBH n8Tp6BIII'I. (His) JK8HB- (my)
ceKpeTipb. 4 Bepa B3Jina (her) nanbT6, a Eaa OCT8a111na (hers) A6Ma.

21.3 EXTRA: On ca6i

Occasionally ca6i

is used in the nominative (meaning 'one's own', 'not

Each has his or her own opinion. Each has his or her own house. He has a car of his own.

somebody else's), particularly in the 'have' construction (10.2). Examples:


Y KbcAoro ca6i A6M. Y Her6 CBOH M8WMH8.

Notice also the proverb: CaoR py6awKa 6nllie K T6ny.

One's own shirt is closer to the body (=charity begins at home).

And the special meaning 'home-made': Xne6 caoi, He 1113 uara311iHa. The bread is our own, not from the shop (i.e. we made it ourselves). You may also meet cases where ca6i refers to a non-nominative subject, e.g.

HBAO H&iTIIi mHli 6111n6T.

I must find my ticket.

21.4 Ce6t1: Self

The grammar of ce6R 'self' is similar to the grammar of ca6i. If the person affected by the action is also the subject of the clause, then ce6R is used instead of M8HRfre6N.Hac etc., just as in English we say 'I talk to



myself' not 'I talk to me', 'She loves only herself' not 'She loves only her' (i.e. the person loved is the same person as the person who is doing the loving). But unlike ca61ii, whose use is compulsory only with third person subjects, ce6il must be used if the person affected is the same as the subject.
Bbl mb6MTe T6nbKO aB. nocMOTpr.i H8 ~.
You love only yourself. (You) look at yourself.

Since 'self' cannot be the subject of a sentence, ce6il (which is the accusative/genitive form) has no nominative case. The other case forms match those of Te6A, namely:
N AIG D I p ce6il ce68 co661ii ce6e
Ivan took a glass for her. Ivan took a glass for himself. She talked about her (somebody else). She talked about herself.

lllaaH aaAn 6oKan A11A Hei. lllaaH B3An 6oK8n A11A ce6A. 0H8 roaopr.ina o Helii. 0H8 roaopr.ina o ce6e.

Because the forms of ce6A must be used if the subject and the person affected are the same, Russian and English uses of 'self' do not always match:
Mbl aailnM A8Telii c co601ii. 3aKp6iiiTe AB&pb aa co661ii.
We took our children with us ('with ourselves'). Close the door behind you ('yourself').


Say in Russian:
1 Take her with you. 2 Tell us about yourself. 3 She considers (C'IMTieT) herself very interesting (inst.).



21.5 Idioms with ce6R

OHa nowna 6H yce6fl. npMihM B ce6H Y MeHfl HeT npM ce6e A8Her. 6H Haaaan ce6fl.


She went to her (own) room/home ('to herself'). He's at home/at his own place/ in his own room. to come to one's senses/to recover ('to come back into oneself') I haven't any money on me ('attached to myself'). He gave his name ('named himself'). PUSH (notice on doors, i.e. 'away from self') PULL (i.e. 'towards self')


21.6 EXTRA: ce6R versus -cR

Ce6H always means 'self', while the reflexive verb ending -cH may express the meaning 'self' less emphatically and sometimes not at all (e.g. in ynbl6iiTbCH 'to smile'). As you know from 11.6, most 'self' verbs (e.g. 'wash oneself' MbiTbCH', 'dress oneself' OAeB8TbCH 1) have -cH, but note the following contrasting pair, where the more emphatic 'self' meaning of ce6fl is clear: C"'MTBTbCH' 'to be considered' (by other people) C"'MTBTb' ce6fl 'to consider oneself' 6H C'tMTal8T.!8 cnel.IM&nMCTOM. 6H C'tMTSeT ~ cne4ManMCTOM.
He is considered a specialist. He considers himself a specialist.

21.7 LIT06bllht6-bi]: in order to

When 'to' has the meaning of purpose ('in order to'), use 'IT06bl in Russian: We live (in order) to work. Mbt *MBiM, 'tT06bt pa66T&Tb.



(In order) to master Russian, you have to study three hours every day. l.fr66b1 ab!Y'IM'Tb pYCCKIIIM J13b1K, H8Ao 38HMM8'nocsl TpM 'f8Cii K&*AbiM A8Hb.

After verbs of motion (but not non-motion verbs), 'tT06bl can be omitted:
6H yexan a repMSHMIO ('tT06bl) npenOA&aSTb pyCCKMM A3biK. He's gone to Germany to teach Russian. 6H pa66Taer ceMb AHeM a H8A6nl0, 'tT66bl noMorlrrb poAifienRM JK8Hbl. He works seven days a week to help his wife's parents.

21.8 4T66bl in 'Someone Wants Someone To Do Something' constructions

LIT66bl, which comes from otTO + the particle 6bl (see lesson 19) is also

used when somebody wants somebody else to do something. The two clauses are linked by 'tT06bl and the verb after 'tT06bl is in the past tense (just as 6bl is followed by the past tense- see 19.2).
Sl xooty, otT66bl oHa npMwna

I want her to come on Wednesday.

Mbl xontM, otT66bl abl OTAOXHynM. We want you to have a rest.

Most other verbs which indicate that somebody wants somebody to do (or not to do) something are also followed by the same otT66bl construction, for example verbs meaning 'to order', 'to wish', 'to insist', 'to demand':
aen8Tb'1" (aemo, Tbl aen.twb) (+dative) 'to order roaopMTb'/cKa38Tbp 'to tell' npMKS3bla&Tb'/npMK838Tb0 (13) (+dative) 'to order' H8CTSMa8Tb' (like 3H8Tb)/H8CTOHTbP (H8CTOIO, H8CTOMWb) 'to insist' JKenaTb;/no-P (like 3H&Tb) 'to wish' Tp86oaaTb' (Tp86yl0, Tp86yewb)/no-p 'to demand' 6H aenMT, 'tT06bl abl npMwn.t 38aTpa. M3pM CKa38na, 'tT06bl 6H noAoJKA(In. 0HS H8CTitMaaeT, 'tT06bl 6H M3aMH.tncR.
He orders you to come tomorrow. Mary told him to wait. She insists that he apologize.






We want (wish) everything to go well. Mbl enaeM, 'fT66bl ace 6blnO xopow6. TypliiCTbl nol"J)66oaanM, 'fT66bl MX nepecenliinM a APYrYIO rocTMHMLIY The tourists demanded to be moved to another hotel.

Some verbs can be used either with 'fT66bl or with an infinitive. The main ones are npoCMTb'/no- 0 (15) 'to request' and npMK83biB&Tb'/npMK&38Tb"
'to order':

S1 npocliin, 'fT66bl oHa npMwna. or S1 npocliin ei (ace.) npMiiiTM.

I asked her to come.

OH8 npMK838na, o.rr66b16H np..wen. She ordered him to come. or OHa npMKa38na eMy (dat.) npMiiiTiii.


Say in Russian, using 'fT06bl:

l We're going to Russia to study (i) Russian. 2 I want them to come (p)
tomorrow. 3 He wants you to ring (p) in the evening. 4 Give me two kopecks to make a phone call (p). 5 We told her to take (p) her coat.

21.9 Vocabulary
8aTop author IJAMMHMCTpaTop administrator; hotel manager 6odn wineglass 6yMara paper TY&neTH&SI 6yMilra toilet paper aepMTb' aep10, aepMWb (no-") to believe ( + dat. = someone) (a + ace. in someone or something) aarnSIA view BKniO'f8Tb' (like 3H8Tb) (BKniO'fMTb0 BKniO'fy, BKniO'fMWb) to plug in, switch on aMecTo Tor6 'fT66bl ( +inf) instead of (doing something) BPSIA nM hardly, unlikely Bbi388Tb 0 Bbi30By, Bbi30B8Wb (Bbl3biBiiTb' like 3H8Tb) tO summon Bblp&JKeHMe expression BbiXOAMTb'/BblitTM0 1113 Ce6R to lose one's temper ('go out of oneself')



rep6i4 rep6ea hero rHeBHbiM angry r6pHM'IH8R (f adj) maid eaponeMCKMM European lKBnOB8TbCR' (no-0 ) (H8 +ace.) lKBnyiOCb, lKBnyeWbCR to
complain (about) 38RBMTb0 38RBniO, 38RBMWb ( + ace.) (38RBnRTb' like 3H8Tb) to announce (sth) MMeTb' a BMAY to bear in mind K8CBTbCR' (like 3H8Tb) ( + gen.) (KOCHyYbCR KOCHYCb, KOCHeWbCR) to touch (sth); to concern 'ITO KacaeTCR ( + gen.) as for ('what concerns') KMnRT(O)K boiling water

(nepeHOCMTb' I ike HOCMTb) to transfer nepecenliiTb0 (+ace.) nepecenlb, nepecenlilwb (nepecenfiTb' like 3H8Tb) to move, resettle (s.o.) noBOA cause no83AK8 noe3AOK journey n6nb30BBTbCR' (eoc-0 ) (+ inst.) n6nb3yl0cb, n6nb3yewbcR to use (sth) nOTpe60B8Tb0 (Tpe60B8Tb') noTpe6yiO, noTpe6yewb to demand npM'IMHa reason,cause npo6neMa problem npoaepMTb0 npoaep10, npoaepMWb (npoaepRTb' like 3H8Tb) (+ace.) to check npolKMBBIOI.qMM (m adj) resident np6cb6a request nyYeWeCTBOB8Tb' nyYeWeCTByiO, nyYewecTayewb to travel pa3BMTMe development pa3Aeni1Tb' (like 3H8Tb) +ace. (P83AenMTb0 PB3Aenlb, PB3A8nMWb) to share peMOHT repair(s), maintenance p6AMH8 homeland Ha POAMHe in one's homeland po38TKa po3eToK electricity socket, power point caMoaap samovar, urn ca6i4 own (21.2) ce6fl self (21.4) C&Tb (f) network; circuit c66CTB8HHbiM own, personal

KpOBBTb (f) bed Kynbrypa culture nelKBTb' nelKy, nelKMWb (no- 0) to lie, be in a lying position nM46 pl. nlil48 face; person MBCTep pl. MBCTep{l skilled workman MMnMI.IMR police MOHTep electrician HaaepHoe probably Hap6'1HO deliberately H6Mep pl. HOMepa hotel room; number o66M (m pl.) o66ea wallpaper OAMHBKOBbiM identical OTHOWeHMB attitude nepeBOA'IMK translator nepeHBCTM 0 (like HBCTM) +ace.






cnpRT&Tb 0 cnpR~y,cnpR~ewb

( + ace.) {npRT&Tb') to hide cpil3y :IKe immediately

cp6'1HO urgently cntnb (m) style TepneTb' (no-0 ) Tepnmo, TepnMwb to endure; to be patient TepneTb He Morj (+ace.) I can't stand (s.o. or sth) Tpe6oB&Tb' see no- to demand

ryprpynna tourist group rYPnM (f pl.) rYPenb shoes, house shoes yaaJKiiTb' (like 3H8Tb) to respect

ycTpBMB8Tb' (like 3H8Tb) ( + ace.) (yCTp6MTb0 yCTp610, ycTpOMWb) to organize (sth); to suit (s.o.) XOTR although 4BBT pl. 4BeTil colour 'lilliiHMK kettle; teapot 'IBCTbllii frequent 'IBWK8 'IBWBK cup 'IT06bl [sht6-bl] (in order) to 'IYBCTBOB8Tb' (n0-0) (+ace.) to feel (something) 'IYBCTByiO, 'IYBCTBY8Wb 'IYBCTBOB8Tb ce6R xopow6 to feel well 3neKTpo6priiTBa electric razor

21.10 B rocntHM4e In the Hotel

A n

=AAMMHMCTpiiTop =nepeBOA'IMK ryprpynnbl

n: 3ApilacTayliiTe. Y MBHR K aaM np6cb6a. MrilcTep T6pHry31iiT x6'1eT, 'IT66bl Bbl eMYAilnM APYr61ii H6Mep. 6H roaopriiT, 'IT6 B ero H6Mepe HeT po38TKM, a 6H x6'1eT CAenaTb ce68 'IBWKY K6cpe. A: Po38TKa ecTb o6R3iiTenbHO, 38 KpoaiiTbiO. H6 aoo6aqe Mbl He nt06MM, 'IT06bl npO:IKMBBIOiqMB BKniO'IBnM B CeTb H&rpeBiiTenbHbiB npM66pbl.* CK&:IKMTe eMy, 'ITO ropHM'IH8R ABCTBMY KMnRTOK M3 caoero caMoailpa. n: Xopowo, R nepeAiiM. l.fepe3 A8CRTb MMHyY . n: MrilcTepa TopHry31iiTa 3To He yCTpiiMaaeT. 6H roaopriiT, 'ITO oH He XO'IeT nonb30B8TbCR CBMOBilpOM ropHM'IHOiii. 6H roaopMT, 'ITO, H&BepHoe, C8MOBilp y ropHM'IHOiii rpR3Hbllii, 8 y Hero CBOM 'IBMHMK, MOH 6yABT nonb30B8TbCR TOnbKO CBOMM C06CTB8HHbiM 'IBMHMKOM. A: A po38TKY oH Hawen?



n: Hawen, H6 6H roaopiiT, 'tTO oHa He pa66TaeT. Kp6Me Tor6, OH >KanyeTCR, 'tTO OH He MO>KBT BKJliO'fMTb CBO!b 3neKTpo6pMTBy, 'tTO HeT Ty&n6THOM 6yMarM M'tTO 4BBT 066ea BMY He HpoBBMTCR. A: Xopow6. ~ Bbi30BY MOHTipa, 'tT06biOH npoaepMn po36TKy, MR CKB>Kj ropHM'tHOM, 'tT06bl OHB npMHecna Tyan6THYIO 6yMary. A 'tT6 KacaeTcR o66ea, R HM'ter6 He Morj CA6naTb. Bo acex HOMepax o66M OAMHBKOBble. n: 0T ce6fl CK&>Kj*, 'tTO R Tepn6Tb He MOrj STOrO MMCTepa T6pHTy3MTa. OH AYM&eT T6nbKO o ce6e, 6H ace apeMR cepAMTCR, BbiXOAMT M3 ce6il no ni066My n6BOAY KorA& Mbl 6blnM B MOCKOBCKOM rOCTMHM48 MOH He M6r H8MTM CBOM ljcllnM, OH noTp660Ban, 'tT06bl R cp6'tHO Bbi3B8n MMnM4MIO. npMwna MMnM4MR, MOKa38nOCb, 'tTO TjcllnM ne>KBT nOA ero KpOBBTbiO. BM6cTo Tor6, 'tT66bl M3BMHMTbCR, 6H 38RBMn, 'tT6 r6pHM'tH8R H8p6'tHO cnpiiTana er6 TjcllnM, 'tT06bl nOTOM npOASTb MX H8 'tepHOM pbiHKe. noAXOAMT &HrnM'tBHMH C rH6BHbiM Bblp&>K6HMeM nMi48. n: MilcTep T6pHTy3MT Tp66yeT, 'tT66bl er6 cpa3y >Ke nepecenilnM a APYr61it H6Mep. A: Xopowo. ECTb cao66AHble HoMepa Ha AeBiiToM 3Ta>K6, xoTil TaM MAih peM6HT M BPRA nM eMy TaM 6yAeT ny'twe. ~ Morj nonpOCMTb, 'tT66bl er6 nepecenilnM TVAB n: Sonbw6e cnacil6o. A: nycTb MMCTep TMpaH ... K&K er6 ... nycTb aHrnlilliiicKMM roCTb MA9T K ce66 B H6Mep. ~ CK&>Kj r6pHM'tHOM, 'tT06bl OHS nOMOrna eMy nepeHeCTM B611.1M. *HarpeaaTenbHbiM npM66p heating appliance. *oT ce6il CK&>Ky speaking for myself ('from myself I'll say').


Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev

1 When was Turgenev born? 2 What was the name of his birthplace? (You may need a map to find the nominative form.)






3 Translate the first sentence of the second paragraph paying special attention to~ p6AMHy, ca6iii Hap6A, ~ Kynb,.Ypy, ~ st3b1K. 4 He spent a lot of time in Western Europe. What two reasons are mentioned? 5 Did Turgenev want to overthrow the Tsar or did he consider Russia to be paradise on earth?

1.13aecTHbiM pyccKMM mtcaTenb 1.1aaH CepreeaM'f TypreHea, aaTop poMilHa OTI.Ibl MA8TM, POAMncst ABSALIBTb BOCbM6ro OKTst6pil (ABBHTOrO HOS16pfl no HOBOMY CTMniO*) TbiCSI'f8 BOCeMbCOT BOCeMHSALI8TOro r6AS B r6pOAe Opne, K lOry OT MOCKBbl. XoTil TypreHea 6oteHb mo614n cao.O p6AMHy, ca6iii Hap6A, er6 KynbTjpy, er6 Sl3biK, OH npOBOAMn MH6ro BpeMeHM 38 rp&HML!BM. 6H yot.:incst a 6epni4He, A6nro >KMn a nap.:i>Ke, nyTewecTaoaan no cTpilHaM 38nSAHOM Eap6nbl, 6bln a AHrnMM, rAe a TbiCstota aoceMbC6T weCTMABCHTOM rOAY 6H npoaen TpM HBAenM H8 YilMTB*, a B TbiCSI't8 BOCBMbCOT CeMbABCSIT ABBHTOM rOAY nonyot.:in nooteTHy101 CTeneHb1 6KcctopACKoro yHMBepcMTeTa. CotMTileTcst, otT6 rnaaHoiii npMot.:iHoiii er6 otilcTbiX noe3AOK 38 rpaHMLIY 6blnil er6 npMBH38HHOCTb1 K cpp&HLIY3CKOM neBMI.Ie* n. 8M8PA6, C KOT6poiii OH n03H8KOMMnCst B 1843 rOAY H6 MHOrMe C'tMTSIOT, otTO 6H otyBCTBOBan ce6fl nyotwe B 3ilnSAHOM Eap6ne, 'tBM B Pocc.:iM. XoTil 6H nMcan o npo6neMax caoeiii p6AMHbl, 6H 6bln eaponeMCKMM nMCSTeneM. Ca6iii nyotWMM poMilH OTI.Ibl MA8nt 6H ony6nMKoaan* a TbiCstota BOCBMbCOT WBCTbABCHT nepBOM rOAY Ha 3ilnSAB MHOrMe 3HSIOT 3TOT poMilH Mer6 rep6st, HMrMn.:icTa*-peaoniOLIMOHepa 6a38poaa. TypreHea yaa>Kan caoer6 Mj>KecTaeHHoro* rep6st, H6 He pa3Aeniln er6 B3rnHAOB. LIT66bl nOHHTb er6 ABOMCTBBHHOe1 OTHOWeHMe K 6a3llpoay, HSAO MMeTb a BMAY. otT6 TypreHea xopow6 3Han ace npo6neMbl caoei4 OTCTilnoiii* p6AMHbl, H6 cotMTiln ce6fl nM6epanoM*, a He peaoniOI.IMOHepOM. 6H He aepMn B Heo6XOAMMOCTb1 peaoniOI.IMM B POCCMM. 6H 6bln HnSAHMKOM*, TO BCTb 6H C'tMTan 3ilnSAHDeaponeMCKMM, K8nMT8nMCTM'tBCKMM* nyTb p83BMTMSI npMeMneMbiM1 A"SI POCCMM.



*Extra Vocabulary for Turgenev Exercise (In Alphabetical Order): AB6icTaeHHbiM dual 38n&AHMK westernizer, i.e. one who believed that Russia could learn from the West; their opponents, the Slavophiles (cnaBRHOcillilnbl) believed in a non-western, Slavonic, path KanMTanMCTM'teCKMM capitalist nM6epan liberal MjlKecTBeHHbiM manly, courageous H806XOAMMOCTb (f) necessity HMrMnlilcT nihilist (an 1860s revolutionary who believed that all the
existing social institutions should be swept away) ony6nMKOBSTb0 to publish OTCTanbiM backward neBM48 (female) singer no'teTHaR CTeneHb honorary degree npMBR38HHOCTb (f) attachment, affection npM6MneMbiM acceptable no H6aouy cTiilmo new style (by the western calendar adopted after the 1917 revolution) YaiT Isle of Wight



22.1 Key Phrases

Mii*AY nRTblb MC8Mblb 'l&c8MM 66nbWe (66nee) I1JITMC6T py6n6i 0H6 roaopM-r H& Tpix R3bldx. c o66Mx CTOp6H o66MMM pyK6MM Ha o66Mx CTon6x CO MH6rMMM pyCCKMMM B HilcKOnbKMX ropo,ql\x
between five and seven o'clock more than five hundred roubles She speaks three languages. from both sides with both hands on both tables with many Russians in several towns

22.2 The Declension of Numbers and Quantity Words The material in this lesson is concerned with the complexities of Russian number usage. If you find the difficulties of doing arithmetic in Russian intriguing, then enjoy yourself. If the grammar of numbers turns you off, then skip through the lesson to see the kinds of situations to avoid, and move on quickly to Lesson 23. The essential material on numbers is in Lessons 9 and 17. Have you revised 9.5 and 9.9 on 'two dollars' ABfJ. A6nn8J)il, 'five dollars' nRTb A6nnapmt etc? The two main grammar points to note in this lesson are: (a) that numbers and quantity words (nRTb, CT6, MH6ro) have declensions



just as nouns do (nocne niiHMHfl 'after Lenin'; n6cne nATM. 'after five'genitive case); (b) the agreement rules for nouns and numbers in 9.9 (and adjectives 10.13) do not apply if the number is in the gen., dat., inst. or prep. case ('of three', 'with fifty' etc.). Note this new rule: When the number is in one of these four cases, for example the instrumental, any accompanying adjectives and nouns are in the plural of the same case as the number. Examples: (nom./acc. number) ABB A6nnapa two dollars ('of dollar' 9.5) (inst. number) c ABY.Mi! A6nn&Pil!!M'!. with two dollars ('dollars' in inst. plural) two young girls (see 10.13) ABe MonoAill8 A6aywK.It to two young girls (dat. pl.) ABYM MonoAtd.M AilaywKR

two o'clock after two o'clock (gen. pl.) three foreign students (10.13) with three foreign students (inst. pl.) several languages in several languages (prep. pl.)

In practice, Russians avoid using numbers, particularly big ones, in cases other than the nom./acc./gen., and you can do the same. For example, a sentence such as 'I arrived with 540 dollars' (instrumental c nATbiOCTilMM copod A6nnapaMM) can be rephrased as 'I had 540 dollars when I arrived' (KorAil A npM6xan, y MeHH 61i1no nATbC6T c6poK A6nnapoa).

22.3 Declension Details

Numbers which end with a soft sign in the nominative (e.g. 5-20) behave like soft-sign feminine singular nouns, so the genitive of nATb is nATM (cf. CM6Mpb-CM6MP.I!I). But many numbers are idiosyncratic. Aaa, TPM and 'f8Ttitpe have unique declensions, and other numbers have special features too. See the tables on pp. 378-86.



As mentioned in Lesson 17 on times and dates, the only number case forms you have to know are the genitive forms of the low numbers, up to twenty-five or so (17.6). But for reference purposes it is useful to know how the phrases at the beginning of this lesson are formed. 0AiiiH, as you may remember, has the same grammar and endings as 3TOT ('this'):
Sl 3Hluo OAHOr6 (note stress) nMCiflTenH. Sl no3H8KOMMnacb c OAHMM MOnOAbiM 'tenoaeKOM. nMCbMO OT OAHOM AeByWKM

I know one(= a certain) writer. I got to know a certain ('one') young man. a letter from one (a certain) girl

0AiiiH also has plural forms (for use with nouns which have no singular):

one watch
0AiiiH also means 'alone': OHSOAHS. MbiOAHM. B OAHMX 6piOK8X (6piOKM


She is alone. We are alone. wearing only trousers (in trousers alone)

AaaiABe, TPM and 't8Tblpe have the following forms:




TPM TpMhpeX; TpiX TpiM Tp8MR Tpex

't8Tblpe 't8Tblpe/'t8Tblpix; oteTblpex 't8TblpiM 't8TblpbMR oteTblpex



;Aayx, Tpex and 't8TblpiX are used with animate nouns- see 22.9 below. nHTb, wecTb, aoc{e)Mb etc. look like feminine singular nouns.





A nHTb





The stress is on the end of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 20 and 30. lit is fixed on the stem of 11-19. C6poK, A8BAH6cTO and CT6 have strange (but easy) declensions:

The numbers 50, 60, 70, 80, and the hundreds - 200 etc. - are two-part words and both parts decline:
D I p

The numbers 60 and 70 are like 50; 300 and all the other hundreds are like 200 and 500. Grammar Table 7 (see page 383) gives more examples. For 'thousand' (Tb1Cfl"18) and million, see 22.6 below.



1 6H npMAih M6*AY TpeMSi M nATblb "18CBMM. 2 0Hll 38p86llTbiB88T

(earns) 66nbwe "18Tblpex TbiCfl"'
Tpixc6T A6nnapoa a MKALI


HBW8M M8r83MH8 npOASibTCA KHMrM H8 BOCbMMA8CfiTM ABYX fl3b1Kllx.


Read (or write out) the numbers in Russian:

1 nollnyMCT8, n03BOHMT8 MHO AO 11 eleven. 2 Sl XO"'Y B8C n03H8KOMMTb C 2

Please ring me before 'I



want to introduce you to two interesting girls. 3 MMCTep n6yn rosopMT Ha

8 R3biKBX Mr Pope speaks eight languages. 4 AAMMHMCTpllTop nony'IMn nMCbM6 OT 31 aMepMKBHJ.I8 The manager has received a letter from thirtyone Americans.

22.4 Both: 66a/66e

These words behave like ABaiABe 'two', so 66a is used with m and n nouns, while 66e goes with f ones. After 66al66e in the nom. or ace., the noun is genitive singular:

66aApyra 66e nOAPYrM

both friends both female friends

The declensions of 66a and 66e are: M 66a A

66a (inanim)/o66Mx (anim) G o66Mx 0 o66MM I 066MMM p o66MX

Here are some phrases you might need:

66e 66e (inanim)/o6eMx (anim) o6eMx 068MM 068MMM o6eMx

o6eMMM pyKiiMM Sf 3Hal0 MX o66MX. 8 o66MX cny'I&RX

with both hands I know them both. in both cases


Note that 'both' linking two words isM ...

Sl 3Hato MEsy, M B&AMMa.

I know both Eva and Vadim.

22.5 nomopit: One and a Half

One and a half is always translated as nomopa (nonTopbl with feminine nouns), never as OAMH c nonosMHOM. After nonTopa (which is short for

nonosMHa sTop6ro 'half of the second'), use the genitive singular:



Mbl JKAinM nonTopa 'laca (gen. sg.). nonTopa KMnorpaMMa

We waited for an hour and a half. one and a half kilograms

The feminine form is officially nonToplil:


one and a half weeks

But in informal, colloquial speech nonTopa is used with all nouns.

22.6 EXTRA: Declension of nomopil

Like all numerals, nomopll/nomoplil decline. The G/D/1/P of both nonTOpS and nonToplil is nonjTopa.
66nbwe nonY,.opa TbiCH'I (gen. pl.)

more than one and a half thousand

22.7 Thousand, Million, Billion

Note that TbiCH'Ia (1 ,000), MMnnM6H (million), MMnmtBPA (US billion = thousand million), and 6MnnM6H (million million) are grammatically nouns, not numerals, which means that (a) they have normal noun endings, and (b) they behave like KMnorpaMM, not like nHTb, i.e. following nouns and adjectives are always in the genitive:
c ABYMR KMnorp8MM&MM anenbCMHQII c ABYMR MMnnM6H&MM py6nel4 (not py6niiMM) TpiM TbiCH'I&M &MepMKBHLieB (not 8M8pMKBHLI8M)

with two kilos of oranges with two million roubles to three thousand Americans

But remember (9.11) that in Russian it is always the last number which determines agreement:

to 3,300 Americans



Sl n!)O'IMT&n ABe TbiCA'IM pyccKg KHM[. Russian books. 'leTiilpe-nATb M8cAI.UHI (

I have read 2,000 Russian books. I have read 1,201

Sl n!)O'IMTBn TWCA'IY AB8cTM OAHY pYCCKm KHM'"l four or five months

22.8 Quantity Words: Declension of MH6ro etc.

MH6ro 'many', HecKOnbKO 'a few', 'several', and cK6nbKO 'how many' have the following type of declension:

N MH6ro A MH6ro (inanim)/MH6rMx (anim)


MHOfMX in many respects I spoke to many tourists. in several places


Put the numbers/quantity words in the correct form and translate:

1 Mbl 61i1n1o1 a 32 cTpaHax. 2 Mbl exanM 1,5 'lace. 3 Mara3MH pa66TaeT c 9 YTPii AO 5 ae'lepa. 4 st no3H&K6MMncA c (66e) A8aywK&MM. 5 Mbl no6b1BiinM ao (MH6ro) pyccKMX ropoA&x. 6 Mbl pa3roaapMaanM c

Read the following sentences aloud and translate, noting that each second sentence is a simpler version of the preceding one, avoiding awkward declined numerals:



1 Mbt npown.t newK6M 6Kono 250 (gen.) KMnoMeTpoa. 2 Mbt npown.t newK6M npMMepHo (=approximately (adverb)) 250 (ace.) KMnoMeTpoa. 3 6H npMexan c 540 (inst.) A6nnap&MM. 4 KorA{l 6H npMexan, y Her6 6titno 540 (nom.) A6nnapoa. 5 s:l npMAY M8JKAY 10 M 11 'I&CiiMM. 6 s:l npMAY a 11-oM (adj) 'lacy (17.4). 7 B MocKae *"aeT 66nee 6.500.000 (gen.) 'fenoaeK. 8 HaceneHMe (population) MocKalit npeabtwileT (exceeds} 6.500.000 (ace.) 'fenoaeK.

22.9 The Accusative of Numbers with Animate Nouns

General rules. Only the numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4 have animate accusative forms (i.e. OAHOr6, AByx, Tpix, 'feTbtpix). Numbers ending 1 decline the 1, but numbers which end 2, 3 and 4, e.g. 22, 32, 5,134, do not have animate accusative forms. Note these three model sentences:
s:l 3Hil10 ee ABjx (anim ace.) 6piiTbeB. I know her two brothers.

Mbl xoTMM 3&K&3i1Tb cT6n H& ABiiA48Tb ABB (inanim form) 'fenoaeKa. We want to book a table for twenty-two people. Mbt xoTMM 38K&3i1Tb cT6n H& ABiiA48Tb OAHQrQ (anim) 'lenoaeKa. We want to book a table for twenty-one people.

22.10 Collective Numerals

There is another set of number words which you will meet occasionally, particularly when Russians give the number of children in a family. Instead of ABB pe6eHKa 'two children' ('two of child'), they normally say AB6e A8Tei4, 'a twosome of children'. There are nine of these collective numerals, from two to ten, but only the first three are common:
AB6e 'two', 'a twosome' Tp6e 'three', 'a threesome' 'feTaepo 'four', 'a foursome'

The others are m1Tepo, w&cTepo, ceMepo, B6cbMepo, A8BJITepo, A9cHTepo. You need these collective numerals:



(a) when counting children (A8TM) and men (MY*'tMHbl):

Y Hee AB6e AeTei. 'She has two children' (more idiomatic than ABa pe6iHKa). AB6e MY*'tMH 'two men' (not ABa MY*'tMHbl)

(b) when counting words which have no singular forms (since ABa, TpM, 't8Tblpe require the gen. sg.), e.g. cjTKM 'twenty-four hours', otaCbl 'watch', 6pKIKM 'trousers', J1cnM 'creche':
B n6e3Ae Mbl exanM Tp6e cjToK. We spent three days and nights on the

Y MeHJ1 ABOe ~tacos. I have two watches. Ha 3TOM 38B6Ae AB6e J1cnei. This factory has two creches.

(c) in phrases such as 'There are four of us'. Hac oteTaepo.

Hac 6blnO Tp6e. There were three of us.

22.11 EXTRA: More on Collective Numerals

Optionally, collective numerals can be used for groups of males (not females or mixed groups), e.g. ABOe conA&T 'two soldiers' (or ABa conA&Ta), Tp6e yotMTenei 'three teachers' (or TPM yotMTenR). This usage is rather colloquial. Tpoe MMHMCTpoa ('a threesome of male government ministers') would sound disrespectful; TPM MMHMCTpa is more polite. The other collective numerals up to ten are, as we saw above: nJ1Tepo 'five', wecTepo 'six', ceMepo 'seven', BOcbM8po 'eight', ASBJITepo 'nine', A6cRTepo 'ten', but the higher the number, the rarer it is. Instead of Hac 6blnO niiTepo 'There were five of us' you can say Hac 6blnO nHTb otenoaeK. Since the numbers nRTb, weCTb etc. take the genitive plural, you do not need to use niiTepo, wecTepo etc. with words which have no singular. So 'five days and nights' is simply nHTb cjToK (no need to say nJ1Tepo cjToK), 'five children' is nHTb A8T8i. Like all numerals, ABOe, TpOe etc. decline, but Russians generally avoid structures in which declined forms would be necessary. Here are the declensions of AB6e ('two') and oteTaepo ('four'):
N AB6e




A AB6e (inanim) ABOMX (anim)


'feTaepo (inanim)/'4eTaepbtX (anim) '48TB8pbiX '48TB8pb1M '48TB8pbiMM '48TB8pbiX

Tp6e declines like ABOe, the others like '48Taepo.

In a hotel: H6Mep Ha ABOMX 'a room for two (people)', 'a double' pa66T&Tb 38 Tpo.tx 'to work for three' (do as much as three people).

There are no collective numerals beyond AecRTepo 'ten', so there are problems if you should ever want to say 'twenty-three watches' ('48Cbl m pl. 'watch') or 'eighty-two creches' (sicnM pl. 'creche'), since numbers ending 2, 3, 4 require the genitive singular. In such cases, the construction has to be rewritten to separate the number from the noun, e.g. Mbl OTKpblnM ACnM B KOnM'48CTB8 BOCbMMA8CRTM ABYX we have opened creches in the quantity (to the total) of eighty-two.'

22.12 Verb Agreement with Numbers

The general rule is: when the subject is a numeral, make the verb neuter singular:
Y M8HA 6blllQ nRTbA8CAT A6nnapoa. Elit TorA& 6btllQ TPM r6AB. npMWM nRTb 'fenoaeK.

I had fifty dollars.

She was three years old then. Five people came.

But note the following details: - Plural verbs are quite common if the subject is animate (i.e. people):
npMwn6 (npMwnM) AKRTb 8MepMK8H48B. Ten Americans came.

- Plural verbs are normal with animate subjects if (a) the number is ABa, TpM, '48Tbtpe, or the collective numerals AB6e, Tp6e, 'feTaepo, and/or (b) the subject comes before the verb:



Ei TpM CbiH8 *ABnM (not *A&no) H8C H8 BOK3ilne. Her three sons were waiting for us at the station. AecHTb-nSITHSA48Tb TYPMCTOB xon1T (not x6~teT) noMTM B TeaTp. Ten or fifteen tourists want to go to the theatre. npMAYr ABOe. Two men will come.

B &ar6He-pecTopaHe CMA6nM/CMAeno Tpoe aMepMKBHI4eB. There were three American men sitting in the restaurant car.

Say in Russian: 1 We have two children. 2 There are three of us. 3 You have to travel for three days and three nights (use cjTKM). 4 Two men were waiting for us. 5 I had more than (66nee +gen.) a hundred dollars.

22.13 Fractions
You should already know the feminine nouns nonOBMH8 half' and ~t6T&epTb 'a quarter'. Notice also TpeTb (f) 'a third'. The other fractions are all feminine adjectives, with the usual adjective endings after numbers:

OAH8 niiT&JI OAHB W8CTHSA48T8JI ABe nHTbiX (gen. pl.) TPM MnHTb A8CHTbiX

one-fifth one-sixteenth two-fifths 3.5 (three and five-tenths)

Both decimal fractions and vulgar fractions are read in the same way. So 4,3 and 4 3/tO are read as '48Tb1pe M TPM A8CHTbiX*. After fractions, adjectives and nouns are in the genitive singular:


2,6 pe6iHK8

nHTbA8CHT WecTb M &6ceMb A8CHTbiX npo146HT8 fifty-six and eight-tenths of a per cent (npo14eHT is a masculine noun) 2.6 children (two and six-tenths of a child)

*A note on halves. 'Half' is nonoBMHa in everyday contexts and nHTb



A8CRTbJX ('five-tenths') in statistical contexts. In everyday speech 'two/ three/four etc. and a half' is AB&/TpM/'teTblpe etc. e nonoatiHoJii ('with

a half'); the fonn of the following noun is then governed by the integer (the whole number), not by the fraction. For example:
nRTb c nonoatiHoJii MeTpQ!l ( after 5) five and a half metres

But in a more mathematical/statistical/official context ('5.5 metres'):

nRTb M nRTb A8CRTbJX (5,5) M6Tpa ( after a decimal fraction)

Remember that 'one and a half' is nonTopll (see above 22.5). Note that Russians use a decimal comma (5,5), not a decimal point.

22.14 TeKCT. CTaTMCTMKa ('Statistics')

As a difficult and entirely optional exercise, you can try reading out the numbers. They are written out in words immediately following the text.

8 1982 rOAY a Coa6TCKOM Col03e npoMallno 66nee 268.000.000 M3 HMX 6Kono 5.000.000 CTYA6HTOB, KOTOpbJe y~ttlnMcb a 900 YHM&epCMTeT&X M MHCTMyYT8X. 81982 rOAY 6blnO OKOno 1.000.000 apa't6Jii. 8 TOM *e rOAY B MOCKBe 6blnO 66nee 8.350.000 r.heneJii, KOTOpbl8 CMOTp6nM cneKTSKnM B 26 TeSTp&X. MOCKOBCKMe AliTM XOAMnM a 1.000 WK6n.

Answers to the numbers exercise:

~ TbiCH'ta A8BRTbCOT a6ceMbA8CRT &TopoM- '1982nd year' (17.11); 268.000.000 ABYXCOT wecTM A8CfiTM BOCbMM MMnnMOHOB - 66nee = 66nbWe + gen. 'more than (18.2); 5.000.000 nRTM MMnnMOHOB - gen. after 6Kono 'about'; 9 A8BfiTMCTSx- prep.; 1.000.000 (OAHOr6) MMnnMOHa; 8.350.000 BOCbMM

MMnnMOHOB TpiXCOT nRTMA8CRTM TbiCfl't- gen.;~ AB8AJ1TM W8CTMprep.; 1.JHm TbiCR'tY- ace.


Russian Divorce Statistics Find the answers to the following questions:



What percentage of married couples get divorced in any one year?

2 How do the divorce figures for 1950 compare with those for 1977? 3 At the time of writing what proportion of marriages break up within five
years of the wedding?

4 What proportion of divorcing couples have no children?

Ecmt cpaaHMTb 'IMCn6 pa3ao,qoa 38* ro,q c 'IMcnoM 6pil'IHblx* nap, KOTOpbl8 cyJqeCTBOBilnM B H&'lilne ro,q&, TO 3ll ro,q pa3BO,qMTCR BCero oKono nonY,.opa* npo1.1eHTOB cynpyroa, To ecTb 3ll ro,q pacna,q{leTcR* acer6 6Kono nRTHil,qLI&TM M3 TbiCR'IM ceMeM.

B 1950 ro,qy H& TbiCR'IY cail,qe6 6blnO Tptt,qLI&Tb ,qaa pa3BO,q&. B 19n ro,qy Ha TbiCR'IY CBil,qe6 6blnO y:IKe TpMCT& ,qBil,qLI&Tb TpM
pa3a6,qa. Mccn8,qoaaHMR* noKa3llnM, 'ITO TpeTb acex pa3ao,qoa npoMcxo,qMT Ha nepaoM ro,qy ceMeMHOM )l(tt3HM, e~qe TpeTb npMxo,qMTcR* Ha ceMbM, cy~qeCTBjiOJqMe* OT O,qHoro ,qo nRTM neT. M3 CTa HOBbiX CeMeMHbiX nap Ha nepaoM ro,qy :IKM3HM pacna,qileTcR o,qttHHa,qLI&Tb, ,qo nRTJii neT pacna,q{leTCR ,qBil,qLI&Tb ,qBe C8MbM. M3BeCTHO, 'ITO B T8X cnj'laRX, KOr,qil B CeMb8 e~qe H8T ,qeTeM (MX H8T y 'leTBepTM p83BO,qRJqMXCR nap), MY*bR BbiCyYnilJOr MHML!MilTOp8MM 1 B nonOBMHe cny'laeB. A B CeMbJIX C ,qeTbMM MHML!MilTOpaMM 'lilJqe BbiCyYnilJOT* :IKeHJqMHbl - ,qae TpeTM BC8X MCKOBbiX* 38RBneHMM 1 B ceMbRX C o,qHMM-,qByMR ,qeTbMM no,q&nM :IKeHJqMHbl (T8KMX CeMb,q8CRT np01.1eHTOB OT BC8X pacna,q{lJOJqMXCR* CeMeM, C 6onbWMM KOnM'I8CTBOM ,qeTeM - BCero nRTb npOI.IeHTOB). TeM CilMbiM* :IKeHJqMHbl CTp8MRTCR 1 38JqMTMTb ,qeTeM OT KOHclnMKTOB ceMeMHOM :IKM3HM. OHJii C'IMTilJOT, 'ITo ,qeTRM 6y,qeT ny'lwe 6e3 oTI.Iil, '18M c nnoxliiM OTLIOM. (Based on figures quoted by the demographer B. nepeae,qeHLieB in 1981.)

22.15 Vocabulary
(*Words marked with a 1 are less common and probably not worth learning at this stage.) 6onee (bookish) (gen.) more (than) (18.2) (same as more colloquial 6onbwe +gen.) 6paK marriage



*6p8otHaR napa married couple *BbiCyYnBTb MHM4MBTOpOM to initiate (divorce proceedings) AB6e two, a twosome 38RaneHMe application *38 roA (note stress on prep.) during the year 381qMTMTb0 381J4Miqy, 381qMTMWb (381J4Miq8Tb' like 3H8Tb) ( + ace.) to defend, protect (someone) M3B8cTHO it is known *MHM4M8TMB8 initiative *MHM4MBTOp initiator *MCKOB6e 38RBneHM8 divorce application MccneAOB&HMe investigation, research KOnM't8CTBO quantity *KoHciJnli'IKT conflict MMnnMBPA a thousand million (US billion) 66a/66e both (22.4) napa couple noA&TbP (like A&Tb) ( + ace.) (nOA&BBTb' like A&BBTb) to serve, hand in, lodge nomopa one and a half (22.5) nonjTopa gen. of nonTopil one and a half nonyotMTb 0 nonyoty,nonyotMWb ( + ace.) (nonyotitTb) to receive, get *npMX6AMTCR H8 CeMbM happens to families npo>KMBBTb' (like 3H&Tb) to reside npoMCXOAMTb' (like XOAMTb)

(npOM30MTMP like MATM)

to occur

npo48HT a per cent *p&3BOAJllqMMCR divorcing *pacn&A8101J4MMCR breaking up *pacnaABTbCR' to break up pyKit ace. PYKY pl. PYKM, pyKitM hand, arm ca&Ab6a cailAe6 wedding ceMeMHbiM family cnj'talit cnyotaea case CoaeTCKMM Colb3 Soviet Union cneKTiiKnb (m) performance, show Cp8BHMTbPCp8BHIO,Cp8BHMWb (cpitBHMB8Tb' like 3H8Tb) tO compare ecnM cpaBHMTb if one compares *cTpeMMTbCR' to strive, try CyYAeHT student *cynpyrM (pl.) husband and wife (from cynpyr 'm spouse', cynpyra 'f spouse')
cy~qeCTBOBBTb' cy~qeCTBYIO

(npo-P) to exist

*cy~qeCTBYIOIJ4MM existing

(Lesson 29)

*TeM citMbiM in this way ('by that very') T6 ecTb that is TpeTb (f) a third (22.13) Tp6e three, a threesome oteTaepo four, a foursome oteTaepTb (f) quarter (22.12) 'tMCn6 pl. otlilcna otlilcen number



23.1 Key Phrases

B'fepil ae'fepoM a npowny10 cpeAY B TOTA8Hb a ABBAI.IiiToM aeKe B W8CTMA8CRTbiX rOAilx 38 'fac AO Ha'filna Sl "AY a MocKay Ha HeAeniO. Mbl wnM AO TeiiTpa AecRTb MMHjT. Mbl AOWnM AO TeiiTpa 38 nRTb MMHjT.
yesterday evening/last night last Wednesday that day in the twentieth century in the sixties an hour before the start I'm going to Moscow for a week. It was a ten-minute walk to the theatre. We reached the theatre in five minutes.

23.2 Grammar of Time Expressions

The main structures for telling the time and giving the date are in Lesson 17. This lesson gives you more information on the grammatical patterns and also deals with the question of duration ('How long?'). There are several types of time meanings. Three basic types answer the following questions:
(l) When?

(2) How long does something go on? 'He worked for three days.' (3) How long does something take to finish? 'He did it in three days.'


__ iTWIIfl

"I' .. _,


23.3 When?

The 'when' type is the commonest and the one with the biggest variety of answers. Notice that in English, when answering the question 'When did she arrive?', possible answers are on Wednesday, at three o'clock, in the morning. The use of 'on', 'at' or 'in' depends on what the noun is. In Russian too there are several different constructions, depending on the noun. (a) The first regularity to notice is the common use of a to mean in/at/on with time words: a CP'AY 'on Wednesday', a ABB t.taca 'at two o'clock'. We met such examples in Lesson 17. (b) If the word denotes a day or shorter (e.g. hour, second etc.), a is used with the accusative case:
BCIJ8AY B 'tBC amo66MA8Hb
on Wednesday at one o'clock/in an hour on any day

(c) if the time word is longer than a day (e.g. week, month, year etc.), a is used with the prepositional case:

a 3Tm.troAi

in January this year in the nineteenth century

Exception: HBAilnA 'week' is used with HB (+prep.) instead of a:

HA np6wnoM HeAllne HA 3ToM H8Ailne HA cnliAYIOaqeM (6YAYII48M) HBA8ne
last week this week next week

(d) The parts of the day and the seasons are in the instrumental with no preposition: jTpoM 'in the morning', aecH6M 'in spring' (see 16.5). (e) Words which denote activities (e.g. BOMH6 'war', yp6K 'lesson') or indefinite periods (e.g. an6xa 'era' and apeMA 'time' itself) rather than specific time periods (e.g. HBABnA 'week') are used with a and the accusative:



B 3TO BpeMH B BOMHy a Hawy 3noxy

at that time in the war in our epoch/era

(t) In the plural, all time words normally take a+ ace.:

a 3TM AHM/MllcHL!bl/r6Ab1

during these days/months/years

(g) Decades The nineties are A8BHHOCTble r6Abl 'the ninetieth years', the eighties are BOCbMMAecRTble r6Abl and so on. In this context, the genitive plural of r6Ab1 is~ (not neT):

at the end of the sixties

'In a decade' is either the prepositional or the accusative. So 'in the seventies' is a ceMMA8CRTbiX roAix (prep. - slightly commoner) or a ceMMA8cRTJ;illl r6A!!l (ace.- in accordance with (t) above).

(h) During To indicate that something took place over a period of time (rather than momentarily), the two commonest equivalents of English 'during' are:
ao apeMH (+gen.) with activity words, and B Te"'eHMe (+ gen.) with specific time words BO BpeMH BOMHbl/ypOK8/ peBOniOI.IMM B T8"18HM8 H8AenM

during the war/the lesson/the revolution during the week, in the course of a week

(i) From ... until (see 17.12) Both 'since' and 'from' are c with the genitive:
c "'eTaepra C COpOK "18TBepTOrO r6AS

since/from Thursday since (nineteen) forty-four

'Until' is AO with the genitive:

AOCp8Abl AO ABYXTbiCH"'Horo r6AS

until Wednesday until the year 2000



'From ... to' is c ... AO (or c ... no with the accusative in the meaning 'inclusive'):

c wecnt otacoa AO A8BATM c A8CHToro no TPMHRA48TOe

from six o'clock to nine from the tenth to the thirteenth inclusive

(j) A month before I A week after

These structures involve two prepositions in Russian: before: 38 + ace . . . AO + gen.

3a MeCAL\ AO no83AKM 6H cxoAiifn a noconbcTao. A month before the trip he went to the embassy.
after: otepea +ace ... nocne +gen.

l.fepe3 H&AeniO nocne 3K3ilM8HOB Mbl yexanM H8 Mope. A week after the exams we left for the seaside.
(k) Before

AO +gen. means 'before'; nepeA + inst. means 'immediately before': AOBOMHbl nepeA BOMHOiii
(l) Once

before the war just before the war

'Once' in the meaning 'one day' is OAHflJKAbJ:

0AHBJKAbl aecH6iii A rynt1n no H86epeJKHOiii. One day in spring I was strolling on the embankment.
one evening 'Once' meaning 'one time' is paa (or OAMH paa):

cK6nbKO paa (m)? how often?

'Twice' is AB8 p838 (gen. sg.). 'Five times' is nATb paa (gen. pl.). If you want to say 'twice a week', 'a' translates as !l with the accusative: twice a week five times a year three times a month

ABa pa38 a H9Aemo nATb pS3 B r6A TpM pa38 B M8cAL\




Translate the words in brackets:

I Eaa npMAeT (on Saturday at seven). 2 (This year) Mbt6yAeM OTAbiXiiTb B KpbtMy. 3 MMCTep noyn 6btn 3A8Cb (last week). 4 (During the war) Mbl )KMnM B CM6MpM. 5 M3pM BCTpe'taeTCfl C Bon6AeM (four times a week).

23.4 How Long?

(a) If the question is about duration (CK6nbKO apeMeHM?/KaK A6nro? both meaning 'How long?'), the answer is simply the accusative with no preposition:
CK6nbKO apeMeHM Bbt 6yAeTe 3A8Cb? or KaK A6nro Bbl 6yAeTe :JAeCb? Sl 6YAY :JAeCb OAHY HeAitnto. Mbt )J(MnM a CM6MpM TPM r6AS. noAO*AMTe MMHjTOotKy.
How long will you be here?

I shall be here (for) a week. We lived in Siberia (for) three years.

Wait a moment ('a little minute'see Lesson 25).

(b) 'For' in the meaning 'in order to spend' ('We're going to Moscow for a month') isH& with the accusative: Mbt 6AeM a MocKBY H& MeCfiJ.4.
She's come for a week. OHa npMexana Ha HeAenKt. The director has gone out for five AMpeKTop Bbtwen HB nfiTb MMHjT. minutes. 6H npM6AeT acer6 HI OAMH A8Hb. He'll come for just one day.

Rule of Thumb: 'for' in time expressions

If 'for' can be omitted in English ('He waited (for) ten minutes'), it must be omitted in Russian (6H )J(A8n ~ MMHjT).If 'for' cannot be omitted in an English time expression ('He's coming for a week'), then it is Ha +ace. in Russian (6H npM83)J({IeT HB H8A6nto).



23.5 How Long Did It Take? If the question concerns how long something took to finish, then the preposition 38 with the accusative is used: Sl npO'tMTilna ccBOMHY M MMp
38 MKSIJ..j.

I read War and Peace in a month. We'll do everything in a week.

Mbl ace CAenaeM



Note the use of perfective verbs because the meaning involves completion.


Translate the words in brackets:

1 Mbl JKAilnM (twenty minutes). 2 M3pM 6yAeT a KMeae ((for) a week). 3 Mbl 8AeM a MocKay (for three months). 4 AMpeKTop Bblwen (for five minutes). 5 M3pM npO'tMTilna ccAHHY KapeHMHY (in two weeks). 6 Eaa AOexana AO A6Ma (in an hour).

23.6 Until/After/Before with Verbs

'Before' with a verb is AO Tor6 K&K (or nepeA TeM K&K 'immediately before'):

Ao Tor6 K&K M3pM noexana a MocKay, oHa y<tl4nacb a 5pl4cTone.

Before Mary went to Mosow, she studied in Bristol.

Ao is a preposition', so it cannot be immediately followed by a verb. If you don't like the complex conjunction AO Tor6 K&K, use AO with a noun in the genitive. The above sentence could thus be Ao no83AKM a MocKBY M3pM y<tMnacb a 5pl4cTone ('Before her trip ... '). Similarly, 'after' with a verb is n6cne Tor6 K&K: n6cne TOr6 KBK Mbl BepHiMCR M3 KMBB8, Mbl noe,qeM B CM6Mpb.
After we return from Kiev, we'll go to Siberia.

But notice that the simpler K2ull ('When') Mbl aepHiMCR M3 Kl4eaa ... has the same meaning.



'Until' with a verb is nod ... He:

Sl 6YAY JKA8Tb B 6ape, nod OHil He aepHeTCfl.

I'll wait in the bar until she returns(= will return).

noKil Bbl He ASAMTe MH8 6Mmh, fl He YMAY

Until you give rne a ticket I won't leave.


Translate the words in brackets:

I (After I master Russian), fl npo~tMTSIO AHHY KapeHMHy. 2 BSAMM 6yAeT CMAI!Tb AOMa, (until Eva rings). 3 Bbl AOmKHbl cnpf'iT&Tb 6YTiilnKy, (before Eva comes home),


Say in Russian:
1 We went to Russia last year. 2 Life will be better in the twenty-first century. 3 Next week we'll go to Siberia. 4 In the summer Eva and Vadim will go to Yalta for a month. 5 That day we got up at 6 a.m. 6 Ivan Petrovich lived in America for two years. 7 He'll be working all week. 8 I've been there twice. 9 Mary read War and Peace in sixty-two hours. 10 During the war they worked eighty hours a week.

23.7 Vocabulary
BK4eHT accent 6M6nMoTeKa library 6nMlKilMWMM next, nearest 6YAHMe AHM (or 6YAHM pl.)

aCTpl!'ta meeting AMpeKTOP pl. AMpeKTopil director AOBOnbHO rather 38BMAOB8Tb' (n0-0 ) (+ dat.) 38BMAYIO, 38BMAY8Wb to envy

6biBSTb' (like 3H8Tb) to be


aeK pl. aeKa century BM38 visa

388X8Tb0 388p.y, 388A&Wb K (+ dat.) (3883lK&Tb' like 3H&Tb) to call

on someone (by transport)



38Kii3bJB&Tb' (like 3H8Tb) (+ace.) (38K838Tb" 38K8:1Kj, 38Kll:JKeWb) to order

nOCbJnllTb' (like 3H8Tb) (+ace.) (nocniiTb" nowmo, nownewb) to send (someone or something) no33MR poetry no3T poet npepaitTb"npepay,npepaewb

38MecntTenb (m) deputy 3BY'f8Tb' (like roaopriiTb) to sound 3TO 3BY'fMT CM8WH6 that sounds funny M3AfiTenbCTBO publishing house KOHTllKT contact KOHTp{lKT contract KOp6TKMM short M8HRTb(CR)' M8HRIO(Cb), MeHIIewb(CR) to change -for CR see 11.6 (end) MMHMCTepCTBO ministry OAHll:JKAbl once, one day

(+ace.) (npepbJBllTb' like

3H&Tb) to interrupt npecTapllnbJM aged npMli3A arrival npriiHJ.!Mn principle pacnpOCTpaHeHHbJM common,

CMewH6 (it's) funny cp6K period of time; time limit CTMXM (pl. Of CTMX) CTMX6B

CyYKM (f pl.) gen. pl. CyYOK twenty-

OnYAB from there

napMKMllxepCK8R(fadj) hairdresser's, barber's neperoa6pbl (m pl.) negotiations,

four hours (22 .1 0)

CBRT6M (m adj) saint TOrAllwHMM (coli) then (adj) Y'fpe:JKAliHMe institution; office yMMpllTb' (like 3H&Tb) (yMepliTb")

BecTM neperoa6pbl to conduct

negotiations no ( + ace.) up to and including (17.12)

nOAnMciiTb" nOAnMWj, noAnrilwewb (noAnMCbJB8Tb' like 3H&Tb) (+ace.) to sign no3Ap{lBMTb" (+ace.) no3Apllan10, nO:JApllBMWb (n03AP8BnRTb' like 3H8Tb) to congratulate

to die

firm, company

x6Tb even WyYMTb' (no-) WY'fy, WyYMWb

to joke
3K38MeH examination 3MMrprilpOB8Tb '1" 3MMrprilpyJO 3MMrprilpyewb to emigrate an6xa era, epoch



23.8 Pa3roaop
B&AMM: no3ApSBb M8HR! '"4epe3 M8cRI.I M8HR nOCblnSIOT B KOM8HAMPOBKY B n6HAOH. Eaa: n03AP8BnRIO- ... 38BMAYIO CKOnbKO BpeMeHM Tbl 6YA8Wb B AHrmtM? BSAMM: c ABSA48Tb A8BRTOro MSR no nepaoe MIOHR. K COJKaneHMIO, R 8AY acer6 Ha '48Tblpe AHR. Eaa: '"4T6 Tbl ycneewb yai4AeTb 38 T&Koi Kop6TKMM cp6K? BSAMM: HaaepHoe, TonbKo CMTM, co66p caRToro naana M, MOJKeT 6b1Tb, 5Mr 5eH. BeAb R 6YAY aecb A8Hb aecTM neperoaopbl B p83Hb1X Y'4peJKAeHMRX. Eaa: Tbl 8AeWb n6e3AOM ilnM neTMWb? BaAI4M: ne'4y, KOH8'4HO. Ha n6e3Ae HSAO exaTb no'4TM AB6e CYTOK, a Ha caMoneTe R AOn8'4y 38 TPM c nonoai4HoM '4&ca. 5MneT R A6nJKeH 38K&38Tb yJKe cer6AHR, AO nRTM '4ac6a. A K&KI4e y Te6R nnaHbl Ha cer6AHR? Eaa: ft llAY B 6M6nMOT8Ky. noTOM R 388AY K BMKTopy naanOBM'4Y a MHCTM$ Ha non'4aca. 0rrYAS R MAY a napMKM8xepcKyiO. ft Te6e no3BOHIO 6Kono weCTI4, nocne Toro K&K aepHycb. BSAMM: ft aepHycb M3 ropoAS He p{IHbwe nonoai4Hbl wecToro. MeHbwe '4eM 38 TPM '4aca R 6MneT He AOCTaHy. noT6u 38MAY K Bon6Ae. H6 R He YMAY nod Tbl He no3BOHMWb. Eaa: Tbl MAeWb K Bon6Ae? BSAMM: He 6ecnoKOMCR. Tbl JKe 3Haewb, '4TO a 6yAHMe AHM Mbl COBC8M He n~M.


Two Businessmen Meet

1 What is Mr Pope's Russian background? 2 Why did his father change his name? 3 What leads him to believe that the business atmosphere in Russia has changed?




Pn: KM: Pn:

KM: Pn:



38MeCTMTenb AMpeKTopa no KOHTBKTBM c 38py66liKHbiMM MWT8nbCKMMM* cfJMpM8MM. 3APBaCTBYMTe, KOHCT8HTMH MaltHOBM"'. Moil cfJ8MMnMA noyn. PM"'BPA noyn. Bba roaopliiTe no-pyccKM no"'TM 6e3 8Kl!HT8. Bba ~tllcTo 6baalleTe a PoccliiM? HeT. 3a nocn6AHMe ABBA48Tb neT A 6ban 3A8Cb TonbKO TPM pil38. Ho A roaoplb no-pyccKM c AiiTCTaa. MoM OT{n~ 3MMrplilpoaan M3 PoccliiM a H&"'ilne ABBAI.IllTbiX rOAOB, ao apeMA rp~DKA8HCKOM* BOMHbl. Ero cfJ8MMnMA TOrAS 6blna nonoa, HO "'epe3 ABB roAB nocne npM63A8 a AHrnMIO oH pewliln cT&Tb noynOM. no"'eMy? BeAb .. noyn - 3To mina* pliiMCKMM. XoTil a PoccliiM nonoa - OAHll M3 cilMbax pacnpocTpaHeHHbax <JaMiilnMM, a AHrnMM oHll 3BY"'MT cMewHo. HanpMMep, KOrAll a BOCbMMAeCRTbiX roA&x npeCTapenbae COBeTCKMe nMAepba* &peHea, AHAponoa, "'epHeHKo - yMMpllnM OAMH 38 APYrMM, aHrnM"'ltHe WYTMnM, "'TO cn6AY10114ero 6YAYT 3B&Tb nonoa, a nocne Hero 6yAeT A6aYTTYnonoa. A "'TO KaclleTcA cfJaMMnMM noyn, To MOM oTe4 xopow6 3Han CTMXM aHrnliiMCKoro no3Ta BOCeMHHA48TOrO BilKa AneKCBHAPa noyna. KoHe"'HO, 6onbWMHCTBO aHrnM"'SH AOBOnbHO xonOAHO OTHOCMTCA K n033MM, 8 OTe4, K8K HaCTORU4MM pyCCKMM, O"'eHb yaaan no3TOB, MCBOMX, M38py6e)I(HbiX. 6"1eHb MHTepecHo. Ho A AoneH aac npepa8Tb. Ye nopa MATM K AMPiiKTopy. 6H o6bi"'HO 6baaaeT 3AeCb T6nbKO ao aTopoM nonoaliiHe AHA*, HO cerOAHA jTpoM 6H npMexan M3 MMHMCTepCTB8 cne4MBnbHO AnA TOrO, "'T06bl BCTpeTMTbCA C a8MM. 6H O..eHb HaA6eTcA, "'TO Mba cMo)l(eM noAnMcaTb KOHTpSKT C BaweM cfJMpMOM B Te"'eHMe 6nM)I(SMWMX ABYX-TpeX AHeM. KaK apeMeHa MeHRIOTcA! KorA& A 6ban a PoccliiM npownbaM pa3, B KOH46 C8MMA8CRTbiX rOAOB, A 3BOHMn TOrASWHeMy AMpeKTopy 3Toro M3AilTenbCTB8 TPM p838 B AeHb, HO OH coaceM He XOTen acTpe"'STbCA co MHOM.



*Additional Vocabulary BTOpaR nonOBMHa AHR afternoon

('second half of the day')

nii1A8P leader nana pliiMCKMA the Pope ('Father


rpa*A&HcKaR aoAHa civil war MaA{ITellbCKMi publishing (adj)



24.1 Key Phrases

Sl 3Toro He 3Hlln(a). He o6pau-\luiiTe BHMMilHMH. Sl He nOHMMliiO HM OAHOr6 cn6aa. He-tero A8naTb.
I didn't know that. Pay no attention. I don't understand a single word. There is nothing to do.

24.2 Genitive or Accusative after a Negated Verb

There is a general rule which says: if a transitive' verb (a verb which takes the accusative case) has He in front of it, the object is in the genitive, not the accusative:
OH 3HlleT pyccKMiii H3biK. OH .tte 3HlleT pyccK~ H3b1Kil. 0Hil 'IMTllna pyccK.!! KHMr!f. 0Hil.tte 'IMTllna pyccKMX KHM[.
He knows Russian. He doesn't know Russian. She read Russian books. She didn't read Russian books.

Notice these set phrases:

MrpilTb p6nb (face.) 3-ro He MrpileT p6nl!t (gen.). o6palq{lnJo6paTMTb BHMMiiHM8 (ace.) OH He o6paiq{leT BHMMliHMB (gen.).
to play a role That doesn't matter/plays no part. to take note/pay attention He pays no attention.



MMeTb 3H&IIfeHMe (ace.) 3-fo .He MMHT 3H811feHMB (gen.).

to have meaning/significance It's of no importance.

However, this genitive rule often does not apply, particularly in conversational Russian. If the negation relates to the verb more than the noun, the accusative is preferred:
He OTKpbtB{UitTe OKH2 (ace.).

Sl He 3HSIO 3-ry lKeHtqMHX (ace.).

Ky3He1.16B He n6HHn WYTKX (ace.) MMCTepa noyna.

Don't open the window (emphasis on 'Don't open'). I don't know that woman (stressing 'don't know'). Kuznetsov didn't understand Mr Pope's joke (stressing 'didn't understand').

Rules of Thumb
I If the object is strongly negated, the object must be in the genitive, particularly if a word such as HMK&KOM 'no kind of' (see 24.7) or HM OAMH 'not a single' is present, or if in English you would use 'any' ('I didn't buy any souvenirs'):

Sl He nOHMMSIO HM OAHQ[Q cnoaa. Sl He KYnMn HMK&KMx cyaeHM~.

I don't understand a single word. I didn't buy any souvenirs (at all).

2 Use the genitive if the object is an abstract noun, something indefinite or the word 3To:
He o6p&tqSMTe BHMMSHMH (gen.). Sl He llfMTSto ra38T (gen.). SI3TQ~ll (gen.) He

Pay no attention. I don't read newspapers. I didn't say that.

3 Use the accusative if the object is a definite person or definite thing (e.g. with 'the' in front of it):
Sl Eax He nto6ntb (ace.). Sl He llfMTiln r&HT)! (ace.).

I don't like Eva. I haven't read the newspaper.

4 If in doubt, use the genitive.



24.3 EXTRA: Explanation

There is a connection between the use of the genitive after a negated verb and the use of the genitive after HeT meaning 'there isn't' (10.5 HeT ra38T 'There are no newspapers'). If you say S1 He 'tMTSIO raaeT (gen.), the statement is akin to 'There are no newspapers which I read'. But in a sentence such as He OTKpbiBSMTe OKHQ (ace.) 'Don't open the window', you are not saying that there is no window, so the accusative is used.
S1 He alfy nMCbMQ (ace.). S1 He alfy nMCbMB (gen.).

I can't see the letter (but I know it's there somewhere). I can't see a (any) letter (maybe there isn't one).

24.4 Place of He

He is placed in front of what it negates. Usually that is the verb, but it can be other parts of the sentence, depending on the meaning. Eaa He Kynlfna aHaHaca (gen.). Eva didn't buy a pineapple. Eaa Kynlfna He aHaHac (ace.), Eva bought not a pineapple, 8 T6pT. but a cake. AHaHac Kynlfna He Eaa (nom.), a It wasn't Eva who bought the

BaAMM (for word order see 26.8).

He goes with the verb.

pineapple, but Vadim.

Notice that the genitive instead of accusative rule (24.2) only applies when Note the construction S1 He MOrj He + infinitive, which is the equivalent of 'I can't help' or 'I can't avoid':
S1 He MOrj He KynMTb noA&poK (ace.).

I can't not(= I must) buy a present.

The meaning is positive, because the two He's cancel each other, so the noun is accusative.



24.5 EXTRA: Another Negative Oddity

Phrases which are equivalent in meaning to HeT 'there isn't' sometimes have the genitive instead of the nominative (and the verb is singular):
CMHU aHaHacm~ (gen.) He CYU48CTBjeT. Blue pineapples don't exist (cy114eCTBOBBTb' 'to exist')= CMHMX aHaHacoa HeT. There are no blue

He H8Wn6cb HM OAHQ[Q MHTepeCHQ[Q My>KUiiHil! (gen.).

There wasn't a single interesting man (HaMntcb 'to find itself').

Sometimes this structure is overused, as in this comic example:

(Someone is attacking a queue-jumper) Bac (gen.) 3A8Cb He CTOIIno! 'You weren't standing here!' (by analogy with Bac (gen.) 3A8Cb He 6btno 'You weren't here'). Normal would be Bbl (nom.) 3AeCb He cTollnM.


Put the nouns in the genitive and translate:

I He o6paU4BttTe H& HMX (BHMMBHMe). 2 Sl He (HM OAMH nOABpoK). 3 Mbt He xoTMM (3To). 4 TypreHea He pa3Aenlln (a3rniiAb1) 6a38poaa (Ex. 21/5}.


Say in Russian:
I I won't give (p) you (pol.} a single kopeck. 2 Why didn't you (f fam) buy
(p) any wine? 3 Don't buy that book. 4 It wasn't Vadim who bought (p) the wine.

5 I'll come (p) not on Friday but on Saturday.



EXTRA: Exercise 24/3

Choose between the accusative and the genitive: I Sl He nbiO BMH6/BMH8 'I don't drink wine'. 2 0Ha He AOCTana 6MneT/6MneTa 'She didn't manage to get a ticket'. 3 AHIO!AHM Mbl

cer6AHR He BMAenM 'We didn't see Anya today'. 4 He Tepili.t apeMRIBpeMeHM 'Don't waste any time' (Tepi1Tb1 'to lose').

24.6 Nothing, Nobody, Never

You have already met negative words such as HMKorA{l 'never' (16.10) and R HM'fer6 He BMAen 'I saw nothing' (11.8). The common ones are:

HM'fTO(gen. HM'fer6)

nobody nothing nowhere (place) nowhere (motion) in noway


Any sentence with one (or more) of these words always has He before the verb. A Russian negative sentence must have a He in it somewhere.


Nobody knows. We didn't go anywhere/We went nowhere.

Sl HMKSK He Morj OTKpbrrb ABepb. I just can't open the door. OH HMKorA& HM'fer6 He noK}'na&T. He never buys anything
('He never nothing doesn't buy'). Note that HMKT6 'nobody' and HM'fT6 'nothing' have the same declensions as KT6 'who' and 'fT6 'what' (Table 4):

Sl HMKOr6 (gen./ace.) He 3HBIO. B Mara31i1He HM'fer6 (gen.) HeT.

I don't know anybody. There's nothing in the shop

(HeT 'there isn't' from He + ecTb).

If there is a preposition, it comes between the HM and the rest of the word:



ElaAMM HM c KeM (inst.) He roaopl4n. Vadim didn't talk to (with) anyone. Bepa HM 38 'tTO (ace.) He nnaTMT. Vera doesn't pay for anything.

Translate the negative words in brackets:

l Bon6AH (never) noMoraeT MeHe 'Volodia never helps his wife.' 2 Mbl
(nothing) noHMMaeM 'We don't understand anything.' 3 0Ha He 38HMMBeTCH (anything- inst.) 'She doesn't do anything.' 4 Sl He nonyotato

nl4ceM oT (anybody). 5 B KHMre (there was nothing) MHTepecHoro. 6 6aHaHOB (there aren't anywhere).

24.7 HMKaKoiit: 'no'

HMK&KOM 'no'(= 'none at all') is declined like K&KOM (7.8). Any preposition comes between HM and K&KOM:

Y Hac HeT HMK&KMX npaa.

6H He ocTaHOBMTCH HM nepeA

We have no rights (at all). No difficulties of any kind will stop him.

K8KMMM TPYAHOCTHMM. HM npM K&KMX o6cTofl'renbCTBax in no circumstances (of any kind)

24.8 HeKoro, He'tero: There is No One/Nothing

Russian has another set of negative words which all begin with stressed He and which translate as 'there is no one/nothing etc.'

HeKoro cnpoci4Tb. Heotero AenaTb.

There is no one to ask. There is nothing to do.

The verb is always in the infinitive (i or p depending on meaning). You may add the person affected - in the dative case:

MHe HeKoro cnpoci4Tb. 111M Hl!'tero AenaTb.

There is no one for me to ask (I have no one to ask). There is nothing for them to do (They have nothing to do).



Remember that a Russian negative sentence contains one He, so do not try to put another He before the verb. As with HMKT6 etc., the other case forms are based on the forms of KTO and 'ITO (see 24.6) and any preposition comes between the He and the form of KTO or 'ITO:
Hj c MM. noroaoptiTb. There is no one to talk to (with). There is no one from whom (I) could receive letters.

Ht oT K2C2 nonY'fllTb

The future is formed with 6yAeT and the past with 6blno:
HaM Hi o ~ 6b1no roaoptiTb.
We had nothing to talk about. (No dots on 'feM because stress on He)

The other words in the set are HerAe 'there is nowhere' (place), HeKyA& 'there is nowhere' (motion) and HeKOrA& 'there is no time', based on rAe 'where', KYAll 'where'/'whither', and KorAll 'when'.
HerAe C8CTb. HaM HeKyAa MATti. MATM 6bln0 H8KYA8 MHe HeKorA&.
There is nowhere to sit down. There is nowhere for us to go. (We have nowhere to go.) There was nowhere to go. I haven't got time.


1 B 3TOM ropoAe H8'fero A8naTb a8'fepoM. HeKYA8 noihti. HerAe nMTb KoetJe tinM ntiao ('beer'). HaM cKj'IHo. 2 B&AtiM He 3HlleT, Bepa He 3HlleT, MaptiHa M BtiKTop T6JKe He 3Hll10T. 66nbwe HeKoro cnpoctiTb. 3 M3BMHMTe, R He MOrY BaM noMO'fb. MHe HeKOrAa, R o'feHb cnewy (cneWMTb1 'to hurry'). 4 8 Kacl& He 6bln0 HMKOro. He C K8M 6bln0 noroaoptiTb. 5 M3pM npO'fMTana TypreHeaa AOMa a AHrnMM, noToMy 'ITO OHll 3HBna, 'ITO B MOCKBe 'fMTBTb eiil 6YA8T H8KOrA8.



24.9 Vocabulary (See also list of He- and HM- words 24.6, 24.8.)
8HBHBC pineapple aambTa currency, hard currency BI18CTM BllBCTerii pl. of anacTb (f) power, authorities BHMMllHMe attention o6patq8Tb' (like 3H&Tb)/ o6pantTbp (, o6paTMWb) BHMMiiHMe H8 (+ace.) to pay attention to rpynna group 3H&'"IeHMe meaning, significance HM ... HM neither ... nor HMrAe nowhere HMK&K6rii no; none at all; any (24.7) o6CToirrenbCTBO circumstance nepelKMBllTb' (like 3HBTb) to be upset, worry He nepe*"Bllrii(Te) don't be upset nll&TMTb' (38-") nll&'"ly, nnaTMWb (38 + ace.) to pay (for) no6b1Bi1Tbp (no i) (like 3H&Tb) (+prep.) to visit (somewhere) nOA&PMTb' nOA&plb, noA8pMWb (AapMTb0 ) to give, present npilao pl. npaaa right npeKpiiCHbiM beautiful, fine npMAYMBTbp (like 3H8Tb) (+ace.) (npMAYMbiBBTb' like 3H8Tb) to
think up, invent npoA{IlK& sale p&CTM' (BbiP) pacTj, p&CTeWb (pastp6c,pocnil,pocn6, pocnl4) to grow C8MOCTORTellbHO independently ('self standing') CllY'"!llriiHo bychance cneKyniiHT speculator (black marketeer) cnewMTb' (no-P) cnewj, cnewMwb cnewiT (Spelling Rules 3 and 4) to hurry cnpilaKa cnpaaoK (piece of) information cT6MTb' to cost, be worth He CT6MT ( + i inf) it's not worth cyMKa cyMOK bag, shopping bag

Toproa(e)LI (+ in st.) trader (dealing in) TPYAHOCTb (f) difficulty ylKe He no longer 1.18PKOBb (f) gen./dat./prep. 48pKBM, inst. 1.18PKOBbiO, pl. 1.18PKBM,I.IepKBiiX,LiepKBerii, 4epKB8M, LlepKBiiMM church



24.10 A Pineapple, but No


Eaa: 3To* Bbl npMHecnlil aHaHac? Bn: HeT, Jl HMK&K6ro BH&Haca He npMHOCMn. rAe Bbl BMAenM 8H&Hae? Eaa: TaHR roaopliiT, 'fTO Ha Kjx:He a eyMKe ne1KMT aHaHac. Bn: He o6paaq{li4Te BHMMBHMR Ha To, 'fT6 roaopliiT TaHR. OHa HMKOrAB B 1KM3HM He BMAena BH&Haea. 0Ha AB1Ke He 3HaeT, 'fTO 3TOT&K6e*.

BSAMM: Eaa, no'feMy Tbl eKa38na MapliiHe, 'fT6 Ha KyxHe ne1KMT BH&Hac? Eaa: 3To* He R eKa38na, a TliHR. 3To* oHa npMAYMana. BSAMM: HeT, oHa 3ToT aH&Hae He npMAYM&na. S1 ero Kynliln cny'fai4Ho Ha pbiHKe. S1 xoTen noA&PMTb er6 MapliiHe M BliiKTopy. Tenepb 3TO y.e He CIOpnpM3. Eaa: He nepe1KMaai4. 3To He MM8eT 3H&'feHMR. Bee paaH6* 3To npeKpaeHbiM noA&poK. *3To is used colloquially for emphasis: 'Was it you who brought the pineapple?' 'It wasn't I who said it, it was Tanya.' *'fTO 3TO T8K6e what it is *Bee paaHo ( 11.8) All the same.

S1 He MOrj KynMTb 68HBHOB. IIIX HMrAe HeT. M3pM: Bon6AJ1: Ill He CT6MT MX MedTb. S1 HMKorA& HMrAe He BMAen a PoceliiM 6&HBHOB, HM HB pbiHKe, HM y cneKynRHTOB. 68HBHbl 3A8Cb HepaCTjT. M3pM: Ill Bbl AYM&eTe, 'fT6 MX HMKorA& He 6yA9T HM npM KBKMX o6CToRTenbCTaax? Bon6AJ1: HeT, R3Toro He roaop.O. PaHbwe y Hae He 6blno aaniOTbl, He Ha 'fT6 6blno Mx noKynaTb. H6 eK6po y acex 6yAeT B&niOTB, TOrAB npOXOAB* He 6yAeT OT TOpr6BI.IeB 6&HBH8MM.
*npox6A& He 6yAeT OT + gen. there will be no way of avoiding




A Tourist Negotiates with Intourist

1 A tourist (T) wants to go to the religious centre in the town of Sergievskii Posad (formerly Zagorsk), 74 km NE of Moscow. Why is the lntourist woman (M) initially unwilling to assist? 2 Why does the tourist reject her offer of the Friday excursion? 3 If he accepts her second proposal, how much notice must he give? 4 Why shouldn't he go at the weekend?

T: CK8)1(MTe, noanyliiCTa, abl He MO)I(eTe nOACK83ilTb', K8K MHe noex&Tb a CeprMeaCKMM noc&A? Sl CnbiW&n, 'fTO T8M MHOrO KpacilabiX 1.1epKaelii. ~ xo'fy noexaTb OAMH, 6e3 riiA&. M: K C0)1(8neHMIO, R He MOrj aaM noMO'fb. Mbl npOA8iM 6MnSTbl TOnbKO H8 3KCKypcMM. CnpaaoK Mbl He A&iM. A ecnM abl XOTMTe noeX&Tb C8MOCTORTenbHO, TO, K C0)1(8neHMIO, R He MOrj aaM HM'feM nOMO'fb. T: Sl xo'fy noexaTb a CeprMeacKMiii noc&A, M HMKT6 MHe He MO)I(eT noMO'fb, MA&e He MOryT nOACKa3ilTb, K&K MHe npoexaTb TVAS M: Ha aoK3ilne aaM ace cKS.yY. A Mbl KOMMep'tecKaR' opraHM3ili.IMR M38HMMSeMCR npOA8)1(eM ycnyr> M6MneTOa H8 3KCKypCMM. T: noHfn'Ho. H6 ace paaH6 R xo'fy no6bla8Tb a CeprMeacKoM noc&Ae. M: noanyliicTa, abl MO)I(eTe noexaTb c rpynnolii a nRTHMLIY T: Cnacil6o. H6 R He XO'fy eX&Tb C rpynnolii. Sl XO'fy noex&Tb caM, C8MOCTORTenbHO. M: TorA& abl MO)I(eTe 38K&3ilTb MawiiHy M riiA& 38 cjTKM AO no83AKM. T: M6Ho noexaTb TVAS c riiAOM a mo661ii A8Hb? M: B nl0661ii AeHb, Kp6Me cy666Tbl " aocKpeceHbR. T: CK8)1(MTe, a no'feMy Henb3s1 a cy666Ty M aocKpeceHw? M: B npiiHL!Mne MO)I(HO, H6 1.1epK6aHb1e' anaCTM' nonpocilnM, '4T06bl Mbl He nocblnanM TypilcToa no cy666TaM MaocKpeceHbRM. 0Hil 6bl He XOTenM, '4T06bl MX 6eCnOKOMnM ao apeMR 6orocny)l(eHMM.' T: noHRTHO.Cnacil6o. M: noanyliicTa.

One often gets the impression in Russia that officials are programmed to be unhelpful. But if you are politely insistent and always take the trouble



to ask three times for what you want, they will often soften up. In Russia, never expect to do business quickly.

*Additional Vocabulary
6orocnp6HMe (church) service KOMM6potecKMiii commercial noACK&36Tb to suggest ycnyra service 48PKOBHbllii church (adj)



25.1 Key phrases

Bo3bMMTe cTaKBH'4MK. XoTMTe -.aliiKy? AflliiTe Konee-.Ky, nolKilnyliicTa?
Take a glass. Would you like a little tea? Would you have a one-kopeck coin?

25.2 Diminutives

In informal conversations with Russians, you begin to notice that large numbers of everyday words are given suffixes such as MK and '4K8. These forms are known collectively as 'diminutives'', denoting smallness, like -let in English (booklet, coverlet). So, cT6nMK is literally 'small table' and co68'4K8 is 'small dog'. In most cases, however, the intended meaning is not smallness but politeness, tenderness or some related emotion. English has a similar phenomenon in the use of the ending -ie ('a doggie', 'Johnny', 'Annie'), but relatively few words, other than personal names, can have endings such as -ie or -let, at least in standard English. In Russian, as well as personal names, every noun can be made into a diminutive. Where in English you might offer a friend 'a nice cup of tea', a Russian offers -.aliiKy, 'some little tea', forming the partitive' ('some') genitive of -.a(e)K, the 'diminutive' of -.alii 'tea'. And the tea may come in a CTaKiiH'4MK 'a little glass' from CTaKiiH 'glass'. Diminutives are an important part of friendliness and politeness in everyday Russian.



They are also essential if you have to deal with Russian children, or read a children's story. All hands are little hands, all foxes are little foxes, and many of the words may be hard to find in your pocket dictionary unless you know the basic rules for forming diminutives. The rules are fairly simple, which is why dictionaries do not normally list diminutives. Here are some examples of diminutives. Look for the patterns.
Diminutive form 6paT BOAB B6AK8 A6M M368 KHiilra K6MH8T8 HBAenR Hora OKH6 nMCbM6 nn6148Ab

brother water vodka house peasant cottage book room week foot, leg window letter square river hand, arm sister glass wall


little brother a little water a little vodka cottage little cottage small book little room little week little foot, little leg little window little letter piece of ground; staircase landing stream, rivulet little hand, little arm little sister little glass partition: a set of wall units (shelves and cupboards)

peKA pyK8


cecrplil'fKa CT8KSH'fMK CT8HK8


table chair cup


small table; restaurant table small chair little cup

cryn 'fSWK8

CTjnb'fMK 'fSWB'fK8

'Diminutives' suggest smallness, and CT6nMK is indeed a small table, for example a restaurant table as distinct from a domestic dining-table. However, much of the time, so-called 'diminutives' have little to do with size. Their main stylistic colourings are tenderness, familiarity or politeness.



If someone offers you CT&KBH'fMK COK8 ' a little glass of juice', it will be no s~aller than a normal CT&KSH 'glass'. Some diminutives are particularly frequent. People commonly call a kopeck coin KOn8e'fKa 'little kopeck', rather than KoneiKa. Within families AO'fK8 'little daughter' is much commoner than AO'fb, and forms such as MBMO'fK& (from MaMa) and nano'fKa (from nana) are much used. A8AYWK8 'granddad' is commoner than A8A 'grandfather', and the originally diminutive 686ywKa 'granny' (686a 'old woman') is now the standard word for 'grandmother'. Foreign learners need to be able to recognize diminutives rather than to form and use them. If you do bother to add the common ones to your active vocabulary, it is worth noting that diminutives have the advantage of regular grammatical endings and predictable stress. So a difficult word like C8CTpS (pl. CKTpbl, CecTep, CKTp8M) becomes quite regular if you use the form C8CTPM48 (pl. C8CTPMf.tbl, cecTpMf.t, C8CTPM48M). Some general points:
(I) Any noun can have several diminutives. To the 'everyday' diminutive

(examples above), further suffixes can be added- with further nuances of greater tenderness, familiarity, derision and so on. For example, from ceCTPM48 'little sister' can be formed the more affectionate 'double diminutive' cecTpM'tKa, and from cecTpM'tKa comes the colloquial 'triple diminutive' cecTpM'tYWKa 'darling little sisterlet' (diminutives are notoriously hard to translate). There are other variants too, e.g. cecTpiiHK8 and cecTpeHO'tK8. 11136ywKa (from M368 'peasant cottage') produces the even more affectionate form M36yw8'fK8. Here we shall restrict ourselves to 'everyday' diminutives. (2) 'Everyday' diminutives normally keep the same gender as the base noun. Feminine diminutives normally end -Ka (always unstressed):
ronoaa A6'fb ne'fb

head daughter stove

ron6aKa A0otK8 n&'tKa

little head little daughter little stove

Nouns whose normal forms end with -Ka or a group of consonants have
-otKa: 3Be3Aii MrpywKS

star toy

3BUAO'fK8 MrpyW8'fK8

little star; asterisk little toy



KoneiKa nauna pyKa

kopeck lamp hand, arm

KOnertK8 n6MnO'IK8 pY'fK8

one-kopeck coin little lamp; bulb little hand or arm

The last consonant before the -a often changes:

AOpOra HOrB CTapjxa

Other variations:

road leg, foot old woman


little road; path little leg or foot little old woman

AB8Pb MKpa KjpMq& ynMqa

door caviare hen street

AHP!.1 MKOpK8 Kypo'4K8 ynO'IK8

little door, car door nice caviare little hen little street, lane

Masculine nouns add -MK (unstressed) or -(6)K:

r6PGA cnoaapb CT6n

town, city dictionary table

rOPGA(6)K cnoaapMK CTOnMK

small town small dictionary small table

Some nouns (with -n, M, H, -p)

add 'IMK:
little wineglass little glass


wineglass glass, tumbler

Sometimes there are consonant changes:


friend old man


pal little old man

Neuter nouns have a variety of (neuter) endings:

AMO A8Peao 38JIBn6HMe nMI.46

matter, piece of business tree application face place window letter

A8p8B'40/ A6p8B'48 38Jian6HbMI48 nM'IMKO M8C'1'6'1KO OK6Hifi/OKOWKO nMCb118i46

small matter little tree small application little face little place little window little letter




nn8Tb8 cn6ao c6nHI.I8 jxo fl6nOKO

dress word sun ear apple

nnaTbMI.I8 cnOBI.IO c6nHbiWKO YWKO fl6nO'fKO

little dress little word little sun little ear little apple


Could I trouble you for a glass of tea? Would you like a nice cup of coffee? Could I ask you to come back in a week or so? Would you mind writing an official request?

'f&sl. (CT8KSH 'glass') XontTe 'fawe'fKY K6cj)e? ('fSWK8 'cup'} npMXOAMTe 'f8pe3 H8AllnbKy. (H8AllnH 'week') noM<8nyMCT8, nMWMTe 38HBn8HbMI.I8. (38HaneHMe 'application')


Find the non-diminutive forms of the diminutives in the following and suggest translations of the phrases:
1 Sales assistant: Y sac HeT ~<onee'fKM? 2 Elderly theatre usher: Baw 6Mn8TMK, noM<anyMcTa. 3 Polite customer: AfiMTe OAHY 6YTblnO'fKY MMHepanbHOM BOAbl, OOM<SnyMCT8. 4 Mother: T8He'fK8, H&AliHb (put on) wanO'fKy. 5 Fond aunt: nocMOTPM H8 neHO'fKy. KaK6e Kpaclilaoe nnaTbMI.Ie! 6 Mother to child: AaM KOWKe (cat) BOAM'fKM. 7 Hostess: XoTiiiTe 'f&MKy? 8 Street trader: MK6pKM He M<enaeTe? 9 Grandmother to child: KaKiile y Te6il rpfi3Hble pY'fKM! to Taxi driver: 3&KpOMT8 ABliPLIY 11 To a friend: noAO*AM MMHYTO'fKy, noM<anyMcTa. 12 Mother to son: nocMoTplil a oK6wKo. M6M<eT 6b1Tb, A6*Ab yM<e npowin.



25.3 Proper Names

As mentioned in 6.10, 'diminutive' (or 'intimate') forms of proper names are very popular in Russia as ways of indicating affection, familiarity and so on. Here are examples of the large range of possibilities. (There is also scope for individual creativity.) From MapMR: (Commoner forms) MapycR, MapycaHbK&, Mapyceo.tKB, MapycbK&, Map.tliiKa, MapbiOWKa, MapbRwa, Mawa, MaweHbKa, MawKa, MaHR, MaHe'tKa, MaHbKa, MycR, MyceHbK&, Myceo.tKa, MycbKa, Mapa, Mypa, Mypoo.tKa, MapRTa. (Rarer forms) Mawe'tK&, Map.twa, MapR, Map!OHR, MapyHR, MapynR, MynR, MacH, MadTa, MapiOTa, Maplbxa, Mapyxa, Maplbwa, Mapywa, Mywa, MaHIOHR, MaHIOpa, MaHibcR, MaHIOTa, MaHIOxa, MaHIOwa, MaHRTK&, MaKa, MaHRwa, MawiHR, Maw6HR, MawyKa, MawyHR, MyHR, Mawypa, Mawapa, MawjTa, MjTa, Mawyxa, M6pR. From Bn&AMMMp:
Bn&,qMMMpywKa, Bn8Afl, 88Afl, Baaa, BaaynR, BaaycR, BonOAfl, BonoAIOKa, BonOAIOxa, BonOAIOWa, BonOARKa, BonOARXB, BonOARW&,86aa,BoaynR,BoayHR,BoaycR,Boaywa,B6nR.


25.4 'Diminutive' Adjectives

Adjectives can be given the same connotation of affection or 'niceness' by replacing the final blliil-61ii or -KMiii with -aHbKMiii. So uonoAOiii 'young' becomes uon6AeHbKMiii 'nice and young'; XVA61ii 'thin' becomes XVA8HbKMiii 'thin in a nice way' (slim);' cripbllii 'old' becomes

I In a culture where fat tends to be regarded as a good thing (it keeps the cold out), there are some features of the Russian language which should intrigue westerners obsessed with slimming. Note that XYA6i 'thin' also means 'bad', nonp{IBMTbCR 'to get fatter' also means 'to get better'. :IKMPHbllii 'fat' has associations with richness (:IKMPHbllii Kyc6K 'fatty piece' is used of something tempting), and the phrase c JKii!py 6ecliiTbCR 'to be in a rage because of fat' means 'to be too well off'.



cripeHbKMM 'attractively old'. An equivalent feature of English is the use of 'small' and 'little'. 'Small' is a neutral description of size ('a small dog') while 'little' means 'attractively small' ('a little dog'). Note, however, that the adjective MBneHbKMM 'small', originally formed from MBnbiM 'small' with the same ending -eHbKMM, has lost its positive connotation of niceness and is now a neutral word. Its hypocoristic (affectionate) equivalent is M81110ceHbKMM 'little'/'little tiny' or MiceHbKMM, a children's nursery word.

Sf mo6nl0 T8KMe AOMMKM, K8K BBW, CTBpeHbKM8 p,a TenneHbKM8.

I'm very fond of little houses like yours, nice and old, nice and warm.

25.5 Politeness Phrases

Apologies M3BMHMTe (38 +ace.). . . Excuse me/l'm sorry (for) .. . npocyroiTe (38 +ace.). . . Excuse me/l'm sorry (for) .. . Sl A6mutt {Aorulot{l) M38MHMTbcA. I must apologize (more formal). M3BMHMTeJrlpocTMTe 38 ono3AiHMe. M3BMHMTe 38 6ecnoK6MCTBO. npocyroiTe, A He&tiAHHO. M3BMHMTe, A cosceM He XOTen(a) aac o6MA8Tb. Pa3peWMTe npoMTM.
I'm sorry I'm late. Sorry for troubling you. I'm sorry, it was accidental. I'm sorry. I didn't mean to offend you. Excuse me (when you want someone to let you pass).

Responses to Apologies nolKilnyMCT8. HM<ter6 [nee-chye-x6J HeCT6MT. Hy 'ITO Bbl! nycTAKMI HM<ter6 CTpiwHorol
That's all right. It doesn't matter (lit. 'nothing'). There's no need to. Forget it (informal). It's nothing. Nothing to worry about.



Requests M3BMHMTe 38 6ecnoK6McTao. 5YAbTe Ao6Pbl ... EcnM aaM He TPYAHO .. . CAenalitte OAOmKeHMe .. .
Excuse me for troubling you. Would you mind ... ('Be so good ... '). If it isn't too much trouble ... Could you do me a favour?

npocTr.tTe, y aac He 6yAeT ABYX KoneeK, 'IT06bl no3BOHMTb? Excuse me, could you let me have two kopecks to make a phone call?

Note how the Russian polite negative ('you won't have two kopecks?') often corresponds to the English use of the conditional.



1 npocTr.tTe, R He xoTen aac o6r.tAeTb. 2 M3BMHMTe, R, Ka)l(eTcR, 38HRn aawe MecTo. 3 npocTMTe, noJKanylitcTa, R aaM He noMewan? 4 M3aMHMTe, ecnM He TPYAHO, npMHecrotTe 'IMCTbiM CT&KaH. 5 5YAbTe Ao6Pbl, Bbl He cKaJKeTe, rAe 3A8Cb n6'1Ta?

25.6 Acceptance
I've nothing against (it). I'm willing ('I'm not averse'). Willingly. With pleasure. With pleasure ('With joy'). With the greatest of pleasure.

25.7 Refusal
1113BMHMTe, He MOrj. HMK8K He Morj. Sl 38HRT(S).
I'm sorry but I can't It's quite impossible. I'm busy.



"'T6-To MHe He x6oteTcA. HM B K08M cnrcae! HM 38 otTO! HeT Y*l 0rKa3biBaiOCb HaOTpe3.

I don't feel like it. On no account/Out of the question. Not for anything. I do mean no ('No really'). I absolutely refuse.


Translate the three dialogues:

(a) B Accidentally Bumps Into A
A: 611i! 5: 11'13BMHMT8, A H8'4iiAHHO. A: no)l({lnyllicTa, nO)I(SnyllicTa.
(b) Acceptance

AHApelli: ,QaaalliTe noeAeM KO MHe. Y M8HH AOMa XOpOWMM KOHbHK. 56pA: Sl He np6otb! BacA: Sl TO)I(e HM'ter6 He MMBIO np6TMB. AHAP611i: Cepe)l(a, Tbl noeAeWb c HiiMM? )l(eHa npMroT6BMT HaM Y*MH. Cepe*a: C YAOB6nbCTBMeM. C aenMotillliwMM YAOB6nbCTBMeM. AHApei: A Tbl, Bon6AA? Bon6AA: C ~ocTbiO! Ox6THO. AHApelli: Hy otTo *e*, no6AeM. * HY otT6 *e well then. (c) Refusal (A Telephone Conversation) AHApei: B&AiiM, 3To Tbl? Mbl ace co6panilcb y MeHII, oTMeotaeM AeHb po*ABHMR OAHOr6 TOailpMaq&. 3aXOAM. B8AiiM: HMKiiK He MOrj. SIO't8Hb 3ifiHAT. AHApelli: Hy Bbmelli c HiiMM xoTII 6bl CT6 rpaMM*. B&AMM: HM B KOeM cnrcae! HM 38 'tT61 Tbl )1(8 3Ha8Wb, 'tTO Eaa He pa3pewileT. AHApelli: Hy, Bblnelli 'taiKy. B&AMM: "'T6-TO MHe He X6'48TCA. ,Qaaalli nrcwe 3ifiBTpa.



AHApelii: Cnywalii, He o6palqlilii aHMMiiHIIIR H8 Eay. noAjM&M 0 Hac. He 386blaillii ,qpy3elii. 803bMM T8KCM Ill npMe3lKiilii! B&AMM: HeT y! He xo'fj o6MAeTb Eay. AHApelii: OrKil3blaaewbCR HaoTpe3? >KanKo. *cT6 rp&MM 100 grams - a generous glass of vodka (Russians measure vodka in grams, not glasses, treating half a litre as 500 grams).

25.8 Vocabulary
(See also diminutive list 25.2 and phrases 25.6-25.7)

6p6CIIITb0 6p6wy, 6p6CIIIWb (6p6ci1Tb' like 3H&Tb) (+ace.) to throw, throw away ace (ace apeMR) all the time aCKO'IMTb0 aCKO'fj, acK6'1111Wb (acKiiKIIIaaTb' like 3H8Tb) to
jump in/up abiCKO'IIJITb" abiCKO'fy, abiCKO'IIIIWb (abiCK8KIIIa8Tb' like 3H8Tb) (1113 + gen.) to jump out (out of) rna3 pl. rna38 rna3 (dim rna3(6) K pl. rn83KIII) eye

IIIKpil (dim IIIK6pK8) caviar( e) 111cnyri1TbCR 0 (nyraTbCR') (+gen.) (like 3H8Tb) to take fright (at) KOHbiiK gen. KOHbRKa cognac, brandy nerna see ne'fb0 ne'fb0 niiry, niiewb past ner, nerna imper nllr(Te) (nO)I(MTbCR' nO*YCb, noMWbCR) to lie down nllry see ne'fb0 M8WBTb' (no-) (like 3H8Tb) ( + dat.) to hinder (someone) Mew(6)K bag, sack MY*MK gen. MY*IIIKS peasant man (orig. dim of MY* 'man') Hlll'fer6 He noAenaewb there's nothing one can do (idiom) Hora pl. H6rlll (dim H6Ka) leg, foot HY well

rnRAeTb' (no-) rnRj, rnRAMWb (Ha +ace.) to look (at) AeaO'IKa dim of Aeaa 'maid' little girl AenaTb' H8'fero there was nothing to be done, there was nothing for it AOp6ra (dim AOP6Ka) road llnKo (dat. of person + inf 14.6) it's a pity; to grudge 3iiHRT (m)/38HRTB (f)/3iiHRTbl (pl.)
busy .. .

o61JtAerb" o6"'*Y, o6"'AAIIwb (+ace.)

(o61118Tb' like 3H8Tb) to offend. hurt OTABaliTb' (like A&a8Tb) to give up

111368 pl. M36bl peasant




oTA{ITb0 (like A&Tb) to give away OTKil3biB8TbCH' (like 3H8Tb) (+ inf) (OTK8UTbCH 0 OTK&lKjCb, OTKS)I(eWbCH) to refuse OXOTHO willingly neotb (f) neotelft (dim nt!'tKa)

npMXOAMTb) to be forced to npMwn6cb see npMMTMCb0 nycTMTb0 nyLL\yY, nyCTMWb (+ace.) (nycK8Tb' like 3H8Tb) to let. per-

mit; to let in/out

cecTp8 pl. cecTpbl cecTep CiCTp8M CicTp8MM CiCTpax

nepeHO't8BSTb0 (HO't8BSTb') nepeHO'tyiO, nepeHO'tY8Wb to

CT&KSH glass, tumbler cxaaTMTb0 (+ace. 38 +ace.) CXB&'ty, CXBSTMWb (XB8TSTb1 or CXBSTbiB8Tb' both like 3H8Tb)

spend the night

necHH neceH song noA (+ace.) under (motion) nOAHRTb0 nOAHMMy,nOAHMM8Wb (nOAHMMSTb' like 3H8Tb) to lift,

pick up
nolft! (imper of neTb') sing! nono*MTb0 nonolKj', nonO)I(MWb (Kn8CTb' Kn&Ay, Kn&AiWb)

to seize (someone by something) TecHo crowded; tight

TOBSPMLL\ comrade, friend

(+ace.) toput nOCyY'tSTb0 nocyY'ty, nOCyY'tMWb (C'fY'tSTb') (a +ace.) to knock (at) npMMTMCb0 ( + dat. of person + inf) like npMMTM (npMXOAMTbCH' like

TYT here(= 3A8Cb) yxo pl. ywM (dim ywKo pl. ywKM) ear X03AMH pl. X03A8B8 X03Aea host, owner, master


Note the diminutives in this well-known Russian folk tale 'The Fox and the Rolling-Pin' (or, literally, 'The Little Fox and the Little Rolling-Pin').
The rules of peasant hospitality allow travellers to ask for a bed for the night at the first house they come to. However, the fox is not a very welcome guest. How does the peasant try to turn the fox away? 2 How does she counter this objection? 3 If a guest loses something, the host has to make good the loss. How does the fox acquire a hen? 4 What happens to the hen?



5 What does the fox want for the goose and what does she get? 6 How does the surreal conversation in the burrow under the tree-stump lead to punishment for the fox?
Wna nMCM'IKa* no AOPOJKKe, Hawn a cKano'IKY*. noAHflna ei M nowna A&nbwe. npMwna a A8JK!BHIO M nocyY'Iana a ABepb nepaorii M36bl: - CyYKoCyYK-cTyK*! - KT6TaM?

- s:t, nMCM'IKaCeCTpM'IKa*, nyCTMTe nepeHO'IeBSTb.

- Y HaC M1 6e3 Te6H TKHO.
- Aa 1 J1 He nOTeCHI0 1 aac: CaMa nt1ry Ha naBO'IKy 1, XBOCTMK 1 nOA naBO'IKy, CKBnO'IKY nOA ne'IKy. Ee nycTMnM. 0Ha nern{l C8MB Ha naBO'IKy, XBOcTMK nOA nBBO'IKy, CKillnO'IKY nOA ne'IKy. PBHO jTpoM nMCM'IKa BCTana, COJKrna* CBOIO CKBnO'IKy, a nOTOM cnpocl4na: - rAe JKe MOH cK8no'IKa? AaaariiTe MHe 38 Hei Kypo'IKy*! MyJKMK- Alln&Tb Hl!'lero! - 6TA&n erif 38 cKanO'IKY Kjpo'IKy. Baflna nMCM'IKa KYPO'IKy, MAiT M noeT: - Wna nMCM'IK& no AOpOJKKe, Hawn& cKano'IKy. 3a cKano'IKY aaflna Kypo'IKy! npMwna oHa a APYrYIO AepeaHIO: - CyYK-CyYK-CyYKI - KTOT&M?

- s:t, nMCM'IK&-cecTpM'IKa, nyCTMTe nepeHO'IeBSTb.

- Y HaC M 6e3 Te6H TeCHO.
- Aa

He nOTecHIO B&C: C8MS nt1ry Ha naBO'IKy, XBOCTMK nOA

nilBO'IKy, KYPO'IKY nOA ne'IKy. Ee nycTMnM. nMCM'IKa nern{l caMB Ha miBO'IKy, XBOcTMK nOA nBBO'IKy, KjpO'IKY nOA ne'IKy. PaHo jTpoM nMCM'IKa noTMXOHbKY 1 BCT8na, cxaaTMna Kypo'IKy, c'bllna, a noT6M M roaopi4T: - rAe JKe MOH KYPO'IKa? AaaariiTe MHe 38 Hei rjCO'IKy*!



HM'Ier6 He noA&naew~o, npMwn6c~o xo311MHY oTAirrb elii 38 Kjpo'IKY rYCO'IKY B3Rna nMcM'IKa rjco'IKy, MAiT .. noeT: - Wna nMCiii'IKB no AOpOJKKe, Hawna cKanO'IKy,

3a CKSnO'IK}f a3Rna KjpO'IKy, 3a KYPO'IKY a3Ana rjcO'IKyl

npMwna oHa a6'1epoM a Tp8Tbl0 ~HIO: - CTyK-cryK-cryKI - KT6T8M?

- Sl, nMCM'IIaM:&CTpM'IK81 nyCTiiiTe nepeH0'18BSTb! - Y HBC M 6e3 Te6il TKHO.

- A A He nOTeCHIO aac: C8MS nilry H8 naiBO'IKy, XaOcTMK nOA nSBO'IKy, rjCO'IKY nOA n6'1Ky. Ei nyCTiiinM. 0Ha nerna C8MS H8 naBO'IKy, XBOCTMK nOA naBO'IKy, rjCO'IKY nOA n8'1K}f. YTpoM nMclii'IK8 BCKO'IIiina, cxaaTiiina rjCO'IKY, C'b8na, noToM M roaopliiT:

- A rAe JK8 MOil rjCO'IKB? AaaaliiTe MHe 38 Hei A6BO'IK}fl A MYJKMKY A6BO'IKY JK8nKo OTABBBTb. nonoJKiiin OH a MewoK

co68Ky .. OTAM nMce:

- &eplii, nMca*, A6BO'IKyl BoT nMCS a3Ana M8WOK, abiWna H8 AOpOry M roaopliiT: - A6BO'IK8, nolii* necHMI A co6au a Mewd 38pbl'lana*l nMCM'IK8 MCnyran&Cb, 6p6cMn8 M8WOK, no6eJK8na.
TyY C061iK8 abiCKO'IMn8 M3 M8WKS- M 38 Heliil

n ..

ca OT co68KM 6eJK8na-6eJKana AB nOA neHiK* a Hopy* ,386eJKana.

CMAiiiT TBM M roaopliiT: - YwKM Molii, ywKMI LITo Bbl A6nanM? - M111 aci cnywanM. -A Bioi, H6JKKM, 'ITO A6nanM? - Mw aci 6eJK8nM.

- A aw, rn83KM?
- M1o1 aci rnRA6nM.

- A Till, xa6CT*?
-A A aci M8WSn T866 6eUTb.



- A, Tbl ace uewilnl Hy noCToM e*, BOT Jl noKa.Y Te6e*l - 111 BbJCyHyna* XBOcT M3 HOpbl: - EWb ero, C06i1Ka! TYT co68Ka cxaantna nMCM4Y 38 xaoCT, BbJTa~qMna* H3 HOpbl M H&'fanil ee Tep3i1Tb *I

*Extra Vocabulary for Comprehension Exercise

BbiCYHYTb0 to thrust out BbJT&JqMTb0 to drag out (Bbl + T8JqMTb 20.4 + 20.2) rYCO'fKa (dim from rycbJHJI coli)
little goose

BoT Jl noKay Te681 I'll show you! nocTOM e hang on a moment noTeCHMTb0 (+ace.) to constrict
(someone); to get in (someone's) way

AfJ. (coil) (30.4) and/but

38pbl'fSTb0 to start growling KYPM48 (dim KjpO'fK&) hen nilaKa (dim niiBO'fK&) bench in
peasant hut

noTMXOHbKY (coil) noiselessly (dim. from TMXO 'quiet') CKSnK& (dim CKilnO'fK8) little
rolling-pin (for rolling pastry)

nMcll pl. nMCbJ fox nMCM'fK&-cecTpM'fK& little fox-little

sister (standard rhyming name for the fox in folk tales)

cornil burnt past of ce'fb0 ( + ace.) to burn


CTYK-cTYK-cTVK knock-knockknock

nMCM48 (dim nMcM'fKa) fox, vixen Hopil burrow; lair n(e)Hb (m) (dim neH(i)K) tree

Tep3i1Tb' to pull about, torment XBOCT tail


Put the words in brackets in the correct form and translate:

1 3a WecTb AHeM Mbl no6bJBBnM a (wecTb ropoAOB). 2 Mbl pa3roaapMaanM c (TpM pyccKMx CTYAiiHTa). 3 Sl aaM ASM He 6onbwe ('f8Tblpe AOnnapa). 4 Mbl 6YA8M B neTep6ypre (OAHil H&AenJI).


5 She loves only herself. 6 They are in their hotel room. 7 We have come
to Russia in order to speak Russian. 8 I want him to apologize. 9 She is



here alone. 10 They have three children. ll There are four of us. 12 I don't know anybody in Irkutsk. l3 She doesn't understand a single word. 14 There's no one to ask (p). 15 There was no one for her to talk to (i).

Translate the English into Russian and Russian into English:

A: Mr.tcrrep CMMT, Mbl c JKeHoi XOTMM aac npttrnacrotTb K ce6e AOMoi. 6: With pleasure. A: Bbl cM6JKeTe nptdiTtt nocne38aTpa, a m1THM14Y? 6: Unfortunately, I can't. I shall be in Kiev for three days. A: TorA{I npMXQAMTe ABBA48Tb C8AbM6ro. 6: On that day I'm busy. A: A TPMA4BTOro? 6: I think I have no meetings (acyp6ota) at all after the twenty-ninth. A: npeKpacHo. M1o1 aac JKAiM TPMA46Toro, n6cne ceMr.t 'lac6a.



26.1 Useful Expressions

KT6-HM6YAb 3BOHiiln? KT6-To 3BOHiiln. OHa ywna KYABTo. PaccK8lKMTe 'fT6-HM6YAb o ce6e.
Did anyone ring? Someone rang. She's gone off somewhere. Tell me something about yourself.

26.2 Someone KT6-To

Kn)-To 'someone' means someone definite, though the speaker may not know who. It is declined like KT6: KT6-To CTY'fMT a ABepb.

Sl BMAen Kor6-To.

Someone is knocking at the door. I saw someone.

26.3 Anyone KTOHM6YAb

KTOHM6YAb 'anyone' means that no specific person is meant: EcnM KTOHM6YAb npMAiT, CK8)1(M, 'fTO MeHR HeT.
If anyone comes, say I'm out.



For most uses of someone/anyone, English and Russian usage coincide:

KT6-To npMwen. Someone has come. EcnM Tbl KOMYHM6YAb CKB)I(8Wb, If you tell anyone, I'll divorce you. R c To66M p83BeAYCb.
But note the following differences:

(1) The distinction between definite person (-To) and no specific person (HM6YAb) tends to be stricter than in English, so an English sentence such as 'If someone rings, tell them I'm out' should be EcnM KT6-~ no3BOHMT if you do not know who is going to ring. This means that future and imperative sentences will nearly always have HM6YAb.


Ask someone (I have no specific person in mind).

(2) When English 'anyone' means 'no one', i.e. in negative sentences, forms of the Russian word HMKT6 ('no one', 'nobody' 24.6) are used: I don't know anyone. Don't tell anyone.

R HMKor6 He 3Hiuo (=I know no one). He roaopMTe HMKOMY (=Tell no one). (See Lesson 24.)

26.4 Somewhere, Anywhere, Sometime, Anytime etc.

The rules for other -TO and HM6YAb words are exactly the same: something '4T6-To somewhere rA8-To somehow KSKTo (to) somewhere KYABTO sometime KorAfi-To for some reason no~teMy-To anything '4T6HM6YAb anywhere rAeHM6YAb anyhow KSKHM6YAb (to) anywhere KYABHM6YAb anytime KOrAfiHM6YAb for any reason no~teMj-HM6YAb I've seen you somewhere (somewhere specific, though I can't remember where). EcnM Bbi6YA8Te KorA8-HM6YAb If you are ever (anytime) in Moscow, telephone us. B MOCKB6, n03BOHMTe H&M.



OH KyA{I-To ywen. AaaiiMTe noeAeM KyA{IHM6YAb. 0Hil 'fTOTO Kyn.tna. 0Hil 'fT6-HM6YAb Kyn.tna? OHil HM'fer6 He Kyn.tna. OHM HMKYAB He XOAMnM.

He's gone off somewhere. Let's go somewhere (I have nowhere specific in mind). She's bought something. Has she bought anything/something? She hasn't bought anything. They didn't go anywhere.

26.5 KaK6iii-To/K8KOMHM6YAb
Notice also the adjectives K&KOMTO 'some (or other)', 'some kind of' and

K&K6M-HM6YAb 'any', 'any kind of':

Some woman rang you. BaM 3BOHMna K&KiuiTO .JKeHiqMH8. OH MU48T K&KjiO-HM6yAb pa66yY. He's looking for any kind of job. We'll find some kind of hotel. Mbl H8MAiM K8KYIO-HM6YAb rOCTMHM4Y

Translate the words in brackets: 1 0Hil Kyn.tna (something). 2 Bbl KynilnM (anything)? 3 Mbl He KynilnM (anything). 4 PaccK&.JKMTe HaM (something) o .JKM3HM a CM6MpM. 5 EcnM (anybody) no3BOHMT, CK&.JKMTe, 'fTO H 6YAY n6cne C8MM. 6 0Hil ywnil (somewhere) c (some) MonOAbiM ~tenoaeKoM. 7 (For some reason) oHil He M6.JKeT npMMTM. 8 Bbi.JKMnM (ever/at any time) a AepeaHe?

26.6 Rules of Thumb for 'Some-/Any-' Words

(a) -To is 'some'. (b) HM6YAb is 'any'. (c) Use HM6YAb for 'some' in sentences about the future, in orders and questions. (d) Use HMKT6/HM'fT61HMrAe (24.6) etc. for 'any' in negative sentences. 322


Key examples: KT6-To aac ..t.qeT. Bbl KynlltnM 'tT6-HM6YAb? CnpoCMTe KOr6-HM6YAb Mbl HMKOr6 He 3HBeM.
Someone is looking for you. Have you bought anything? Ask someone. We don't know anyone.

26.7 EXTRA: -m16o and KOeThere is another suffix -nM6o, which is similar to HM6YAb but implies even more unrestricted choice:

EcnM aaM 'tT6-nM6o HjlKHo . . .

If you need anything (whatever) ...

It is also a little more formal than -HM6YAb so it is not common in conversation. Note also the prefix K6e-, which generally has a distributive meaning:

K6e-rAe K6e-KT6 K6eKYAB K6e-'tT6

in several places/here and there a number of people (declines like KT6) to several places certain things (declines like 'tT6) Snow lay here and there. A number of people won't like this.

K6e-rAe nean cHer. K6e-KOMY (dat.) 3TO He nOHpBBMTCR.

Prepositions with K6e-KT6 and parts:


generally come between the two

0HB y)l(e KQe C KeM n03HBK6MMn8Cb.

She's already met a few people.

However, K6e- can also be an equivalent of -To, but with the extra nuance that the speaker is concealing the identity of the person, thing or place. So K6e-KT6 can mean 'someone' in the sense 'a certain person whom I am not naming'. S1 npMaea eii K6e-'tT6 'I've brought her something (which I'm not naming)'; S1 MAY K6e-KYAB 'I'm going to a certain place' (a euphemism for the toilet).



Note that KOeK&K means 'badly', 'sloppily' or 'with difticulty', not 'in several ways'/'in a certain way': OH aci AilnaeT K6e-K&K 'He does everything sloppily.' npo6aam'ieMCR K6e-KaK 'We manage to get by' (30.5).

26.8 Word Order You will have noticed that Russian word order is very flexible. The endings of words show the relationships between parts of the sentence so these parts can go in almost any order without causing misunderstandings. The basic rule for written Russian is that new information (or emphasized information) comes at the end of the sentence.
3A8Cb 6bln BacH. Vasla was here (emphasis on Vasia). OH cao66AHO roaopliiT no-pyccKM M no-HeMei.\KM. He speaks fluent Russian and German (emphasis on the languages, not the fluency). OH roaopliiT no-pyccKM cao66AHO. He speaks Russian fluently (emphasis on the fluency). B anpene Mbl 6blnM a CO'tM. In April we were in Sochi (emphasis on where). B Cot.tM Mbl 6blnM a anpene (emphasis on when).

As general rules, note that unemphasized time and place expressions come first in the sentence and that unemphasized adverbs come before the verb. For the beginner in Russian there is nothing very important to remember about Russian word order- other than the fact that it is very flexible. However, it is worth noting that some things which are complicated in English are simpler in Russian because of this flexibility. An English sentence such as 'It was Tolstoi who wrote Resurrection' (emphasizing 'Tolstoi') can be in Russian BOCKpeceHMe H&nMcan TonCTolil.


Translate, paying attention to the word order:

I Some woman rang you (fam) (emphasis on 'some woman'). 2 She



bought something (emphasis on 'bought'). 3 There are no bananas in Moscow (emphasis on 'no bananas'). 4 There was a Russian book lying (neaTb) on the table (emphasis on 'Russian book'). 5 It was Mary who brought the book (emphasis on 'Mary'). 6 I'll phone you (tam) tomorrow (main emphasis on 'tomorrow', some emphasis on 'phone'). 7 I'll phone Vadlm tomorrow (emphasis on 'Vadim').

26.9 EXTRA: Word Order in Speech

Different rules apply in informal conversation, where intonation and stress play important roles. For example, important information is likely to come first and to be pronounced with extra emphasis:
Tepnjyb He Morj KorR& pyriiiOTCRI 'I can't stand people swearing!'

26.10 Russian Addresses

A Russian address (BAPec pl. BAP8C8) runs backwards (from a western point of view), starting with the town and ending with the name of the resident. Here is an example:
MOCKB8127436 yn. HOB8TOpOB A- 35, KOpn. 2, KB. 236

(Moscow+ six-figure postcode)

(jnllll1 'Street of the Innovators')

(A6M 'house' 35, K6pnyc 'block' 2, KB&pnipa 'flat' 236, which can also

CM111pH6By B.C.

be written 35/2/236) (to Mr V. S. Smimov- dative case)

Most city dwellers live in blocks of flats. The street number, 35 in the example above, may cover several buildings one behind the other, each of which is called a K6pnyc. Blocks of flats are often built round an open space called a AB6p 'yard', which may contain benches, a children's playground, trees, a kindergarten and sometimes a parking lot. The entrances (nOA"b63A 'porch', 'entrance') to the blocks are usually on the AB6P side of the building, not on the street. 325


26.11 Writing Letters

In English we begin 'Dear ... ', whether writing to a friend or the tax inspector. In Russian, the greeting depends on the degree of formality. If you are writing to someone you call Tbl, you can use:
or or

Aopor6i ('Dear') BiHR! AoporaR Mawal 3ApiacTayi, BiHRIMMwal

The ending of the letter can be '-'eny10 Te6il ('I kiss you'), 06HMMBIO Te6il
('I embrace you'), Ao CBMASHMR or Ao cK6poi BCTp&'IM ('See you soon').

If writing to someone you call Bbl, use yaaieMbiM 'respected':

YaaaeMbiM neTp MaaHoaM't! YaaieM&R MapMR Bn&AMMMpoaHal

An even more honorific form of address is MH6royB8lKB8MbiM 'much





The ending of the letter should be:

C yaalKeHMeM ('With respect')

26. 12 Vocabulary
&Apec pl. 8AP8Ca address &TMoc4Jt!pa atmosphere aecenbiM cheerful, jolly ao3apaiJ4eHMe return racTp6nM ( racTp6nei
(theatre) tour ('guest roles')

3AOP6Bb8 health 3H&KOM&R (f adj) female acquaintance

3H&KOMbiM (m adj) male acquaintance

3H&KOMCTBO acquaintanceship,
first meeting

Aepeao pl. AepeabR A8peBb8B tree A8TCK&R nnoiJ4iAKa children's


K8'16nM (pl.) K&"'eneM swings K6e-K&KMe certain, a number of


38CT6nb8 party (round a table,

with food and drink)

KpenKo firmly, strongly M&TepMiln material



MbJCnb (f) thought HB4MOH8nbHbliii national Heo*MABHHbliii unexpected H&CMOTpR HB TO, 'ITO in spite of the fact that HOBOrOAHMiii New Year (adj) OK83ilTbCR 0 OK&)J(jCb, 0KB)J(8WbCR (OKil3biB8TbCR' like 3H&Tb) to find oneself; to
turn out oc66bJiii special oTnrii'IHbliii excellent

npMa6T greetings (informal usage) nRTM3T{i)J(Hbliii five-floor pa6oTa HBA ( + inst.) work on something cepeAriiHa middle CK&MeiiiKB CKBMHK bench (dim. of CK&MbR 'bench') co6Mp8TbCR' ( + inf) to intend to co6paTbco6epy,co6epiwb (co6Mp8Tb' like 3H&Tb) to gather cTapriiK old man cTapywKa old woman (dim 25.2) CTBTbR article C'IBCTb8 happiness. luck T8K 'ITO SO, SO that TO, 'ITO the fact that TPYA TPYAil work yB8)J(aeMbliii respected yaa*eHMe respect YAMBniHHO with surprise YAMBnRTbCR' (like 3H&Tb) (+ dat.) (YAMBMTbcR YAMBnlbcb, YAMBMWbCR) to be surprised (at) ynbJ6Ka ynbJ6oK smile ypoa(e)Hb (m) level 4enoa8Tb' 4eny10, 4enyewb (no-) to kiss 'IT6-nM6o anything whatever (26.7) wyMHbliii noisy

OTb83A departure ne'lanb (f) sadness nOBTOpRTb' (like 3H8Tb) (nOBTOpMTbP nOBTOpJb, noaToprilwb) (+ace.) to repeat no3APaaneHMe greeting, congratulation noKoneHMe generation noHpaaMTbCR to please KHrilra MHe noHpaaMnacb I liked the book nocenriiTbCR 0 nocenlbcb, nocenrilwbcR (nocenfiTbCR' like 3H&Tb) to settle, take up residence npe*Ae acero first of all, primarily npMCTYnMTbnpMCTYnnlb, npMcTjnMWb (npMCTYnilTb' like 3H&Tb) (K +dat.) to get down to, to start on



26.13 nMCbM6, 3anMCK8, no3AP8Bn8HM8

YBIDKB8Mb1M npocl6ccop HMd$opoal M3BMHrhe 38 T6, -tT6 R T&K A6nro He nMcilna. ~ co6Mp8n&cb HanMcirrb BaM cp83Y JKe n6cne ao3apalqitHMR M3 MocKBiil, H6 A&n 61i1n0 CnMWKOM MH6ro. Ha np6wnoi HeA{tne R npootMTana Bawy npeKpicHyiO KHMry o 60nbWOM TeBTpe. 0HB MH8 O't8Hb ROHpBBMn&Cb. '46pe3 napy H8A6nb n6cne B03Bp&lqitHMR B 6pMCTOnb R n03BOHMn8 B H8W H81.4MOHBnbHbiM TeBTp M roaopMna C Biwei 3H8KOMOM. 0H8 CK&:tina, 'tTO K6e-K8KMe M8TepM8nbl AnR Bac OHB p6 co6pana, T8K 'tTO, KOrAB Bbl 6jA&Te B n6HAOH8 B aaryCTe, Bbl CMOJK8T8 cp83y npMCTYRMTb K pa66Te H&A CT8Tbii 0 raCTp6nRX 6onbw6ro TeaTpa a AHrnMM. EcnM HM-tT6 He noMewaeT, T6 Mbl c Pil-t&PAOM cH6aa oKiJKeMCR a MocKa6 rA6-To a ceP&AMHe MIOnR. EcnM R eMOry BaM oteM-HM6YAb noMO'tb (otTO-To nepeA&Tb OT Bawei 3H&K6Moi ilnM -tT6-nM6o e!) 3BOHMT8 MHe. E114i pa3 cnacil6o 38 OTnM-tHYIO KHMry. Bcer6 BaM A66poro*. c yaaJKeHMeM &ap6apa noyn *Best wishes (short you all good'). 3anMCK8 (A Note) AoporiiR MOR AHHYWKal 0pMB8T Te68 M3 OapMJKa. 3Aecb CTOnbKO MHTepecHoro, 'tTO HeKOrA& nMCBTb nMCbM8. fl aepHjCb B 't8TMpr, n6cne WeCTM. OpMXOAM a rocTM, R Te6e aci paccKaJKj. ~ny10 KpenKo, lbpa

JKenaiO BaM acer6 A66poro (gen.) 'I wish to



Hoaor6AHee no3,qpaaneHMe (New Year Greetings)

Ya8)1(aeMbliii neTp MaaHoaM'II nycTb ne'ISIIM OCTSHyYCR B npOWIIOM rOAY nyCTb B BaweM AOMe nocenr.tTcR c'laCTa.e! >Ken810 BaM aecenoro 38CTOIIbR, Yllbi60K, PSAOCTM, 3AOPOBbR. >Kena10 BaM ycnexoa a )I(M3HM M a TPYA8 >Kena10 BaM Toro, 'ITO Bbl enaeTe ce68. C YB8)1(eHM8M Eaa AHToHoaa

Note that in letters (a) the first line is positioned towards the middle of the page, (b) the name is followed by an exclamation mark . and (c) all forms of Bbl are written with a capital letter.


Translate: Note the word order: in eleven cases the subject (noun in the nominative case) comes after the verb (see 26.8).
,Qaop ('The Courtyard'- see 26. 10) BOIIOAR M M3pM aownr.t ao ABOP nRTM3TS)I(Horo AOMa. Xon1 wyMHbiM npocneKT 6blll H8A8118KO, BO ABOpe 6blll0 TMXO, pOCIIM 6onbwr.te cTapble AepeabR, a a caMoM 48HTpe 6blll8 A8TcKaR nno!J48AKa C Ka'leiiRMM. Ha CKaMeMKaX CMAeiiM CTapMKM MCTapyWKM, nep8A HMMM MrpanM A8TM. - 3ApaacTayiiiTe! lApaacTayiiiTe - noaTopJ1n BonoAJI. - Tbl acex 3A&Cb 3H8ewb?- YAMBIIiHHO cnpocr.tna M3pM. - KoH8'1Ho. Sl B8Ab Bblpoc a 3TOM ABOpe. B CT8pbiX MOCKOBCKMX AOMSx OC06aR aTMOCclepa. B HMX MHOrAS )I(MByY ABa-TpM nOKOIIeHMR. BoT 3TM cTapywKM 3HSIIM MOMX A8AYWKY M 686ywKy, BMA811M, KaK poe Moiii nana KaK p6c R, KaK poena MoJ1 ceCTpa Mawa. 3Aecb npowna MX )I(M3Hb. M OHM mo6RT M 3ToT AOM, M acex, KTO a HiM )I(MBiT.




Where exactly did Vera Petrishcheva and Barbara Pope meet? 2 Y MeHR B03HMKI18 MbiCnb What is Vera's idea? 3 What two reasons does she give for considering this idea realistic? 4 What does she want Mrs Pope to do?

3APBBCTBYMTe, yaa>KaeMaH MMCCIIIC noyn! He YAIIIBnflitTecb, no>KanyitcTa, MoeMy Heo>KMA8HHOMY nliiCbMy, HecMoTpfl Ha To, 'fT6 co AHH Hawero 3HaK6McTaa Y*e npown6 BOC8Mb MKH48B. Aeno a TOM, 'fTo1 T6nbKO Bbl cMo>KeTe noMO'fb MHe 111 MOMM APY3bRM. Ho AnH Ha'fana H Han6MHIO HeMH6ro o ce6e. MeHfl 30BYT Bepa. Sl 1113 ropoA& MIIIHYCMHCKa. Toro ManeHbKoro npoaliiH4111BnbHoro1 Clii6MpcKoro ropOAKB 1, rAe Bbl co CBOMM My>KeM 6blnlil B KOM8HAIIIPOBKe B MBe npownoro r6A&. Sl 6'feHb co>KaneiO, 'fT6 3To nliiCbMO H He Han111cana cpa3y n6cne Bawero OT"b63A8, HO, K8K y H8C roaopRT, ccnj'fwe n6a>Ke1, 'feM HIIIKOrAB" nocne 3H8KOMCTB8 c BSMIII B HSWeM Myaee y MeHR B03HMKI181 MbiCnb, KOTOp8H He nOKIIIASna1 MeHH y>Ke HIIIKOrA8. 0HB 38KniO'fSeTCH1 B TOM, 'fTO H XO'fY K8KTO no6nM>Ke n03H8KOMIIITbCH C BaweM CTp8HOM, c o6bl'f8HMIII1 Ill niOAbMM. Tenepb 3To CTano 66nee pe8nbHo1, 'feM p&Hbwe. HaaepHoe, 3To caflaaHo1 npe*Ae acer6 c 6nenenbl01 a noniiiTM'fecKIIIX1 111 KynbTjpHbiX1 OTHOWeHIIIHX1 Me*Ay HBWIIIMIII CTpBH8Miil, a, KpOM8 TOrO, H nocrynMn& B IIIHCTIIITjT, rAe H H&'fana 38HIIIMBTbCH 8HrnMMCKIIIM H3biKOM, KOTOpbiM npenOA&eTCH 1 H8 Hennox6M1 ypo&He. no3TOMY H 6bl XOTena, 'fT06bl Bbl noMornM MH8 CBH3iiTbCH1 C KeM Hlii6YAb 1113 yHIIIBepCIIITeTa B 6pMCTone, KTO IIIHTepecyeTCH IIICTOplileM Clii6Mplil. Ecn111 H cMorj 'feM-H1116YAb noMO'fb BaM, 6YAY 6'feHb PW1 C HeTepneHIIIeM1 >KAY Bawero niiiCbMS.






6.60022 r. KpacHot1pcK,

yn. A6aKaHcKaSI 33/2/315 neTplii~eaoi Bepe MaBMHMTe 38 6ecnoKoicTao.

c yalllKeHMeM

*Extra Vocabulary
B03HMKHYTbP past B03HMK, aoaHiiiKna to arise y MeHH B03HMKna MbiCnb I had an idea ropoA(O)K small town (dim 25.2) Aeno a TOM, 'ITO the thing is that 38KniO'IirrbCSI' (a+ prep.) to consist of, to be 3H&KOMCTBO acquaintance with, first meeting KynbTjpHbiM cultural Hennoxoi (adj) not bad HeTepneHMe impatience c HeTepneHMeM impatiently o6bl'l&i custom OTHoweHMe relation orrenenb (f) thaw no6nliie (comp of 6nliiaKMM 18.3) a bit closer noKMASTb' to leave nonMTM'IecKMi political noae later (comp of nO:JAHO) npenOA&B8TbCSI' to be taught npoaMH4MilnbHbiM provincial piA& (f adj- 29.7) glad peilnbHO realistic caS138TbCJ1P c ( + in st.) to make contact with CBH38HO c ( + in st.) connected with coaneTb' to regret



27.1 Key Examples

Bee 6yAeT eAenaHo. Bee 6MneTbl np6A&Hbl. Mbl 61imM YAMBneHiil.
Everything will be done. All the tickets have been sold. We were surprised. Is this seat occupied?

3-fo MecTO 3iiHRTO?

27.2 Participles'

In Russian, there are six other verbal forms which you need to know, or at least to recognize, if you want to read Russian. These six forms are different types of participle', that is, verb forms which have some of the features of adjectives or adverbs. Equivalent participles in English are 'murdered', 'exhausted', 'sitting' in 'Was Stalin murdered?', 'Exhausted by participles, I needed a large whisky', 'I know the girl sitting in the corner'. Four types of Russian participles are verbal adjectives, dealt with in this lesson and in Lesson 29. Two are verbal adverbs, dealt with in Lesson 28. The most important of these participles is the past passive participle (PPP), corresponding to 'done', 'exhausted' etc. in English.



27.3 Past Passive Participle (PPP) or Past Passive Verbal Adjective

Bci 6YA8T CA8n&HO.

Everything will be done.

The participle cA8naHo 'done' is from CA'n&Tb" 'to do'. The neuter ending -Ho agrees with the subject ace. The linking verb is always a form of 6b1Tb 'to be'. These participles are quite common, though more so in bookish style. They correspond to 'murdered', 'surprised' in such sentences as 'Stalin was murdered' and 'He was very surprised'. They are formed only from transitive' verbs (i.e. verbs which can be followed by a noun in the accusative case) and normally only from perfective verbs (since PPPs denote completed actions).

27.4 Formation of Past Passive Participles (PPPs)

There are three categories, based on the endings of the infinitive. Under each category, note that there are two separate rules to remember, namely (a) how to form the participle, and (b) where to put the stress.
(l) Fairly Simple: -&Tb-type Verbs

(a) Ending. If the verb ends 8Tb, take off the Tb and add H (m)/-Ha(O/ -Ho(n)/Hbl (pl.) It doesn't matter what the future conjugation' of the verb is or how irregular it is. So:
A&Tb 'to give' has the PPP: A&HIA&H81A&H61A&Hiil 'given'

(b) Stress. If the verb ends -Tb, the stress moves back a syllable. So:
npo'tMTirrb 'to read' has: npo'triiTaH/npo'triiTaHa/npo'tMT&Ho/ . npo'tliiT&Hbl 'read'

A one-syllable verb such as A&Tb 'to give' always has the stress on the last vowel, so the endings are ASH, A&HS, A&H6, A&Hiil 'given'. Where the stress moves back a syllable on to a prefix, the stress is often on the ending in the feminine form: 6TA&H, OTA&H8, 6TA&HO, 6TA&Hbl 'given back'. Common phrases with PPPs ending -aH/-aHa/-aHo/-aHbl:



CA9n&Tb 'to do' Bee eA(InaHo. EiyAeT CA9naHo. noK&3ilTb 'to show' CIM11bM 6yAer noKll38H 3il&Tpa. npoA8Tb 'to sell' Bee 6MneTbl np6A&Hbl.

Everything's done. (lt)'ll be done. The film will be shown tomorrow. All the tickets have been (are) sold.

Note that the missing present tense form of 6b1Tb 'to be' can correspond to the English perfect tense 'has/have been', as in the last example. (2) Trickier: MTb and TM Verbs (and -eTb verbs of Type 2, i.e. with conjugation -10, -MWb) (a) Ending. To find the PPP of these verbs, you need to know the first person H ('I') form of the future conjugation. Take off the -y or -10 and add -eH or -iH, depending on the stress. Examples:
o6ritA8Tb 'to offend' H o6rit*Y. PPP: o6ritJKeH 'offended' npMrnaeritTb 'to invite' H npMrnawy, PPP: npMrnaweH 'invited' np8AeTiiBMTb 'to present' H npeAeTliBniO, PPP: np8ACTilaneH 'presented' npMBeeTrit 'to bring' H npMBeAy, PPP: npMBeAiH 'brought'

(b) Stress. If the verb is stressed on the stem (i.e. not on the MTb), the stress is on the stem in all forms, so:
npeAeTilBMTb 'to present' has npeAeTaaneH (m), np8ACTilaneHa (f) npeAeTaaneHo (n), npeAeTaaneHbl (pl) 'presented'

If the m form is -eH, the f, n and plural forms are always unstressed eHa,
8HO, 8Hbl.

If the verb has fixed stress on the ending in the future, then the PPP always ends ett/eH8/eH6/eHbl:
npMrnaeritTb 'to invite' (H npMrnawy, Tbl npMrnaeritwb). PPP: npMrriaweH 'invited'. The f, n and plural are npMrnaweHa, npMrnaweH6, npMrnaweHbl.

Note that if the m form ends -eH, the other three endings are always eHA,
eHQ, eH.I!!..

If the stress of the future shifts back from the ending to the root, the stress of the PPP is likely to match the stress of the Tbl form (though there are exceptions). Examples:



KynMTb 'to buy' (H Kynmo, Tbl KinMWb). The PPP is Kynnmt/KynneHal KynneHo/KynneHbl 'bought'). o61>HBMTb 'to announce H o61oHBntb, Tbl o61>HBMWb, PPP: o61oHBneH 'announced'. Examples: BonpOc: 6yAeT peweH. 6Mn8Tbl y:IKe KjnneHbl. The question will be dealt with ('solved', 'decided'). The tickets have already been bought.

(3) Easy Ones: Verbs with Unusual Infinitives -oTb, yYb, HTb, biTb, -eTb (if not Type 2) (a) Endings. Simply take off the soft sign. The four endings are then -T/TaiToiTbl. Example: 38Kpb1Tb 'to close' PPP: 38Kpb1T, 3&KpbiT8, 38KpbiTO, 38Kpb1Tbl 'closed' (b) Stress. Verbs in -biTb have fixed stress on the -bl. Verbs in -6Tb and -jTb shift the stress to the stem like -ilTb verbs (see l(b) above). Verbs in -HTb also shift the stress forward, but the feminine form tends to be stressed on the

-a. Examples:

38THHyYb 'to tighten': ppp 38THHyY, 38THHyY8 'tightened' npoKon6Tb 'to pierce': PPP npoK6noT, npoK6noTa 'pierced' 38HHTb 'to occupy': ppp 3ilHHT, 38HHTS, 3ilHHTO, 3ilHHTbl 'occupied', 'busy' OTHHTb 'to take away': ppp OTHHT, OTHHTS, OTHHTO, OTHHTbl 'taken away' OA8Tb 'to dress': PPP OA8T, OA8Ta, OAeTo, OAeTbl 'dressed' (B +ace. 'in') Ott& 6bll1ll opf1ra a KP{k:ttoe nnlrrbe. She was wearing a red dress. Notice that BblnMTb 'to drink' belongs to type 3: BblnMT, BblnMTa, BblnMTO, BblnMTbl 'drunk' (of a liquid, not a human) B'lepil6blnO BblnMTO MH6ro. A lot was drunk yesterday.

27.5 Use of PPPs

Pa66Ta CAenaHa. Pa66Ta 6blnll CAenaHa. Pa66Ta 6yAeT CAenaHa. Pa66Ta 6blnil 6bl CAenaHa. The work is/has been done. The work was done. The work will be done. The work would be/ would have been done.



If you want to say who did it, use the instrumental, meaning 'by':
Pa66Ta 6bma c,qenaHa Mawd. The work was done by Masha. (Maweiii is the instrumental case of Mawa.)

27.6 EXTRA: Exceptional Cases

HaiiiTiil 'to find', PPP HiiiiABH, HiiiiAeHa, HiiiiA&HO, HiiiiA&Hbl 'found' (note stress). BbiHYAMTb (JI BbiHYJKY, Tbl BbiHYAMWb) 'to force', ppp aliiHYlKA&H 'forced'. YBMA8Tb 'to see', PPP yaliiAeH 'seen'. Ha118Tb 'to begin', PPP Hil'laT, H&'I&Ta, Ha'laTo, Hi'I&Tbl 'begun'.

27.7 PPPs with bJi-adjective Endings

In dictionaries you will find PPPs given with a long-form adjective end~ ing, i.e. HHbliii (types 1 and 2 - note the two HH's) or Tbliii (type 3). For example Hanlilc&HHbliii 'written' or a3.ATbliii 'taken'. These long forms, which have all the case endings of an adjective, are used in certain bookish constructions which you will meet when you read technical books or literature and newspapers. Examples:

Bo acex KHiilrax, H8nMC8HH.!ill! (prep. pl.) 3TMM BBTOpOM AD 39-ro r6AB, 8CTb MHT8p6c:Hbl8 lKeHJqliiHbl. In all the books written by this author before 1939 there are interesting women. In more neutral style, you would say:
Bo acex KHiilrax, KOT6pble 6blnM Hanlilc&Hbl jTMM aaTopoM AD 39-ro r6AB, 8CTb MHT8p6c:Hbl8 lKeHJqMHbl (or Bo BC8X KHiilrax, KOT6pbl8 H8nMc8n jTOTSBTOp .. .).

These 'long' participles replace a clause beginning KOT6pbliii 'which', just as in English you can say either 'all the books written by this author' or 'all the books which were written by this author'. Notice that it is easier and less bookish to use KOT6pbliii + the short participle in Russian; if you



choose to miss out the KOTOpbiM, then you must use the long participle and make its adjective ending agree with the noun to which it refers.
B6T nATb 6Mn6Toa, KoT6pble 6bii1M KjnneHbl B'lep8 or B6T nATb 6Mn6Toa, Kjnne.Hl:U!IX (gen. pl.) a'lepa. Here are five tickets (which were) bought yesterday. Pa66yY, KOT6paA 6bJna CA611a.tta Maweill, A6mKeH 6bln CA6naTb BliHA. The work which was done by Masha should have been done by Vanya. Pa66yY, cA6n&.f!HDl (face. sg.) Maweill, AOnJKeH 6bJn CAenaTb BliHA. The work done by Masha should have been done by Vanya.

If you miss out the 'which' in the participial clause, then you have to use the long fonn of the participle and make it agree in case with the noun to which it relates (in this instance pa66TY in the accusative). In bookish style you will also meet constructions in which the long participle is placed in front of its noun, often with words inserted between them, e.g.:
Hanrilca.H.H.Illl. AOCToeacKMM a 3To apeMA poMaHbl CT8nM 6'1eHb nonynRpHbiMM. 'The written-by-Dostoevsky-at-this-time novels became very popular' (i.e. 'The novels written by Dostoevsky at this time ... '). B HliaaaHHbiX KHrilrax M6JKHO HaMTM MHoro MHTep6cHoro. In the named books one can find much of interest.

The fonns given in section 27.4 above (CA6naH/alo/bl etc.) are the ones you will nonnally meet and use. Do not mix up the short and long fonns of the participles! In a sentence of the type 'Something is/was/will be done', you must use the short fonn. For 'The work is done' it is wrong to say Pa66Ta CA'n&HH&A. Correct is Pa66Ta CAenaHa.


I Bcl6yAeT cA&naHo. 2 MaraariiM rYM 6bln nOCTp6eH a AeBATHBA4&TOM aeKe. 3 3ToT pOMBH 6bln HanrilcaH TonCTbiM. 4 HMKT6 He 386biT, HM'IT6 He aa6b1To (quotation from the poet B6pa MH6ep at the



main Petersburg war cemetery). 5 CJ)ecTMBBnb 6bln opraHM30B&H

CTYA8HT&MM. 6 Mbl 6blnM npMrnaweHbl Ha ae'tep a .Q6Me APY*6bl. 7 He ace aonp6cbl 6blnM peweHbl. 8 Pa66Ta KOH'teHa. 9 AnenbCMHbl 6blnM npMae38Hbl M3 AclpMKM. 10 B nep8Ail'te (programme) 6YA8T paccK838HO o >KM3HM a CM6MpM. 11 .Qae Tp8TM acex cj)MnbMOB, nOKS38HHbiX H8 clecTMBSne, 6blnM KynneHb18MepMKBH48MM. 12 MHorMe M3 npMHHTbiX a MHCTMTjT CTYA8HTOB - MHOCTpSH4bl.


Put the corn!ct endings on the words in brackets:

1 <I>MnbM 6yAeT (noKa38Tb) 3ltaTpa The film will be shown tomorrow. 2 Bee MecTa6blnM (38HHTb) All the seats were occupied. 3 Bonp6c y>Ke (peWMTb) The matter has already been dealt with. 4 3-roT aonp6c 6bln (38A{!Tb) (pycCKMiii >KypHanti!CT) This question was as'ked by a Russian
journalist. 5 Mara3MH (38Kpb1Tb) The shop is closed. 6 5blnO (o6bHBMTb}, '4T6 KOH48PT H8'4HiTCH a ceMb 'tacoa It was announced that the concert would begin at seven. 7 Baw 38KB3 (npMHHTb) Your order has been accepted.


Say in Russian:
1 All the tickets have been sold. 2 The museums will be closed tomorrow. 3 Is this seat (MeCTo) occupied? 4 The tickets will be ordered (38K&38Tb") tomorrow. 5 In our shops it is difficult to find (p) books written by modern Russian writers.

27.8 EXTRA: The Present Passive Participle (or Present Verbal Adjective)

This participle is very rare. You may find examples if you read scientific Russian and other texts in 'bookish' style. Its meaning is 'being V-ed' (V


being any transitive' verb), e.g. yaaJKB&MbiM 'being respected' from yaaJKBTb 'to respect'. Here is an example:

0Ha '4enoak, yaBJKileMbliil ac8MM.

She is a person who is respected (being respected) by everybody.

These participles are formed from the first person plural (the Mbl form) of impeifective transitive' verbs by adding the adjective ending bliil:

yaaJKBTb' 'to respect': Mbl yaaJKaeM: yaaJKaeMbliil '(being) respected' '4MTBTb1 'to read': Mbl 'tMTSeM: '4MTB8MbiM '(being) 'read' opraHM30BSTb1/" 'to organize': Mbl opraHM3jeM: opraHM3jeMbiM '(being) organized' o6cyJKA&Tb' 'to discuss': Mbl o6cyJKA&eM: o6cyJKA&eMbliil 'being discussed'
The stress is generally the same as the infinitive:

mo6MTb' 'to love': Mbl mo6MM: mo6MMbliil '(being) loved'

Special cases:

aeA6MbiM 'being led' (from aecTM 'to lead'), Hec6Mbliil 'being carried' (from HecTM 'to carry')
Like past passive participles, present passive participles match the nouns to which they relate in number, gender and case.
npo~cop MMp'tiiHoa A8BH6 38HMMaeTCJI aonp6caMM, o6cyJKASieMbiMM Ha 3Toiil KOH4JepeHL!MM. Professor Mirchanov has long been concerned with the questions being discussed at this conference.

These participles are sometimes used as adjectives:

Y!ISJK8eMJJt flltAMfl HMKonaeaHa! Respected Lidiia Nikolaevna! (start of a formal letter- see Lesson 26)
3To noA&poK A"" Moeiil mo6MMoiil cecTpM'tKM. This is a present for my beloved ('being loved') little sister.




A text with and without PPPs. Translate:

(a) B cP'Ay 6blno o6'bflaneHo, 'ITO ace 6MnltTbl yJKe npc)A&Hbl. Mbl 6bmM o'leHb YAManeHbl, noToMy 'ITO a nMCbMe AMpeKTopa 6bmo H8nMC8HO, 'ITO 6MneTbl AnA H8C 6YAYT KynneHbl a '18TBepr.

(b) B cpl!Ay o6'bAaMnM, 'ITO ace 6MneTbl yJKe npoA&nM. Mbl o'leHb
YAMaMnMcb, noToMy 'ITO a caoiM nMCbMe AMpeKTOP H&nMcan, 'ITO 6MneTbl AnA H8C KynAT a '18Taepr.

27.9 Vocabulary
areHT agent aKTip actor aKTpl'ca actress annOAMpoa&Tb' (38-P)

(abiCKS3bla8TbCA like 3H8Tb) to

speak for/in favour of

reHepan general 8AMHCTa8HHO only *YPH&nMCTK8 *YPH&nMCTOK female journalist 38AiiTbP (like A&Tb 12.7) (38A8aBTb

( + dat.) to applaud someone AC~JpMK8 Africa BenMK06pMTBHMA Great Britain

al!T(e)p wind aKniO'IMTbP aKn~'ly, aKniO'IMWb

38A81b, 38A8iWb) to set, pose 38AiiTb aonp6c ( + dat.) to ask (someone) a question
MaaecTHbiM well-known MCKniO'IMTbP MCKniO'Iy,

like 3H8Tb) (a + ace.) to include (in) a03MOJKHbiM possible

aonpoc question anepable for the first time abl6paTbP abl6epy, abl68peWb (abi6MpBTb' like 3H8Tb) (+ace.)



3H&Tb) + ace. to exclude K&MnaHMA campaign KMHoCIJecTMaanb (m) film festival Kop6nb (m) Koponfl king Me:JKAyHap6AHbiM international o6n&A8Tb' (like 3H&Tb) ( + in st.) to

to choose
abiHYAMTbP abiHyJKy, abiHYAMWb

(PPP abiHYJKA8H) (abiHYJKABTb' like 3H&Tb) (+ace. + inf.) to force (someone to do something)
abiCK838TbCAP abiCK8JKYCb abiCK8JK8WbCA (38 +ace.)

o6cyJKA&Tb' (like 3H&Tb) (+ace.) (o6CYAMTbp o6cyJKy, o6CYAMWb) to discuss 06'bAaMTbP o6'bABnlb, o6'bRaMWb



(o6'bJIBnATb' o6'bJianiuo, o6'bRanilewb) ( + ace.) to


(npMo6peTIITb' like 3H8Tb)

(+ace.) to acquire nporpaMMB programme

onp6c survey opraHM30BBTb"0 opr&HM3j'IO, opraHM3jewb (+ace.) to


paaaeAiHHbiM divorced (originally

a PPP)

noKnOHHMK admirer np&ACTBIBMTb0 np&ACT8an10 np&ACTBBMWb (np&ACTaam1Tb' like 3H&Tb) ( + ace. + dat.) to
present something/someone to someone

peilnbHbiM real, real-life peaynbm result a peaynbTilTe (+gen.) as a

result of

peweHMe decision COA8PJKBHMe content, contents cn6pMTb' cn6p10, cn6pMWb

(no-") to argue, dispute

npeaMAeHT president npeMb6pa premiere npeMb6p-MMHMC:Tp prime minister npMHATb0 npMMy, npMM8Wb past npliiHRn,npMHJina,npliiHRnM (npMHMMBTb' like 3H8Tb) (+ace.)
to accept

cynepaa83Ail superstar TeBTpilnbHbiM theatre (adj.) Y'tBCTBOB8Tb' Y'tBCTByiO, Y'tBCTBYewb a(+ prep.) to participate in YAMBMTb" YAMBniO, YAMBMWb (+ace.) (YAMBnRTb' like 3H8Tb)
to surprise (someone)

npMHRTb peweHMe to take a


nptto6pec:Tiil" npMo6peTj, nptto6peTiwb past nptto6pin, nptto6pena, -no, -nil

YHeCTM" (like HeCTiil 20.2) (yHOCMTb' like HOCMTb' 20.2) to carry away 'tMHOBHMK bureaucrat 'tMC:no number a 'tttcne ( + gen.) among


ccYHeciHHbl8 BeTpOM
What is the English name of this film? 2 The film was made in 1939. What reason is suggested for its absence from Soviet screens until 1990? 3 What main principle determines how English or American names are spell in Russian transcription? 4 Translate the eight underlined PPPs.



B 1937 rOAY, n6cne TOr6 K8K 6bJnO npMHHTO peweHMe CAenaTb ciJMnbM no poMilHy YHeceHHble aeTpOM, areHT npoAibcepa A3&MA8 Cen3HMKa, Pilccen EiepAaenn, Hil~tan KaMnilHMIO a AMepMKe noKn6HHMKaM poMllHa 6bJn BAa!i aonp6c: KT6 *e A6n*eH MrpllTb CKilpnerr M Perra? IIIOAM nepecnlnM o6cY*A&Tb peanbHYIO APiiMy- poMaH aHrnlillifcKoro Koponil 3AYiiPA8 VIII c pa3BeAeHHOM aMepMKiiHKOM Y6nnec Cli!MncoH (a pe3ynbTaTe KOT6poro Kop6nb AHrnMM 6bln BbiHY)I(AeH OTpe'tbCH* OT npeCT6na). B K~OM C8Mb8 38 o68AOM cn6pMnM 0 T6M, '4T6, M6)1(8T 6b1Tb, rapM Kynep ... A ecnM 3ppon <lnMHH? ... H6 KnapK relif6nl ... AeaHH6cTo nHTb npo48HTOB Tex, KT6 Y'tBCTBO&an B onp6ce, H83BBnM KnapKa relif6na eAMHCTBeHHO ao3M6)1(HbiM PerroM EiaTnepoM. '"IT6 KaclleTcH CK&pnerr O'Xapblc6poK nHTb npo1.1eHTOB BbiCKa38nMcb 38 Eierr A3aMc, KoT6paH Y*e o6n&Ailna ABYMH cc6cKapaMM. H6 oHa OTKa38nacb. Cen3HMK Bbl6pan aHrnlillifcKyiO TeaTpanbHYIO aKTplilcy Blil&b8H liM. <IMnbM CAenan BlilabeH liM cynep3ae3A6M. B 1943 roAy, ~tepe3 'teTblpe r6A8 n6cne npeMbepbl, BO apeMH ee KOHI.IepTOB B ceaepHOi.'ii ActJpMKe elif annoAiilpoaanM aMepMKaHCKMM reHep{ln 31itaeHxayep M 6pMTBHCKMM reHepan MOHTr6MepM. <IMnbM YHeceHHble a8TpoM 6bln noKil3aH anep&ble a Poccli!M a OKTH6pe 1990 r6AS. PiiHbWe 6H 6bJn BKfliO'teH B nporpiiMMY OAH:r6 M3 MOCK6BCKMX Me*AyHap6AHbiX KMHociJecTMBilnelif, H6 no~teMyTO MCKfliO'teH B nocn4!AHIOIO MMHjTy. HaaepHOe, K8KMMTO '4MH6BHMK8M COAep)l(ilHMe ciJMnbM8 He noHpiiBMnOCb. npaaa noKil3biB8Tb ccYHeceHHbiX BeTpOM 6blflM npM06peTeHbl y &MepMKiiHCKOM KOMnBHMM IOHSMT8A litHTepH3WHn nli!K~tep3. Ha npeMbt!pe B KMHOTeaTpe 0KTH6pb ciJMflbM 6bJn npeACTliBneH npe3MA8HTOM cciO.IIt.n., TeAOM TepHepOM. EibJnO MH6ro roCTeM, B 'tMCne KOT6pbiX - A*eMH <16HAS, M3BecTHbiM aHrnMMCKMM aKTep EieH Kli!HrcnM c *8HOM, *YPHBnMCTKa K3pon T3T'tep, A6'4b TorAllwHero npeMbt!p-MMHMCTpa BenMKo6pMTiiHMM.

OT npecT6na to abdicate ('renounce from throne')



28.1 Key Examples

YxoAfj, racliiTe caeT. ywen, He cKa3ila HM cn6aa.
As you leave, put out the light. He left without saying a word.


28.2 Verbal Adverbs ('Gerunds')

Russian has two types of verbal adverb (sometimes called 'gerunds' in old-fashioned grammars of Russian). They are fairly common in writing, and you may occasionally hear one used in conversation.

28.3 Imperfective Verbal Adverb

The basic meaning of this verb form is 'while doing something'; it generally corresponds to English verbs with the ending '-ing'. So yxoAfi (from yXOAMTb1) is 'while leaving'. As its name tells you, it is formed only from imperfective verbs. The characteristic ending is -R.

Take the third person plural form of the present tense (the OHM form), take off the last two letters and add -R:



roaopMTb' 'to speak' (OHM roaopirr) roaop +II= roaopil '(while) speaking' 3Han.' 'to know' (OHM 3ttaiOT) 3Hlt +A= 3HU '(while) knowing' MATH' 'to go' (OHM MAYT) MA +A= MAR '(while) going'
Verbs with the stress pattern of KYPMTb: A Kyplb, Tbl KjpMWb (see 4.9) stress the verbal adverb on the end:

yxQAMn.' 'to leave' yxoJKj, OHM yx6AAT: VXOA +A= yxoAfl '(while) leaving'

If the verb is reflexive', add -cb after the A:


'to smile' OHM yn~:o16810TcA: yn~:o168 + A + Cb = yn~o~68Acb '(while) smiling'


Note. Don't forget the 'spelling rule' which says that after r, ~ 4 you find a instead of A (see 12.11 ). So:

x, * '1, w,

cnewMTb 'to hurry' (OHM cnewliT) cnew + a (not A) = cnewa 'while hurrying' Y'fMTbCA 'to study' (A Y'fYCb, OHM j'laTCA) Y'f + a (not A) + Cb : Y'fltCb 'while studying'

28.4 EXTRA: Exceptions

(a) Verbs ending -aaaTb, e.g. A&B8Tb1 'to give', keep the -aa- of the infinitive in the verbal adverb:

A&Biirb 'to give': A&BU 'while giving' (not Ad from OHM AltiOT) aCTaaltTb 'to get up': aCTaaltA 'while getting up' (not aCTltA from OHM BCTalbT)
(b) Some verbal adverbs are unexpectedly stressed on the stem:

CToiln. 'to stand': CT6A 'while standing' (preferred to CTOR) cMA6n. 'to sit': CHAR 'while sitting' (not CMAR)
(c) Some, generally short, verbs have no verbal adverb. The ones to note are eCTb 'to eat', nMTb 'to drink' (nMil is archaic), nMCiiTb 'to write', exaTb 'to travel' (but see (d) below), verbs ending HYTb (e.g. TAHjTb 'to drag') (d) There is an alternative ending Y'fM, which is used with 6b1Tb: 'to be':



6YAY'IM 'being'. Colloquially, this ending can be used with exaTb 'to travel': 8AY'IM 'while travelling'. MAY'IM 'while going' is a colloquial equiva" lent of MAR.

28.5 Use of Imperfective Verbal Adverbs (IVAs)

Although we suggest the translation 'while Verb-ing' ('while going' etc.), the actual translation in context will vary.
YxoAH, racr.tTe caer (common notice). As you leave/When leaving, put out the light. OHa jotMT cnoaa, CT6st Ha ronoae. (ronoaa 'head') She learns words standing on her head. B03BpaiJ4iSicb AOM6M, Mbl nenM pjcCKMe necHM. On our way home (While returning home), we sang Russian songs.

The negated IVA (with He) can be translated 'without V-ing':

n6e3A MAih B XenbCMHKM, He 38XOAH B neTep6ypr. The train goes to Helsinki without calling at St Petersburg. He A083JKBR AO caeTo~6pa, caepHr.tTe Hanpaao. Before you reach (Without going as far as) the lights, turn right.

Notice that it is more important to be able to recognize IV As than to be able to form them. You can always avoid an IVA by using a clause beginning with KorA& 'when' or some equivalent conjunction:
Y'fBCb B MOCKBe, Mropb JKMn B TennoM CTaHe means the same as KOTAS 6H Y'IMnCSI B MOCKBe, MrOpb JKMn B TinnoM CTiHe. Studying/When he studied/in Moscow, Igor lived in Teplyi Stan.

Basically, the IVA describes an action or state which is simultaneous with the action expressed by the verb in the main clause. As in English, the subject of the verbal adverb is the subject of the verb in the main clause, i.e. in the last example the person studying is the person living in Teplyi Stan. Common phrases based on verbal adverbs:
CYAR no(+ dat.)

judging by (CYAMTb 'to judge')



CyAfl no aawel4 ~aMMmut, Bbl yKp8MH84. H8CMOTpil H8 (+ace.) HecMoTpil Ha nnoxy10 noro,qy, Mbl nownM a napK. He roaopil (YJK) o (+prep.) H8'1MHBR C ( + gen.)

Judging by your surname, you're Ukrainian. despite (not looking at) Despite the bad weather, we went to the park. not to speak of (not talking about) beginning with


Translate: 1 3HBR, 'ITO Eaa aepHeTCR OO:JAHO, BliAMM abiOMn CTBKlJH ao,qKM. 2 npoe3lKSR MMMO TeaTpa, Mbl Y3HBnM, 'ITO M,qeT nt.eca ccTpM cecTpbl. 3 OT,qbiXaR a KpbiMy, M3pM no3H&KOMMnacb c MHTepecHbiM npocpeccopoM. 4 Mbl wnM He cnewa, apeMeHM 6bmo MHoro. 5
3&HMMBRCb TPM 'l&ca KBlK,qbiM ,qeHb, BonoAfl BbiY'IMn aHrnMMCKMM R3biK 38 ,qaa ro,qa.

28.6 Perfective Verbal Adverb (PVA)

The closest English equivalent of the perfective verbal adverb (PV A) is 'having Verb-ed', e.g. 'having said'. PYAs are fanned from perfective verbs and have the characteristic endings -a, or, for reflexive verbs,
-aWMCb. Formation

If the infinitive ends Tb, replace the Tb with a:

cKa38Tbp 'to say' ,q&Tbp 'to give' CKa38a 'having said' ,qaa 'having given'

If the infinitive does not end Tb, fonn the PV A using the rules for the imperfective VA, i.e. replace the third-person plural ending with -R:
yMTMP 'to go away' OHM yl4,qjT: yM,q + R yl4,qil 'having left' abiMTMP 'to go out' OHM abiM,qyY: abiM,q + R : BbiMAfl 'having gone out' npMHecTMP 'to bring' OHM npMHecjT: npMHec + R npMHecil 'having brought'



In both cases the stress is the same as on the infinitive. Most non-Tb verbs are verbs of motion based on MATM 'to go', aecrrlfl 'to lead', HecTM 'to carry' and ae3TM 'to transport', e.g. yi4TifiP 'to go away', yaecTifiP 'to lead away', npMBe3TM 0 'to bring by transport'. If you should ever want to form a PV A from a verb ending TIV-'Ib which is not a verb of motion, e.g. ne'lb 'to lie down', use the rule given in EXTRA (a) below. Reflexive verbs have -BWMCb: ynbi6HY,.bCR 'to smile': ynbi6HjBWMCb 'having smiled'

nMcbMo, oHa cpaay e no3BOHiilna MiiTepM.

Having read the letter, she immediately phoned her mother. The 'having done something' structure often sounds stilted in English. Simpler translations are possible in context. Boi4Afl a KOMH&yY, OH cen y OKHil. Coming into the room (rather than 'Having come into'), he sat down by the window. npo)I(MB B CM6MpM TpM MEtCR48, OH aepHyncR B Klflea. After spending (rather than 'Having lived') three months in Siberia, he went back to Kiev. 6H ywen, HM'Iero He CK8HB. He left without saying anything (having said nothing). Basically, the perfective VA describes an action completed (that's why it's perfective) before the action described in the main clause.

EXERCISE 28/2 Translate: I npoexaa TPM OCT8HOBKM, M3pM BbiWna H8 CTBH1.4MM YHMBepcMTEtT.

2 HM'Iero He Kynlila B M8f83MHe, Bepa pewlflna OOMTM H8 pbiHOK. 3 3aMHTepecoaiiBWMCb 'leKMCT8MM, BonOAR Hil'lan npOBOAMTb ace
cao66AHOe apeMR a 6M6nMoriKax. 4 He AOMAH AO npocneKTa, Mbl caepHjnM Haneao. 5 BSAMM ywen, He 38KpbiB OKHil.



28.7 EXTRA: on PVAs

(a) Non-Tb verbs can also form the PV A by adding -WM to the masculine form of the past tense:

yHecTH 'to take/carry away': past yHec, PVA yHecwM 'having taken away' n8'tb 'to lie down': past ner, PVA nerwM 'having lain down'
(b) But note that verbs based on MATH (ylhH, BbllitTM etc.) have PYAs ending -WEtAWM (not -wenwM):

yihH 'to go away': yw8AwM 'having gone away' ab!MTM 'to go out' BbJW8AWM 'having gone out'
(c) Some writers form perfective VAs from -Tb verbs using the formation rule for imperfective VAs. So you may meet forms such as yBHAA 'having seen' (instead of the more normal yaHA8B). (d) Note also that in nineteenth-century literature you may also meet -BWM where the modem language has -a. So cKa3ilawM 'having said' is simply an older version of cKa3ila.


Translate the words in brackets, with or without verbal adverbs (your choice): l (Not knowing) pyccKoro H3b1Kil, Kapon He Morna H&MTH caolb rocTHHM'-"'Y 2 Eaa ywna, (without saying), KYAB oHa M#!T. 3 (After drinking) ABB CT&KiHa B6AKM, BRAHM pewHn 38MTH K Bepe. 4 (After getting dressed - OA8TbCJI), Mbl C 6pBTbJIMM M#!M 38BTp8K8Tb.

28.8 Vocabulary for 'Peter the Great'

6ecnoaqitAHo mercilessly 6opoA8 ace. 6QpoAY pl. 66poAbl beard 6oilpMH pl. 6oilpe 6oilp (9.8n) boyar (powerful landowner)



6pMTb; (no-") 6p810, 6p6ewb to shave 6biT way of life aoeHHo-MopcK6e A6no naval matters, naval science ('war-sea matter'} BoeHHbiM military BOCCTBHMe uprising acK6pe soon BbiA810&qMMCR outstanding (29.3} Bbi8X8Tb0 (Bbi83JKiTb1) (20.4} tO
depart (by transport} BbiRCHMTb0 BbtRCHIO, BbtRCHMWb (BbiRCHATb' like 3H8Tb) to find out, establish rnaail pl. rnilBbl chief, head; chapter

38CeAiiHMe meeting, sitting H8 :taeeAilHMM at a meeting, sitting M:JA8"rb0 (like A&Tb) (t1:JA8BSTb;) (+ace.) to publish K83HMTb'1 K83HIO, K83HMWb to execute KS'IeCTBO quality

a Kli'leCTBe (+gen.) as ('in the

quality of')

KoneHo pl. KoneHM Kon6Hei knee no Kon6HM (ace. pl.) up to one's knees Kop86nb (m) Kopa6nA ship KpenOCTHM'IeCTBO sertdom KpenOCTH6M (m adj) sert, semislave in pre-1861 Russia KynbTjpHbiM cultural

ao rnaae (+gen.} at the head of ronn8HAMR Holland rOCYABPCTB8HHbiM state, belonging to the state rpaHM48 border 38 rpaHMLIY abroad (motion} 38 rpaHMLI&M abroad (place} ABOPRHMH pl. ABOPAHe ABOPAH nobleman, member of gentry AQ6MUTbCR' (like 3H8Tb) (+gen.} (Ao6MTbcR0 A')6bl0cb, Ao6biWbCR) to work for, get, obtain eaponeM3ilLIMR Europeanization eapone(e)LI (8.6} European (noun} JK8HMTbCRi{0 JK8HIOcb, JK6HMWbCR (Ha + prep.} to marry (of a man) ('to wife on'} 3ilroaop plot

Kyn(e)LI KYn1.16a merchant M8AMLIMH8 medicine Han6r tax Hanp8BMTb0 HanpiantO, HanpaaMWb (HanpaanATb like 3H8Tb) (+ace.} to direct H8Y'IMTbCR0 ( + inf) (Y'IMTbCR') to learn to do sth Heo6XOAMMOCTb (f)(+ gen.) necessity (for) HenocinbHbiM excessive,
over-demanding H6JKHMLibJ (pl.} H6JKHMLI scissors HOCMTb' (20.2} to carry around; to wear

o6p638Tb0 o6p6JKy, o6p6JK&Wb (o6pe3ilTb' like 3H8Tb) to clip, cut



o6cepaaT6pMA observatory o6bJ'f8M o6bJ'f&ea custom 06R3biB8Tb' (like 3H8Tb) (+ace.) {o6A38Tb0 o6A)I(j, o6RJK8Wb) to compel, oblige OAHOBpeMeHHO at the same time opraHM38Top organizer OCT8HBBnMB8TbCA' tO stop OTCT8B8Tb' OTCT8JO, OTCT8iWb {OTCTBTb0 like CT8Tb) (O't + gen.) to be backward, lag behind (s.o.) OTCTBnOCTb (f) backwardness napnaMeHT parliament nepeAOBOM advanced, progressive nn6THMK carpenter no-eaponeMCKM in European style ('Europeanly') norM6HyYb0 pastnorM6,norM6na to perish OOIAMTb0 nolqtUKy, nO~AMWb (~AMTb') ( + ace.) to spare noceaqtiTb' (like 3H&Tb) (+ace.) (noceTMTb noce&qy, noceTMWb) to visit (a place)

npM68rBTb' (npM6eJKitTb0 ) (K + dat.) to resort to npMrOHRTb' (like rOHRTb 20.2) (npMrHBTb0 like rHBTb 20.2) to drive (to somewhere) npMroaopMTb0 (K + dat.) {npMroaapMB&Tb' like 3H&Tb) to condemn to, sentence to npMKil3 order npM06aqtiTb' (like 3H8Tb) (K + dat.) {npM06&qMTb0 npM06&qy, -o6&qMWb) to introduce to (something) npoaeAiHHbiM (PPP of npoaecnt) conducted, passed, executed, carried out npOMbJWn8HHOCTb (f) industry npoMbJWneHHbJM industrial npOTMBHMK opponent pa66'fMM (m adj) worker pacnpaanRTbCR' (like 3H&Tb) (c + in st.) {pacnpilaMTbCA 0 pacnpaanJOcb, pacnpaaMWbCA) to
deal with pe3KO sharply pecl)opMa reform pewllfTenbHO resolutely, with determination

nocnewMTb0 nocnewy, nocnewllfwb (cnewMTb') to hurry nonHOCTbJO completely npeAOPMRTMe firm, company,
business npeo6pa30BBHM8 reform ( = pecl)opMa)

POAHOM own (of family relationships); native caMOA8PJKBBMe autocracy cornicHe agreement c corniiCMA ( + gen.) with ('from') the agreement of co3AiiHMe creation COOC06HOCTb (f) ability cnoc66cTBOB8Tb'Cnoc06CTBYJO,

npeoAOneTb0 0peoAOneJO, -oneewb {npeoAoneailTb' like 3H8Tb) (+ace.) to overcome npM (+prep. (5.4)) at the time of, under



cnoc66CTayewb ( + dat.) to assist, facilitate cnycTR later, after (a period of time) cTpen(e)4 cTpenb40B strelets (member of privileged
military corps in sixteenth/ seventeeth century Russia)

yaHSTbp (like 3H8Tb) (yaHaaaTb' yaHa!O, yaHaewb) to find out yKpenneHMe strengthening yMCTBeHHbiM mental yHM'tTOlKeHMe annihilation ycn6aMe condition YXYAWMTbCJIP (YXYAWSTbCH') to get worse ~M3M't8CKMM physical 48peBM't son of the tsar 4enb (f) goal, aim 4MBMnM384MJI civilization 3KOHOMM't8CKMM economic 3HeprMH energy

ToproanSI trade TJutdinbtM heavy, hard YAenRTb' (yAenfiiO, YAenflewb) (yAenMTbp YAento, YAenMwb) (+ace.) to give, devote YAenS!Tb BHMMSHMe ( + dat.) to give attention to

28.9 neTp BemliKMM Peter the Great (Translation in Key)

neTp POAMnCJI 30 MBH1672 r6A&' B 1689 rOAY2 OH )1(8HMnCJI H8 AO'tepM MOCKOBCKOro 6oRpMH8 EBAOKMM nonyxMHOM. 1.4ap8M OH CTan a 1696 roAy3 06n&A8H BbiA8tOiqMMMCJI yMcTaeHHbiMM cnoc66HOCTJIMM MorpOMHOM 3HepnteM, OH nOCTORHHO yotMnCJI. 3HSSI, 'tTO POCCMJI OTCTBiT OT nep9AOBbiX CTpaH 3Sn8A8, OH XOpOWO nOHMMan H806XOAMMOCTb 3KOHOMM't8CKMX, BoeHHbiX M KynbTjpHbiX npeo6paaoa8HMM. B 1697 roAY' 6H alitexan aa rpaHM4Y B ronn8HAMM 6H HayotMncH CTpOMTb Kopa6nM, pa66TaJI npocTiitM nn6THMKOM. OH noce&q&n 38BOAb1, WKOnbt, MHTepecoaancJI MeAM4MHOM. B AHrnMM 6H M3yotiln aoeHHO-MopcK6e Aeno, noceTMn o6cepaaT6pMIO, no6btBiln Ha 38C8ASHMM napniiM8HT8. B aarycTe 1698 r6A&'. Y3HBB 0 BOCCTSHMM CTpenb40B B MocKae, neTp AOnlKeH 6bln nocneWMTb H8 POAMHy.

I TPMA48Toro MaR TbiCJI't8 wecTbC6T c8Mt.A&CRT BTop6ro r6A8 ( 17.11 ). 2 B TbiCJI'tB W8CTbCOT B6ceMbA8CRT A8BRTOM rOAY 3 B TliiCJI't8 W8CTbC6T A8BJIH6cTO W8CT6M rOAY 4 B TlitCJI't8 W8CTbC6T A8BJIH6cTO C8AbM6M rOAY 5 B aarycTe TbiCR't8 W8CTbC6T A8BRH6CTO BOCbM6rO r6AB.




3& rp&HtiU"eM neTp n03H8KOMMnCH C 6biTOM M 06bi'I8HMM BepHyawMcb a MocKay, oH CTan pewr.tTenbHO npMo6aq8Tb pyccKMX ABOPHH M Kynqoa K eaponeillcKoill qMaMnM3llqMM. KorA& 6oRpe MABOpRHe npMwnr.t no3APiBMTb neTp(l c npMe:JAOM, oH HO)I(HMq&MM o6p638n y HMX 66poAb1. BcK6pe 6bln M3A8H npMKil3, KOT6pbiM o6H3b1Ban ABOPHH OAeBaTbCH no-eaponeillcKM M6pMTb

66poAb1. KynqiM niTp HOCMTb 66pOAY HO 38 3TO OHM nn&TMnM Hanor. neTp YA8nHn MHOfO BHMMBHMH BOnpocaM p83BMTMH npOMbiW neHHOCTM MTOproanM. AaBBH KynqBM A6HbfM AnH C03ASHMH npoMbiWneHHbiX npeAnPMRTMM, OH npMrOHRn rocyA8pCTBeHHbiX KpeCTbRH B ropoA8 B KB'I8CTBe KpenOCTHbiX p&60'IMX. Ao6MBBHCb CBOMX qeneill, OH HM nepeA '18M He OCT&HBBnMB&nCH. CTpOH fOPOA neTep6ypr, OH He o6paaq&n BHMMBHMH H& TH)I(inble ycnOBMH. Pa60T8H B XOnOAe, nOA AO"'AiM, CTOH no KOneHM B BOAe M rpH3M, TbiCH'IM KpecTbRH norr.t6nM OT 6one3HeM, ronOA& M Henocr.tnbHOfO TPYAB Co CBOMMM npoTMBHMK&MM neTp pacnpaanHnCH MHOfAB npM6er8H K MX ciM3M'I8CKOMy YHM'ITO)I(eHMIO. B 1698 fOAY, BbiHCHMB, 'ITO BO rnaae BOCCTBHMH CTpenbqOB CTORnM 6ot1pe MMnocnaaCKMe, OH K&3HMn opr&HM38Topoa M 6onee TbiCH'IM CTpenbq6a. HeKOTOpoe Bp6MH cnycri neTp He nOII.\&AMn poAHOfO CbiH& AneKceH, y3H8a, 'ITO qapeBM'I Y'IBCTayeT a 3llroaope. B 1718 fOAY C cornaCMH OTqB AneKCeM 6bln npMrOBOpiH K CMepTM.

Pecp6pMbl, npoaeAiHHble neTpOM, cnoco6cTaoaanM eaponeM3llqMM POCCMM. 0AHBKO 6H He CMOf nonHOCTbiO npeOAOneTb OTCTBnOCTb CTp&Hbl, T&K K&K ero pe46pMbl 6blnM OAHOBpeMeHHO H&npaaneHbl H8 yKpenneHMe C&MOAep)I(BBMH M KpenOCTHM'I8CTB8. npM neTpe )I(M3Hb H8POA8 pe3KO YXYAWMnacb.

28.10 Vocabulary for Solianka Recipe

6enbiM rpM6 boletus BblnO)I(MTb (BbiKnSAbiB8Tb') to spread out ron6aKa little head (dim) ronoaKa nyKa an onion rpM6H6ill mushroom (adj) A068BMTb (Ao6aanHTb') to add AYXOBOM WK&cl oven "'"P fat, grease 38M8HMTbP (38M8HHTb') to replace



38neKiiHMe baking K8CTpiOnH K8CTpiOnb

npM6ilaMTb0 (npM6aaniiTb') to add npOMbiTb0 (npOMbiBSTb') to wash

KBilweHbiM sour, fermented KMnilaqMM boiling naap6BbiM nMCT bay leaf n6MTMK slice nyK onions Macnt'iHa olive MMCKa bowl Hap63an.P (Hape3iln.') to cut, slice 06lUpMTb0 (06:1KilpMB8Tb') to fry

pbi:IKMK saffron milk-cap c6pbi3HyT'b0 to sprinkle (with liquid) CKOBOPOAS frying-pan cMii38Tb0 (CMS3biB8Tb') to grease

sth with sth

cM838HHbiM greased (27.7) CM8WSTb0 (CMeWMB8Tb;) to mix coniHbiM salted, pickled c6nb (f) salt coniiHKa solianka (spicy cabbage

all over
oryp(e)q cucumber OKOH'ISHM8 end OCTSBWMMCJI remaining O'IMCTMTb0 (O'IMaqSTb') to clean nep(e)q pepper noAil'la serving nOA6epe30BMK brown mushroom nOA*BPMTb0 (nOA*BPMB8Tb') to

CTOnOBbiM table (adj) cyxilpb (m) rusk cywiHbiM dried TOMST-mope tomato puree TOT :IKe the same yYWeHMe stewing yYWiHbiM stewed yYWMTb' (no-0 ) to stew yKcyc vinegar

noKpb1Tb0 (noKpblaitTb') to cover nOCbln8Tb0 (nOCblnBTb') to

sprinkle (with sth solid)


I Does this dish contain any meat? 2 What does the recipe tell you to do with the cabbage? 3 Apart from the choice of type of mushrooms, three instructions involve options. What are the three options? 4 Translate literally the seven underlined verbal adverbs.



ConRHKa rpM6HaA A Recipe for Mushroom Solianka

(Note how the recipe uses infinitives as impersonal commands)

Ha 500 r (nJITbCOT rpiMMOa) CaUtiiiX rp11160a- 1 Kr (OAMH KlllnOrpBMM) caeJKeiii Kanjcn.l, 1 (OAMH) coniHbliii orype~, 1 (OAHi) ronoaKa nju, 2 CT. (Aae CTOnoawe) nOJKKIII TOII8Tanl0p6, 1-2 (OAHii-Aae) ot8iiiHb18 nOJKKIII caxapa, 2 CT. (Aae CTOnOab18) nOJKKIII MSCna. KanfCTY H&p63&Tb, nonoJKm a K&CTpliniO, A06lla111Tb 118cno 111 H8MHOro aOAbi. Tywlfrb OKono 'tSC8. 3a 15-20 IIIIIHjT AO OKOH'tBHIII.A yYW6HIII.A npiii6Sa111Tb TOMBTnl0p6, caxap, COnb, nape~, naapoabliii n111CT, jKcyc. OotllfcTIIIa 111 nDOMtila rp1116ti1 (66nbl8, noA6epiaoaiiiKIII, ptiiJKIIIKIII 111 APfrllle), nonoJKMTb 111x Ha 10-15 MIIIHjT a Klllniii.I4YIO BOAY 3aT6M H&pUaa nOMTIIIK&MIII, o6JK8p111Tb a MBCne. nonoJKMa rplll6bl a MMCKJ, H& TOiii JK8 CKOaOpoA6 nOAJK&piiiTb nyK Ill 38T6M C118WBTb ere) C rp1116SMIII, AQ6iallla H&p638HHbliii oryp6~, COnb, nepe~. nonoallfHy yYWiHOiii K&njCTbl nonOJKMTb H8 CMS38HHJIO JKMpoM CKOaOpoAj, H8 K8njC"ry atilnOJKIIITb nplllrOTOaneHHb18 rp1116t01111 noKpbiTb OCTilaweiiiCA K&njCTOiii. noctimaa K&njCTy cyxapHMIII Ill c6pti13Hya MicnoM, nocTiaiiiTb a AYXOaoiii WK&CI AJIR 38neK8HIIIR. nep&A noAfloteiii Ha consiiHKY MOJKHO nonoJKMTb noMTIIIK niiiMOHa ltn111 M&cnMHbl. rp1116Hj10 consiiHKY MOJKHO nplllrOTOaiiiTb TilKJKe 1113 KallweHoiii unjCTbl, He A06&aniiA a troM cnj'tae jKcyca. Ca6JK111e rp1116bl MOJKHO 38M8HMTb coniHbiMIII ltn111 cywiHbiMIII.



29.1 Key Examples of Active Participles

cneAyiO&qMM H&'IMHBIO&qMM BbiA810&qMMCA nilwy&qaA M&WMHKa JKenaiO&qMM ono:fA{IawMM B 3TOM AepeaHe JKMBjT niOAM, roaopil&qMe no-pyccKM. Mbl roaopilnM co CTYA6HT8MM, npMexaawMMM M3 MpKjTcKa.
following, next beginner ('one who is beginning') outstanding typewriter ('writing machine') wishing; person who wants to latecomer ('who has come late') In this village live people who speak Russian. We talked to the students who had arrived from Irkutsk.

29.2 Active Participles' Russian has two active participles, whose use is restricted to fonnal, bookish Russian (novels, scholarly works, some newspaper writing). The present active participle corresponds to English '-ing' verb fonns in such sentences as 'The man reading the newspaper is a spy'. The past active participle, which has both imperfective and perfective fonns, corresponds to 'who/which + the past tense' ('The woman who gave you all this money is a spy').



Both participles are met quite frequently in written Russian (particularly in newspapers and scientific writing) but they are not used in the spoken language. They can always be replaced with a clause beginning KOTOpbiM followed by the present or past tense. Like the passive participles you met in Lesson 27, active participles are formed from verbs and have adjective endings. In some grammar books, these participles are called 'verbal adjectives'.

29.3 Present Active Participle (Who/Which is VERB-ing)

These participles are easily recognized by their characteristic -~- followed by the adjective ending -MM. To form them, take any imperfective verb in its OHM form (e.g. 'tMTBIOT), take off the -T and add -~Mii:
'tMTiiTb (OHM 'tMTBIOT)- 'tMTBIO + ~MM: 'tMTBIO~MM 'reading' roaopMTb (OHM roaopkr)- roaopR + ~MM = roaopR~MM 'speaking'

These adjectival forms agree with the noun to which they relate. The endings are the same as those of the adjective xopowMii (see Table 5.)
SI3HBIO A8BywKy, otMTatO~YIO (f. ace. sg.) ra36TY. I know the girl reading the newspaper.

Notice that this sentence means exactly the same as:

SI3HBIO A8BywKy, KOTopaR otMTSeT ra38TY. I know the girl who is reading the newspaper (see 18.9 for KOTOpbiM).

If the verb is reflexive, add -cR (which is never shortened to -cb in participles):
AeaywKa, 38HMMatO~ pyccKMM The girl studying Russian R3biKOM, noApyra Bepbl. is a friend of Vera. (38HMMBTbCR 'to study': 38HMMBIO + ~MM + CR 'studying')

There are no exceptions to these rules for forming present active participles. Occasionally the stress is hard to predict (e.g. participles from -m verbs with the stress pattern of KYj)MTb (K}'ptb, KjpMWb, KjpRT) tend to have the stress of the first person, i.e. KYPB~M 'smoking', not KjpR~M), but the stress is of little importance since you will rarely have to use them in speech.




Find the infinitives from which the participles are formed and translate the sentences: 1 Mbl wnM no AOpOre, aagywelii a nee. 2 Bee yaaJK810T nMcllTenelii,
nMWYIJ&MX npllBAY 0 KOMMYHIItaMe. 3 MMCTep noyn BCTpe'fileTCR C 6M3HeCMeHOM ('businessman'), CTpOR!J&MM HOBble 38BOAb1 B CM6MpM. 4 AnR Hilwero Mara3MHa Mbl ..t~qeM JKeHiqMH, yM8101J&MX OAeBllTbCR Kpac..tao. 5 B 3TOM cM614pcKOM r6poAe, cymecTBYIO!Jl8M acer6 AKRTb neT, yJKe 66nee nRTH TbiCR'f JKHTenelii. 6 AMpeKTop acTpe'fileTcR C pa60'fMMM, OTKS3bi88101QMMMCR pa60T8Tb B BOCKpeC8Hb8.

29.4 Past Active Participles (Who/Which VERB-ed/was VERB-ing

These participles have the characteristic ending -BWMM, an adjective ending which agrees in number, gender and case with the noun to which it relates. It means 'who (or which) VERB-ed or was VERB-ing'.
who was studying who mastered

They are formed from both imperfective and perfective verbs using this rule: take off the -n of the past tense and add -awMiii:
M3Y'fllTb' 'to study' (past M3Y'flln) - M3Y'fllBWMM: CTyA8HTbl, M3Y'fllBWMe' pjCCKMM R3biK, H&WnM MHTep8cHyiO pa66yY. The students who studied Russian found interesting work. M3Y'fHTbP 'to master' (past M3Y'fHn)- M3Y'fMBWMM: 6M3HecM8Hoa, M3Y'fMBWMXP ( pyccKMM R3biK, O'f8Hb Mllno.
There are very few businessmen who have mastered Russian.

If the verb is reflexive, add -cR (never Cb).

38HMM8TbCR' 'to StUdy' (past 38HMM8nCR)- 38HMM8BWMMCR: Bee AeaywKM, 38HMMilawMecR' pyccKMM R3b1K6M, BbiWnM 3ilMyJK 38 pjCCKMX. All the girls who studied Russian married Russians.



If the past tense of the verb does not end -n, add -wMi (without the a) to

the masculine singular of the past tense:

npMH8CTM0 'to bring' (past npMHic)- npMHiCWMi 'who brought' Exceptions

The main one is MATM (and all its prefixed forms) which has the past participle form WSAwMi:
BOMTM 0 npoiTil

'who went in' 'who went through'

Note also:
B8CTM' (to lead) npMo6pecT111 (to acquire) aeAWMi' 'who/which led' npMo6peTwMi 'who acquired'

These participles always correspond in meaning to KOTOpbiM + the past tense:

6M3H8CMHOB, M3yotMBWMX pYCCKMM R3biK, Oot8Hb MBnO = 6M3H8CMHOB, KOTOpbl8 M3yotHmt pjCCKMM RabiK, Oot8Hb MBnO.



l CryAeHTbl, ono3A{lawMe Ha aKaiiMeH, O't&Hb 6ecnoK6MnMCb. 2 n!OA{ti, BMAtBWMXi neHMHa, Tenepb Oot8Hb M8no. 3 )1(6HiqMHy,
H8WMJuYIQ CJMKy, npOCRT nOAOiTM K 8AMMHMCTpirropy Teirrpa.

29.5 Participles as Adjectives: 'Has been Wife'

A number of active participles, mainly present ones, are commonly used as adjectives (i.e. they are used in front of a noun and have little or no verbal meaning of action). They are listed in dictionaries.





the following day (from cneAOB&Tb 'to follow') typewriter ('little writing machine') (from nMcilTb 'to write') leading role (from aecTM 'to lead') brilliant ('shining') book (from 6neCTeTb 'to shine')

KMDR!Il8R aoA{l boiling water (from KMneTb 'to boil') BbJA8!01QMecR nMcaTenM outstanding writers (from BbiA&BiiTbCR 'to stand out') non-drinking, abstemious (from nMTb 'to drink') Henb!OWMM former ('has been') wife (6biBWMM is the past 6biBW8R :JKeHil npowgwee apeMR
active participle of 6b1Tb 'to be') past time, past tense (npoweAWMIII from npoiiiTM 'to pass')

Some are used as nouns:

Mbl npMrnawileM acex :JKenii!OiqMX.

We invite all those who want to come (:JKenii!OiqMM 'who wishes' fium :JKeniiTb).

6H pa66TaeT c H&'4MHii!OiqMMM. He works with beginners (H&'4MHii!O~qMIII 'beginning' from H&'4MHiiTb 'to begin'). Latecomers are asked to wait Ono3AflawMx np6cRT DOAO:JKAiiTb. (ono3AflawMIII 'who was late' from ono3A{ITb 'to be late').

Translate the words in brackets, using a participle or KOTOpbiM (your choice): I CrvAeHToa, (who wish- :JKeniiTb) M3Y'4i1Tb aHrnMIIIcKMM R3biK, 6'4&Hb MHOfO. 2 8 MHCTMTjTe Mbl pa3rOBBpMB8nM CO CyYA8HT8MM, (who are studying - 38HMMiiTbCR) pyccKMM R3b1KOM. 3 npe$8Ccop MMp14iiHOB '4MTileT neKLIMM o no3Tax, (who wrote') npM CTilnMHe. 4 AMpeKTop

npMrnacMn H& a8'4ep acex CTYA8HTOB, (who had arrived) M3 Bn&AMBOCT6Ka.



29.6 EXTRA: Punctuation

You may have noticed above that an active participle is always separated from its preceding noun by a comma. Russian has very strict rules for the use of commas. In English, we tend to insert a comma when we pause; in Russian, on the other hand, the placing of commas is detennined primarily by grammatical structure and only secondarily by meaning or intonation. The main rule: a comma is always used to separate a main clause' from a subordinate' or participial clause, e.g.:
BBAMM cKa38n, 'ITO CKOpo npMAiT. Vadim said he would come soon. subordinate clause/ /main clause/

A comma would look most unnatural in this English sentence, but in Russian it is compulsory. If you miss it out, you look uneducated. Russian schoolchildren are not considered literate if they don't put the main commas in.
KaapTMpa, a KOT6pollii 6H JKMBiT, 6'1eHb 6onbw6R. 'The flat he lives in is very large.' The main clause is KaapTMpa 6'18Hb 6onbWBR and the subordinate clause, separated by commas, is a KOT6pollii 6H JKMBiT.

Note the number of commas in the following (all compulsory):

KB:IK8TCR, Te, KTO npMWin B BOceMb, CMornM KynMTb 6MneTbl, 8 T8M, KTO npMwen a A8BRTb, AMpeKTop cKa3iiln, 'IT6 ace 6Mn8Tbl np6A&Hbl. It seems that those who came at eight were able to buy tickets, while those who came at nine were told by the director that all the tickets had been sold.

By contrast, note that Russian does not use commas to separate time and place phrases from the rest of the clause. In English you can write 'In 1937, we lived .. .' but in Russian there is no comma: B 1937 rOAY Mbl JKMnM ... There are other differences between Russian and English punctuation, particularly in representing direct speech, but the use of commas is the only one likely to be noticed.



29.7 Long- and Short-Form Adjectives

This grammar aims to be complete. That is, it deals with all the basic structures of Russian grammar, even with those which you are unlikely to use, because you will meet them in the speech or writing of Russians. One of these minor topics is the choice between the long and short forms of adjectives. You have met some short-form adjectives simply as vocabulary items, e.g. A6n>KeH/AOn>KH8JAOn>KH61AOn>KHbl 'obliged' (19.4), pa.q, p&,qa, p&Ao, PBAbl 'glad' (26). What has not been mentioned is the fact that most adjectives of the H6BbiM/MonoA6i/aenMKMM types (7.2), but not those ending CKMM, can have the short endings la/o/bl in certain circumstances. Short-form adjectives are met only in sentences of the type 'The film is interesting', 'She was grateful', in which an adjective used predicatively (i.e. with no noun after it) is linked to the subject by a form of the verb 'to be'. These short-form adjectives have only one case, the nominative, and therefore only four possible endings, namely masculine, feminine, neuter and plural. They are called 'short-form' adjectives because their endings are truncated versions of the nominative 'long-form' adjective endings you met in 7 .2. Here are the two sets of endings compared.
n H6Boe H6BO
pi H6Bbl& 'new' H6Bbl 'new'

long forms short forms

You will see that short-form adjectives have the endings you associate with nouns (consonant ending: masculine; -a: feminine; -o: neuter; bl: plural). If you want to say 'a new house', using the adjective 'new' attributively (i.e. in front of a noun), the only possible form is H6BbiM A6M. But if you want to say 'The house is new', you have a choice between A6M H6BbiM and A6M H6B. The difference is a stylistic one: in most cases, the long form is normal, neutral Russian, while the short form is bookish. This means that the long form is the one you have been using, but when reading bookish Russian (formal articles, speeches, scientific writing, poetry) you will meet many examples of short forms.



Here are examples of short forms you may meet:

aepHbiM Kp8CMBbiM MHT8p8cHbiM xon6AHbiM HjlKHbiM AOporoi KpBTKMM nirKMM TPYAHbiM aenMKMM XOpOWMM
true beautiful interesting cold necessary dear/expensive short light/easy difficult great good

BepgH,B8pHa,aepHO,BepHbl Kp8CMB,Kp8CMBB,Kp8CMBO,Kp8CMBbl MHT8pecH,MHT8pecHa,MHT8pecHO, MHT8peCHbl xgnOA8H, xonOAHB, x6nOAHO, x6nOAHbl Hj}KeH, H)'lKHB, Hj}KHO, H)'lKH.til (HX"'Hbl also occurs) AQpor, AOpora, A6poro, A6porM

niroK, nerKa, nerKo, nerKM (r pronounced x before K) TPYA8H, TPYAHB, TPYAHO, TPYAHbl aenMK,BenMKa,aenMKO,BenMKM xop6w, xopowa, xopow6, xopowr.t

You may notice that the neuter forms are the same as adverbs (7 .16).
Special cases 6onbw6i ManeHbKMM
large small

aenMK,B8nMKB,B8nMK6,aenMKM M&n,Mana,Man6,Manbl

3ToA6poro. S1 6YAY KpBTOKIKpaTKB. 3TonerK6. Bawa AO'fb 6'f&Hb Kpacr.taa. Bonp6cbl 6blnM cnr.twKoM TPYAHbl AnR Hac. 31-oT CTyn B8M Hj}KeH?
That's expensive. I shall be brief. That's easy. Your daughter is very pretty. The questions were too difficult for us. Do you need this chair? ('Is this chair to you necessary?')

Points to note: Short-form adjectives are harder to form than long-form ones. While long-form adjectives are very ~egular and have fixed stress (see 7.2), short



forms involve irregularities. Although the basic rule for forming shortforms is 'Take off the last two letters of the masculine form (HOBbiM becomes HOB) and the last letter of the other three forms (HOB&JI becomes HOBlt, HOBoe becomes HOBO, HOBble becomes HOBbl)', there is a general tendency for the stress of two-syllable adjectives to shift to the end in the feminine (and sometimes in the plural as well). Many adjectives have other stress shifts, e.g. MOnOAOM 'young' has the short forms MOnOA, MonoAlt, MOnOAO, MOnOAbl. Adjectives with a consonant group before the ending, e.g. MHTepe{albiM, usually add -e- (or -o-) between the consonants in the masculine form only (CilMbM MHTep8qH 'The film is interesting'). Many adjectives, particularly all those ending CKMM and most soft adjectives (e.g. nocn8AHMM 'last'), have no short forms at all.
(l) As mentioned above, you can manage without short adjectives most of

the time because they tend to be bookish, while the forms you learnt in Lesson 7 are normal everyday Russian. However, there are a few adjectives (such as PIIA 'glad'- see above) which, when predicative (used with no following noun), are always in the short form. Here are the main ones:
roTOBbiM 'ready' is only used in the short form TOTOB, TOTOB8, TOTOBO, roTOBbl in sentences such as 'I am/was/will be/would be ready': S1 roTog/roToBa. KorAll Bbl 6yAeTe roTOB.!;!!?
I'm ready. When will you be ready? (Note: With Bbl, short-form adjectives are always plural (ending bl), even when you are

talking to one person.)

Be so good (in polite requests).

P8A, piwl, pltAo, pltAbl 'glad'. (Notice that in English, too, 'glad' is nearly always used predicatively: 'She is glad' is much more likely than 'She is a glad person'.)
S1 TBK p8Af aac BMAe'noMb16jAeM~.

I'm so glad to see you (woman speaking). We'll be glad.

nox6lKMM 'similar': noxolK, noxolKa, noxolKe, noxolKM: Bbl Ha KnlipKa r8l46na. You look like Clark Gable.



Hy:JKHbiM 'necessary' always has the forms Hy:JKeH, HY*Ha, Hj)J(HO, HY:JKHbt if it is used predicatively: BaHA - "Y*Hbnl 'lenoaeK.

Vanya is a useful ('necessary') person.

But We need Vanya ('Vanya to us is necessary'). I need your help ('To me is necessary your help').

MHe HY:JKHB aawa nOMOJqb.

(2) If the subject is 3To 'this/thaVit' or ace 'everything', the predicative

adjective must be short:

3-ro A6porg (not AOporoe). Bci :JA8Cb MHT8peCHQ.

That's expensive. Everything here is interesting.

(3) As well as sounding more bookish, the short form may carry other con-

notations, depending on the situation: it may sound more categorical/ emphatic, or it may restrict the description to a particular situation- see (4).
0Ha T8KBA rnynaA. OHa TaK rnyna.

She's so silly (long form). She's so stupid (short form - more emphatic).

Note that 'so' is T&K with short adjectives (and adverbs) and T&Koiiil 'such' with 'normal' (long form) adjectives.
(4) If the adjective has a dependent phrase such as 'difficult for me', '(too)

big for you', then the short form should be used:

norOA8 XOpOW8A.

The weather is good.

nor6A& xopowa A11A nbi:JK. 3-fo 0811bTO eMy B811MK2.

The weather is good for skiing. That coat is (too) big for him.




Translate: A Conversation with Short Forms

ME: an: ME: an: ME: an: ME: lAP&aCTayitTe, &epa neTp6aHa. P&A aac ar.1AeTb. st T6JKe piA&, MnbR Er6poBM't. abl roT6Bb1? Ye rOT6aa. 5jAbTe Ao6pbl, nep8A&iiiTe nopTcp!nb, OH MHe HjJKeH. Baw nopTCIJ6nb nox6 Ha 't&MOABH. 3To aepHo. Ho aiwa cjMKa T6JKe 6blni 6bl nox6a Ha 'teMOABH, ecnM 6bl Bbl 6blnM T8K JK8 3iHRTbl, K8K R.


Translate, using short forms:

l I was glad. 2 She looks like her father. 3 That's good. 4 That's expensive. 5 They need dollars. 6 Tania, are you ready? 7 We'll be ready in ('tepe3) five minutes. 8 The hat (wanKa) is too big for ('to') her.

29.8 Vocabulary
AAMMpameiCTBo Admiralty &HCiM6nb (m) ensemble apKBA& arcade apxMTeKTjpHbiM architectural 6ap6KKO (n indecl) baroque 6orllTCTBO richness, wealth aop6Ta (n pl.) aop6T gates aenMKonenHbiM magnificent B&nM'teCTB8HHOnp8KpBCHbiM majestically beautiful aepHbiM true; faithful B03BbiWBTbCR' (like 3H8Tb) to tower ane'laTniiiO&qMM impressive (from aneafBTnRTb' (coli) to impress) B'b83AHble aop6Ta entrance gates BbiA&BiiTbCR' (BbiA8TbCR) to project, stand out BbiCTyniiiO&qMM projecting BbiCTyniiTb' to project, stick out BbiXOAMTb' HB (+ace.) to look out on



BbiC8AMTbCR" (BbiCRMB8TbCR') to disembark, land rapMOHM"'HbiM harmonious rnynbtM stupid, silly roT6Bia/o/bt ready (29. 7) AeKop decoration ABOp(e)4 palace Aaop46B8R nno&q&Ab Palace Square 3i1My>K BbiXOAMTb'/BbiMTMP 3iiMY* (38 +ace.) to marry (of the woman) ('to go out after a husband') McnonHeHHbiM executed, carried out PPP of McnonHMTbp to carry out, execute, perform KonoHHa column, pillar Kpbtno pl. KpbtnbR wing naHAWilcj)T landscape nbt>KM (pl.) ntit>K skis MacwT86 scale M&Tpoc sailor MOAenb (f) model My:JeiHbiM museum (adj) Hit6epe>KH8R (f adj) embankment, quay H&M66nee most Heo6bi"'BMHO extraordinarily HenOBTOpMMbiM unique HY>KHbiM necessary 66pa3 form; image; manner o6patqiH PPP of o6paTMTbp turned oKeiiH ocean


(oni13AbiB8Tb' like 3H8Tb) (H8 + ace.) to be late (for) onpeAenMTb0 onpeAentb, -nr.twb (onj)eAeJ1Rrb' like 3H8Tb) (+ace.) to determine, define OCHOB8Tb 0 OCHytb, OCHyiWb (+ace.) (OCHOBbiBaTb' like 3H8Tb) to found napiiAHbiM grand nonyoCTpoa peninsula nopTcpE!nb (m) briefcase n~CT&BnRTb' (npeACTSBMTb0 ) ce6e to imagine npoeKT plan. project npon6p4MR proportion pa3Hoo6pii3Me variety pacnonariiTbCR' (like 3H8Tb) to be situated, placed pacnono>KeHialolbt situated pewiTKa pewiTOK grille, railing, decorated ironwork CKnOH slope cTyn pi CTjnbR, cTjntoea chair cy6Tponr.t"'eCKMM subtropical TOp>K8CTBeHHbliil grand, splendid, majestic TpoMHOM triple yKpiiCMTb0 yKpiiWy, yKpiiCMWb (yKp&WBTb' like 3H8Tb) (+ace.) to adorn cpac&A fa<;:ade "'eMOASH suitcase



29.9 Bn&AMBOCTOK Vladivostok (bookish style)

Bn&AMBOCTOK pacnon6lKeH Ha nony6cTpoae, BbtAalinqeMcR a TliiXMM OKeSH. 3-ro OrpOMHbiM n6pT. CaM&R MHT8pecH8R 'f8CTb r6poA8 HB6epelKH8R. 3Aecb B03BbiWB8TCR KOnOHH8 C MOAenbJO KOpa6nR, C KOTOporo BbiCBAMnMCb M8Tp0Cbl, OCHOaBBWM8 Bn&AMBOCTOK B 1880 rOAY ropoA, cnycKaJOJqMMCR no cKn6HaM K MopJO, 6'feHb Kpaclila. Era H806bl'fBMHO yKpawiiJOT HBnOBTOpMMbiM n&HAWBCin, cy6Tponlil'f8CK8R npMpOA&.


I What is the connection between the Hermitage Museum and the Winter Palace? 2 What are we told about the location of the Winter Palace in relation to its Petersburg surroundings? 3 Find and translate the four active participles, the one verbal adverb and the four past passive participles.

3MMHMM ABOpS4 The Winter Palace (Another bookish text, not easily translated) KB)I(AbiM, x6Tb OAMH pa3 no6b1BBBWMM a 3pMMTBlKe, acnOMMHileT 0 HeM, np&ACT&BnRR ce6e aenlil'fecTBeHHo-npeKpBCHbiM 3MMHMM Aaope4- c&Moe 38Me'fiiTenbHoe MH&M66nee an8'faTnRJOJqee M3 nRTiil My38MHbiX 3AIIHMM. nocTpOeHHbiM B 1754-1762 roAilx no npoeK-ry CJ)paH'fecKo 6apTonoMeo PacTpennM (1700-1771), 6H onpeAenliln aenMKonenHbiM apxMTeK,.YpHbiM aHc8M6nb Ha 6eperj Heabt. MacwTil6aMM, 6oriiTCTBOM, pa3Hoo6pii3MeM apxMTeKljpHoro ABKOpa, 8 TiiKlK8 npon6p4MBM 'f8CTSM 31i1MHMM AB0pe4, MCn6nHeHHbiM B CTiilne pyCCKOrO 6apOKKO, C03A88T rapMOHM'fHbiM MTOplKKTBBH HbiM 66pa3. Aaa Kpbtna c 38n&AHOM cTopoHbl o6pa~qeHbl K AAMMpanT81itcTay; rna&HbiM ctac&A. BbiXOAJllqMM H8 ABOP40BYIO nn6Jq&Ab, - H8M66nee nap8AHbiM. B C~HeM, Bbtc-rynaJOJqBM, 'fSCTM pacnonaraeTCR TpOMHaR apK&Aa BW3AHbiX aop6T, yKpaweHHbiX aenMKonenHoM pewiTKOM.



30.1 What's Left?

You have now covered all the basic grammar you need to speak correctly and to work your way through written Russian texts. Your main task now is to build up your working vocabulary sufficiently to be able to follow Russian speech and read Russian books and newspapers without constantly hunting in dictionaries. This lesson deals with a few vocabulary points and then tests your mastery of Russian with a complete classic short story.

30.2 Dictionaries

You will need the largest Russian-English/English-Russian dictionary you can afford. The best three currently available are those published by Collins, Oxford University Press and Penguin Books. If you want a pocket dictionary, the best is the Oxford Pocket Russian-English/English-Russian Dictionary.

30.3 Russian Abbreviations

A feature of post-1917 Russian has been the widespread use of abbreviations, including acronyms such as TACC 'TASS' and 'stump compounds'



(made up of parts of words) such as yHMBepMar 'department store' from lHB.!HUlCBnbHbiM Mfi[83MH 'universal shop'). Good dictionaries, such as those mentioned above, include the commonest ones. To read abbreviations such as MrY (Moscow State University MOCKOBCKMM rocyA8pcT&eHHbiM YHMaepcMTih), you need to know the names of the letters - see 1.5. MrY(MGU)


[em-ge-o'o] [tse-er-oo] [es-es-es-er] [ka-ge-be]

Though the letters are [es-sha-8] the pronunciation is usually [se-she-8]

However, if the letters form a pronounceable word, they are read as a word (like Unesco or Nato in English):

pronounced [tas] pronounced as in English [yoo-n8-sko]

Note the Russian predilection for abbreviations constructed out of parts of words (stump compounds), particularly for the names of companies and trading organizations. That is, rather than names of the type IBM (from International Business Machines) or BBC (from British Broadcasting Corporation), Russians prefer the type we find in Natwest (from National Westminster Bank).
YpanMilw [oo-ral-m8sh] (from YpanbCKMM 38BOA TAJKinoro M&WMHocTpoeHMA) Urals Heavy Machinery Works in Ekaterinburg. co&MMH (coa8T MMHMCTpoa) Council of Ministers MMHnernpOM (MMHMCTepCTBO nirKOM npOMbiWneHHOCTM)

Ministry of Light Industry


Ministry of the Meat and Milk Industry

rocTenepiiAMO (rocyA6pcTB8HHoe TeneBMAeHMe .. PBAMO) State Television and Radio (an analogy would be 'Britbroadcorp' for the




rl1ascaxanMH6yMnp6M (r11asHoe ynpasl1eHMe 6yMIVKHoil npoMbiW118HHocTM Ha CaxanMHe) Chief Administration of the Sakhalin

Paper Industry

30.4 Particles

Some of the trickiest words to translate are the so-called 'particles'' ('t8CTMI.Ibl). A particle is a (usually short) word, such as e (5.2), which occurs only with other words, never on its own, to indicate such things as emphasis (e), speaker's attitude (BeAb), emotion, or, sometimes, grammatical structure (e.g. 11M, indicating a yes-no question 3HaeTe 11M Bbl ... ? 'Do you know ... ?').
rAeMsaH? rAe e MsaH?

Where is Ivan? Where is Ivan?

Other particles you have met are B8Ab, indicating that the speaker expec~s you to agree with his statement or to know the information already (BeAb OHa yexa11al She's left, you know); 6bl indicating doubt or hypothesis (SI 6bl KynMI1 ABB I would buy two/1 would like to buy two); BOT here/there is, used to draw attention to what follows (BoT no<teuy That's why); HY corresponding to the English hesitation word 'well' (Hy, A TO'tHO He 3HSIO Well, I'm not quite sure). Other particles to note are:
-To which (apart from its use in words like KT6-To 'someone' (26.2)) is a colloquial and weaker equivalent of e B TOMIQ MA8110. HapOAYTO!

That's just it/That's just the point. Such crowds!

-Ka which softens imperatives, making them friendlier or more like invitations. CK&)I(MKa ... Do tell me ... noAOMAMKa Come here, won't you? He wyMMTe-Ka You'd better stop making a noise. -Ka with verbs in the first person future indicates tentative intentions: 3a8AYKa K HeMy. I think I might call on him (example from The Penguin

Russian Dictionary).
AB which apart from meaning 'yes' is a weaker, colloquial equivalent of a ('and/but')



npMHeCMTe MHe BWM, AS nocKop6el Bring me some vodka, and quick about it! (example from The Oxford Russian Dictionary) 111 'even', 'too', emphasizes the following word: 0H8 He att8na, "t1'6 111 6H OTKiJKeTCR. She didn't know that even he would refuse.

More examples:
86T He 0)1(MA8nl 86T CIOpnptial /J,a KHMry e 386bll1 R e..Y nep8A8T~r-Tol Hy, AB nornJIAM e H& MeHRI Hy, ~tT6 e Tbl? Hy AS 66r c HMMI
T6-TO Ill OH61 HyAS?I
I didn't expect this! What a surprise! Oh, but I've gone and forgotten to give him the book though! Well, but just take a look at me then! Well, how are you then? Well but what does it matter? (66r'God') That's it! Really? (astonishment with a note of distrust) Oh, no! (disagreement, unwillingness, refusal)

KaK 6bl He T&KI

Not at all. On the contrary.

30.5 Vocabulary for Chekhov's T6nCTbiM MT6HKMM 'Fat and Thin'

68TIOWKMI good gracious! 6naroroBiiHMe reverence 66r [boh] pl. 66r111 6or6a God; god 66r c HMMIHeM good luck to him/her; what does it matter? 6or8TbiM (short form 6or8T) rich He 66MCR' (from 6oRTbCR) don't be afraid B6AOMCTBO department &enbM6a grandee, big shot BeT'tMHa ham BMWHR atiweH cherry BOCKnMKHyYb0 BOCKnMKHy, KH8Wb (BOCKnML!iiTb' like 3HBTb) to exclaim aoCT6peHHO enthusiastically ap6AB (+gen.) like BblrftRAbiBBTb' (like 3H8Tb) (BblrftRHyYb0 BblrftRHy, ablrnRHeWb) to look out BbJTRHyYbCR0 BbiTRHYCb, -HeWbCR to stretch; to stand erect



BbiTRHyYbCR" BO ciPYHT to stand

:IKMBMT8nbH8R anara (coli)

to attention
repocTpiiT Herostratus (who burnt

intoxicating liquor
38CT8rHyYb" 38CT8rHy, 38CT8rHiWb (38CTirMB8Tb') like 3H&Tb) ( + ace.) to fasten 38XMXMK8TbP (like 3H8Tb) to start

down the temple of Artemis at Ephesus)

ntMH83MCT grammar-school boy rMMH83MR grammar school rnRAltTb' (no-) rnR:IKy, rnRAMWb (Ha + ace.) to look (at) rony6<cMK dear friend, my dear r6cnOAM! good heavens! good

giggling (XMxMK8Tb' to giggle)

3B83Ail pl. 3ai3Ab1, 3ai3A

M338 (+gen.) from behind M3YMMTbCR M3yMn JOcb, M3YMMWbCR (M3yMnRTbCR' M3yMnRIOCb, -ilewbCR) to be astonished r.tcKpa spark MCKpMBMTbCRP MCKpMBnJbcb, MCKpMBMWbCR (MCKpMBnRTbCR' MCKpMBnRIOCb, R8WbCR) to


ax Tbl r6cnQAMI

oh, good

ry68 pl. rj6bl ry68M lip rjJq& grounds, dregs AenapriMeHT (old word)

(government) department
Altpeao wood (also 'tree') AnMHHbiM long AOcnyr.tTbCR AOCnyycb, AOCny:IKMWbCR (AO + gen.) (AOCnj:IKMB8TbCR' like 3H8Tb)

become distorted, to twist

K&3iHHbiM state, belonging to the

KBK 6bl as it were K8pTOHK8 K8pTOHOK

cardboard box
KMCnOTil pl. KMCnOTbl acidity,

to reach a position, the top


KMTil(e)4 Chinese (noun) Knacc class, form TpeTbero Knilcca of the third

(+ace.) to tease,(+ inst.) to call someone a name (in order to tease)

APYr APvra each other APYr Ha APvra at each other (30.6 note 3) AYWOH(O)K swell, smart lad anoaaHbe (old word) salary ene3H&R AOp6ra railway ('iron

KHM:IKKB (dim 25.2) KHM:IK8K book, small book,

some book (tam)

K6e-KilK (26.7) somehow, just, with

Konne:IKCKMM aceccop collegiate

:IK8HilT (short adj) married (of a

assessor (eighth grade in fourteengrade tsarist civil service)




KociJ'iHwi coffee (adj) Kpac8a(e)4 handsome man no6wa6HMe (old word) kiss nOCHMTbCA' nocHIOcb, nOCHMWbCA to shine, gleam niOTepaHKa niOTepaHOK Lutheran (Protestant) Mr.1nocTMBbli (old word) gracious, kind Mll1na.1i M6il my dear MyHAMP uniform H8Bblb&iMTb" H8Bblb&iy, H8Bblb&iMWb (H8Bblb&IMB8Tb' like 3H8Tb) (+ inst.) to load (with) He66ca. (coli) probably H6KoTOpb1M 66pa30M somehow; so to speak HMKonaeacKBA en63HaA AOp6ra The Moscow-St Petersburg line (named after Tsar Nicholas I) o6no6bla6TbCA0 (like 3H8Tb) (no6w38TbCA') (old word) to kiss each other OK8M8H6Tb0 OK8M8H810, H8eWb (K8MeH6Ta.') to turn to stone OTBepHjTbcA0 0TBepHJCb, -HiWbCA (OTBOpa'IMB8TbCA' like 3H8Tb) (OT + gen.) to turn away (from) OTKJAB from where OTKYAB Tbl B3RncA? where have you sprung from? owenoMMTb" owenoMnlb, -Mr.1wa. (owenoMnRTb' -MnRIO, ReWb) to stun, astound

nanMp6cKa (dim of nanMp6ca) Russian-style cigarette nixno (past of niXHYTb' to smell) it smelled nixno oT Her6 (+ inst.) he smelled of nepeBeAiH (PPP of nepeaecTr.1) transferred no6n8AH6Ta.0 no6n8AH810, -Heewa. (6n8AH6"fa.') to turn pale nornAA6"rb0 (see rnAAiTb') (Ha +ace.) to take a look at noA&Tb0 PYKY to hold out one's hand nQA60p6A(O)K chin nQAipHYT{bli) (PPP of nQAipHYTb) covered, coated nOAJM8Tb0 (AyMBTb') (like 3H8Tb) to think for a moment nODTb0 nO)I(Mj, nO)I(MiWb (nO)I(MUTb' like 3H8Tb) (pjKy) to press, squeeze, shake (hands) nOKnOHMTbCA0 nOKnOHibcb, noKn6HMWbCA (nOKnOHATbCA' nOKnOHRIOCb, R8WbCA) to bow n6nHol (coli) enough of that! n6nHwi (+gen.) full (of) noMr.1nyiTeP pardon me
noM6p~A 0 noM6p~yca. nOM6p~WbCA (M6p~TbCA')

to crease, wrinkle; to frown

nopycMrip cigarette-case, cigar-case nocblnaTbCA0 noclilnneTcA to rain down



no'tTMTenbHbiM respectful, deferential npeaocXOA14TenbCTBO Excellency (title of general and equivalent ranks) npMaaTHO (old word) privately npMII4Yp8HHbiM half-closed (of eyes) npMirrenb (m) friend npo6aaniiTbCSI' -niiiOCb, -nileWbCSI to get by, make do (coli) npo*e'tb" npo*rY npo)l()l(eWb npo*fYT past npo*er, npo*rna (npo*MritTb' like 3H8Tb) to burn through npoii48HMe farewell, parting Ha npoii48HMe in farewell npontaHo disgusting, disgusted nyroaKa nyroaoK button cr6p6MTbCII" cr6p6nl0cb, 6MWbCSI (r6p6MTbCSI') to hunch up, become bent cnitAOCTb (f) sweetness cne3it pi cne3bl, cne3, cne38M tear, teardrop cny*MTb' cnY*Y, cny*MWb ( + inst.) (no-") to serve, to work (as) CHSITb" CHMMj, CHMM8Wb (+ace.) (CHMMitTb' like 3H8Tb) to take Off cnenbiM ripe cnMHit ace. cnr.tHy, pl. cnrotHbl back cnplrran.cll" cnpil'tycb, -'teWbCSI (nplrraTbCR') (38 + ace.) to hide (oneself) behind CTaHMcnita Order of St Stanislas

(tsarist civil-service medal) cTitTCKMM (coaiiTHMK) Councillor of State (fifth highest civil-service rank) CTonoHa'titnbHMK (old word) head of a civil-service section cj3MTbCR" cy3MTCR (cj)I(MB&TbCR' like 3H8Tb) to become narrow CW)I(MTbCR" CW)I(yCb, CW)I(MWbCR (CW)I(M88TbCR' like 3H8Tb) to shrivel, shrink TilMHbiM (coaeTHMK) Privy Councillor (third highest civilservice rank) T6nCTbiM fat TOH tone TOHKMM thin TpoeKpitTHO thrice, three times TjnoBMII48 body, torso j3(e)n pl. y3nbl bundle ypo*AeHHaSI nee (indicating maiden name) ypoHHTb" ypoHIO, ypOHMWb (+ ace.) (pOHRTb' poHRIO, pOHR8Wb) to drop ycTpeMMTb" ycTpeMmb, yCTpeMHWb (ycTpeMnlrrb -nJ110, -ns1ewb) (rna38 Ha + ace.) to direct, fasten (one's gaze on) ycTjnKa yCTjnoK price reduction: concession yoteHr.tK yoteHMKil pupil ctnipAOPBH:IK orange blossom (scent)

<Ypit*Ka <Ypit*eK peaked cap xepec sherry



xopoweHbKO properly, well and truly (25.4) x6-x6 ho-ho! xyAeHbKMM thin (25.4) '4eMoA{IH suitcase '4MHono'4MTilHMe respect for rank, kowtowing, boot-licking WilpKyHTb0 WSpKHy, WSpKHeWb (wilpK&Tb' like 3H8Tb) ( + inst.)

to shuffle

wilpKHyYb0 Hor6i4 to click one's

heels (Hora 'foot')

WMp0'4ilMWMM widest (18.8) wTjKa thing, piece aqeronb (m) dandy 31Jtt8nbT Ephialtes (Greek traitor) H68AHM'48Tb' (Ha-0 ) (like 3H&Tb) to tell tales, sneak

30.6 A taste of Russian nineteenth-century literature, a complete early comic-satirical Chekhov story from 1883:
T6ncTbiM MT6HKMM The Fat One and the Thin One Ha BOK38ne HMKonileacKoM lKene3HOM AOpOrM acTpeTMnMcb A&a npMHTenA: OAMH ToncTbiM, APYrOM TOHKMM. ToncTbiM TOnbKO '4TO noo68Aan Ha BOK3ilne, Mrj6bl ero, nOAiPHYTble MBCnOM, nOCHMnMCb, K8K Cnenbl8 BMWHM. naxno OT Hero xepecOM M<JnipAOpilHlKeM. ToHKMM lKe' TOnbKO '4TO Bbtwen M3 aaroHa M6btn H&Bbt0'4eH '48MOA{IH8MM, Y3nSMM M K8pTOHK8MM. naxno OT Hero BeT'4MHOM M KOciJ'MHOM rjaqeit. 1>13-38 er6 CnMHbt BblrnHAbiB&na xYAeHbK8A lKeHaqMHa c AJ1MHHbtM noA6opOAKOM - er6 lKeHa, M BbtcoKMM rMMH83MCT C npMtqypeHHbiM rna30M - ero CbiH. - nop<JMpMMI - BOCKnMKHyn TOnCTbiM, YBMA&B TOHKOro. - Tbl nM 3To? rony6'4MK M6i4! CK6nbKO 3MM, cK6nbKO neT'! - SiiTIOWKMI - M3YMMncA TOHKMM. - Mtilwa! Apyr AeTCT&a! 0TKYA8 Tbl B3HncA? npMRTenM TpoeKpSTHO o6no6b13ilnMCb M ycTpeMMnM APYr H8 APvra rna38, nonHbte cne3. 66a 6btnM npMHTHO owenoMneHbt. - MtilnbtM M6i41 - H8'4an TOHKMM nocne no6bt38HMA. - BoT He OlKMASn'! 86T C10pnptil31 Hy, A8 nornHAM )1(85 H8 M8HH xopoweHbKOI TaK6M lKe

K&K M6btn6 ! TaK6i4 lKe AYW6HOK M aqironbl Ax

Tbl r6cnOAMI Hy, '4T6 lKe Tbl'? lion1T? >KeHaT? SlY*' *eHaT, KaK BMAMWb 3-ro BOT MOR )1(8HS, nytil38, ypo*A8HH8JI BilH~eH6ax ...



mcrrepiiHKa ... A 3To CbiH MOM, Hact&H&Mn, Y'f&HMK Tp8Tbero Kniicca. 3-ro, Ha~HR, p,pyr Moer6 A8TCTaal B ntMHB3MM aM8CTe Y'fMnMcb! H&CI&H&Mn HeMHOro nOAYM&n MCHRn wiinKy. - B rMMHB3MM aMecTe Y'fMnMCbl - npoAOnlKiin TOHKMM. - n6MHMWb, K8K Te6R P,P83HMnM? Te6R AP83HMnM repoCTpiiTOM 38 TO, 'ITO Tbl Ka3iHHYtO KHMlKKY nanMpOcKOM npolKer, a MeHR 3ciMiinbTOM 38 To, 'ITO R R6eAHM't&Tb nt06Mn. X6-xo ... ,QeTbMM 6blnMI He 66MCR, HacliiHR! noAOMAM K HeMy no6nMlKe ... A 3TO MOR JKeHii, YPO"'AiHHaR BiiH1.4eH6ax ... ntOTepiiHKa. Hact&HaMn HeMHOro nOAYM&n McnpRTancR 38 cnMHY OTI.4ii. - Hy, K&K lKMaewb, p,pyr?- cnpocMn TOnCTbiM, aocTOpJKeHHO rnw H8 APvra.- CnjlKMWb rAe? ,Qocny.MnCR? - CnylKy, MMnbiM MOM! KonnelKCKMM aceccopou y.e aTOpOM roA .. CTaHMcniiaa MMetO. >KiinoaaHbe nnox6e ... HY AB 66r c HMM8! >KeHii yp6KM MY3biKM ABiiT, R nopTCMriipbl npMaiiTHO M3 A8peaa A6nata. OTnM'tHble nopTcMriipbll no py6mo 38 WTjKy npoABIO. EcnM KT0 10 6epeT A8cRTb WTYK M66nee, TOMY", noHMMiiewb, ycTjnKa. npo6aanReMCR K6e-KiiK. Cny.Mn, 3HiieWb, a AenapTiiMeHTe, a Tenepb ctaAii nepea&AiH CTonoHa't8nbHMKOM' 2 no TOMY JKe 13 a6AoMCTay ... 3AeCb 6YAY cnylKMTb. Hy, a Tbl KaK? He66cb, ye cTiiTcKMM? A"? - HeT, MMnbiM uol4, noAHMMiiM noabswe,- cKa3iin T6nCTbiM.- Sl ye AO TtiMHoro AOCnyJKMncR ... ,Qae 3a&3Abl MMetO. TOHKMM aApyr no6neAHM, OKaMeHen, HO CKOpo nM140 ero MCKpMaMnocb ao ace CTOpoHbl wMpo'taMweM ynbs6KoM; Ka3iinocb, 'ITO oT nMI.4ii M rna3 er6 noc.;manMCb MCKpbl. CaM 6H cl>ilKMncR, cr6p6MncR, cy3MncR ... Ero 't8MOABHbl, y3nbl M K&pTOHKM CbiJKMnMCb, nou6p11.4MnMCb ... ,QnMHHbiM nOA6oPOAOK JKeHbl CTan e114e AnMHHee; HaclaHaMn abiTRHyncR ao <PYHT M38CTerHyn ace nyroaKM caoero MYHAMPB . - Sl, aiiwe npeaOCXOAMTenbCTaO ... 6'teHb npMRTHG-C 15! ,Qpyr, MOJKHO CK83iiTb, A6TCTaa M ap,pyr abiWnM' 6 a T&KMe aenbMOlKM-cl XMXM-c. - Hy, nonHo!- noM6PII4MncR ToncTbiM. ,QnR 'tero hoT TOH? Mbl c To6oM APY3bR A6TCTBa - MK 'teMy" TYT 3To 'tMHOnO'tMTiiHMel - noMMnyMTe ... 'ho abl-e ... - 38XMXMKan TOHKMM, ell.4i 66nee



c'biJKMB&Rcb. - MlitnOCTMBoe BHMMiiHMe Bilwero npeBocxoAt~TenbCTB& ... BpOA8 K8K 6bl JKMBtnenbHOM BnarM . .. 3-ro BOT, Bawe npeBOCXOAMTenbCTBO, CbiH MOM HaciJaHalitn ... JKeHil nylltaa, moTepaHK&, HeKOTOpbiM 66p830M ... TonCTbiM XOTen 6bln0 18 B03p83MTb '"IT6-TO, HO H8 nMI.48 y TOHKOro" 6bln0 H80MC8HO CTOnbKO 6naroroBeHMR, cni!AOCTM M OO'"ITMT8nbHOM KMcnoTbl, '"ITO TSMHOMY coB8THMKY cTano npoTMBHO. OH OTBepHyncR OT TOHKOrO M OOA8Jl 8My H8 npolqiiHMe pyKy. TOHKMM nOJKiln TpM nilnbl48, OOKnOHMnCR BC8M TjnOBMiqeM M 38XMXMK&n, K8K KMTile4: XM-XMXM. >KeHil ynbi6Hyn&Cb. Ha.H&Mn wilpKHyn HOrOM M ypoHMn ciJypaJKKy. Bee Tp6e 6blnM npMRTHO owenoMneHbl.

'TOHKMM JKe (emphatic particle) 'As for the thin one, he .. .' 'CKonbKO 3MM, CKOnbKO neT! 'How many winters, how many summers' = 'Long time
no see!' 3APYr H& APvra 'at each other'; in the structure APYr APvra 'each other', the first APYr is indeclinable, while the second declines like APYr 'friend'. Prepositions come between the two APYr words. 'BoT (30.4) He

OJKMAiln 'I didn't expect this.' 5See the particles section 30.4. The meaning

here is 'Look straight at me so that I can have a good look at you.' 6 T&KOM lKe Kpac8Be4, K&K .!! 6bln (30.4) 'The same handsome fellow that you (always) were.' 'Hy, '"ITO JKe Tbl? 'Well how are you doing then?' see particles, section 30.4 no py6mo 38 wTjKy 'at a rouble each.' '0 EcnM KTO ... 'If anyone .. .' "TOMY ... ycTjnKa 'he gets a reduction' ('to that (one) a reduction'). "CTonoH&'"IilnbHMKOM (inst.) 'as a section head.' 13no TOMY lKe al!AoMCTBY 'In the same ('that very') department.' "A? Eh? 15The -c suffix is short for CYA&Pb 'sir.' 16BbiWnM B T&KMe BenbMOJKM-c! ... 'you've become such a VIP, sir!' Note the change to Bbl. "K '"leMy 'why.' '"xoTen
6blnO 'was about to.' '"Ha nM4e y TOHKoro 'on the thin one's face.'



Declension of Nouns. N = nominative, A = accusative, anim animate accusative, inanim = inanimate accusative, G = genitive, D = dative, I = instrumental, P = prepositional

Masculine Nouns
table singular plural
CTOnbl CTOnbl CTOn6B CTOnilM CTOnilMM cTonltx

writer singular
mtcliTenb nMciiTenfl nMcliTenfl nMcltTemo nMclheneM nMcilTene

nMcliTemt nMcilTeneiii nMciiTeneiii nMciiT&nSIM RMciiT&nSIMM nMciiT&nSIX

CT6n CT6n CTOnlt CTOny CTOn6M



museum singular plural


Englishman singular
&HrnM'IflHMH 8HrnM'IflHMH8 8HrnM'IflHMH8 &HrnM'IitHMHY &HrnM'IitHMHOM &HrnM'IflHMHe

&HrnM'IflHe &HrnM'IflH aHrnM'IaH 8HrnM'IitH8M 8HrnM'IitH8MM &HrnM'IflH&X

My36iii My36iii My38R MYHIO My38eM





boy singular plural

grandfather singular plural

A G D p

MSnb"tMK MSnb"4MK8

MSnb"tMKY MSnb"tMKOM Milnb"4MK8




2 Feminine Nouns
newspaper singular plural week singular plural

A G D p

ra36Ta ra38Ty ra38Tbl ra36Te ra38Toi4 ra38Te

square singular

ra38Tbl ra38Tbl ra36T ra38T&M r&HT8MM ra38TSx

H8A6nR H8A6nl0 H8A6nM H8A6ne H8A6nei4 HBA6ne








nnolq&AM nn61q8AM






nn61q8AM nn61q8Abl0

nnoiJ48AilM nnoiJ48AilMM nnolqiiARx

~8MMnMei4 ~8MMnMM




3 Neuter Nouns
matter, business singular plural exercise singular plural


G 0

AMO Aeno Aena Aeny AenoM Aene

name, first name singular

Aeni A&ni A&n ABniM AttnBMM A&nix





G 0



4 Pronouns
who what you he she it we you they


KTO Koro

G 0

this m

lfTO IfTO lfer6

Tbl Te6tli Te6A TB68 T066M Te68

OH ero ero BMY MM HiM


ee ee
eM eM HeM

OHO ero ero BMY MM HiM

Mbl Hac Hac HBM HBMM Hac

Bbl sac sac BBM BBMM sac




A Aanim

G 0

:hoT :ha aTOT aTy aToro aTy aToro aTOM aTOMY aTOM aTMM aTOM aTOM aTOM






Te Te TeX TeX TeM TSMM Tex



all m n



N A Aanim


ace ace BCIO acl acei acer6 BCBMY acei aceMy BC8M acei BC8M Bcill acei aceM

B8Cb 88Cb acer6 acer6


ace ace acex acex BC8M BC8MIJI acex

n caM6 caM8 C8Moi* caM6 C8Moi* caM6 C8M6i C8MOr6 C8MOMJ caM6i C8MOMJ CBMMM ca116i caMMII ca11611 caM6i ca116M orcaMy


caM caM caMOr6 C8MOr6

c:8MIJI CBMIJI caMMX caMMX caMMM caMMIIM ca11ilx

5 Adjectives

A Aanim


m H6BbiM H6BIIIM H6aoro H6aoro


Russian m

H688R H6Byl0 H6Byl0 H6aoi H6aoi H6aoi H6aoi

n H6808 H6aoe H6808 H6aoro H6BOMy H6Bblll H6BOII

pi H6Bbl8

H6able H6Bb1X HOBbiX H6Bblll H6Bb1MIJI H6BbiX

N A Aanim




n pyccKoe pyCCK08 pyccKoe pyccKoro





N A Aanim


good m xop6wttiii xop6wttiii xop6wero xop6wero xop6weMy XOp6WMM xop6we11 last m

xop6wu xop6wy10 xop6wJ10 xop6weiii xop6weiii xop6weiii xop6weiii

n xop6waa xop6waa xop6waa xop6wero xop6weMy XOp6WMM xop6weM


xop6wMe xop6wu XOp6WMX xop6WMX XOp6WMM XOp6WMMII XOp6WMX


N A Aanim

D p

nocn'Attiii nocn'Attttiii nocn'Attero nocn'AHero nocn6AH8MY nocn'AHMM nocn'AHeM

third m Tp6TMiii Tp6TMiii

nocn'AHRR nocn'AHIOIO nocn6AHIOIO nocn'AHeiii nocn'AHei nocn'AHeiii nocn'AHeiii

nocn'Attee nocn'Attee nocn'Attee nocn'AHero nocn'AHeuy nocn'AHMM nocn'AHeM

nocn'AHMe nocn6AHM8 nocn'AHMX nocn'AHMX nocn'AHMM nocn'AHMMM nocn6AHMX

N A Aanim


Tp6Tb8rO Tp6Tb8ro Tp6TbeMJ Tp6TbMM Tp6Tb8M

Tp6TbR Tp{ITbiO Tp6Tbl0 Tp6Tb8iii Tp6Tb8iii Tp6Tb8iii Tp6Tb8iii

n Tp6Tb8 Tp6Tb8


TJMhb8 Tp6Tb8ro Tp{ITb8MJ Tp6TbMM Tp6Tb8M

yp6TbM yp6'n.M TpeTbMX Tp6TbMX Tp6TbMII Tp6TbMIIM yp8TbMX



6 Possessives
my (same endings for our (same endings for saw 'your')

TB6ii 'your', cB6ii 'own')

m f n



A Aanim

G 0

M6ii M6ii Moer6 Moer6



Moi Moi Moi Moer6

H8W H8W Hawero Hawero HaW8MY HaWMM HaWaM

tt8wa Hawy

tt8wa Hawa Hawy Hawa Haweii Hawaro Hawaii HaweMy Haweii HaWMM Hawaii HiiWaM


7 Numbers (See 22.3 for declensions of ABaiABe, TpM, 'feTblpe, nHTb, W8CTb,BOceMb,COpOK,nHTbA8CRT,BOC8MbA8CHT,A8BSIHOcTO,CTO, AB8cTM, nHTbCOT)
one m n twenty three hundred


A Aanim

G 0








8 Verbs
The references are to lesson numbers active participles, 29 aspects (perfective and imperfective), 12, 13, 14,15 conditional, 19 future tense, 12, 14 imperatives, 15 infinitive, 4 passive participles, 27 past tense, II, l3 present tense, 4 reflexives, II verbal adverbs, 28



Verb types
Type 1
3H&Tb' 'to know' (imperfective example). stem 3Hll


3Hlln(a) 3Hlln(a) 3HM 3Hllna 3Hllno 3HllnM 3HllnM 3HilnM

6YAY3H8Tb 6YA8Wb 3H8Tb 6YA8T3H8Tb 6yAC!T 3H8Tb 6yABT3H8Tb 6YA8M3H8Tb 6yAeTe 3H8Tb 6YAYT3H8Tb 3HSIOiqlilii 3HSBWiilii 3HSSI

3HSii nyCTb3HS8T nyCTb3HS8T nycTb 3HS8T ABBllii(Te) 3H&Tb 3HSiiTe nyCTb 3HSIOT

3H810 3HS8Wb 3HS8T 3HS8T 3HS8T 3HS8M 3HlleTe 3HSIOT


pres. active participle past active participle verbal adverb Type 1

npo'IMTSTb 'to read' (perfective example)


npo'IMTSIO npo'IMTllewb npO'IIiiTSeT npO'IIiiTSBT Opo'lliiTS8T OpO'IIiiTSBM npO'IIiiTMT8 npO'IIiiTBIOT npO'IMTBH(Hblii) OpO'IIiiTSBWiilii OpO'IIiiTSB

OpO'IIiiTSM nyCTb np0'11i1TB8T nyCTb npO'IIiiTS8T nyCTb npO'IMTBeT ABBllii(Te) npO'IMTlleM npO'IMTBiiTe nyCTb npo'IMTSIOT

npo'IMTlln(a) npo'IMTiln(a) npO'IIiiTSn npo'IMTilna npo'IMTilno npo'IMTllnlil npO'IIiiTSnlil npO'IMTllnM


past passive participle past active participle verbal adverb



Type 1

with stress on the end: same endings, except that stressed e turns into i

BCTBBBTb1 'to get up'; present tense stem acTa-


acTaalln(a) aCTaalln(a) acTaaan acTaailna acTaaano acTBaanM BCT8BBnM aCTaaanM BCTBIOU4MM BCT8BBBWMi BCT8UA


BCT&alli nyCTb BCT8iT nyCTb BCT8iT nyCTb BCTBiT ABBlli(Te) acTaaaTb BCT8UMTB nyCTb BCTBIOT

pres. active participle past active participle verbal adverb Type 1B

JKMTb' 'to live', with stem ending in consonant IKMB-





pres. active participle past active participle verbal adverb




roaopm' 'to speak' (imperfective example), stem roaoppresent past future imperative

Tbl 6H OHB OH6 llbl Bioi OHM

roaoplb roaopltwa. roaopltT roaopltT roaopltT roaoplt11 roaopMTB roaopRl'

roaopMII(a) roaopMII(a) roaopltn roaopltna roaopltno roaopltnM roaopltnM roaopltnM

6yAyroaopltTb 6YABWb roaopltTa. 6YABTroBOpMTb 6YABTroaopltTa. 6YABT roaopltTa. 6YABII roaopMTb 6YABTB roaopltTa. 6YAYT roaopltTa.

roaoplt nyCTa. roaopltT nycTb roaopltT

nyCTb roaopltT ,qaaili(T&) roaopltTa. roBOpMTB nycTb roaopRl'

pres. active participle past active participle verbal adverb




Rule 1 (8.3)

M instead

of w after

r, K, x, lK, w, tt, aq

So KHriir.l!t (not KHriirw) 'books'

Rule 2 (8.10) e instead of unstressed o after

So c C8wgii (not C8woii) 'with Sasha' (but B &onbW/lM TeBTpe)


w, 't, aq, 4

Rule 3 (12.11) a instead of A after r,


x, lK, w, tt, aq, 4

So 0Hrii Ytti.T (not j'tAT) pjcCKMii A3b!K.

They're learning Russian.

Rule 4 (12.11)

y instead of 10 after r, K, x, lK, w, tt, aq, 4

So R Y'ti (not yttiO) pjccKMii A3bJK. I'm learning Russian.



In alphabetical order: a 6 a r A e e (e and e are treated as one letter in dictionaries) lK 3M MK n M H 0 n p C T yell X 1.1 't W 11.\ 'b bl b 3 10 R. This is a complete list of all the words given in the main lesson vocabularies, together with other words used in examples and exercises. Its main purpose is to enable you to find words whose meaning or grammatical forms you may have forgotten or want to check. The bracketed number refers to the lesson in which the word is first used or in which there is further information. Nouns. Gender is shown (as m, for n) only when it is not obvious from the ending (see Lesson 3). Mobile vowels are shown in brackets, e.g. OT(e)L!. Irregular plurals are also shown. If the noun is unpredictably used with Ha (+prep. 'in', 'at';+ ace. 'to'), this is shown as (Ha). Stress of nouns. Where no other information is given, e.g. aHaHac, the stress on all forms of the words is on the same syllable as in the nominative. Where the genitive singular ( of a masculine noun is given (e.g. cT6n cTona), the stress is always on the ending of all forms. If the nominative plural (pl.) of a noun is given, with no other forms, then the singular forms have the same stress as the nominative singular and all the plural forms have the same stress as the nominative plural. For example, ropoA pl. ropoA& means that the dative singular ( is r~POAY and the dative plural ( is ropoA&M. If only the genitive plural ( is shown, then the, instrumental plural ( and prepositional plural ( have the same stress as the, while all other forms have the same stress as the nominative singular (e.g. 3aepb 3aepel4 means that the stress is on the first e, except in the forms 3BepeM, 3aepRM, 3BepSIMM, 3BepRx). A very



few nouns, e.g. niOAM, have different stresses in the,, and; for these nouns, all plural fonns are given. Some f nouns (e.g. pyd 'hand') are stressed on the end in all fonns except the accusative singular (ace. sg.) and the nom./ They are shown thus: pyKa pyKy, pl. PYKM. Verbs (see Lessons 4, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15). The first and second person singular pres./fut. (the Jl and the Tbl fonns) are given. The other four fonns will have the same stem and stress as the Tbl fonn. If a verb is not nonnally used in the first or second person (e.g. npMXOAMTbCJI), the third person singular (the 6HioH8IOH6 fonn) is given instead. Any exceptions to this pattern, e.g. MOryT 'they can' (from MO'tb), are also given. Unpredictable past tense and imperative fonns are shown. Where the stress of the past tense is on the ending of all four fonns (m, f, n and pl.), the m, f and n are given (the stress of the pl. is always the same as the n). If only the m and f fonns are given, the stress of the n and pl. is the same as the f fonn. If only the f fonn is given, then the m, n and pl. fonns have the same stress as the infinitive. The perfectiveP or imperfective; equivalent, if one exists, is given in brackets.
Abbreviations: ace. adj adv anim coli comp dat. dim accusative adjective adverb animate colloquial usage comparative dative diminutive f feminine fam familiar fut. future tense gen. genitive imperfective imper imperative inanim inanimate indecl indeclinable inf infinitive inst. instrumental intrans intrans

m mv n nom. past

pl. pol ppp prep. pres. PYA sg. s.o. sth T u

imperfective verbal adverb masculine multidirectional verb (20) neuter nominative past tense perfective plural polite past passive participle prepositional present tense perfective verbal adverb singular someone something Grammatical Table (see pages 378-86) unidirectional verb (20)



Main list
a (3) and/but (slight contrast)
llarycT (17) August aaMaKOHB6T (10) airmail

A~pMKa (27) Africa

ax (18) oh 6ll6ywKa (19) 6ll6yweK


aaT66yc (4) bus llaTop (21) author areHT (27) agent aAMMHMCTpliTop (21) administrator;
hotel manager

AAMMpameiicTao (29) Admiralty liApec (26) pl. aApeca address A3MJI (18) Asia &KTip (27) actor aKTplilca (27) actress BK48HT (23) accent AMepMKa (13) America &MepMK8H(e)4 (B) American (man) aMepMKSHKa (18) aMepMKSHOK
American (woman)

SaiiKlln (18) Lake Baikal SanTiiliicKoe Mope (11) Baltic Sea 6aHliH (10) banana 6ap (18) bar 6ap6KKO (n indecl) (29) baroque 68TIOWKMI (30) good gracious! 6liWHJI (16) 6llweH tower 66raTb' (mv) (20) 6era10, 66raewb to

6erj see 6e*l1Tb 6e)I(STb' (u) (20) 6erj, 68)1(MWb, 6erjT (no-) to run 6e3 (10) (+gen.) without 6enblii (B) white 6eper (18) prep. Ha 6eperj, pl. 6eperll bank, shore 6ecnOKOMTbCJI' (14) KOIOCb, KOMWbCR to worry 6ecnoi48AHO (28) mercilessly 6M6nMOTSKa (23) library 6M3HecMeH (29) businessman 6Mn6T (10) ticket 6McllwTeKc (12) [-shteks] meat
rissole, hamburger

aMepMKSHCKMii (7) American (adj) aHaHllc (24) pineapple aHrnliliicKMii (10) English aHrnM'IBHMH (5) pl. &HrnMLfiiHe, &HrnM'IliH Englishman (T1) &HrnM'ISHKa (3) gen. pl. aHrnM'ISHOK

AHrnMJI (5) England (also, loosely,


aHeKA6T (18) joke, anecdote aHcliM6nb (m) (29) ensemble anenbCMH (8) orange annOAMp/OBaTb' (27) -y10, -yeWb
(+ dat.) to applaud someone

6naroroaeHMe (30) reverence 6nM*lliiwMii (18) (23) next, nearest 6nlil*e (18) nearer 6nM3KMii (18) near 6nMH (8) pl. 6mtHbl pancake 6mOAO (12) pl. 6mbAB dish, course of
a meal

anpenb (m) (17) April apKliAa (29) arcade apxMTeKTjpHblii (29) architectural aTMoccll6pa (26) atmosphere

6orliTcTao (29) richness, wealth 6orl1Tblii (18) rich 6orll'le (18) (comp of 6orl1Tbli) richer


tte 66icJI'

see 6oRn.c:R don't be afraid

6oK~n (21) wineglass

6piOKM (pl.) (22) 6p10K trousers 6YAHM (pi) (23) 6yAHei

66nee (18) (22) more (forms camp of

adj/adv); (+gen.) more than

(= 66n1owe) 6one3Hb (f) ( 11) disease


(9) (18) (+gen.) more; more

6YAHMM A(8)Hb (23) weekday 6YAY 6yAew1o- see 6b1Tb 6YAY&qMM (17) future (adj) 6YAbTe A06plll (12) be so good
(introducing request)


66n1owe He (+ verb) no longer, no more


(18) bigger (17) majority (7) large



66pOAiol, 60p6A beard 66paq (3) 6oplqi beetroot soup 6ollpMH (28) pl. 6ollpe 6ollp
boyar (powerful landowner)

6yM8ra (21) paper 6yrep6p6A (8) open sandwich 6yri11nKa (9) 6yrblnoK bottle 6ycll"r ( 10) snack bar 61o1 (19) (conditional particle 'would') 6biB81Tb' (23) 10, -ew1o to be

60RTbCA' (15) 6oi0Cb, 6oMWbCR

(+gen.) to be afraid (of)

6paK (22) marriage 6paT (3) pl. 6pBTbA 6pBTb8B


6111BWMM (16) former 6111CTpo (13) quickly, fast 6111CTPioiM (18) quick 6biT (28) way of life, everyday life 6b1Tb (11) (only pres. form ecTb; fut 6YAY 6YA8Wio, imper 6yAb(Te); past 61o1n, 61o1na, 6blno to be 610p6 (17) (n indecl) office
B (4) +prep.;+ ace. (+prep.) in;

6paTb' (10) 6epy, 6epiw1o f past 6pana (B3ATb") to take 6pa'IHBA napa (22) married couple 6pecTM' (u) (20) 6p&Ay, 6p8Aiw1o past 6pin, 6pena, 6pen6 (no) to plod

(+ace.) to (a place)

6pMTBHCKMM (7) British 6pMTb' (28) 6p610, 6p6ew1o (no_,) to


Bar6H (20) carriage BBJKHbiM (13) important aaniOTB (24) currency, hard currency BaniOTHioiM (9) currency, foreign
currency (adj)

6pMTbCA' (11) 6p6/10Cb1 -8WbCA (no)

to shave oneself

6poAMTb (mv) (20) 6poJKy, 6p6AMWb

to wander

BBM, BBMM - see Bioi (T4) you BBHHBA (f adj) (7) bathroom BaHA (m) (3) Vanya (familiar form of

6poc8/Tb' (25) 10, 8Wb (6p6CMTb)

( + ace.) to throw, throw away

6p6CMTb" (25) 6p6wy, 6p6cMWb (6pocBTb) (+ace.) to throw. throw away

aap8Hb8 (16) jam, preserves aac - see Bioi (T4) you Baw (6) your (T6) BAPYr (13) suddenly



aereTBpM8H(e)4 (12) (male)

B3rnRA (21) view, opinion; look B3RTb' (12) B03bMj, B03bMiWb past B3Rn, B3Rna, B3RnO (6p8Tb') to

BereTapMBHK8 (9) BereT&pMBHOK

(female) vegetarian
BereTapMliHCKMM (12) vegetarian (adj) B8AOMCTBO (30) department BeAY, BBAiWb see BBCTit lead BBAb (9) you know/isn't it/aren't you

BMA (18) view; form BMABTb ( 11) BlllKy, BMAMWb (y-') to

BM38 (23) visa BMHO (3) pl. BMHB wine BMWHR (30) gen. pl. allweH cherry BKnJO'I81Tb' (21) -10, -ewb (BKniO'IMTb') (+ace.) to switch on,

etc. (indicating that the speaker expects agreement)

Be31TII' (u) (20)

-3y, -iwb, past Bib,

B83nB, B83n0 (no-') to transport BeK pl. Bed ( 17) century Bin, eena - see BecTII led eeniiKMM ( 11) great BenMKo6pMTliHMR (27) Great Britain BenMKonenHbiM (29) magnificent B8nM'I8CTB8HHO-npeKpacHbiM (29)

plug in; to include

BKniO'I/MTb' (21) (27) -y, -MWb see BKniO'IBTb' BKYCHbiM (8) tasty BnBCTb (f) (24) gen. pl. BnacTei power BnaCTM (24) BnaCTei authorities BneTBITb' (20) -10, -ewb (BneTeTb')

majestically beautiful
BenbMOlKB (30) grandee, big shot HpMTb' (21) BepiO, B8pMWb (nO-')


fly in
BneTeTb' (20) Bne'ly, BneTJiiWb- see BneTBTb' BM8cTe (16) (c

to believe(+ dat. = s.o.) (B +ace.

= in s.o. or sth)
BepHijTbCR' ( 14) -ycb, -iWbCR (B03Bpatq8TbcR') to return, come

+ inst.) together(with)

BMecTo (16) (+gen.) instead of BMliCTO TOfO 'IT06bl (21) ( + inf)

BepHbiM (29) true; faithful eecinbiM (18) cheerful BBCHB pl. BicHbl gen. pl. BicBH spring BecTII' (u) (20) HAY B&AiWb, past Bin, Bena, Ben6 (no-') to lead

instead of (doing something)

BHM3 (15) down BHMMBHMB (24) attention BO Bp(IMR ( 17) ( + gen.) during BO = B before

Bfcll + consonant

(+prep.) in;(+ ace.) to (a place)

BOAS (8) BOAY pl. BOAbl,

Becb(11)(seeT4) all
B8T(e)p (27) B8Tpa wind BBT'IMHB (30) ham B8'1ep (16) pl. BB'Iepa evening; BOABM water

BOAMTb' (mv) (20) Bo)l(j, BOAMWb to

take on foot, lead

BOAKB (3) vodka Bo8HHo-MopcK6e Allno (28) naval

evening party
B8'18pHMM (7) evening (adj) B8'1epoM (15) in the evening BBLqb (f) (10) BeLq(li thing

matters, naval science

B08HHbiM (28) military



B03BP8!1WTbCSI' (14) IOCb, 8WbCSI (aepHjrbCst) to return, come back ao3apa!J46HM8 (26) return B03BbiW8JTbCR' (29) 8TCSI to tower B03MTb' (mv) (20) BOlKy, B03MWb to transport B03MOlKHOCTb (f) (13) possibility, opportunity B03MOlKHbiM (27) possible B03p8lK81Tb' (14) -10, -8Wb (ao3p83MTb) to object B03pa/3MTb {14) -lKj, 3MWb- see B03p8lKBTb' aoliiHa (14) pl. aoliiHbl war aoliiT.t (13) aoliiAy, aoliiA~twb past aowen, aowna, aowno (aXOAMTb') to enter aoK38n (5) (Ha) station, terminus BonoAfl (m) (3) Volodia (lam form of Vladimir) BOH TaM (5) over there aoo6U46 (13) altogether, totally aonpoc (27) question aopoTa ( (29) aopoT gates aoceMHBA48Tb (22.3) eighteen aoceMb (22.3) eight BOCBMbABCSIT (22.3) eighty BOC8MbCOT (22.3) eight hundred BOCKnMKttlyrb {30) -y, 8Wb (aocKnMI.j{!Tb') to exclaim BOCKpeC6Hb8 {17) gen. pl. BOCKpeC6HMM Sunday aocnMTbiBaiTb' (19) -10, -ewb (+ace.) to bring up (s.o.) BOCCTBHMB (28) uprising BOCTOK (18) (Ha) east aocT6plKeHHO (30) enthusiastically BOCTO'IHbiM {18) eastern BOT (3) here/there (when pointing)

BOT no'leMy (13) that is why aowin, aowna - see aoliiTM entered anepal:i1e (27) for the first time anepiA (20) forward an8'1aTnfiiOIJ4MM (29) impressive apa'l (16) apa'la doctor ap&AHo (14) harmful, it's harmful apeMst (9) apeMeHM, BpeMiH time apoAe (30) (+gen.) like BPRA nM (21) hardly, unlikely ace (11) (pl. of aecb 'all' T4) everybody aci {10) (see aecb 'all' T4) everything ace (25) (ace Bp6MSI) all the time aci paaHo ( 11) all the sarne; it's all the same acerA& (18) always acero (10) (also gen. of aecb T4) in all/only ac8-T&KM ( 19) nevertheless BCKBKMBa/Tb' (25) 10, BWb (BCKO'IMTb) to jump in/up acK6pe (28) soon BCKO'IMTb {25) BCKO'Iy, BCKO'IMWb (BCKBKMB8Tb') to jump in/up acnoMMH8!Tb' (13) -10, -ewb (acnoMHMTb) (+ace. oro+ prep.) to recall acnoMtt!MTb (13) -10, -MWb see BCnOMMHBTb' acTaaaTb' (16) acTalb, acTaewb, imper BCT8BBM(T8) (BCT8Tb) to get up BCT8Tb (16) BCTBHy, BCTBH8Wb (BCT8BBrb') tO get Up BCTp8/TMTbCSI" (19) 'IYCb, TMWbCSI (BCTpe'IBTbCR') (c + inst.) to meet (s.o.) acTp6'1a (23) meeting



BCTp8'18frbCR' (19) IOCb, 8WCR (BCTp6TMTbCR') (C + inst.) to meet

(BbiKnll,qblaaTb'} to spread out BbiHYAMTb" (27) BWHY>KY, BbiHY,qMWb, (Bb1Hy>K,q8/Tb' -10, -ewb) to force BbiHy>K,q&H (27)

BTOPHMK ( 17) Tuesday BTop6i4

ppp Of BbiHy,qMTb

(7) second

BblnMTb0 ( 12) BblnbiO, BblnbeWb (nMTb') (+ace.) to have a drink Bblpa>KeHM& (21) expression BbiCa/,qMTbCR 0 (29) >KfCb, ,qMWbCA (BbiCOMB8TbCR' (29)) to

axo,q (19) (a+ ace.) entrance (to) BXO,qMTb' (13) BXO>Ky, BXO,qMWb (aoi4Tril0 ) to enter a'lepa (10) yesterday B'b83p,Hbl& aop6Ta

(n pl.) (29)

entrance gates
Bbl (4) (see T4) you Bbl6er8/Tb' (20) 10~ 8Wb (Bbl6e>K&Tb0 ) to run out Bbl6e>K8Tb0 (20) Bbl6ery, Bbi68>KMWb, Bbl6eryT - see Bbl6erl1Tb' Bb16p8Tb0 (27) Bbl6epy, Bbl6epeWb (Bbi6Mp8/Tb' -10, -ewb) (+ace.) to

disembark, land
BbiCS>KMBa/TbCR' (29) IOCb, 8WbCR-

see BbiC&,qMTbCR 0
BbiCKa/38TbCR 0 (27) >KYCb, >K&WbCR (BbiCKbbiBa/TbCR' IOCb, 8WbCA) (38 + ace.) to speak for/in favour of BbiCKBKMBa/Tb'

(25) 10, -&Wb

(BbiCKO'IMTb 0 ) to jump out BbiCKO'IfMTb0

BblrnR,qbiBa/Tb' (30) 10, &Wb (BblrnRH/yTb -y, -ewb) to look out Bbl,qa/BBTbCR' (29) IOCb, iWbCR (Bbl,q&TbcR) to project, stand out Bbl,q&IOUIMMCR (28) outstanding;

(25) -y, MWb

(BbiCKBKMBBTb;) to jump OUt BbiCOKMM (18) tall BbiCyYn8frb' (29) 10, &Wb (BbiCyYnMTb 0)

10 project, stick out,

step out
BbiCTynl!iiOUIMM (29) projecting BbiTRHfyYbCR 0

Bbi8X8Tb0 (28) Bble,qy, Bbl&,q8Wb (Bbi&3>KBTb') to leave (by transport) Bbi/3B8Tb0 (21) 30By, 30B8Wb (Bbl3biBBTb') to summon Bbl3biB8frb' (21) 10, 8Wb (Bbi3B8Tb0 )

(30) YCb, 8WbCR to

stretch; to stand erect

BbiY'!MTb0 (13) BbiY'!Yo BbiY'IMWb (y'lriiTb') ( + ace.) to master BbiXO,qMTb' {15) BbiXO>Ky, BbiXO,qMWb (Bb1MTM 0 ) to go OUt BbiXO,q (15) exit BbiXO,qHOM ,qeHb (17) day off Bblwe (18) taller BbiRCHfMTb 0 (28) 10, MWb (BbiRCHRTb') to find out, establish

(+ace.) to summon
BbiMTM" (15) BbiM,qy, BbiM,q&Wb past BbiW&n, Bb1Wn8, imper BbiM,qM(T&) (BbiXO,qMTb') to go OUt Bbln&T8frb' (20) 10, 8Wb (Bbln8T8Tb0 )

to fly out
Bblne/T&Tb0 (20) 'ly, TMWb- see Bbln8TBTb' BblnO>KMTb0 (28) -y, MWb

ra36Ta (3) newspaper rapMOHrii'IHbiM (29) harmonious



racTp6nM (I pl.) (26) racTp6nei

(theatre) tour

roHAITb' (mv) (20) -10, -ewb ( + ace.) to

chase, drive

racTpoH6M (17) food shop

ropa (18) ace. r6py, pl. r6pb1, ropaM hill; mountain rop83Ao (18) much (with

rAfJ (3) where rA6-HM6YAb (26) anywhere rA6-To (26) somewhere reHeplm (27) general repMBHMR (20) Germany rep6i (21) rep6ea hero
rMA (16) guide (person) rMMH83MCT (30) grammar-school boy rMMHB3MR (30) grammar school rMTllpa (16) guitar rnaaa (28) pl. rnllabl chief, chapter rnllBHbiM (7) main rna3 (25) pl. rna38 gen. pl. rna3 eye rna3(6)K (25) pl. rnbKM little eye rny6lKe (18) comp of rny66KMM

r6pHM'IHSR (f adj) (21) maid r6poA (7) pl. ropoAfl town, city ropR'IMM (8) hot r6cnoAMI (30) good heavens! good

rOCTMHM48 (4) hotel r6CTb (m) (12) rocTei guest 6b1Tb B rOCTRX y (+gen.) to be
visiting s.o.

MATM a r6CTM K + dat., to go to

visit s.o.

rocyAflpcTaeHHbiM (28) state,

belonging to the state

rny66KMM (18) deep rnynbiM (29) stupid, silly rmiiA6Tb' (25) -lKy, AMWb (no-) (H8
+ace.) to look (at)

roT6Bia/o/bl (29) (short adj) ready rOT6BfMTb' (16) 1110, MWb (npM-')
(+ace.) to prepare; to cook

rp&MM (9) rpBMMOB Or rp8MM

gram( me)

rH&Tb' (u) (20) roHIO, r6HMWb, past rHanil (no-")(+ ace.) to chase, drive rHeBHbiM (21) angry roaopMTb' (4) -10, -MWb (no-; cKa38Tb) to speak, say r6A (6) prep. B rOAY neT, roAiiM year

rp&HM48 (18) border 38 rp&HM48M (21) (28) abroad


38 rp&HM4Y (21) (28) abroad


rpM6 (12) pl. rpM6bl mushroom rpM6H6i (28) mushroom (adj) rp6MKMM (14) loud rpynna (24) group rpt13HbiM (20) dirty rpR3b (I) (11) prep. sg. B rpR3M mud ry6a (30) pl. rj6bl, dat. pl. ry6aM lip rynR/Tb' (17) -10, -ewb (no-') to take a
rY~ (30) grounds, dregs

(14) anniversary

ronnaHAMR (28) Holland ronoaa (28) ace. r6noay, pl. r6nOBbl, ron6a head ron6eKS (28) ron6aoK little head ron6aKa nyKa (28) an onion (nyK onion, onions)

r6noc (14) pl. ronoca voice rony6'4MK (30) dear friend, my dear



p,a (3) yes p,8BBTb' (12) p,alb, AdWb, imper p,aaai{T8) {p,aTb") to give p,aaH6 ( 13) long ago, since long ago

p,aK8H (19) dean (of university or


ABK6p (29) decoration A6na/Tb' (8) -10, -ewb {c-") (+ace.)

to do; to make

AS* (14)


A8iTe (8) give (imperative') p,aniKMi (18) far p,aneK6 (12) (oT +gen.) far (from) A&nbwe (16) further, onwards p,aTb" (12) p,a11, p,awb, p,acT, ABAMM, ABAMTe, ABAYT past ABn, A&na, A&no {p,aaaTb') to give ABB (m and n)IAH (f) (22.3) two AHA48Tb (22.3) twenty ABBHBA48Tb (22.3) twelve AHPb (f) (3) a AB&plil, ABBP6i door AB6cTM (22.3) two hundred AB6e (22.10) two AB6p (26) ABOpa yard,
courtyard; royal court

A6no ( 19) pl. p,ana matter AMO BT6M, 'IT6 ... (13) the thing is
that. ..

A{e)Hb (m) (3) day p,aHb poJKA6HMR ( 17) birthday A6HbrM (pl.) (8) A6Her, ABHwBII money p,anapTBMBHT (30) (old word)
(government) department

p,ap6BHR (19) gen. pl. p,apea6Hb

village; country (opposite of town)

ABOp{6)1.4 (29) gen. pl. ABOPL46B


A6peao (26) pl. ABp6BbR p,ap6ab8a tree; wood (material) A6CRTb (22.3) ten A6TM (10) (Sg. pe6iH{O)K) gen. p,aT6i, dat. A6TRII, inst. p,aTbMM, prep. A6fRx children A6TCK8R nnoli48AKa (26) children's



(29) Palace

ABOPRHMH (28) pl. ABOPRHe gen. pl. p,aopiiH member of nobility or gentry p,ayx- gen. of AaaiABB A6BO'IK8 (25) dim of A6Ba 'maid' little

A6fCTao (17) childhood Aweane (18) cheaper ABWiBbiM (18) cheap AMp6KTop (23) pl. AMPBKTopa

A6aywKa (9) A6ayweK girl ABBRH6cTo (22.3) ninety ABBRTHBA48Tb (22.3) nineteen A6BRTb (22.3) nine p,aaRTbC6T (22.3) nine hundred A6AYWKB (m) (6) A6AYWBK

p,aK86pb (m) p,aKa6pR


AnMHHbli (18) long AnR (10) (+gen.) for (benefit, purpose) AO (9) (+gen.) as far as; until AO CBMASHMR (3) goodbye AO T&K6i CT6neHM to such a degree A068BfMTb0 (28) -n10, MWb (Ao6aanRTb') (+ace.) to add A06aBnRITb' 10, BWb - see Ao68BMTb0 A06MBBITbCR' (28) IOCb BWbCR



(Ao6MTbcR) (+gen.) to work for,


to reach a position, reach the top

A06MTbCRP (28) A06bi0Cb, Ao6btiwbCR - see A06MB6TbCR' A66pb1M (7) good, kind A66pb1M A8Hb (3) good day AOB6nbHO (15) fairly, quite AOroailpMaaiTbCR' (19) -IOCb, -eWbCR (c +gen.) to reach an
agreement (with s.o.)

AOCT8BSTb' (18) AOCTSIO, AOCT8iWbsee AOCTilrb AOCTiiTO'IHO (19) (+gen.) enough (of

AOCTBfrb (18) -Hy, -ewb (AocraaiiTb')

(+ace.) to get hold of, obtain; to reach

AOroaop/MTbCR (19) -lOeb, MWbCR

(c + inst.)- see AOroailpMB8TbCR' Aoe3lK8hb' (20) -10, -ewb (Aoexarb) (AO + gen.) to reach, go as far as

AOxiOAMTb' (15) -o)l(j, -6AMWb (Aoilr.t) (AO +gen.) to reach A6'1K8 (16) A6'1eK (little)

A6'1b (f) (5.6) A6'1epM gen. pl. AO'Iepeil, AO'I8pbMM

A08xarb (20) A08p,y, A08Aewb- see A083)1(STb' A6*Ab (11) (m)
AO~ rain

AOwiin, AOWnil - see AOMTM reached AP83HIMTb' (30) -10, MWb ( + ace.) to
tease (s.o.)

AOilr.t (15) AOMAY AOMAiWb, past AOWin, AOWna, AOWn6 {AOXOAMTb') (AO +gen.) to reach
(on foot)

AP8BHMM (18) ancient APYr (B) pl. APY3bll, APY38il


A6nro ( 11) for a long time AOneTBfrb' (20) -10, -ewb (Aonererb)
to reach by flying

APYr APYra (30) each other APY6a ( 1) friendship APY3bR pl. of APYr friends AYMahb' (19) -10, -ewb (no-) to think AYW6H(o)K (30) swell, smart lad AYXOB6il wKaell (28) oven ARAR (m) (3) AIJAeil uncle eapone(e)4 (28) European (noun) eaponeM3iii.IMR (28) Europeanization eaponeilcKMil (21) European er6 (indecl) (6) [ye-~6] his/its er6, eMy- see 6H (T4) him 8AMM, 8AMTe, eAIJr see ecTb' eat 8AMHCTB8HHO (27) only 8AY 8AeWb see exarb

AOnererb (20) AOne<~y, AOnerttwb see AOneTiiTb' A6n)I(8HIAOn)I(Hii/AOn)I(H61AOn)I(Hbl

(19) obliged, must

AOn)I(H6 6b1Tb (19) probably ('must


A6nnap (9) dollar A6M (3) pl. AOMil house A6Ma (7) at home AOM6il (4) home, to one's home AOp6ra (25) road AOpor6il (8) dear, expensive AOP6)1(K8 (25) (dim of AOp6ra) AOP6eK little road

AOC/nyMMTbCR" (30) YJKYCb, j)I(MWbCR

ee (indecl) (6) her (possessive) ee, eil see oHil (T4) her (pronoun)



63AMTb' (mv) (20) 63.-y, 63AMWb to go (by transport) 8M, 8Wb, 8CT see 8CTb' eat ecnM (8) if ecTb (7) (8) is/are 8CTb' ( 12) eM 8Wb 8CT 8AMM eAMT8 eART past en, ena, imper 6wb(Te) (C'b8CTb0 ) (+ace.) to eat eX8Tb' (U) (4) (2) &Ay, 6A&Wb (n0 0 ) tO go (by transport) e"'i (9) yet; still; more e"'i pa3 (15) again .JKanKo (14) it's a pity; to grudge .JK8noaaHb8 (30) (old word) salary .JKSn/OBBTbCR' (21) YIOCb, yeWbCR (no-0 ) (Ha + ace.) to complain (about) .JKanb (14) it's a pity .JKapKo (14) hot (of weather), it's hot .JKA&Tb' (15) .JKAY, .JKAiWb, f past .JKA&na (nOA0 0 ) (+ace./+ gen.) to wait (for s.o./sth) .JKe (5) (emphasizes previous word) .JKen8/Tb' (21) -10, -ewb (no- 0 ) ( + gen.) to wish .JKen63HaR AOp6ra (30) railway ('iron road') .IK8HS (6) pl. .JKtiHbl, gen. pl. .JKiH .JKtiHBM Wife .JKeH8T (30) (short adj) married (of a man) .IKBHMTbCR'/0 (28) .IKBHJOcb, .JK6HMWbCR to marry (of a man) .JK6HCKMM (15) female

.IKMp (28) B .IKMpy, pl. .IKMpbl tat, grease .JKMTenb (m) (9) inhabitant .IKMTb' (4) .IKMBy, .IKMBBWb, f past .IKMna {npo.JKMTb0 ) to live .JKypHan (1) magazine .-ypHanMcT (13) journalist .IKYPHBnMCTKB (27) gen. pl. .JKypHanMCTOK female journalist 38 (+ace.) (6) for (in return for); behind (motion) 38 (+ inst.) (16) behind (place), beyond; for (to fetch) 3a6aiKinb8 (19) region beyond (38) Lake Baikal 386er8/Tb' (20) 10, BWb {386e.JKSTb0 ) to call in (running) 386e.IKSTb0 (20) 386erj, 386e.IKMWb, 386erYT - see 386er8Tb' 386bJB8/Tb' (13) 10, 8Wb (386b1Tb0 ) (+ace.) to forget 386b1Tb0 (13) 386YAY, 386YA8Wb (386bJBSTb') (+ace.) to forget 38Beptt/YTb0 (19)

-y, -iWb

(38BOpS'IMBa/Tb' 10, 8Wb) (38 + ace.) to turn (round sth) 38BMAOB8Tb' (23) 38BMAYIIO, 8Wb (no-o) (+ dat.) to envy (someone) 38BWC8Tb' (19) Wj, CMWb {OT +gen . to depend (on) 38BOA (16) (Ha) factory 3880pS'IMBa!Tb' (19) 10, BWb
(38aepH~b0 )

to turn (a corner); to

wrap 38aTpa (6) tomorrow 38aTpaK (16) breakfast 38aTpaKa!Tb' (16) -10, -ewb (no- 0 ) to breakfast

*'""'""a (14)

woman .IKMBMT8nbH8R anara (30) (coli) intoxicating liquor .IKM3Hb (f) (19) life


38HMMiJTbC~' (16) IOCb, 8WbC~

38roaop (28) plot 38A8BBTb' (27) 38ABKJ, 38AiliWb

(38Air~t) to set, pose

( + inst.) to study (something)


(25) (m)/38H~TB (f)/38H~TO

38,qir~o (27) like ABTb, past 38A&n,

(n)/38H~Tbl (pl.) occupied, busy

38A8ni, 38A&no (311A8aBTb') to set, pose 38,qi1Tb aonp6c (27) to ask a question 3883lKiiTb' (23) -10, -ewb- see 386X8Tb" 386X8Tb" (23) 386AY1 386A8Wb (3863lKaiTb') (K + dat.) to call on someone (by transport)
38MHT8p8COaBTbC~-see MHT8p8COBBTbC~'

38HRrb" (18) 38iiiMf, 381i1MiWb, past

3BH~n, 38H~na, 3BH~no (+ace.) to

occupy 38n&A (18) (Ha) west 38nSAHbllil (7) western 38nac (18) stock, reserve 38neKiHMe (28) baking

(19) 3BnMwf, 38nrilwewb

(38nMCbiB8Tb') ( + ace.) to note down 38nrilcKa (15) 38nrilcoK note 38nMCb1BaiTb' (19) 10, -8Wb (38nMCBTb") (+ace.) to note down 38nn8Karb" - see MBK&Tb' to start crying 3apy66lKHbliii ( 17) foreign 38ce,qiHMe (28) (Ha) meeting, sitting

38itrril (20) At. Aiw~>, past 38Win, 38wna, 38Wn6 (38XOAMrb') to call in 38KB3 (27) order (for goods or services) 38K838Tb (23) 38K81Kf, 38KBlK8Wb (38KbbiBBTb') (+ace.) to order (sth) 38KB3b1Ba1Tb' (23) -10, -ewb- see 38K838Tb" 38KpM'IIBTb" (20) f, MWb (KPM'fBrb') to shout, start shouting 38Kpb1BiJTb' (17) 101 8Wb (38KpbtTb") to close 38Kp/li1Tb" ( 17) -610, -6ewb - see 38Kpb1BBTb' 38KypMrb" (15) 38KYPKJ1 38KjpMWb (Kyprilrb') to smoke, light a cigarette 38M8HMTb" (28) 38M8HKJ1 38M6HMWb (38MeHIIITb' -10, -ew~>) to replace 3&Mecrrilrenb (m) (23) deputy 38M8'firenbHbliii ( 17) remarkable 38MYJK (29): BbiXOAMTb'/alitiiirM 38MYJK 38 (+ace.) to marry (of a woman) 38HMMiJTb' (18) 101 8Wb (38HRrb") to occupy (something)

(13) KJcb, iWbC~

(cMeilrbC~') to start laughing

3acrerHifrb" (30) -f, iWb (38crirMB8Tb'}( +ace.) to fasten


(26) party

38T6M (17) then, next 38XMxMKa/Tb" (30) 10 1 8Wb (XMXMK8Tb') to giggle, start giggling 38XOAMTb' (20) 38XOlKj, 38X6AMWb (38iiirril) to call in 38XOT6Tb see xor6Tb' to begin to want 381qMITMTb" (22) lqf, TMWb (3alqMiqiTb') (+ace.) to defend (s.o.) 381qMiqifn.' (22) 10, 8Wb (381qMTMrb") (+ace.) to defend (s.o.)

(21) 3UBnliJ, 38RBMWb

to announce




38JIBnRfrb' (21) 10, 8Wb (38JIBMTb0 )

3HB'IMT (10) so (that means) 30BjT see 3B&Tb (they) call 36noTo (18) gold

to announce
38RaneHMe (22) application 3B8Tb' (4) 30By, 30BiWb, f past 3B&n{l (no-")(+ ace.) to call (s.o.) 3B83AB (30) pl. 3Bi3Abl, gen. pl. 3Bi3A

M (4)


Mrp8Tb' (16) 10, 8Wb (CblrpBTb") to

3Bepb (m) (18) 3aep8i (wild)

MATM' (u) (6) MAY MAiWb, past win, wna (noiTr.i) to go (on foot) M3 (10) (+gen.) out of, from M368 (25) pl. M36bl, gen. pl. M36

3BOttiMTb' (12) lb, MWb (coli 3B6HMWb) (no")(+ dat.) to

telephone (s.o.)
3BY'tBTb' (23) 3BY'IMT to sound 3ABHM8 (15) building 3A8Cb (4) here 3AOP6Bb8 (26) health 3APBBCTBYM(Te) (3) hello 38Mm1 (2) ace. sg. 38Mnl0, pl. 36MnM,

M3BKTHO (22) it is known M3B8cTHbiM (27) well-known M3BMHr.iTe ( 11) 38 ( + ace.) excuse me

M3BMtt/MTbCJI 0 ( 19) KlCb, MWbCJI (M3BMHATbCJ1')

(38 +ace.) to 3eMenb, 3eMnRM earth, land

3MMB (16) ace. sg. 3MMy, pl. 3MMbl,

apologize (for)
M3BMHAfTbCJI' (19) IOCb, 8WbCJI (M3BMHMTbCJ1) (38 + ace.) to 3MMBM winter

3MMHMM (7) winter 3HaK6Mal'i (f adj) (26) female

apologize (for)
M3A8fB8Tb' (28)

10, -iWb (fli3A&Tb0

(+ace.) to publish
M3A&TenbCTBO (23) publishing house M3A&Tb0 (28) (like ABTb) (M3A8Bi1Tb')

3H8K6MfMTb' (16) niO, MWb (nO")

(+ace.+ inst.) to acquaint someone with. to introduce someone to

3H8K6MfMTbCJ1' (n0 0 ) niOCb, MWbCJI

(+ace.) to publish
M338 (11) (30) (+gen.) because of;

from behind
M3yM/MTbCJI 0 (30) nlbcb, MWbCJI (M3yMnRfrbCJ1 IOCb, 8WbCJI) to

+ inst. to become acquainted with, to meet

3H&K6MCTao (26) acquaintanceship,

be astonished
M3Y't8JTb' ( 4) ( 13) 10, 8Wb (M3Y'tMTb 0)

first meeting
3H&K6MbiM (m adj) (26) male

(+ace.) to study
M3Y'IMTb0 (13) M3Y"'Y M3j'IMWb (M3Y'tiiTb') (+ace.) to master MK6pK8 (25) dim Of MKpa MKpa (25) caviare (fish roe) r.inM (9) or

3H8M8HMTbiM (7) famous 3H8Tb' (4) 3Hil10, 3HB8Wb (+ace.) to

3H&'IeHMe (24) meaning, significance



MMelrb' (10) -10, -ewb (+ace.) to have ( + abstract noun) MMR (n) (6) MM8HM, pl. MMeHa (T4) forename, first name MHlK8H6p (16) engineer MHMI.IM8TMB8 (22) initiative MHML!MiiTop (22) initiator MHorA{I (9) sometimes MHOCTpBH(8)4 (16) foreigner MHOCTpBHHbiM (10) foreign MHCTMljT (5) institute MHTep6c ( 16) interest MHTep6cHo (14) (it's) interesting MHTepecHbiM (7) interesting MHTepeC/OaBTbCR' (16) -Y.ocb, -jeWbCR (38-") (+ inst.) to be interested (in) MCKBTb' ( 11) M114Y MU48Wb (no- 0 ) (+ace. or gen.) to look for, to seek MCKniO'-IfMTb0 (27) -y, MWb (MCKniO'IiiTb') to exclude lilcKpa (30) spark MCKpMa/MTbCR 0 (30) niOCb, MWbCR (MCKpMBnRTbCR') to become distorted, to twist Mcn6nHeHHbiM (29) executed, carried out MCnyr8frbCR0 (25) IOCb, 8WbCR (nyr8TbCR') (+gen.) to take fright (at) Mccne,qoaaHMe (22) investigation, research MCTOpMR (16) history MX (indecl) (6) their MX, MM, MMM see OHM (T 4) them Mwy, MU48Wb see MCKBTb Mlbnb (m) (17) July MIOHb (m) (17) June K (12) (+ dat.) to (a person), towards KBlK,qbiM (9) each, every

KBlKeTCR ( 11) (from KBaBTbCR) it seems,

I think
K8aBTbCR' ( 11) K8lKYCb, KBlK8WbCR (no- 0 ) to seem Ka3iHHbiM (30) state, state-owned K83HMTb'/ 0 (28) to execute KaK(4) how KBK 6bl (30) as it were KBK pa3 (20) exactly, just KaK6i4 (7) what kind of K8KOM-HM6y,qb (26) any kind of KaK6i4-To (26) some kind of dK-TO (26) somehow K&MnBHMR (27) campaign KanycTa (12) (no pl.) cabbage K&paHA{Iw (16) KapaH,qawa pencil dpTa (10) map K8pTOHK8 (30) gen. pl. K8pTOHOK cardboard box K&pT61tJenb (m) (no pl.) potatoes K8C8frbCR' (21) IOCb, 8WbCR (KOCHyYbCR 0 ) (+gen.) to touch (sth); to concern 'ITO KacileTCR (+gen.) as for ('what concerns') dcca (1) cash desk/ticket office K8CTplbnR (28) KBCTplbnb saucepan K&TBITb' (mv)(20) -10, -ewb to roll KBTMTb' (u) (20) KB'Iy, KBTMWb (no- 0 ) to roll K8'16nM (pi) (26) gen. pl. Ka'16neii swings KB'I8CTBO (28) quality a KB'IecTae (28) (+gen.) as ('in the quality of') dwa (16) kasha, Russian porridge KB&pTiilpa (7) flat. apartment KaaweHbiM (28) sour, fermented



KBM- see KT6 KeciiMP (8) fermented milk drink KMn6 (n indecl) (8) kilo (gram) KMnorpaMM (8) kilogram KMH6 (n indecl) ( 11) cinema KMHOTUTp (20) Cinema KMHOcllecTMBBnb (m) (27) film festival KM6CK ( 1) kiosk KMmn(6)K (21) boiling water KMnHU4Mii (28) boiling KMCnOTB (30) pl. KMCn6Tbl acidity,

K6M prep. of KTO KOMBHAMP6BK8 (19) (B 'on') KOMBHAMP6BOK business or study trip, assignment KOMMYHM3M (29) Communism K6MH&Ta ( 14) room KOMnBHM.R (14) (27) company;

company, firm
KOMY - dat. of KT6 KOHaepT (10) envelope KOH(6)1.1 (18) KOHI.IB end KoH6'1Ho (10) [ka-nyem-na] of

KMTB(e)LI (30) pl. KMTBiil.lbl Chinese (n.) KMTBii (18) China Knacc (30) class, form KnM6HT (15) client KH111ra (7) book KHM)I(KB (30) (dim of KHMra) gen. pl. KHM)I(BK small book, some book KO = K before K + consonant, MHe and aceiilaceM/aceMy KOrA8 (5) when KorA8HM6YAb (26) ever; sometime (in

KOHTSKT (23) contact KOHTpSKT (23) contract KOHcjlnMKT (22) conflict KOHI.Il!PT ( 11) (HB) concert KOH'I8/Tb' ( 13) 10, 8Wb (K6H'IfMTb 0 \!. MWb) to finish KOHbRK (25) KOHbJIKB

cognac, brandy
KoneiiKa (9) gen. pl. KoneeK kopeck

(1/100th of a rouble)
Kop86nb (m) (28) Kopa6nll ship Kop6nb (m) (27) Koponlii king KOp6TKMii (18) (23) ShOrt

the future)
KorA&-To (26) sometime Kor6 [ka-v6]- acc./gen. of KT6 K6e-rAe (26) here and there K6e-KaK (26) (30) badly, sloppily; with

( 18) shorter

KOCHfYrbCR' (21) HYCb, -iWbCR (KBCSTbCR') ( + gen.) to touch KOTnl!Tbl no-K111eacKM (12) Chicken

K6e-KaK111e (pl.) (26) certain, some K6e-<IT6 (26) something, some things Kon6aca (8) (no pl.) salami Kon6Ho (28) pl. Kon6HM gen. pl. Kon6Heii knee KOnM'I8CTBO (22) quantity Konne)I(CKMii aceccop (30) collegiate

Kiev (Kornl!Ta cutlet)

KOT6pblii (18) who/which K6cjle (m indecl) (5) coffee KocjleiiHblii (30) coffee (adj) Kpacaa(e)LI (30) handsome man Kpac111ao (14) it's attractive Kpaci11Bblii (7) beautiful, attractive KpSCHblii (7) red KPBCOTS ( 11) beauty

assessor (eighth grade in fourteengrade tsarist civil sevice)

KOn6HHB (29) column, pillar



KpeMnb (m) (7) KpeMnil the Kremlin (fortress) KpenKMM (18) strong KpenKO (26) firmly, strongly KpenOCTHM'I8CTBO (28) serfdom KpenocTH6i4 (m adj) (28) serf Kpen'le ( 18) stronger Kp&cTbRHMH(11)piKpecTbiiHe KpeCTbRH peasant KpM'IIllTb' (20) -y, -iiwb (38') to shout KpoaltTb (f) (21) bed Kp6Me (10) (+gen.) apart from, except Kp6Me Toro (12) also, in addition KpblnO (29) pl. KpblnbR, Kpblnbea wing KpbiM (5) prep. a KpbiMY Crimea KpbiMCKMM (12) Crimean KTO (5) (T4) who KT6-HM6YAb (26) anyone KTOTO (26) someone KyA{I (4) (to) where (whither) KyA{IHM6YAb (26) anywhere (motion) KYABTO (26) somewhere (motion) Kynbrypa (21) culture KynbrypHbiM (28) cultural Kyn(8)4 (28) KYn48 merchant KynriiTb' ( 12) Kynmb, KfnMWb (noKynaTb') (+ace.) to buy KYPMTb' (4) Kyplb, KYPMWb (no-', 38') to smoke Kypcbl (pl. of Kypc) (13) classes, a course of study

nirKMM (18) easy nerna see nB'Ib' ner'le ( 18) easier nelKaTb' (30) ne.Y, nelKMWb (no-') to lie, be in a lying position ne3Tb' (u) (20) ne3y, n838Wb past ne3, ne3na (no') to climb, clamber n8K4MR (18) (Ha) lecture nee (5) prep. a necy, pl. neca wood, forest n8cTHM48 (20) staircase neT (9) of r6A and neTo years; summers neTBITb' (mv) (20) -10, -ewb to fly neT8Tb' (u) (20) ne'ly, neTiiWb (no') to fly neTHMM (7) summer neTo (16) pl. naTa summer neTOM (14) in summer nB'Ib' (25) nilry, nillKeWb past nir, nerna, nern6, imper nilr(Te) (nolKMTbCR') to lie down nM (10) (13) (yes-no question word); whether nMM6H (16) lemon nMHMR (12) line nMTepBTypa (13) literature nM46 (21) pl. nrii48 face; person no6biRHMe (30) (old word) kiss nOlKMTbCR' (25) nOlKfCb, nOlKMWbCR (ne'lb') to lie down; to go to bed n6lKK& (16) n6lKeK spoon n6MTMK (28) slice n6HAOH (4) London nocttliiTbCR' (30) -lOeb, riiwbCR to shine, gleam nyK (28) (no pl.) onions nf'lwe (18) better nf'lwMi4 (18) best

KfxHJI (7) (a or HB) gen. pl. KfxOHb

naap6BbiM nMcT (28) bay leaf


nbMTb' (mv) (20) nalK}', nB3MWb to climb, clamber n&HAWBCIIT (29) landscape nir - see ne'lb



nbllKM (pi) (29) nbllK skis mo6MMbllii (16) beloved; favourite mo6MTb' (6) mo6mo, mo6Mwb (no-)
(+ace.) to love, be fond of

MBHWrbCR' (23) IOCb, BWbCR to

change (intrans)

M8cTO (8) pl. MBCTS place, seat M8cRLI (9) MeCRI.IBB month MeTp6 (n indecl) (5) metro,

mo661ii (15) any (any one you like) niOAM (16) moA&Iii, dat niOAfiM, inst niOAbMM, prep. niOAJIX people (pl. of 'lenoaeK 'person') niOTBpSHKB (30) niOTBpSHOK
Lutheran (Protestant)

Mewii/Tb' (25) -10, -BIWb (no-) ( + dat)

to hinder (someone)

nflry see n8'1b0 Mara3MH (6) shop M&rHMTOcj)6H (13) tape recorder Malii (17) May ManeHbKMiii (7) small Mano (9) (+gen.) little, not much MBnb'IMK (13) boy MaMa (11) mother, mum (my) MSpKa (10) MapoK stamp M&pT (17) March MBCnMHB (28) olive Macno (B) butter; oil MSCTep (21) pl. MBCTepa Skilled

Mew(6)K (25) MBWKS bag, sack MMnliii.IMR (21) police MMnnMSPA (22) a thousand million
(US billion)

MMnnM6H (22) million MMnOCTMBbllii (30) (old word)

gracious, kind

MacwT86 (29) scale M&TBpMan (26) material MBTp6c (29) sailor M&Tb (f) (3) (5.6) MSTepM, M&Tepelii mother MBWMHB (10) car; machine MBAMLIMHB (28) medicine M8AnBHHbiM (18) SlOW M8JKAY (16) (+ inst.) between MBJKAYHBP6Abllii (27) international MeHee (18) less M8Hbwe (9) (18) (+gen.) less; less than MBHIO (n indecl) (3) menu MBHR- seeR (T4) me

MMnbllii (30) dear, sweet, lovable MMMO (10) (+gen.) past MMHepanbHbllii (12) mineral (adj) MMHMCTepCTBO (23) ministry MMHY,.a (6) minute MMp (12) (18) peace; world MMCK8 (28) MMCOK bowl Mnl\AwMiii (18) younger; junior MHe, MH61ii - see R me MH6rMe (pl. adj) (13)) many (people) MH6ro (9) (+gen.) much, many Morj, M6ryT, M6r, Morna, Morn6, Mornl4 - see MO'Ib MOA8nb (f) (29) model M6JKBT, M6JKBWb, M6JKBM, M6MeTesee M6'1b M6JKeT 6b1Tb (9) perhaps M6JKHO (14) it's possible, one may M61ii (6) (T6) my

MOnOA61ii (13) young MonoA61ii 'lenoaeK (18) young man Mon6JKe (18) younger MonoK6 (B) milk Mon6'1Hbllii (B) milk, dairy (adj)



MOn'tliTb'{16) MOn'ty, MOn'IMWb


HSAoeno (15) past of HSAOScTb that's

to keep silent. say nothing

MoHr6nMA (18) Mongolia MOHTip (21) electrician M6pe (5) Mopeiii sea MOCKBS (3) Moscow MOCKBM't (17) MOCKBM'IS

enough, I'm tired (of it)

Ha38A (13) ago; back H83BSHMB (16} name H83biB8/Tb' ( 11) -10, 8Wb (H83aSTb)

(+ace.) to name (s.o./sth)

H83biB8/TbCA' (11) BTCA (+inS!.) to

MOCK6BCKMiii (17) Moscow (adj} M6CT (7) prep. H8 MOCTj, pl. MOCTbl

be called (of thing, not person)

HaM- (18) most (forms superlatives) HaM66nee (29) most HaiiiTiil (13) HBiiiAY HaiiiAiWb past Hawin, Hawna, Hawn6 (HSXOAMTb') (+ace.) to find HBKBHTb (15) HSKB)I(y, HBKS)I(8Wb (HBKS3biB8Tb) (+ace.) to punish H8KS3blaafrb' (15) -10, -BWb (HBKBaSTb)

M6'1b' (11) (13) (15) MOrj, M6)1(8Wb, M6ryr past M6r, Morna, Morn6, Mornlil (c-) to be able MY* (6) pl. MY)I(bsl husband


MY*CK6iii (14} male MY"''IMHa (m) (18) man

peasant man

(+ace.) to punish
Haneao (5) to the left Han6r (28) tax HBMH6ro (18) much (with comparatives) H8nMB81TbCA' (14) IOCb, BWbCR (HanliiTbCA) to get drunk HSnMCSTbP (13) HBnMWy, HBnMW8Wb (nMCSTb') to write HBnMTbCA (14) HBnblOCb, HBnbiWbCR (HanMBSTbCA') to get drunk HBnOMMHli/Tb' (15) -10, 8Wb

MyHiii (5) My38ea museum MyHiiiHbliii (29) museum (adj) MY3b1Ka (6) music MY3biKSHT (16) musician MYHAMP (30) uniform Mbl (4) we (T4) MbiCnb (f) (26) thought Ms1co (8) meat

Ha (4) on H86epe)I(H8A

(Han6MHMTb) ( + dat.) to remind

(I adj) (29) embankment,

HBn6MH/MTbP (15) 10, MWb (HBnOMMHSTb') (+ dat.) to remind

HaaepHoe (21) probably H8BbKNfMTbP (30) -y, MWb (Haab!O'IM&aTb') (+ins!.} to load (with) HSA (16) (+ins!.} above HSASATbCA' ( 11) HSASIOCb, HSASeWbCA

HBnpaa/MTb (28) -niO, MWb (Hanpaam1Tb') (+ace.) to direct Hanpaao (5) to the right HanpMMep (18) for example Hanp6TMB (10) opposite (adv of place) H8p8/38Tb (28)

to hope
HSAO (14) it's necessary, one must
HSA~b' -10, -8Wb (HSA08c'rb)

""'Yo )1(8Wb (HapeaSTb')

(+ dat.) to bore (s.o.)

to cut, slice



Hap6A (13) people, nation


Henb3il (14) it's not allowed; it's impossible H8M64KMM (18) German (adj) H8MH6ro (13) (+gen.) a little H8MHOlKKO (14) (dim of HeMH6ro) ( + gen.) a little HeMj,H8M-forrnsof6H,oH6(T4) him, it Heo6XOAMMO (14) it's essential He06XOAMMOCTb (f) (28) (+gen.) necessity (for)

(21) deliberately

HaCTSMaahb' (21) 10, 8Wb (Ha + prep.) to insist (on) HaCTORU(MM (16) real, genuine HaCTpo6HM8 ( 14) mood Ha}"'MTbCR (28) Ha}"'jCb, Ha~MWbCR {}"'MTbCR') ( + inf.) to learn to do sth HaXOAMTb; (13) Haxo>Kj, HaXOAMWb {HaiiiTII) (+ace.) to find HaXOAMTbCR' (15) HaXOAMTCR to be situated Ha4MOHSnbHbiM (26) national

(29) extraordinarily

HeOJKMABHHbiM (26) unexpected Henn6xo (6) not bad, not badly H800BTOpMMbiM (29) unique HenocllnbHbiM (28) excessive, over-demanding H6CKOnbKO (9) (+gen.) several, a few H8CMOTpR Ha (+ace.) (26) in spite of HeCTM' (u) (20) Hecy, HeCGWb past

(18) beginning

Ha't/6Tb (13) Hy, HGWb past Ha~an,

Ha~ana, Ha~ano {Ha~MHSTb')

(+ace.) to begin sth


( 11) 10, eWb {Ha~STbP) (11) 8TCR to begin

(+ace.) to begin sth


Hie, Hecna, Hecn6 (no-) to carry

HeT (3) no HeT (10) (+gen.) there isn't/there aren't HeyA66Ho (10) it's awkward

Haw (6) our (T6) Hawen, Hawn& - see HaiiiTII He (4) not He66cb (30) (coli) probably Heaa (11) Neva River HeB03MOlKHO (14) (+ inf) it's impossible (to do sth) H6rAe (24) there is nowhere (place) Hero -form of 6H, oH6 (T4) him, it HeA&aHo ( 11 ) recently HeA&neK6 (14) not far HeA6nR (6) gen. pl. HeA6nb week

(24) [nye-chye-Jt.a] there is

nothing HM HM (24) neither ... nor HMrA6 (24) nowhere (place) HMJKe (18) lower HMJKMM (18) low HMKflK (24) in no way HMKaK6iii (24) no; none at all; any HMKOrAfl (16) (24) never HMKTO (24) nobody HMKYAB (24) nowhere (motion) HMM, HMMM, HMX - forms of OH, OH6, OHM (T4)

(27) insufficiently

Heiii, Hei - forms of OH6 (T4) her H6KOrAB (24) there is no time H6Koro (24) there is no one H6KOTOpbiM (17) some, certain H6KYA8 (24) there is nowhere (motion)

( 11) [nee-chye-Jt.6] see HM~T6

nothing; it doesn't matter/ that's all right



HM'ITO (24) nothing H6 (4) but HOBOrOAHMM (26) New Year (adj) HOBbiM (7) new Hora (25) ace. Hory, pl. H6rM, dat. HoraM leg, toot H6>KKB (25) (dim of Hora) gen. pl. H6>KeK little leg, little toot HO>KHMI.Ibl (pl.) (28) HO>KHMLI

o6M>KBfrb' (25) 10, 8Wb (06MA&Tbo)

( + ace.) to offend, hurt

(27) -10, -ew1o (+ inst.) to

o6no6~ai38TbCR" (30)

(old word) to

kiss each other

o66M (m pl.) (21) o66ea


66pa3 (29) form; image; manner o6paTMTb (29) (o6pai148Tb') (+ace.)

to turn

H6Mep (5) (21) pl. HoMepa number;

hotel room

HOCMTb' (mv) (20) (28) HOWy, HOCMWb

to carry; to wear

-10, -ew1o (o6pa/TMTb" TMWb) BHMMSHMB (24) H8

(+ace.) to pay attention to, note sth


HO'IIea8Tb' (25) -y10,

to spend the night



(28) o6pe>Ky, o6pe>Kew~a (o6pe38frb' -10, -ew~a) to clip, cut

HO'Ib (I) (9) gen. pl. HO'Ieiii night HO'IbiO (16) at night HOR6pb (m) (17) HOR6pil

o6pe38Tb' (28) see o6p{!38Tb" o6cepaBT6pMR (28) observatory o6cToiiTenbcTao (24) circumstance 06Cf>KA8/Tb' (27) 10, &Wb (o6CYAMTb") (+ace.) to discuss 06'bJIBMTb 0 (27) o6'bRBniO, 06'bRBMWb (o6'bRBnRTb') to announce o6'bRBneHMe (2) announcement 06'bRBnilfTb' (27) 10, 8Wb (o6'bRBMTb") to announce o6bl'l&iii (28) o6bl'l&ea custom o6bi'IHO (13) usually o6R38TenbHO (15) definitely, without

HpBafMTbCJI' ( 12) niOCb, MWbCJI (nO. 0 )

to please
Hy(25) well

Hj>KeH/Hy>KH8JHy>KHO, HY>KHbl (short

adj) (29) necessary

Hj>KHo (11) it's necessary Hj>KHbiM (29) necessary

o (5) (+prep.)

about, concerning

o6 o before a, M, o, y, 3 66a (m/n) 66e (f) (22.4) both o6l!A (12) dinner; meal o68ABITb' ( 12) -10, -ew1o (no-") to
dine, have a meal

o6il3b1Ba/Tb' (28) 10, 8Wb (06R3BTb 0 o6R>Kj,

6ao~qM (9) o6ii>Kew~a)

to compel oao~qeiii vegetables

orp6MHbliii (18) enormous oryp(e)4 (28) cucumber OA&BBfrb(CR)' ( 11) IO(Cb), 8Wb(CR) (OASTb(CR)") to dress (oneself) OA81Tb(cR)" -Hy(cb) OABB8Tb(CR)'

06>KBp/MTb 0 (28) 10, MWb (o6>KapMB&Tb') to try all over o6MA8Tb 0 (25) o6r.f>Ky, o6MAMWb (o6M>KBTb') (+ace.) to offend,




OAMH (m)/OAHB (f)/OAH6 (n) (T7) one OAMHBKOBbiM (21) identical OAMHH8A"'Tb (22.3) eleven OAHSlKAbl (23) once, one day OAHOBpeMeHHO (28) at the same time OlKM,q8/Tb' ( 11) -10, -ewb ( + gen.) to expect (sth/s.o.) 63epo (18) pl. oaipa, oaip lake OK83BTbCR (20) (26) OK8JKYCb, oK8lK&WbCR (oKa3biB8TbCR') to find oneself; to turn out OKS3biSaiTbCR' (26) -IOCb, -8WbCR see OK83BTbCR OK8M8H6frb (30) 10, 8Wb (KaMeHenl) to turn to stone OKBH'IMsaiTb' (13) -10, -8Wb (oK6H'IMTb) ( + ace.) to finish, graduate from oKeaH (29) ocean OKH6 (3) pl. 6KH8, gen. pl. 6KOH window 6Kono (10) +gen. near; approximately OKOH'IBHM8 (28) end OKOH'I/MTb (13) -y, MWb (odH'IM&aTb') (+ace.) to finish, graduate from OKTR6pb (m) (17) gen.Sg. OKTR6pil October 6H (3) (T4) he oHa (3)(T4) she OHM (4) (T4) they OH6 (3) (T4) it ono3ABHMe ( 11) lateness Onp8A8niMTb" (29) -lb, MWb (onpe,qeniiTb') (+ace.) to determine, define

opraHM38Top (28) organizer opraHM38"MR (16) <>rganization opr8HM3IOSBTb'/ (27) -y10, yewb (+ace.) toorganize opMrMHan (13) original (noun) OCBo6oiAMTbCR (15) JKYCb, -AMWbCR (ocso6oJKA&'rbCst') to become free OCB06olK,q8/TbCR' ( 15) IOCb, 8WbCRsee ocso60AMTt:ocR 6c&Hb (f) ( 16) autumn 6e&Hbl0 (14) in autumn OCHOsBTb" (29) OCHylb, OCHyiWb (ocH6Bbl&aTb') (+ace.) to found OCHOBbiSaiTb; (29) 10, 8Wb - see OCHOBBTb oc66eHHO specially oc66bli (26) special OCT8BBTbCR' (14) OCT81bCb, OCT8iWbCR (OCTBTbCR) to remain ocTasiMTb (15) -n10, -Mwb (oCTasniiTb') (+ace.) to leave (sth) ocTasnii!Tb' (15) -10, -ewb- see OCTBBMTb OCTBBWMMCR (28) remaining OCT8HBsnM&afTb(CR)'(13) (28) IO(Cb), -ewb(cR) to stop OCT8HIOBMTb(CR) (13) (28) -osnlb(Cb), OSMWb(CR) to StOp OCTaH6sK8 (20) OCT8H6BOK stop OCTSTbCR(14) OCTSHYCb, OCTBH8WbCR (ocTasBTCR') to remain, stay 6cTpos (18) pl. ocTposa island OT (9) ( + gen.) from (a person), away from OT&e31TM(20) -y, iWb, past OTBi3, OTB83na, OTB83n6 (OTB03MTb;) to take somewhere (by transport) OT&epHjfTioCR (30) YCb, iWbCR (OTBOpB'IMS8TioCR') (OT +gen.) to turn away from

(29) -10, -ewb - see


onp6c (27) survey oniiTb again



OTB6/TMTb0 (13) 'ty, TMWit (0TB8'18frlt') (+ dat./Ha +ace.) to answer (s.o./sth) OTBe'IB!Tit' (13) -10, -ew1t see 01llfln,m,P OTB03MTit' (20) OTBOJKy, OTB63MWit see OTB83TM 0 OTABNTit' (25) OTA&IO, OTA&iWit (OTABTit") (+ace.) to give away OTABTit" (25) like A&Tb, past 6TA&n, OTA&na, 6TA&nO (OTA&BBTb') (+ace.) to give away OTA6n (B) section (of a shop) OTA6nbHbliii (18) separate OTAOXH/YTit" (12) -y, HiWit- see OTAitlxBTb OTA1t1X8frlt' (12) -10, -8Wit (OTAOXHyYit0) tO rest OT(6)14 (6) OTI4B father OTK8HTbCR 0 (25) OTKBJKYCit, OTKBJK8WbCR (OTKB3biB8TbCR') ( + inf) to refuse (to do sth) OTKB3biBa!TitCR' (25) -IOCb, 8WitCRsee OTK8HTbCR0 OTKpltiB8frb'(14) 10, 8Wb (OTKpbiTit0) (+ace.) to open (sth) OTKpltla8frbCR' ( 11) 8TCR (OTKpWTbCR0) to open OTKp/IIITit" ( 14) -610, -6ew1t - see OTKpbiBBTb' OTKpbiTbCR 0 - See OTKpblaBTbCR' OTKYAB (30) from where oTnrii'tHbliii (26) excellent OTMiifTMTit" (14) -"ty, TMWit- see OTM8'tBTb' OTM8't8frb' (14) 10, 8Wit (OTMMMT1t0) (+ace.) to mark, to celebrate OTHeclrrii 0 (20) -y, iWit1 past OTHic, OTH8Cna, OTH8Cn6 - see OTHOCMTb' OTHOCMTb' (20) OTHOWy, OTH6cMWb

(OTHecTil) ( + ace.) to take away somewhere (by carrying) OTHOCMTbCR' (13) OTHOWYCit, OTH6CMWbCR (K + dat.) to relate to, regard, treat (s.o./sth) OTHOW6HM8 (21) attitude OTOiiifrrii (20) AY AiWb, past OTOWin, OTOWna, OTOwn6 (OTXQAMTb') to move away; to depart (of trains) OTCTa/BBTb' (28) 10, iWit (OTCTBT1t0) (oT +gen.) to be backward, lag behind (s.o./sth) oTcTanOCTit (f) (28) backwardness OTCT6fTb0 (28) HY1 -H8Wb- see OTCT8B8Tb' OTCIOA& from here OTTYAB (23) from there OTXOAMTit' (20) OTXOJKY, OTX6AMW1t (OTOiiiTrii) to move away; to depart (of trains) 6T'tecTao (6) patronymic o'f"b63A (26) departure OCIIM14MBHT ( 12) waiter OCIIM14MBHTK8 (12) OCIIM14MBHTOK waitress ox6THO (25) willingly 6'teHb (4) very O'triiiCTMTb 0 (28) lqy, -cTMWb (O'tMU4iTb' -10, -ewlt) (+ ace.) to clean owenoMiriiTb0 (30) -n.O, -riiwb (owenoMnNrlt' -10, -ewb) + ace. to stun, astound n6n(e)14 (16) n6n!t148 finger, toe n&nltT6 (n indecl) (7) overcoat naMRTit (f) (17) memory nana (m) (3) father, dad nanMp6ca (30) (dim nanMp6cKa) Russian-style cigarette



napa (22) couple napiiAHbliii (29) grand napMKMBx8pCK8JI (f adj} (23)

hairdresser's, barber's

napK (20) park; depot (taxis, trams) napnaMeHT (28) parliament naxHyrb' (30) n8XH8T, past naxno
( + inst.) to smell (of)

nepabliii (7) first nepeae/cTM' (21) AY AiWb past nepeain,nepeaena,nepeaen6 (nepeaoAMTb') (+ace.) to take
across; to shift; to translate

nepe/BOAMTb' (13) BO>Ky, B6AMWbo see nepeaecTM' nepea6A'IMK (21) translator neperoa6pb1 (m pl.) (23) gen. pl. neperoa6poa negotiations, talks nep8A (16) (+ inst.) before, in front of nepe,qa/aaTb' (15) 10, -ewb (+ace.
+ dat.) to pass (sth to s.o.), give a message

nepe/HOCMTb' (21) HOWy, H6cMWbsee nepeHeCTM 0 nepeHo'l/eallTb' (25) -y10, yewb (Ho'!eallTb') to spend the night nepepli1a (17) break, interval nepecll>KMBa/TbCA' (15) IOCb, 8WbCJI (Ha + ace.) see nepececTb' nepeceniMTb' (21) -10, MWb (nepecenlrrb') ( + ace.) to move, resettle (s.o.) nepecenRITb' (21) 10, -ewb- see nepecenMTb' nepelcecTb' (15) CfiAY. -cfiAewb, pastnepecen,nepecena (nepecll>KMB&TbCR') to change from
one form of transport to another

nepecTB/a8Tb' ( 15) -10, -ewb see nepecTllTb' nepeCT8frb0 (15) Hy, H8Wb (nepecTa/BllTb') ( +' inf) to stop
(doing sth)

nepeA{ITb' (15) like A&Tb, past nepeASn,nepeA&na,nep8A8nosee nepeA&BBTb' nep8AOB6iii (28) advanced, progressive nepee3>K81Tb' ( 13) 10, -ewb (nepe&xaTb') to move (house); to
drive across

nepex6A (15) street crossing nepe/XOAMTb' (19) XO>Kj, X6AMWb (nepeiiiTM') ('1epe3) ( + ace.) to cross nep(e)4 (28) n8p48 pepper nepewen, nepewna - see nepeiiiTM n6cHR (25) gen. pl. neceH song neTep6yprcKMiii (17) Petersburg (adj) neTb; (16) nolO, noiwb (C') (+ace.)
to sing (sth)

nepe/exaTb' (13) &Ay, 6Aewb- see nepeea>KllTb' nepe>KMB8trb'(24) 10, -ewb to be

upset, worry

ne'lanb (f) (26) sadness ne'lb (f) (25) ne'leiii (dim n6'-IKB)

nepaiiiTM' (19) nepeiiiAY nepeiiiAiWb, past nepewen, nepewna, nepewn6 (nepexOAMTb') ('lepe3) (+ace.) to

nepetteelnt (21) y, iwb (nepeHOCMTb')

( + ace.) to carry across; to transfer

newK6M (20) on foot nMao (20) beer nMp6r (10) nMpor8 (large) pie nMpo>K(6)K (8) nMpo>KKll small pie nMcllTenb (m) ( 17) writer nMcllTb' (13) ni41Wy, nMW8Wb (HB-")
(+ace.) to write



nMCbMO (5) pl. nlolCbM8, gen. pl. nJilceM letter nMTb' (12) nbiO, nbiwb, f past n111na, imper neit(Te) (BbiP) (+ace.) to drink nnaaaiTb' (mv) (20) 10, -eulb to swim; to sail nnSK8Tb' (15) nnB'ty, nnS'IeWb (38P) tO cry nnaH (7) plan, street map nnaTMTb' (24) nna'ty, nnaTMWb (38-P)

noaecyJIIP - see aecTJil' n6BOA (21) (AnR +gen.) cause, grounds (for) noaopil'tMaaiTb' (15) -10, -ewb- see noaepHjTb" nOBTOpiMTb" (26) -10, MWb (nOBTOpm') (+ace.) to repeat nOBTOpN"rb' (26) 10, 8Wb (nOBTOpJIITbP) ( + ace.) to repeat norii6HyYbp (28)- past noril6, noril6na (norM68/Tb' -10, -ewb) to perish nornRIA6TbP (30) -)l(j, AMWb (rnf1AeTb') (Ha +ace.) to take a look at noroaopiMTbp (15) -10, MWb (roaopiiTb') to talk for a while nor6AB (7) weather nOA (16) (25) (+ inst. +ace. + inst.) under (place); (+ace.) under (motion) noASfa8Tb' (22) -10, -iwb- see noA&Tbp nOABPMTbP (24) nOABpiO, noA8pMWb (ABpMTb') to give, present noA8p(o)K (19) noA8pK8 present, gift noAATbp (22) (like ABTb), past n6A&n, nOAMB, n6ABnO (nOABBBTb') (+ace.) to serve, hand in nOABTbp PYKY (30) to hold out one's hand noAA'ta (28) serving nOA6epi3oBMK (28) brown mushroom noA6opOA(O)K (30) noA6opOAKB chin noAipHyY/biM (PPP) (30) covered, coated noAlKitpiMTb 0 (28) 10, IIIWb (nOA*ipMaaiTb' -10, -ewb) (+ ace.) to brown noA3(tMHbiM (15) underground

(38 + ace.) to pay (for)

nnan.e (25) nnan.ea dress nn6THMK (28) carpenter nnox6it (8) bad

(f) (5) nno~ii (Ha)

square nnbiTb' (u) (20) -ay, -aiwb, f past nnblna (no-P) to swim; to sail no (12) (+ dat.) along; according to; on; round no(17.12)(23)(+acc.) uptoand including no-aHrnililcKM (4) in English no6(1rafrb" (mv) (20) -10, -ewb (66raTb') to run about no6elKilw (u) (20) no6elrj, lKMWb,

-rjT (6elK&Tb') to run, start running

no6neAH8fTbP (30) -10, -ewb (6neAH6Tb') to turn pale no6nillKe (18) a bit closer no6biB8frbP (24) -10, -ewb (+prep.) to visit, spend time (somewhere) noB83116 (13) (+ dat. of person) (s.o.) was lucky MHe noB83116 I was lucky noBe3TJIIP - see Be3TM' noaepttfYrbP(15) direction)

-y, -iwb

(noaop8'4MB&Tb') to turn (change



nOAHMMBirb' (25) -10, -ewb- see nOAHfrrbP nOAHMM8fn.cJI' (19) IOCb, -8WbCJI- see nOAHfrrbCJIP no,:tHirrb (25) HMMj, HMMeWb, past n6AHJU1, noAHJU18, n6AHMO (+ace.) (nOAHMMaTb') to lift, pick up

(n03A!)8anlrrb')(+ ace.) (c + inst.) to congratulate s.o. on sth n03A!)8Bn6HM8 (26) greeting, congratulation n03A!)8&nRfrb' (23) -10, -ewb (n03A!)llBMTb) (+ace.) (c + inst.) to congratulate s.o. on sth n03A!)8BnAIOI (6) congratulations! (=I congratulate) n03H8KOMMTbCJIP (16)- see 3H8KOMMTbCJI' n03H8KOMbT8Cb (imper) (6) meet (become acquainted) noooBMTB (6) (imper of no3ellTbP) call n6ti(Te) (25) (imper of neTb') sing noMITM (u) (12) -p;ij, -Aiwb, past, nowen, nowna, nown6 (MATM;) to go, setoff noKa He (14) until noKll HeT (15) not yet noK838Tb (12) noKS.IK'f, nod.IKewb (noK83bJB8Tb') to show nOK83blaafrb' (7) 10, 8Wb (nOK838Tb) (+ace. + dat.) to show (sth to s.o.) noKn/OHMTbCJIP (30) -OHJOcb, OHMWbCJI (KnaHRITbCR' IOCb, 8WbCJI) to bow noKn6HHMK (27) admirer noKonliHMe (26) generation nOKplbJTbP (28) 010, OeWb (nOKpblellf Tb' -10, -ewb) (+ ace.) to cover noKYnllTBnb (m) (10) customer nOKYnBfrb' (8) -10, 8Wb (KY"MYbP) (+ace.) to buy n611A8Hb (17) gen. non'fAHR midday n6n381Tb' (mv) (20) -10, -ewb to crawl non31TM' (u) (20) -y, -iwb, past n6n3, non3na, non3116 (no-) to crawl n6nKMn6 (n indecl) (9) half a kilo n6nHol (30) (coli) enough of that!

no,:tHirrbCJI (19) HMMjCb, HMMewbCJI,

past -HMCJI, -HR.naCb, HRn6cb (nOAHMMllTbCR') to climb; to rise noAOlKAfllTb (15) -y, -iwb, f past nOAOJKA8118 (JKAIITb') to wait nOAOJKAKre (6) see nOAO*ABTb wait (imper) no,:tnMcllTb (23) nMWy, nMW8Wb (noAnMCblellTb') (+ace.) to sign noAnMCblaiiiTb' (23) -10, -ewb- see nOA"McllTbP nOAPYr& (4) (female) friend noA'fMI&Tb (30) -10, -ewb {AYMSTb') to think for a moment noA1>63A (19) entrance, doorway no-eapon6MCKM (28) in European style ('Europeanly') n6e3A ( 17) pl. n083All train no63AKa (21) gen. pl. no83AoK journey noiT see neTb (16) (he) sings nollxaTb (12) noliAy, noliAewb (exaTb') to go (by transport) no>KllnyticTa (3) (pa-zhal-sta] please/ don't mention it/here you are/go ahead no)J({ITbP (30) nO.lKMy, nO.lKMSWb (nO.lKMMBfrb' -10, 8Wb) (p'fKy) to press,squeeze,shake(hands) no.lKMBllfn> (6) -10, -ewb to live, get along n038B'Iep{l ( 18) the day before yesterday n63Atto (16) [p6-zna] late n03A!)llBIMTbP (23) -n10, MWb



n6nHOCTbiO (28) completely n6nHO'tb (17) gen. nonjHootM midnight n6nHbiM (30) (+gen.) full (of) nonoaliiHa (17) half nonO.IIOfrb(25) nono.!Kj, non6lKMWb (KJ181CTb' AY Ai&ub) ( + ace.) to put nonrop8 (22) one and a half nony6CTpoa (29) pl. nonyocrpoaa peninsula nonyYopa(22)gen.ofnonTop8 one and a half nonY'I8frb' (9) -10, -ewb (nonY"'MTb") (+ace.) to receive, get nonY'IMTb (22) nonY'Iy, non"Y'4111wb see nonY'IiiTb' non'lacll (20) half an hour n6nb31oaaTbCH' (21) YKJCb, -yewtoCH (soc-) (+ins!) to use (sth) noMMA6P ( 12) tomato noMiilnyi.lTe" (30) pardon me n6MHfMTb' (18) 10, IIIWb (+ace.) to remember noMOrillrb' ( 12) -10, -ewb (noM6'1b) (+ dat.) to help (someone) no-M6eMY ( 13) in my opinion nOMOplq{MTbCJIP (30) YCb, MWbCH (MOP1141!1TbCH) to crease, wrinkle; to frown nOMO'Ib (12) nOMOrj, nOMOlK8Wb, noM6ryT, past noM6r, noMornll, noMorn6 (noMorliTb') (+ dat.) to help (s.o.) n6MOII.Ib (f) (19) help noH8A&nbHMK (17) Monday no-H8M84KM ( 13) in German noHMM8frb' (4) -10, -ewb (noHfm.) to understand nOHpSa/liiTbCJIP (26) IIITCH (HpiiBMTbCH') (+ dat.) to please (s.o.)

noltRnto (14) comprehensible(= I see) nOHfm. (13) noi.lMj, noi.lMiwb, past n6HHn,noHHnll,n6HHnO (nOHMMiiTb') to understand, realize noo68Aafrb (12) -10, -ewb (o68Aan>') to dine, have a meal nonp/OCMTb (15) owj, OcliiWb (npocli!Tb') (+ace.+ inf) to ask s.o. to dosth nonyniipHbiM (13) popular nop8 (14) (+ inf) it's time (to do sth) n6pT (11) prep. nopy6s port
nopyc~~~rllp (30) cigarette-case, cigar-case

a nopTj,

nopTCjlenb (29) (m) briefcase no-pjccKM (4) in Russian nocenlli!TbCH (26) lOeb, MWbCH (nocenNrbCH' IOCb, -ewbCH) to settle, take up residence noceTMTenb (m) (12) customer nocefrMTb (28) IllY, TMWb (noceUiiiTh') (+ace.) to visit (a place) nocel1!8frb' (28) -10, -ewb (+ace.) (nocefrMTb) to visit (a place) nocMIA&Tb -.!Kj, AMWb (cMA9Th') to sit fora while nocnliTb (23) nowmb, nownewb (nOCblniiTb') ( + ace.) to send n6cne (10) (+gen.) after nocn&AHMi.l (7) last nocnjwaiTb ( 12) -10, -ewb (cnjw8Tb') (+ace.) to listen to nocMioTp6Tb ( 13) -mplb, -6TpMWb (CMOTp6Tb') to watch; (Ha +ace.) to look at noc6nbCTBO (7) embassy nocnewlli!Tb (28) -y, MWb (cnewli!Tb') to hurry nOCTp6/MTb -10, MWb- see crp6111Tb'



nOCTynatrb' (13) -10, ewb- see nOCTynm nOCT/ynMTb" (13) -ynnlb, -ynMWb (nOCTynaTb') (a+ ace.) to enter (university) nOCTy'I/STb" (25) -y, -MWb (C'fY'I{!Tb') (a+ ace.) to knock (at) nocbrn8/rb' (23) -10, -ewb (nocn&Tb) (+ace.) to send (s.o./sth) nocb.n/&Tb" -n10, -newb (28) (nOCbln8/Tb' -10, -ewb) (+ inst.) to sprinkle (with sth solid) nocblnBTbCR" (30) nOCblnneTCR to rain down noT6M (12) then, next noTOMY 'ITO ( 12) because no-rpe6/oaaTb" (21) -YJO, -yewb (Tpe6oBSTb') (+gen.) to demand (sth)

npeBOCXOAMTenbCTBo (30) Excellency np&AnpMirrMB (28) (HB) firm, company, business np&ACBABTBnb (16) (m) chairman np&ACT8BIMTb" (27) -n10, -MWb (np&ACTa&nRITb') (+ace.+ dat.) to present (s.o./sth to s.o.) np&ACTSaMTb c:e68 (29) (+ ace.) to imagine (sth) np&ACTaanNrb' (29) -10, -ewb- see np&ACTSBMTb np&Aynpe>KA8/Tb' (12) -10, -ewb (np&Aynpe/AMTb" -JKj, -AMWb) (+ace.) to warn (s.o.) npeJKAB (26) before npeJKAII acer6 (26) first of all, primarily npe3MA8HT (27) president npeKp{ICHbllil (24) beautiful, fine npeMb8pa (27) premiere npeMb8p-MMHMCTp (27) npeMb8p-MMHiiiCTpa prime minister npeo6pa30a8HMe (28) reform
(= pe4)6pM8)

(4) in French

noxloAM'rb (mv) (20) -olKj, -6AMwb (XOAMTb') to walk about for a while nO'teMY (4) why nO'IeMy-To (26) for some reason n6o-!Ta (5) (Ha) post office nO'ITM (13) almost nO'ITMTBnbHbllil (4) respectful, deferential n0'11'6Bbllil (10) postage (adj) nolqSIAitTb" (28) -*Y, -Aitwb (lq8/AMTb") (+ace.) to spare no33MR (23) poetry no3T (23) poet no3ToMy (9) so, consequently np{IBAS (11 ) truth np{IBAS? ( 11) is that so? npllao (24) pl. npaaa right npii3AHMK ( 17) [pr&z-neek] national holiday; festival

npeoAonetn.o (28) -10, -ewb (npeoAOnea81'rb' -10, -ewb) (+ace.) to overcome npenoASB8Tenb (m) (13) teacher, lecturer npenoASIB8Tb' (13) -10, -lkub (+ace.) to teach (sth) npepa/aTb" (23) -y, -ew~o, f past npepaena (npepblaSTb' (+ace.) to interrupt npepbiBatrb' (23) -10, -ewb - see npepa8Tb npeCT&pllnbllil (23) aged npM (5) (28) (+prep.) attached to; at the time of, under npM68BIMTb (28) -niO, MWb



(npM6aanNrb' to, -ewb) to add npM6erllfn.' (20) -10, -ewb (npM6mKiiTb") to arrive (running) npM6eriiiTb' (28) -10, -ewb (npM6ent/yrb' -y, -ewb) (K + dat.) to resort to npM6eiJK8Tb' (20) rj, lKMWb, rjT (npM6erSTb') to arrive (running) npMaaTHO (30) (old word) privately npM&e3fnt' (20) -y, i!wb, past npMB83, npMB83nB (npMBOlMTb') to bring by transport npMaen - see npMaecTiil npMae/CTM' (20) PiJ, AiWb, past npMBin,npMaena,npMaen6 (npMBOAMTb') to bring (by leading) npMa6T (26) greetings (informal usage) npMIBOAMTb' (20) aoll<j, a6AJ11Wb (npMBecTM') to bring (by leading) npMIB03MTb' (20) BO)I(j, a63MWb (npMB83TM ') to bring (by transport) npMBbi'IKB (16) npMBbi'IBK habit npMrnaiCMTb' (18) -wj, CMWb (npMrnawaTb')(+ ace.) to invite (someone) npMr/H8Tb'(28) OHIO, -6HMWb (npMroHim.') (+ace.) to drive npMro&OpfMTb' (28) 10, MWb (npMroaapMaafTb' -10, -ewb) (K + dat.) to condemn to, sentence to npMroHNrb' (28) -10, -ewb (+ ace.) to drive npMrOT6afMTb' ( 16) niO, MWb (roT6BMTb') (+ace.) to prepare; to cook npMAiTcfl'(20) (see npMiTMCb') it will be necessary "PMAY. npt~A~wb- see npMiiiTM' npMAYM8fn.'(24) 10, -ewb

(nPMAYMbl&aTb') (+ ace.) to think up, invent "PMAYMblaafTb' (24) 10, ewb (nPMAYMBTb') (+ace.) to think up, invent npM8:JA (23) arrival (by transport) npM81X8Tb' (13) AY ASWb (npM83lK8Tb') to arrive (by transport) npM83lK8trb' ( 13) -10, -ewb- see npMexaTb' npMiiiTM' (12) npMAY npMAtiWb, past npMwin npMwna, npMwn6 (npMXOAMTb') to arrive, come npMiiiTMCb' (25) npMAiTCfl, past npMwn6cb (npMXOAMTbCfl') (+ dat. of person+ inf.) to be necessary, to be forced to npMK83 (28) order npMK8lBTb' (13) npMKaJKY, npMKIDK8Wb (npMKB3biB8Tb') (+ dat. + inf) to order someone to do sth npMKB3biBaiTb' (13) 10, -ewb (npMKBlBTb') (+ dat. + inf.) to order someone to do sth npMneT81Tb' (20) -10, -ewb (npMneT8Tb') to arrive (by air) npMneheTb' (20) -'lj, TMWb- see npMneTBTb' npMMepHo (22) approximately npMtteelrlil' (12) -y, iwb, past npMHiic, npMH8CJ1B, npMHecn6 (npMHOCMTb') to bring (by carrying) npMHMMilfrb' (27) 10, 8Wb (npMHfm.') (+ace.) to accept npw'HOCMTb' (20) Howj, H6cMWb (npMHecTM") to bring (by carrying) npliiH4Mn (23) principle npMHATb' (27) npMMy, npMMeWb, past npMHfln,npMHflna,npMHflnO



(npMHMMkrto'} (+ ace.) to accept npMo6pafc:nt (27) -.,Y, -'riiwlt, past nPMo6pin, -o6pen6, -o6pen6 (npMo6peT&n.') (+ ace.) to acquire npM06peT6/Tto' (27) -10, -ewto (npMoCipec:Tit) (+ace.) to acquire rtpM06Jqtln.' (28) -10, -8Wb (~ -y, -ltwto} (K + dat.) to introduce (to sth) npMIXAa (17) nature, scenery npMCT/ynMTb" (26) ynniO, JnMWb (npMarynSin.' -10, -ewto} (K + dat.) to
get down to, to start on

npoain, npoaena, npoaen6

(npoaOAM1'111) to conduct; to spend (time)

npo/aoAMTb' (17) -BOlllj, -a{Wiwto (npoiMJC1'MP) ap6MR to conduct; to

spend time

nporpiMMa (27) programme nporjnu (17) nporjnoK walk npGA8/B6Tb' (8) -10, -iwto (nPOAiW)
(+ace.) to sell
npoAIIB(6)14 (8) npoA11a46

npMixcwnto (20) -xol!Cj, -x{Wiwto (npMiTit) to arrive npMXOAMTbCR' (25) npMX{WITCR, past npMXQAMnOCb (npMiiiTMCb") (+ dat. of person+ inf) to be necessary, to be
forced to

sales assistant npo,qilKa (24) sale

npGAiTto like A&Tit, past n~XAan,

nPOABni, n~XAano (nPOABB6n.')

(+ace.) tosell

npo,qoa6nbCTII8HHbiM (17) food (adj),


npM'IMH8 (21) ( + gen.) reason (for),


npo,qonlK6trto' ( 11) -10. -ewto (+ ace.) to

continue sth
npo,qonlK6trbcR' ( 11) eTCR to continue

npMwin, npMwna - see npMiiTM npMwn6cto see npMiiTitcto npMU4yP/MTb 0 (30) -10, -ewto (nPMII4yPMaaiTto' -10, -ewto) to halfclose (one's eyes)

nPQAyKTbl ( (8) npoAfKToa groceries, food

npoeuc6/Tb' (15) (20) -10, -BWb (npo6xan.) to travel to/through/past npokT (29) plan, project npol6xan. (15) (20) 4Ay, -6,qewto (npoa3)1C6Tto') to travel to/through/past npobK6'1to (30) -JKJ'j, -J10Kiw1t, -JKrjT past npolldir, npo:IKrna, npcKrn6 (npolKMr61rto -10, -ewto} to burn through npo:IKMa61n.' (22) -10, -ewto to reside npcKMB6101&4Mii (21) (m adj) resident npolKIVrb (13) -at, -aiwlt, past np6lKMn, npolKMIIil, np6:1KMn0 to live (for a specified period) npo1130iifril (22) -pfn past npoM30Wn6 (npoMcxOAMTt.') to occur

npMkrento (m) (30) friend nPMRnlo (4) pleasant (adv) npMRnlblii (10) pleasant (adj) npo6aanNnoc:JI'(30) IOCit, -ewbCR to
get by, make do

npo6n6Ma (21) problem

npolleAiHIHblii (PPP) (28) conducted, passed, executed

npoaen - see npoaec:nt

npoa6p/111Tb" (21) -10, -MWb (npoaeplm.')
(+ace.) to check

npoaepNn.' (21) -10, -ewto (npoa6ptm.)

(+ace.) to check

npoaatc:nt (21) -Ptt, -,qiwlt, past



npoMclxoAJffl.' (22) -x6AMT- see npoM30Wnt'

npoi4TM<'(19) npoiiiAY npoiiiA&Wb, past

npoll.liiHMe (30) farewell, parting np6. . (18) simpler npfiMo (5) straight on npfiM6iii ( 12) direct, straight npfiTaTb' (28) npfi'ly, npfi'lewb (c-)
(+ace.) to hide

npo/win, -wna, -wn6 (npoXOAMTb') to go through/past nponariltn.' (20) -10, -ewb (nponafr&n.) to fly past or through nponer6Tb' (20) -'tj, rMWb- see nponeratrb' np6MToaapHbliii Mar83MH (17) non-food
goods shop

nTMI.IB ( 18) bird nycKatrb' (25) -10, -ewb- see nycrMrbP nyCTMTb" (25) ny11.1y, nyCTMWb

(nycK{rrb)( +ace.) to permit; to let in/ out nycrb (15) let

nyreeoA"renb (m) (10) guidebook nyrew6CTaloeaTb' (21) -yro, -yewb to travel nyrb (m) (20) gen./dat./prep./sg. nyrM, nyriM, pl. nyrrii, nyreii

npoMibrrb' (28) -610, -6ewb (npoMbla81Tb' -10, -ewb) to wash


npoMbiWn&HHOCTb (f) (28) industry npoMblwn&HHbliii (28) industrial npon6pi.IMJI (29) proportion npoclfrb' (15) npowy, np6cMWb (no-)
(+ ace. + inf) to ask s.o. to do sth

nyroeKa (30) nyroBOK button nbAHbliii (14) drunk nJITM3TiJKHbiM (26) five-floor nJITHSAI.IBTb (22.3) fifteen nATHMI.IB ( 17) Friday nJITb (22.3) five nJITbABCAT (22.3) fifty nJITbCOT (22.3) five hundred pa66ra (6) work pa66Tafrb' (4) 10, -ewb (no-') to work pa66'1Miii (m adj) (28) worker p&BHO - See Bci p&BHO paBHOAYWHO (13) with indifference pjp/alolbl (29) glad

npocneKT (4) avenue, prospect (wide street) npocrMr& (3) excuse me/l'm sorry np6cTo (10) simply npocr6iii (18) simple np6cb6a (21) np6cb6 request np6TMB (10) (+gen.) opposite nporMBHMK (28) opponent nporMBHO (30) disgusting, disgusted nporMeonon6JKHbliii (20) opposite (adj) npocllec:CMOHan (16) professional

npoct*c:op (19) pi npoclleccop6


PSAM (10) (+ gen.)


for the sake of

npoxiOAMTb' (20) OJKY, OAMWb (npoiiiTM') to go through/past npol.llMr (22) per cent

[o] (n indecl) (5) radio

a time

P&Aocrb (f) (13) joy

pea (9) pa3

( 13) -10, -ewb (omiTb')

paaB&AiHHbliii (27) divorced pa3881crMCb' (19) AYCb, AiiWbCJI, past paaBincfl,paaeenacb

(+ace.) to read

np6wnbriii ( 11) previous, last



(pa3BOAiim.cR') to get divorced pa3BMnte (21) development pa3a6A (14) divorce pa3/BOAMTbCR' (19) BOJKYCb, B6AMWbCR, (p83BeCTMCb0 ) to get

paccK83blaafrb' (12) 10, ewb (paccK&38Tb 0 ) to tell, talk pac/TM' (24) -Tj, Tiwb, past p6c, poena, pocn6 (Bbl") to grow peBnbHblii (27) real, real-life pe6iiH(o)K (10) pl.- see AS child peaoni01.1MOH6p (16) revolutionary peaon!OI.IMR (16) revolution p6AKMii (18) rare p63Ko (28) sharply peaynbTST (27) result peK8 (7) ace. p6Ky, pl. peKM, dat. pl. peK8M river peKn8Ma (27) advertising, publicity peM6HT (21) repair(s), maintenance pecTOpSH (5) restaurant pecj)6pMa (28) reform pewatrb' ( 13) 10, ewb (pewMTb")
(+ace.) to decide; to solve

pa3roaapMaafrb' (16) -10, -ewb to

converse, talk

pa3roa6p (10) conversation pa3A8a8iirecb (11) take your coat off;


pa3A811MTb 0 (21) pa:JAeniO, pa3ABnMWb (pa3ABIUHTb' 10, 8Wb)

(+ace.) to share, to divide up

paaMep (10) size, dimension pa3H006p83Me (29) variety p83Hblii (9) various pa3pew8/Tb' (15) 10, -8Wb (pa3p8WMTb 0 )
( + dat.) to allow (someone)

pa3pewiMTb 0 (15) -y, Mwb (+ dat.)- see pa3peWSTb' p8Ho (16) early pSHbWe (16) before; earlier pacn&A8frbCR' (22) eTCR (pacn8CTbCR"

peweHMe (27) decision pewiTK& (29) pewiToK grille,

railing, decorated ironwork

pewMTenbHO (28) resolutely, with


pewiMTb 0 (13) -y, MWb (pew8Tb') (+ ace )

decide; to solve

pacnanacb) to break up pacnonaratrbCR' (29) eTCH to be

situated, placed

pacnon6>Kettla/o/bl (29) situated pacnpaanWn.cR' (28) IOCb, ewbCR (pacnpaaiMTbCR niOCb, MWbCR)
(c + inst.) to deal with

p6aHo ( 17) precisely; evenly p6AMH& (21) (Ha) homeland poAMTenM (9) (sg. poAMTBnb m)

pacnpocTpaHiiHHblii (23) common,


PQAMTbCR 0 (13) past PQAMnCR, poAMnSCb, poAMnMCb to be born PQAH6ii (28) own (of family relationships);

paccePAMTbCR"- see C8PAMTbCR' to

get angry

po>KAGHMe (17) birth poa6TKa (21) gen. pl. po36TOK elecricity

socket, power point

pacceRHHblii (19) absent-minded paccKia38Tb 0 ( 12) aJKj, 8lK8wb (paCCKS3biB8Tb') to tell, talk

p6nb (f) (24} poneii role poMSH (13) novel; love affair



PoccliiR (4) Russia py6nb (m) (3) py6m1 rouble pyKil (22) ace. PYKY pl. PYKM, pyKliM hand, arm pyccKSSI (f adj) a Russian woman pyccKMiii (7) (9) Russian; a Russian (man) pllr6a (10) fish piii6Hbllii (10) fish (adj) pbllKMK (28) saffron milk-cap (mushroom) pllrH(o)K (8) (Ha) market PRAOM (7) (16) (c + inst.) nearby; beside c (10) +gen.; (16) + inst.; +gen. off, from; + inst. with ca,q (5) prep. a cap.y, pl. garden, orchard ca,qMTbCSI' (15) CBlKYCb, ca,qMWbCSI (cecTb') to sit down; to take (transport) CBnBT (12) salad caM (m)/caMa (f)/caM6 (n)/caMM (pi) (13) (T4) oneself (emphatic) caMoaap (21) samovar, urn C8MOA8fl:IKiiBMe (28) autocracy caMoniT (20) aeroplane caMoCTolrTenbHO (24) independently ('self standing') ciiMbllii (18) very; most (forms superlative) cltxap (8) sugar c68rahb' (20) to, -ewb (68r&Tb') to run there and back c6pbi3HYTb' (28) to sprinkle (with liquid) calw>68 (22) ( cail,qe6 wedding cae>KMiii (8) fresh caepHyYb' (20) caepHy, caepHiiWb (CBOp8'fMB8Tb') to turn

cBeTocii6P (19) traffic light calfA{IHMe (9) meeting, rendezvous CBo66AHbiM (10) free ca61ii (21) own CBOp8'fMaafTb' (20) to, -8Wb (caepHyYb') to turn caSIT61ii (23) (m adj) saint; holy, sacred cr6p6/MTbCSI' (30) ntocb, MWbCSI (r6p6MTbCR') to hunch up CAS'fB (9) change (money returned) CA{Inahb' ( 12) to, -ewb (A&n&Tb') (+ace.) to do; to make

ce61r (21) self

ceaep (18)(H8) north ceaepHbiM ( 18) northern cer6AHR (7) [sye-y:6d-nya] today celii'fac (6) now, at the moment ceKpeTapb (m) (15) ceKpeTaplr secretary (male or female) ceMeliiHbllii (22) family (adj) ceMHSA48Tb (22.3) seventeen ceMb (22.3) seven ciiMbA&CSIT (22.3) seventy ceMbC6T (22.3) seven hundred ceMblr (12) pl. ceMbM, ceMelii, C8MbSIM family ceHTir6pb (m) ( 17) ceHTR6plr September cepAii!TbCSI' ( 11) cep>KVca., c8PAMWbCSI (paC') to be angry cilpA48 (15) cepA8LI heart ceP8AMH8 (26) middle cept.e3Ho ( 19) seriously cecTpa ( 14) pl. ciicTpbl cecTiip CiicTp8M CSCTp8MM CiicTp8X sister cecTb' (15) CRAY cfrAewb past cen, cena (cap.MTbCSI') to sit down; (H8 +ace.) to take (transport)



cen. (f) (21) c:en!H network; circuit

CM6Iipb (f) (3) Siberia CMAlm.' (14) CM)I{j, CM,qiiWb (no-) to sit, be sitting CKli)I(MTe (4) see cKa38Tb tell/say (imperative' form) CK838Tb 0 (12) CKa)l(j, CKDt8Wb (roaopm') to say CK&M6MK8 (26) CK8M6eK bench (dim, of CK&MbR 'bench') CKilOH (29) slope CKOBOpoA{I (28) pl. CKOBOpoAbl, CKOaopOA,dat.pi.CKOBOpoA{IM frying-pan CKOnbKO (9) (+gen.) how much, how many cKopo (20) soon cKj-IHo (14) [sko'o-mna] boring, it's boring cn&AoCTb (f) (30) sweetness cneaa (15) on the left

CM8138Tb 0 (28) JKy, )1(8Wb (cMll3blaahb; -10, -ewb) to grease cMepyb (f) ( 17) cMepyeii death cMeTliHa (3) sour cream CM8Wllfn.P (28) 10, 8Wb (CMewMBafTb' -10, ewb) to mix CMeWHO (23) (it's) funny CM8RTbCfl' ( 11) CMe!Ocb, CMe8WbCfl

(aa-) to laugh

(no-) ((Ha) +ace.) to watch; look (at)

CM6otb0 (13) CMOrj, CM0)1(8Wb, CMOryT, past CM6r, CMOrnll, CMOrn6, CMOrnli (MO<tb;) to be able (to), manage (to) CHB'Iana (16) first, at first cHer (20) prep. a CHery, pl. cHera snow CHMM8frb' (30) 10, 8Wb (CHfiTb0 ) tO take

CHOBB ( 17) again CHOM - see COH CHfiTb0 (30) CHMMy, CHMM8Wb, f past CHflnll (CHMMSTb') (+ace.) to take

(8) following, next

cne38 (30) pl. cni3bl cni3, cne38M tear cnliwKoM (10) too (excessively) cnoaapb (m) (10) cnoaapfl dictionary cnoao (8) pl. cnoaa word cny>IU4Tb' (30) cny)l(j, cnjJKMWb (no-) to serve cn9'1aii (22) gen. pl. cn9'1aea case cnrtaiiHo (24) by chance cnY'IfMTbCfl 0 ( 16) MTCfl (cnrt8frbCfl' eTCR) (c + inst.) to happen (to) cnywaiTb; (12) -10, -ewb (no-)(+ ace.) to listen to cnblwi&Tb' (11) -y, MWb (y-) (+ace.) to hear cnbiWHO (14) audible

co = c before c + consonant, MHoii, acero,aceM,aceMM,acex co68Ka (10) dog co6Mp8/Tb' (26) -10, -ewb (co6pl1Tb0) to collect, gather Co6Mp81Tbcfl' (26) IOCb, 8WbCfl ( + inf) to intend to co66ii - see ce611 self co66p BaclinMR 6n8)1(eHHoro ( 15) St Basil's on Red Square ('the Cathedral of Vasilii the Blessed') co6pl1Tb0 (26) co6epy, co6epiwb f past co6pana (co6Mp8Tb') to gather c66CTaeHHblii (21) own, personal COHTHMK (30) adviser Coa8TcKMii Colb3 (22) Soviet Union



COBpeMeHHbllii (13) modern, contemporary coaceM (10) completely coaceM HBT (+gen.) none at all cornacMe (28) agreement c cor.n8CMR (28)(+ gen.) with the agreement of coA8J):IKSHMe (27) content(s) CO&AMH8HHbl8 WTlm.l AM8pMKM (12) United States of America colK8118HMe (10) regret K colK811eHMIO (10) unfortunately C03AIIfBSTb' ( 17) 10, 8Wb (COOA{rrb) (+ace.) to create c03A{IHM8 (28) creation c03A{ITb 0 ( 17) like ABTb, past c63Aan, C03A8118, c63Aano (C03A8Blm.') to create coliilni (20) AY Aiwb, past cowen, cowna, cown6 (cxoA'ITb') (20) (c +gen.) to get off, down c6K (10) juice con8Hbllii (28) salted, pickled c6nb (f) (28) conelii salt com1HKB (28) solianka (spicy cabbage dish) c(6)H (17) sleep, dream COpoK (22.3) forty coc8A(11) pl. coc8AM coc8Aelii neighbour coc8AHMiii (20) neighbouring, next cnllnbHR (7) cnllneH bedroom cnacli6o (3) (38 +ace.) thank you (lor) cnBTb' (16) CMIO, cnMWb (no-) to sleep cneKT8Knb (m) (22) performance, show cneK}'m'iHT (24) speculator (black marketeer) cnenbllii (30) ripe cne4ManliCT (18) specialist

Cn84MMbHO (18) specially cnewlliTb' (24) -y, MWb (no-) to hurry cnMHa (30) ace. cnliHy, pl. cnliHbl back cn6p/MTb' (27) 10, MWb (no-) to argue, dispute cnoc:66HOCTb (I) (28) ability cnoc66CTaoaaTb' (28) ( + dat.) to assist, facilitate cnp8aKa (24) cnp&aoK (piece of) information cnp8wMBafrb' (13) -10, -ewb (cnpocliTb) to ask (a question) cnpocliTb 0 (13) cnpowy, cnp6cMwb - see cnp8wMBBTb' cnpWraTb 0 (21) 'ly, 'IBWb {npfmrrb') (+ace.) to hide CnpWraTbCR 0 (30) 'IYCb, '18WbCR {nplrraTbCR') (38 +ace.) to hide behind cnycK8frbCR' (15) IOCb, 8WbCR (cnycTiiTbCR) to go down cnycTiiTbCR (29) cny~ycb, cnyCTMWbCR (cnycKaTbCR') to go down cnycnfl (28) later cnyYHMK (16) travelling companion cpaaHIMTb 0 (22) 10, MWb (CpBBHMaafrb' 10, -ewb) to compare cp83y (lKe) (21) immediately cPBA{I (17) ace. ci)&Ay, pl. cp8Ab1, cPBA{IM Wednesday cp&Aii (17) (+gen.) among cp8AHMiii (10) average; middle cp6K (23) period of time; time limit cp6'1Ho (21) urgently cp6'1Hbllii (19) urgent CTBAM6H (20) (HB) stadium CTBKBH (25) glass, tumbler CTBHfOBMTbcR' (16) OBnlbcb, 6BMWbCR (CTBTb") (+ inst.) to become



CTBHL4MR (7) (Ha) station (on metro or in

CTp6MTb ( 11) CTp610, CTp6MWb (no-)

country) CTapliiK (26) CTapMK8 old man CTapywKB (26) CT&pyweK old woman CT8pwMiii (18) elder; senior CTBpbllii (7) old
cTliTCKMiii coaeTHMK (30) Councillor of

to build
CTp6MTbCR' ( 11) CTp6MTCR to be built

('build itself')
CTYA8HT (22) student cyYn (29) pl. cTjnbR, cyYnbea

CyY'I/BTb; (25) -y, MWb (no-) (a+ ace)

CT8Tb (16) CTBHy, CTSH8Wb (CT8HOBMTbCR') ( + inst.) tO become;

to knock (at)
CTb!AHO (14) shameful, it's shameful cy666TB (14) Saturday cy6TpOnM'48CKMM (29) subtropical Cy3MTbCR0 (30) cY31tTCA (cY>t<MaafrbCR'

to start (P only) CT8TbR (26) cTBT81ii article CTeHB (16) ace. cT8Hy, pl. cT8Hbl, CTeHBM wall cT8neHb (f) (17) CTeneHelii degree, extent CTMnb (m) (21) style CTMXM (23) (pl. Of CTMX) CTMX6B poetry CT6 (22.3) hundred CT6MTb' (9) (24) CT6MT, CT6RT to COSt; to be worth He CT6MT ( + inf) it's not worth
CT6n (16) CTona table CTon6BbiM (28) table (adj) CTOnOHII'fBnbHMK (30) (old word) head

eTCR) to become narrow

cyMKB (24) cyMOK bag,

shopping bag
cynep3883A8 (27) superstar cynpyr (22) male spouse, husband

(formal word) cynpYr& (27) female spouse, wife (formal word) cjTKM (f pl.) (23) cYTOK twentyfour hours cyxapb (m) (28) cyxapR rusk cywiiHbllii (28) dried
cyiJ48CTBfoa8Tb' (22) -y10, Y&wb (npo-)

to exist
CXB8TMTb (25) CXBII'fy, CXaBTMWb (XB8T8frb' or CXaBTblaafrb' 10, ewb) (+ace. 38 +ace.) to seize (s.o. by sth) CXOAMTb" (20) CXOJKY, CX6AMWb (cxOAii!Tb') to go on foot (there and

of civil-service section CT6nbKo (10) (+gen.) so much, so many CTOpoHB (15) ace. CT6poHy, pl. CT6pottb1 crop6H side, direction CTORTb' ( 11) CTOtO, CTOMWb (no-) to stand CTpBHB (12) pl. CTpBHbl country CTpBHHO (20) strange; it's strange CTpen(e)lt (28) CTpenbi.{B strelets CTpeM/MTbCR' (22) niOcb, MWbCR (K + dat.) to strive, try for

cxoAiiiTb' (20) cxoJKj, cx6AMWb

(coliiTiil) (+gen.) to get off, go down


C'48cTbe (12) (26)[shsh8-] happiness, luck

K CNiiCTbiO ( 12) fortunately
eotMT6tn.' ( 13) -10, -ewb ( + ace. + inst.)



to consider, count (sth as sth)

C'biJKIMTbCAP (30) YCb, MWbCA (C'biJKMB8frbCA' -lOeb, 8WbCA) to

TeppMTopMA (18) territory TecHo (25) crowded; tight TeX- of ToT

shrivel, shrink

Tirqa (19) mother-in-law (wife's mother)

TMXMM (18) quiet Tllxo (14) quiet, it's quiet Tllwe (18) quieter TMWMH8 (17) silence, quiet To (12) then (in that case) To ec:Tb (22) that is To, 'ITo (26) the fact that To66i see Tbl (T4) you

C'b63AM'n> (20) C1>631Ky, C'b83AMWb

(63AMn>') to travel (there and back)
C'b8CTb -

see ec:Tb' to eat

CbiH (6) pl. CbiHOBbR, CbiHOHM, CbiHOBbRM son

Cblp (8) cheese

cro,q& (17) here (motion)

cropnplt3 (10) surprise TiiMHbiM COB8THMK (30) Privy Councillor T8K(6)

(25) comrade, friend

TorAll ( 12) at that time, in that case TorAllwHMM (23) (coli) then (adj) ToJKe (4) too TonCTbiM (30) fat TOnbKO (8) only TonbKO 'ITO (15) (+past) just(= very

TaK KBK (10) since (because) T8K 'ITO (26) so, so that TllKJKe (7) also, in addition T&Koi (10) such T8KCM (n) (3) taxi
TaM (5)

TOM8Tnrope (28) tomato puree TOH (30) tone TOHKMM (30) thin Toproa(e)4 (24) (+ inst.) trader (dealing


TllnO'IKM (11) TllnO'IeK slippers TBpenKa (20) TapenoK plate TSCKlltrb' (mv) (20) -ro,-ewb to drag
Ta~ (u)

(20) TBUW, Til~wb (no-')

ToproanA (28) trade TopJK6CT&eHHbiM (29) grand, splendid,

to drag
TBOM (6) (T6) your TellTp (7) theatre TeaTpllnbHbiM (27) theatre (adj)

TOT (7) (T4) that TOT JKe (28) (T4) the same T6'1Ho (9) exactly TPSMBlli (15) TP&Mallea tram Tp66/oaaTb' (21) -yro, -yewb (no..P)

T86fl see Tbl (T4) you

Tenealt30p (13) television set Tenecj)6H (15) telephone TeM - inst. of ToT TeMa (16) theme, topic Tenepb (4) now Tenno (14) it's warm TinnbiM (7) warm Tepnm' (21) tepnnlb, T6pnMwb to

(+gen.) to demand
Tp8TMM (7) third (T6) TpeTb (I) (22) gen. pl. TpeMM a third Tpix - gen. of TPM TpM (22.3) three TPMA48Tb (22.3) thirty

endure; to be patient



TPMHiA48Tb (22.3) thirteen TpliCTa (22.3) three hundred l'p6rafrb' ( 16) 10, 8Wb (l'p6Htyn. Y -ewb) ( +ace.) to touch (s.o./sth) l'p6e (22.10) three TJ)O&KpaTHo (30) thrice, three times l'pOiiiH6iil (29) triple Tponneiil6yc (4) trolley bus TPYA (26) TPYAB work TPYAHO (14) difficult, it's difficult TPYAHOCTb (f) (24) difficulty TPYAHbiM (13) difficult yYan6T (5) toilet yY&n6THIIJI 6yMilra (21) toilet paper TYAB (9) there (motion 'thither') TjnOBMIJI8 (30) body, torso TYMiiH (11) mist, fog yYprpynna (21) tourist group TYPMCT (15) tourist

yB8>K6HMe (26) respect

YBWA'Sfb' (12) >Ky, AJ4Wb (BMAfSfb')

(+ace.) to see, (past) to catch sight of

yaneK81rbCst; (16) IOCb, -ewbCSI (+ in st.)

to be keen on, enthusiastic about

yr(o)n (19) prep. aiHa yrny,

yrnil corner
YA&nRhb' (28) 10, &Wb (yABnfliTb' 10, MWb) BHMMBHMe (+ dat.) to pay
attention to

YAMBIIiTb' (27) -mo, -Mwb (YAMBnln'b')

(+ace.) to surprise (s.o.)

YAMBIMTbCR' (26) -n!Ocb, MWbCSI (YAMBm1TbCst') to be surprised YAMBniiHHO (26) with surprise YAMBniiiTb' (27) 10, &Wb- see YAMBMTb' YAMBnNTbCst' (26) IOCb, ewbCSI (+ dat.)- see YAMBiiTbCst' YAOaOflbCTBMe (16) pleasure,

TYT (25) here

TjctlnM (21) (f pl.) Tjctlenb
shoes, house shoes

y83lK81n.' (14) -10, -ewb (yexaTb') to

leave (by transport)

yYWeHMe (28) stewing yYWiiHbiM (28) stewed yYWMTb' (28) yYWy, yYWMWb (nO') to
Tbl (4) you (T4)

TbiCSI'IB (9) (22) thousand nuKenbiM (28) heavy, hard

yexaTb' (14) y6Ay, y6A&wb- see y83JK8Tb' Y>K6 (6) already Y>K6 He (24) no longer Y>K6 H&T (11) (+ gen.) there is/are no

y (10) (+ gen.) near; by; at the house of;


j>KMH ( 16) supper j>KMHahb' ( 16) -10, -ewb (no-) to have


y6er8/Tb (20) -10, -ewb (y6elK8Tb') to

run away

y3(e)n (30) bundle Y3Hala8Tb' (28) 10, iiwb (y3HBTb') to
find out; to recognize

y6e/lK8Tb' (20) rj, >KMWb, rYT (y6er81rb') to run away yBBlK&eMbliil (26) respected y88>K8hb' (21) -10, -ewb (+ace.) to

Y3H8/rb' (28) -10, -ewb (Y3H8Bl1Tb') to

find out; to recognize

yiiiTii (12) YiiiAY. yii!Aiiwb, past ywen, ywna, ywno (yxoAIJiTb;) to leave



YKpaMH8 (5) (H8) Ukraine yKpii/CMTb' (29) -wy, CMWb (yKpaw81Tb' -10, -ewb) to adorn ylq)enneHMe (28) strengthening yKcyc (28) vinegar YIIM411 (4 )(Ha) street ynbl68trbCR' ( 11) IOCb, -ewbCJI (ynbi6HfYrbCR' -ycb, -ewbCR) to

yCT8UTb'(15) yCTalb, YCT8i!Wb (yCTiiTb') to get tired yCT81Tb' (15) -HY, HeWb- see yCTaBiiTb' yCTp8MB8/Tb; (21) 10, 8Wb (yCTpOMTb')
(+ace.) to organize (sth); to suit (s.o.)

yCTpeMIMTb' (30) -nib, MWb (yCTpeMnNrb' -10, -ewb) to direct,

fasten (one's.gaze)

yCTp6/MTb' (21) 10, MWb- see yCTpaMB8Tb' YCTYnKa (30) YCTYnOK price
reduction; concession

ynti16K8 (26) ynti16oK smile


(13) -10, -eua. (+ inf) to know how to

yMMp8/rb' (23) 10, 8Wb ()'M8P&Tb') to


YTpo (3) yYpa, but AoiC yYpj, pl.

yMHbiM (18) clever yMCTB8HHbiM (28) mental yHeciTM' (27) -y, -i!Wb, past yHiic, yHecna, yHecllo (yHocMTb') (+ ace.)
to carry away

YTpa, YTP. YTpaM but

no yYpaM morning YTpoM (16) in the morning vxo (25) pl. ywM ear VXOAMTb' ( 12) yxo*Y, yx6AMWb (yiiTM')
to go away

yHMaepcMTeT (5) university yHM'fTOlKeHMe (28) annihilation yHOCMTb' (27) yHowy, yH6cMWb (yHecTM') (+ace.) to carry away ynSAM ( 15) - see ynilcTb yniiCTb' yn&Ay, yna,qiiwb, past ynan, ynana (nSAaTb' -10, -ewb) to fall ynpalKHeHMe (3) exercise Ypan ( 17) (H8) the Urals ypoe(e)Hb (m) (26) ypoBHR level ypoJKAiiHHM (30) nee (indicating
maiden name)

vxYAwiMTbCR' (28) MTCJI (yxyAW81TbCR' - eTCR) to get worse Y'fSCTB!OB8Tb' (27) YIO, -yeWb
(a+ prep.) to participate in

Y'f&HMK (30) Y'f8HMKil pupil Y'fMTellb (m) (16) pl. Y'fMTem1 teacher.

Y'fMTb' (13) Y'fY, Y'fMWb (Bbl') to learn Y'fMTbCR'(13) YOfYCb, Y'fMWbCR to study

YOfpe*A&HMe (23) institution; office

yp6K (16) (Ha) lesson ypoHMTb' (30) ypoHKI, YpOHMWb (poHAI'Tb' -10, -ewb) (+ ace.) to drop ycn6BMe (28) condition yCIIblwi8Tb' (20) -y, MWb (CIIbiW8Tb')
(+ace.) to hear

ywKo (25) pl. ywKM, YweK

cj)aMMIIMR (6) surname
cj)a~(29) facade

little ear

cj)eepanb (m) (17) cj)eepans1


ycneBii/Tb' (15) -10, -ewb (ycn8Tb')

( + inf) to have time (to do sth)

cj)M3il'f8CKMM (28) physical cj)MIIbM (11) film cj)rilpMa (23) firm, company

ycnlllrb' -10, -ewb- see ycneeiiTb'



cllniPAOpStOK (30) orange blossom


46PKOBb (f) (24) gen./dat./ Lj8pKBM, inst. ...epKOBbiO, pl. 46PKBM, 48PKHM, 48PKBiiM, ""pKaiiMM, 48PKallx church 4MBMnM3ii4Mfl (28) civilization 'fai (3) tea 'fiiMHMK (21) kettle; teapot

cllpaH4Y3cKMM (18) French


a piece of fruit

ciiYHT (9) pound (weight and currency) cllyp6JKKa (30) cllyp&lKeK
peaked cap

x6pec (30) sherry xne6 (8) bread xOAiffi>' (mv) (9) (20) xo.Y, x6,qMWb to
go on foot (there and back)

X0311MH (25) pl. X03MB8 X03MB

host, owner, master

x6nOA (11) cold xonoA!-4nbHMK (13) refrigerator xonoAHO (14) it's cold; coldly xon6,qHbiM (7) cold xopow6HbKO (30) properly, well and

'fllca but AB8f'f'PMI'I8Tbpe 'facll, pl. 'f8Cbl hour 'faCTo ( 12) often 'fBCTbiM (21) frequent 'f&CTb (f) (18) 'f&crei part 'f&Cbl (17) (pl. of 'fac) watch; clock 'fiiWKB (21) 'fllweK cup 'fill48 (18) more often 'fero [chye-v6] gen. of 'fT6 'fenoaliK (18)- pl. see n~GAM person 'f&M (18) than; also inst. of 'fTO 'fiM - prep. of 'fT6
'I8C (6)

XOpOWMM (8) good xopow6 (4) well xo1'8Tb' (12.5) xO'Iy, x6<1ewb, x6<1eT, XOTttM, XOTMT8, XOTRT (38') to want x6Tb (23) even XOTR (16) although xYA8HbKMM (30) thin xyA6i (18) thin
~e(18) worse

'f&MOABH (29) suitcase 'feMY - dat. of 'f'T6 'f6pe3 (6) (+ace.) through; across; after
(a period of time)

'fipHbiM (8) black 'f&Tallpr (17) 'feTaepra


'fliTaepo (22.1 0) four 'feTaiipTbiM (15) fourth 'fltTaepTb (f) (22) quarter 'feTblpe (22.3) four 'f&Tblpecnl (22.3) four hundred 'f&TbiPHIIA48Tb (22.3) fourteen 'fMHOBHMK (27) bureaucrat 'fMHOnO'IMTBHMe (28) respect for rank,

481)6BM'f (28) son of a tsar 48Pb (m) (5) 48PR tsar (emperor) L4BeT (21) pl. 488Tll colour 4en/0al1Tb' (26) Yio, YeWb (nO')
(+ace.) to kiss
Lj811b (f) (28) goal, aim

48Hll (10) ace. 46Hy, pl. 46Hbl price 48HTP (5) centre
~bHbiM (20) central

'fMcno (17) (22) pl. 'flilcna gen. pl. 'flilcen number; date a 'fMcne (27) ( + ge~.) among



'tMCTblii (18) pure, clean 'IMTiltrb' ( 12) -10, -ewb (npo-) ( + ace.)
to read

~ronb (m) (30) dandy

~M (pi) (1) gen. " dat. lqiiM, inst.

~MM, prep. ~ cabbage soup

'tT6 (3) (5.8) (T4) [shto] what; that 'tT6 nM? (10.15) am I? is it? etc. 'IT66bl (21) [sht6-bi] (in order) to 'tT6nM6o (26) anything whatever 'IT6HM6y"" (9) anything 'tT6TO (26) something 'tjaCTBIO&aTb' (21) -YIO, yeWb (nO')
(+ace.) to feel (something)

aK36MeH (23) (Ha) examination 3KOHOMM'tecKMii (28) economic 3KCKYPcMA ( 17) excursion aneKTpo6priJT&a (21) electric razor 3MMrpMpfOB8Tb1' (23) yiO, yeWb to

3HeprMA (28) energy an6xa (23) era, epoch 3pMMTli>K ( 11) the Hermitage aTli>K (7) (Ha) aTB>Kil floor,

'tYAKHblii (17) wonderful waMnliHCKoe (n adj) (12) champagne,

sparkling wine

wllnKa (14) wllnoK hat (no

brim); cap

3TO (3) this/thaVit

3TOT (7) (T4) this

10r ( 14) (Ha) south

wllpKH/yTb' (30) -y, 8Wb (w{lpKa/Tb' 10, -ewb) to shuffle wecTHliA48Tb (22.3) sixteen WecTb (22.3) six

KllKHblii ( 18) southern

A(4) I (T4)

W&C'fbA8CAT (22.3) sixty wecTbC6T (22.3) six hundred wriJpe (18) wider WMp6KMM (18) Wide
WMpo'tBMWMii (30) widest wK6na (7) school woKonfiA (3) chocolate woellip (13) driver
WTfKB (30) thing, piece

tl6eAHM'IaiTb' (30) -10, -ewb to tell tales,


tl6noKo (30) pl. tl6noKM, tl6noK


ABilWTbcA' ( 16) IOCb, -ewbCA (+ inst.)

to be

Rii46 (8) (yee-ts6] pl. tlii48, RM4, RM48M egg Arii'IHM48 (16) (yeesh-nee-tsa] fried eggs

wyMHO (14) noisy, it's noisy wyMHblii (26) noisy WyYMTb' (23) WY'4Y, WyYMWb (nO') to

AHUpb (m) (17) AHaaptl


WyYK8 (11) WyYOK joke

A3biK (4) A3b1Kll language



This quick-reference list will enable you to trace any Russian word you may have forgotten since you met it in one of the lessons. For more grammatical information about the Russian words, refer to the Russian-English list.


adj adv coli comp dat. dim f fam fut. gen.

accusative adjective adverb colloquial usage comparative dative diminutive feminine familiar future tense genitive imperfective imper imperative indecl indeclinable infinitive inf inst. instrumental

m n nom. past p pl. ppp prep. pres. sg. s.o. sth T

masculine neuter nominative past tense perfective plural polite plural past passive participle prepositional present tense singular someone something Grammatical Table (see pages 378-86)



ability cnoc66HOCTb (f) 28 about o (5) + prep. above HBA(16) + inst. abroad 38

aim 4enb (f) (28) airmail envelope aaMaKoHaepT (10) all B8Cb(11)(T4) allow pa3peWiiTb' ( 15) (pa3peWMTb') allowed: it's allowed MOlKHO (14) (19) almost nO'fTM (13) alone OAMH (m)/OAHil (f)/OAH6 (n) (22) along no (12) + dat. already YlKS (6) also (in addition) Kp6Me Tor6 (12), TiiKlKe (7) although XOTR (16) always acerAil (8) America AMepMKB ( 13) American (adj.) aMepMKiiHCKMi (7) American (man) aMepMKiiH(e)4 (8) American (woman) aMepMKiiHKa (18) among CpttAM ( 17) + gen. ancient AP'BHMiii (18) and 11 (4) and/but (slight contrast) a (3) angry rHeBHbliii (21) animal (wild) 3Bepb (m) (18) annihilation yHM'fTOlKeHMe (28) anniversary rOAOBiqMHa (14) announce o6'biiBnRTb' (27) (06'biiBMTb'), 3811BnRTb' (21) (3811BMTb') announcement o6'bJIBnSHMe (2) answer OTBe'fiiTb' (13) (OTBSTIITb') any (any kind of) KBK6iiiHM6YAb (26), (any one you like) mo66iii (15), (none at all) HMKBK6i (24) anyone KT6HM6YAb(26) anything 'fTOHII6YAb (9), (anything whatever) 'fT6-n116o (26) anywhere (motion) KYAiiHM6YAb (26)

(28) (place);

38 rpaHM4Y (28) (motion) absent-minded


accent aKI.46HT (23) accept npMHIIUTb' (27) (npMHRTb') according to no (12) + dat. achieve AQ6Ma8Tbcll' (28) {A06MTbCII') acquaintance 3HBKOMBII (f adj.) (26), 3H8KOMbli (m adj.) (26) acquire npMo6peTirrb' (27) (npMo6pecTM') across 'fepe3 (6) + ace. actor aKTip (27) actress aKTp.tca (27) add A06aanfm.' (28) (Ao6ilaMTb'), npM68BnRTb' (28) (npM6ilaMTb0 ) address 8Apec (26) Admiralty AAMMpanTeicTao (29) admirer noKn6HHMK (27) advanced nepttAoa6iii(28) adviser COBeTHIIK (30) aeroplane caMoniT (20) Africa AcllpMKa (27) after (a period of time) 'fepe3 (6) +ace. after n6cne (10) + gen. again elqi pa3 (15), onkrb, CH6aa (17) aged npecTapenbliii (23) agent areHT (27) ago Ha311A (13) agree (reach agreement) AOroailpMBBTbCII' (19) (Aoroaop.tTbCII') agreement cornilc11e (28)



anywhere (place) rA6-Hiii6YAb (26) apart from Kp611a (10) apartment Kaapripa (7) apologize M3BMHRTbCR' (19)

attractive Kpaclilao (14), Kpaclilawil (7) August iaryCT ( 17) author iaTOp (21) authorities aniCTII (f pl.) (24) autocracy caMOA&pJICI!iaMe (28) autumn 6ceHb (f) (16) avenue npocn6KT(4) average cp6AHMii (10) away from OT (9) + gen. awkward HBYA66Ho (10) back (adv.) H836A (13) back (noun) cn11H6 (30) backwardness oTCTinOCTb (f) (28) bad nnox6ii (8) bag (handbag) cjMK& (24), (sack)

applaud annoAt~poaan.' (27) apple i16noKo (8) application 38Ran6HM8 (22) approximately 6Kono (10) +gen.,
npMII6ptto (22)

April anp6m. (m) (17) architectural apxtneKTfPHblii (29) argue cn6pMn.' (27) (no-") arm pyKi (22) arrival (by transport) npM63A (23) arrive (by air) npMneTiTb' (20)

arrive (by transport) npM83JIC6Tb' (13)

(npM6X8Tb 0 )

Baltic Sea 6anTiiliicKoe 116pe ( 11) banana 6aHiH(10) bank 66per (18) bar 6ap (18) barber's napMKMixepcK&R (f.adj.)

arrive (on foot) npMXOAiiln.' (12)

(npMiiTM 0 )

article CT8TbR (26) as far as AO (9) as for otT6 KacieTCR + gen. Asia A3MR (18) ask (a question) cnpiWM&aTb' (13)

bathroom aiHH&R (f.adj.) (7) bay 6jXTa (29) be 6b1Tb' (11 ), (repeatedly/often)
6biBiTb' (23), RBnRTbCR' (16)

ask (s.o. to do sth) npocliiTb' (15)


be able 116't1o' (13)(15)(c-") be afraid 6oR1'bCR' (15) be angry C&PAMTbCR' (11) (pac-") be born POAMTbCR' (13) be called (of thing) H83blaiTbCR' (11) be interested MHTepecoaiTbCR' (16) (38-) be keen on yaneKiTbCR' (16) be patient Tepnm' (21) (no-") be situated H8XOAMTbCR' (15) be surprised YAMBnRTbCR' (26)

assignment KOM81fAMp6aKa (19) astound owenOMnRn.' (30)


at aiHa (4), (at the house of) y (10) at the time of (under) npM (5) (28) +prep. atmosphere aTMocCIJ6pa (26) attached to npM (5) (28) + prep. attention BHMMiHM8 (24) attitude OTHOw6HM8 (21)



(YAJIBMTbCR 0 ) be upset nepeJKMaSTb; (24) beard 6opoA{I (28) beautiful Kp&CMBO (14), Kp&CMBbiM (7), npeKpitCHbiM (24) beauty Kp&COTB ( 11) because noToMj 'ITO ( 12) because of M3-38 ( 11 ) become free ocso6oJKA{!TbCR' ( 15) (OCB06oAMTbCR 0 ) become CT8HOBMTbCR' (16) (CT8Tb 0 ) bed KpOaBTb (f) (21) bedroom cn8nbHR (7) beer nr.tso (20) beetroot soup

book KHMra (7) border rpaHM48 (18) bore (verb) H&AoeA{ITb' (H&Ao8cTb 0 ) boring: it's boring cKj'!Ho (14) [sko'o-shna] both 66a (m/n)/66e (f) (22.4), M ... M (22.4) bottle 6yYIIInKa (9) bow KnBHRTbCR; (30) (nOKnOHMTbCR 0 ) bowl MMCKB (28) boy Manb'IMK (13) boyar (powerful landowner) 6ollpMH (28) (3) brandy KOHbRK(25) bread xne6 (8) break nepepbla ( 17) break up pacn&A8TbCR' (22) (pacnacTbCR ) Only) (16) breakfast (verb) 38sTp8K8Tb' (16) (no-") breakfast (noun) 38sTpaK (16) bridge MOCT (7) briefcase nopTCIM!nb (29) (m) bring (by carrying) npMHOCMTb' (20) (npMH8CTM0 ) bring (by leading) npMBOAMTb' (20) (npMB8CTM0 ) bring (by transport) npMB03MTb' (20) (npMB83TM0 ) bring up (s.o.) aocnMTbiBBTb' (19) Britain BenMKo6pMTBHMR (27) British 6pMTBHCKMiii (7) brother 6paT (3) build CTpOMTb' (11) (no-) building 3A{IHMe (15) bundle j3(e)n (30) bureaucrat 'IMHOBHMK (27) bus asT66yc (4)

before (prep.) nep8A (16) + inst. before (adv.) paHbW& (16), npeJKAS (26) begin H8'1MHBTb(CR); ( 11) (H8'1BTb(CR) 0 ), CT8Tb0 beginning HB'Iilno (18) behind 38 + ace. (6) (motion), + inst. (place) believe BepMTb' (21) (nO-") beloved mo6MMbllii (16) bench CK8MbR, CK8M6MK8 (26) beside pfiAoM (7) (16) c + inst. best nj'IWMiii (18) better nj'IW& (18) between MeJKAy (16) big 6onbWOiii (7) bigger 66nbWMiii (18) billion (US) MMnnlliapA (22) (thousand million) bird nTM48 (18) birth poJKA6HM8 ( 17) birthday A&Hb poJKA8HMR (17) black 'lipHbllii (8) boiling water KMnRT(o)K (21)



business trip KOM8HAMPOBK8 (19) businessman 6M3ttec:M6H (29) busy 3iiHRT ( 25) but HO (4) butter Macno (8) buy noKyn6Tb' (8) (12) (KynMTb) by y (10) + gen. by chance cny-taiHo (24) cabbage KanyCTa(12) cabbage soup 114111 (pl.) (1) call 3B8Tb' (4) (no-") call in 38XOAMTb' (20) (38MTrot) campaign K&MnaHMR (27) cap wanKa (14) car M8WMH8 (10) carpenter nn6THMK (28) carriage aaroH (20) carry HOCMTb' (20), H8CTM' (20) (no-) carry across nepeHOCMTb' (21)

change (money returned) cA6'fa (9) change (transport) nepec6:M(MB8TbCR' (15) (nepeciiCTb') chapter rnaaa (28) chase roHiiTb' (20), rH&Tb' (20) (no-) cheap AeWiBbiM (18) check npoaepiiTb' (21) (npoaepMTb) cheerful aecinbiM (18) cheese cblp (8) cherry BMWHR (30) Chicken Kiev KOTniiTbl no-KMeBCKIII (12) chief rnaaa (28) Child pe6iH(O)K (10) pl. AiiTM childhood AiiTCTao (17) children AiiTM (10) chin noA60pOA(O)K (30) China KMTai (18) Chinese (noun) KMT6(e)l4 (30) chocolate woKon&A (3) choose Bbi6Mp6Tb' (27) (Bbl6paTb') church 14iiPKOBb (f) (24) cinema KIIIHO (n indecl) ( 11 ),

carry away yHoCMTb' (27) (yH&CTr.t) case (incident, instance) cnj>fai (22) case (suitcase) 'feMOABH (29) cash desk dcca ( 1) catch sight of yBMA8Tb' (12) cathedral co66p (15) cause (of) npM'fMH& (21) (+gen.) caviare (fish roe) MKp6 (25) celebrate OTMNTb' (14) (OTM6TMTb) central 148HTp6nbHbiM (20) centre 148HTP (5) century aeK ( 17) certain (some) HiiKOTOpble (17),

circuit ceTb (f) (21) circumstance o6cTORTenbCTBO (24) city r6poA (7) civilization 14111BMnM3814MR (28) clamber n63MTb' (20), ne3Tb' (20)

class Knacc (30) clean (adj.) 'fMCTbiM (18) clean (verb) O'IM1J4{1Tb' (28),

clever jMHbiM ( 18) client KnM6HT (15) climb up nOAHMMBTbCR' (19)

KOeK8KMe (26)
chair cyYn (29) chairman np&ACeA6Tenb (m) (16) champagne waMn6HcKoe (n.adj.) (12) change M8HATb(CR)' (23)

climb n63MTb' (20), ne3Tb' (20) (no-)



clock 'I&Cbl ( 17) (pl. of 'lac) close 38KpblBBTb(CA)' (17)

congratulations! no3APaanA10I (6) consequently no~TOMY (9) consider C'lliiTBTb' (13) COntact KOHTBKT {23) contemporary coapeM6HHbllii (13) content(s) COABPlKBHMe (27) continue npoAOnlKBTb(CA)' (11) contract KOHTPBKT (23) conversation pa3roa6p {10) converse pa3roaapMB8Tb' ( 16) cook roT6BMTb' (16) (npM) corner yr(o)n (19) cost CT6MTb' (9) cottage (peasant's) M368 (25) count C'IMTBTb' (13) (co-) country (opposite of town) ABp6BHA

coat nanbT6 (n indecl) (7) coffee K6cj)e (m indecl) (5) cognac KOHbAK (25) cold xon6AHbiM (7), (it's cold)

x6nOAHO (14), (noun) x6noA (11)

coldly x6nOAHO (14) collect co6MpBTb' (26) (co6p8Tb) colour LIHT (21) come (by transport) npM83lKBTb' (13)

come (on foot) npMXOAMTb' (12)

come back ao3apaiJ48TbCA' ( 14)

(BepHjTbcA) common pacnpocTpaHiHHbiM (23) Communism KOMMYHM3M (29) company CIIMpMa (23), KOMnaHMA (14)

country (state) CTP&Ha (12) couple napa (22) course (of a meal) 6mbAO (12) course (of study) Kypcbl (pl. of Kypc)

compare cp8BHMB8Tb' (22)

(cpaBHMTb) compel o6A3biB8Tb' (28) (o6A38Tb)

complain JK8noaaTbCA' (21) (no-") completely coac6M (10), n6nHOCTbiO

courtyard ABOP (26) cover noKpblaBTb' (28) (noKpbiTb) crawl n6n38Tb' (20), non3TM' (20) (no-) create cowaaTb' (17) (co3A&Tb) creation co3AiliHMe (28) Crimea KpbiM (5) Crimean KpbiMCKMiii ( 12) cross nepeXOAMTb' (19) (nepeliiT.t) crossing (street) nepex6A (15) crowded: it's crowded T6cHo (25) cry nnllK&Tb' (15) (38) cucumber oryp(6)1.1 (28) cultural KynbTjpHbiM (28) culture KynbTjpa (21) cup 'IBWK8 {21) currency aambTa (24), aambTHbiM (9) {adj.)

comprehensible noHJ'iTHO (14) comrade TOBBPMII4 (25) concern K&CBTbCA' (21) concerning

o (5) +prep.

concert KOH1.16pT ( 11) concession yCTjnKa (30) condition ycn6aMe (28) conduct npoBOAMTb' (17) (npoBeCT.t) conflict KOHCIInMKT (22) congratulate n()3APaanJ'iTb' (23)

(n03APiliBMTb) congratulation no3AJ)8an6HMB (26)



custom o6bl'talii"(28) customer noceniTenb (m) (12)

CUt H8p8HTb' (28) (H8p638TbP)

dine o66A&Tb' (12) (no-") dinner o66A (12) direct (adj.) npRM6i (12) direct (verb) Hanpaans!iTb' (28)
(HanpaaMTb P)

dad nana (m) (3) date 'tMcn6 ( 17) daughter A6'tb (f) (5.6) day (not night) A(a)Hb (m) (3) day (twenty-four hours) CJTKII (f pl.)

director AMp6KTop (23) dirty rpR3HbiM (20) discuss o6cYlKA&Tb' (27) (o6cyAriiTbP) disease 6on63Hb (f) (11) disgusting npoTriiBHO (30) divide up pa:JAens!iTb' (21)

day before yesterday noHa'tepa (18) day off BbiXOAH6i ABHb ( 17) dear (expensive) AOpor6i (8) dear (nice) Aopor6i (8), Mriinbli (30) death cMepTb (f) (7) December ABKil6pb (m) (17) decide pew8Tb' (13) (pewriiTbP) decision pew6HMe (27) deep rny66KMi (18) defend 38U4111148Tb' (22) (38U411TriiTbP) define onp8ABnRTb' (29)

divorce pa3B6A (14) divorced pa3B&AiHHbiM (27) do A6n&Tb' (8) (12) (c-P) doctor apa't ( 16) dog co68Ka(10) dollar A6nnap (9) don't mention it nolKanyicTa (3) door ABBPb (f) (3) down BHII3 (15) drag TBCKBTb' (20), TBU4riiTb' (20)

definitely o6R38TenbHO (15) degree cTenaHb (f) ( 17) deliberately Hap6'tHo (21) demand Tp66oaaTb' (21) (no-") depart (of train) OTXOAriiTb' (20)

dream c(6)H (17) dress (oneself) OABBBTb (cR)' ( 11)


dress (n.) nn8Tb8 (25) dried cywiHbli (28) drink nMTb' ( 12) (BbiP) drive roHRTb (20), rH&Tb' (20) (no-P) drive across nepee3lKBTb' (13)

department (of shop) OTA6n (8) departure on.63A (26) depend HariiceTb' (19) deputy HMecTrii.Tenb (m) (23) development paaariiTMa (21) dictionary cnoaapb (10) (m) die yMMpSTb' (23) (yMep6TbP) difficult TPYAHbiM (13), (it's difficult)

driver woe1J6p (13) drop poHRTb' (30) (ypoHriiTbP) drunk nbRHbli ( 14) during BO Bp6MR (17) each KSlKAbiM (9) each other APYr APY'ra (30)

difficulty TPYAHOCTb (f) (24) dimension pa3M6p ( 10)




YJCO (25)

epoch an6xa (23) era anoxa (23) essential Heo6XOAMMO (14) European (adj) eaponeiiicKMiii (21) European (noun) eapone(e)L! (28) even ASlKB (14), x6Tb (23) evening (adj.) aB'IepHMiii (7) evening (noun) a8'1ep (16) ever KorA8HM6YAb (26) every (each) KSlKAbliii (9) every(all) aecb(11)(T4) everybody ace ( 11) (T4) everything

earlier p8HbWB ( 16) early paHo (16) earth HMnfl (2) east aOCTOK (18) eastern aOCTiNHbliii ( 18) easy nirKMiii (18) eat BCTb' (12) (C'bBCTb) economic 3KOHOMM'IBCKMM (28) egg Riii46 (8) eight a6ceMb (9) eight hundred aoceMbC6T (9) eighteen aoceMHBA48Tb (9) eighty a6ceMbABCRT (9) elder cTapwMiii (18) electricity socket po36TKa (21) electric razor aneKTpo6plliiTaa (21) electrician MOHTip (21) eleven OAMHH8A48Tb (9) embassy noconbCTao (7) emigrate 3MMrpllilpoaaTb'' (23) end KOH(8)4 (18), OKOH'ISHMB (28) endure TepneTb' (21) (no-) energy 3HeprMR (28) engineer MHlKBHep (16) England AHrnMR (5) English aHrnlliliiicKMiii (10) English: in English no-aHrnlliliiicKM (4) Englishman aHrnM'ISHMH (5) Englishwoman aHrnM'ISHKa (3) enormous orp6MHbliii (18) enough AOCTaTO'IHO (19) enter aXOAMTb' (13) (aOiiiTIIil) enter (university) noctynSTb' (13)

ace (10) (T4)

exactly TiNHO (9), K8K p83 (20) examination 3KUMBH (23) excellent OTnM'IHbliii (26) except KpOMB (10) exclaim aocKnML!&Tb' (30)

exclude MCKn10'18Tb' (27)

excursion 3KCKypcMR ( 17) excuse (me) npocTIIii(Te) (3),

M3aMHM(TB) ( 11)
execute K83HMTb' 1" (28) exercise ynp8lKH8HMB (3) exist cy~TaoaaTb' (28) (npo-) exit abiXOA (15) expect OlKMASTb' ( 11 ) expensive AOpor6iii (8) expression ablpalKeHMe (21) extent cTeneHb (f) ( 17) extraordinarily Heo6bl'laiiiHo (29) eye rna3 (25) fa9ade

entrance ax6A (19) entrance (of block) nOA'b83A (19) envelope KOHHPT (10) envy 38aMAOB8Tb' (23) (no-)

CIJacaiA (29)

face nM46 (21) factory 38a6A (16) fairly AOa6nbHO (15)



faithful aepHbllii (29) fall n8A&Tb' (ynaCTb") family (adj) ceM6iiHblii (22) family (noun) ceMbA (12) famous 3H&MeHMTblii (7) far ASneK6 (12). (adj) ABniKMii (18) farewell (noun) npolq8HMe (30) fast 6biCTpo (13) fasten 38CTirMB&Tb' (30)

fly neTBTb' (20) neT6Tb' (20) (no-) fly in aneTaTb' (20) (aneTeTb") fly out Bbln8TBTb' (20) (Bbln8T8Tb") fly past/through nponeTaTb' (20)

fog yYMBH (11) following cn6AY1014MM (8) food npoAYKTbl (m pl.) (8) food shop racTpoH6M ( 17) foot Hora (25) for (benefit, purpose) AJIR (10) +gen. for (in return for) 38 (6) + ace. for (to fetch) 38 (16) + inst. for (time) Ha (23) + ace. for example HanpMMep (18) for some reason no'leMjTO (26) for the sake of PlJAM (10) +gen. force BbiHYJKABTb' (27) (BiiiHYAMTb") forced BbiHYJKA8H (PPP) (27) foreign MHOCTpBHHbiM (10),

fat (adj) TOnCTwii (30) fat (noun) lKMP (28) father oT(6)4 (6), nina (m) (3) favourite ni06MMbiM (16) February ct~eapinb (m) (17) feel 'ljBCTBOB8Tb' (21) (no-") female JKeHCKMii (15) festival np83AHMK ( 17) [praz-neek] few (several) HecKOnbKO (9) few (not many) MBnO (9) fifteen nRTHlJA48Tb (9) fifty nRT!JA8CAT (9) film ciiMnbM ( 11) find HBXOAMTb' (13) (H8MTM") find oneself OKB3biB8TbCR' (20) (26)

38py66lKHbiM ( 17)
foreigner MHOCTpiiH(e)4 (16) forename MMR (noun) (6) (T4) forest

nee (5)

forget 386blaBTb' (13) (386b1Tb") form BMA (18), 66pa3 (29) former 6biBWMii (16) fortunately K C'IRCTbiO ( 12) forty c6poK (9) forward anepiA (20) found ocH6BbiB&Tb' (29) (ocHOBBTb") four '18Tblpe (9), '16Taepo (22.1 0) four hundred 'leTblpecTa (9) fourteen '18TbiPHBA48Tb (9) fourth '18TBipTbiM (15) free CB066AHbiM (10) French ciiPBH4j3CKMM (18) French: in French nociiPBH4Y3CKM (4) frequent 'IRCTbliii (21)

find out y3H8BBTb' (28) (y3HBTb") fine npeKpacHblii (24) finger nan(e)4 (16) finish KOH'IBTb' (13) (KOH'IMTb") firm (company) cllttpMa (23) firmly KpinKo (26) first (adj) nepablii (7) first (at first) CH&'Iana (16) fish pbl6a (10), pb!Hwii (10) (adj) five hundred nRTbCOT (9) five nRTb (9) flat KaapTI!tpa (7) floor 3TalK (7)



fresh caeMotiil (8) Friday RRTHM48 ( 17) fried eggs sni'IHM411 ( 16)

get worse YXYAWBTbCfl' (28)

(yxVAJUMTbCfl0 )
giggle XMXMK8Tb' (30) (38') girl A6BYWK8 (9) give ASBBTb' (12) {ABTb') give (present) ABPMTb' (24) (no-") give away OTASBiiTb' (25) (OTABTb') glad

friend (female) noApyra (4) friend APYr (8). npMfrrenb (m) (30),

TOailpM!q (25)
friendship APY*6a (1) from (out of) lt3 (10) +gen. from (off)

P'A (short adj) (29)

glass (tumbler) CTBKiiH (25) go (by transport) 63AMTb' (20), 6X8Tb' (20)(no-) go (on foot) XOAMTb' (20). MATM' (20)

c (10) + gen.

from (a person) OT (9) + gen. from behind 113-38 (30) + gen. from here OTCIOAS from there OrrYAB (23) from where OTKYAB (30) fruit (piece of fruit) CIIPYKT (8) frying-pan cKoaopoA!l (28) full n6nHbliil (30) funny CM8WH6 (23) further A!lnbwe ( 16) future (adj) 6YAY!qMM (17) garden CSA (5) gates aop6T8 (n pl.) (29) gather co6MpBTb' (26) (co6p8Tb') generation noKoneHMe (26) genuine H8CTOR!qMM (16) German (adj) H&M614KMM (18) German: in German no-H&H4KM (13) Germany fepMBHMfl (20) get nonY'4BTb' (9) (nonY'IMTb') get angry cepAMTbCfl' (11) (pac-) get divorced pa3BOAMTbCfl' (19)

go ahead (please do) noJKanyiilcTa

go away (on foot) yxoAMTb' (12)

go down CXOAMTb' (20) (coiiiTiil),

cnycKiiTbCfl' ( 15) (cnycTiiTbCfl')

go on foot (there and back) XOAMTb'

(9) (20) (c-)

go out BbiXOAMTb' (15) (BbiMTM') go past/through npoXOAMTb' (19)

go to bed noJKMTbCfl' (25) (n&'lb") goal 4!nb (f) (28) gold 36nOTO (18) good xop6wMiil (8) good day A66Pbliil A&Hb (3) goodbye AO CBMABHMfl (3) graduate from oKiiH'IMBBTb' (13)

(OK6H'IMTb 0 )
gram(me) rpaMM (9) grand TOpJK6CTB&HHbiM (29) grandfather A6AYWK8 (m) (6) grandmother 686ywKa (19) grease JKMP (28) great B&nMKMM ( 11) Great Britain BenMKo6pMTBHMfl (27)

get drunk HBnMBiiTbCfl' (14)

(H8RMTbCfl ')
get off CXOAMTb' (20) (COMTM') get tired ycTBBBTb' (15) (yCTBTb') get up BCT8HTb' (16) (BCTBTb 0 )



greetings (coli) np111a6T (26) groceries npOAfKTbl (m pl.) (8) grocery (adj) npGAoa6nbCTB8HHbli (17) group rpjnna (24) grow paCTiil' (24) (abl-) guest r6cTb (m)(12) guide (person) rMA (16) guidebook nyYeaoAiiiT&nb (m) (10) guitar r..Tipa (16) habit np111Bbt'IK8 (16) hairdresser's napMKMilxepcKaR (f adj) (23) half nonoaliiHa ( 17) half a kilo n6nKMn6 (n indecl) (9) half an hour nomacll (20) ham &eT'IIIIHi (30) hand pyKi (22) happen cny'!iTbCA' (16)

help (verb) noMoriTb' (12) (noM6'1b) her ei (indecl) (6) here (motion) ciOA{I (20) here (place) :JABCb {4),

TYT (25)

here (when pointing) a6T (3) here and there K6erA8 (26) here you are (giving) nolKinyiCTa (3) Hermitage 3pMMTDK ( 11) hero rep6i (21) hide npirraTb' (21 )(c-) hill rop6 (18) hinder Mew6Tb' (25) (no-) his er6 (indecl) (6) (ye-xo] history IIICTOpMA (16) holiday np63AHMK (17) [pn!lz-neek] Holland ronnilfAIIIA (28) holy caAT6i (m adj) (23) home (motion) ,qoM6i (4) home (place) ,q6Ma (7) homeland p6,qMHB (21) hope Ha,q6ATbCA' ( 11) host X03RMH (25) hot (of weather) lKipKMi, it's hot

(cnY'IMTbCA0 ) happiness C'IBCTbe (26) [shshi-] hardly PAA n111 (21) harmful Bp6AHO (14) harmonious rapMOHiii'IHbli (29) hat winKa (14)
have (own) see 10.2 have(+ abstract noun) IIIM6Tb' (10) have supper jJKIIIH&Tb' (16) (no-) have time (to do sth) ycneaiTb' (15)

:IKipKO (14)
hot (to touch) ropA'IMi (8) hotel roCTMHMI48 (4) hotel room H6Mep (5) (21) hour '18C (6) house ,q6M (3) how KBK (4) how many cK6nbKO (9) + gen. how much cK6nbKO (9) + gen. hundred cT6 (9) hurry cnewm' (24) (no-) husband MY* (6) I (T4) A (4) I'm sorry npocTiii(TB) (3), M3BIIIHM(TB) (11)

he 6H (3) (T4) head ronoai (28) health 3Aop6ab8 (26) hear cnbiWBTb' ( 11 )(y-) heart c6p~ (15) heavy TAlllinbli (28) hello 3Af)ia"TByi(TB) (3) help (noun) n6MO&qb (f)(19)



identical OAHH6Koabli (21) if ec~" (8) image 66pa3 (29) imagine np&ACTBBnRrb'/

invent nPHAYMbl&aTb' (24)

investigation Hccn6Ao8aHMB (22) invite np111rnaw6Tb' ( 18)

npttACT6BHTb" c:e66 (29)

immediately cp63y (JKe) (21) important aiJKHbli (13) impossible HBB03M6JKHO (14),

island 6cTpoa (18) it Ho (3), OH6 (3) (T4) it doesn't matter HIJII'Ier6 (11)

H&nb3il (14)
in a (4) +prep. in addition TBKJKe (7) in front of n6peA (16) + inst. in my opinion no-M6eMy (13) in no way HHK6K (24) in spite of HBCMOTPil Ha (26) + ace. in that case

it's time (to do sth) nop6 (14) (+ inf) its er6 (indecl) (6) [ye-161] jam aap6Hb8 ( 16) January RHB6pb (m)(17) joke (noun) wjTKa (11), 8HBKA6T (18) joke (verb) WYTHTb' (23) (no"") journalist JKYPHBnliCT (13),

TOrAi (12)

include BKnJOII6Tb' (27) (BKnJOIIIiTb) independently C8MOCTORTBnbHO (24) indifferently (with indifference)

JKYPH&nliCTK8 (27)
journey no63AK8 (21) joy piAOCTb (f) (13) juice c6K (10) July 1111bnb (m)(17) jump in/up BCUKIJIIB8Tb' (25)

industrial npoMiilwnBHHbli (28) industry npoMblwneHHOCTb (f) (28) information (piece of) cnpiaKa (24) inhabitant JKiiTBnb (m) (9) initiative HHH14M8THB8 (22) insist H8CT6HB8Tb' (21) instead of BM6c:To (16) +gen. institute HHCTHTjT (5) institution

(BCKO'tHTb 0 )
jump out Bb1CUKIJIIB8Tb' (25)

June HlbHb (m)(17) junior MniAwHi (18) just (very recently) T6nbKO 'IT6 (15) just (exactly) KBK pa3 (20) keep silent M011'16Tb' (16) (38-) kettle 'liiHHK (21) kilo( gram) Kllln6 (n indecl) (8),

Y'IPBJKA&tt (23)

insufficiently HBAOCTiTootHo (27) intend to co6Hp6TbCJI' (26) interest HHrap6c (16) interesting HHT8p6c:Ho (14),

HHT8p6c:Hbli (7)
international M8JKAYH8~bli (27) interrupt npepbiUTb' (23)

KHnorpiMM (8)
kind A{)fipbli (7) king Kop6nb (m) (27) kiosk KH6cK ( 1) kiss 148110a6Tb; (26) (no-)

(npepa6Tb 0 )
interval nepeplila ( 17) introduce (s.o.) 3H&K6MHTb' (16) (no..)



kitchen KjxHJI (7) knee KoneHo (28) knock CyY'IBTb' (25) (no-) know 3HBTb' ( 4) know how to yM6Tb' ( 13) known: it's known 1113B6cTHO (22) kopeck (1/100th of a rouble) KoneiiiKa

letter nMCbM6 (5) level ypoa(e)Hb (m) (26) library 6M6nMOT6K8 (23) lie (be in a lying position) nelK&Tb' (21) (no-) lie down nolKMTbCJI' (25) (neot~o) life lKIII3Hb (f) (19) lift nOAHIIIMBTb' (25) (nOAHATb0 ) like (prep.) ap6Ae (30) +gen. line nlliHMJI ( 12) lip ry68 (30) listen cnyw&Tb' ( 12) {no-) literature nMTepaTjpa (13) little (adj) MBn8HbKIIIM (7) little (a little) H8MH6ro (13) + gP.n. little (not much) Mano (9) +gen. little girl AliBO'tKa (25) (11) live lKIIITb' (4) (npolKMTb) long (adj) A"MHHbiM (18) long (for a long time) A6nro (11) long ago ABBH6 (13) lOOk CMOYpliTb' (11) (13)(no-), rnHA6Tb' (25) (no-) look for MCKBTb' ( 11) (no-) look out a~o~rnfiA~oaaTb' (30) (ablrnHHyYb) loud rp6MKIIIM (14) love mo611iTb' (6) (no-) love affair poMaH (13) low HM3KIIIiil (18) luck c<~aCTbe (26) [shsha-] lucky: I was lucky MHe noB83n6 (13) machine MawlliHa (10) magazine lKJPHBn ( 1) magnificent aenMKonenHbliil (29) maid (servant) r6pHM'4H8JI (f adj) (21) main rnaaHbiM (7) maintenance peM6HT (21)

Kremlin (fortress) KpeMnb (m) (7) lag behind OTCTBBBTb' (28) (OTCTBTb0 ) lake 6aepo (18) land aeMnSi (2) landscape nBHAWBCiT (29) language Jl3biK (4) large 6on~ow6iil (7) last (final) nocnliAHMiil (7) last (previous)

late n63AHO (16) [p6-zna] lateness ono3ABH111e ( 11 ) laugh CM8RTbCJI' (11) (38 0 ) lead BOAMTb' (20), BecTM' (20) (n~) learn (to do sth) Y'IMTbCJI' (28) (Ha-) learn (sth) Y'IMTb' (13) (Bbl) leave (by transport) yealKBTb' (14)

leave (on foot) yxoAMTb' (12) (yiiiTIIi) leave (sth) ocTaanRTb' (15) (OCTBBIIITb') lecture nliKL!IIIJI ( 18) lecturer npenOABBBTenb (m) (13) left: on the left cneaa (15) left: to the left Haneao (5) leg Hora (25) lemon nMM6H (16) leSS M6Hee (18), M6HbW8 (9) (18) lesson yp6K (16) let (command) nycTb (15) let (in/out) nycdTb' (25) (nycTIIiTb")



majestic TOp:IK8cTaeHHbli (29) majority 6ona.wMHCTa6 (17) make A6nan.; (8) (c-) male (adj) MYJKCK6i (14) man MYJK'IMH& (m)(18) manage to 116ot1o' (13)(c-) manager BAMMHMCTplhop (21),

mental jMCTBBHHioli (28) menu MBHIO (n indecl) (3) merchant Kyn(8)1.4 (28) metro MBTp6 (n indecl) (5) midday n6nA&Hio (17) middle (adj) cp8AHMi (10) middle (noun) C8pBAMHa (26) midnight n6nHO'tlo (17) military BoeHHioiM (28) milk MOnOK6 (8), MOn6o!HioiM (8) (adj) million MMnnM6H (22) mineral (adj) MMHaplinloHioli (12) ministry MMHMCTepcTBO (23) minute MMHjTa (6) mist TYMiiH (11) model IIOAMio (f) (29) modern coapeMeHHioli (13) Monday noHBA&nloHMK ( 17) money A6HiorM (pl.) (8) Mongolia MoHr6nMR (18) month MKRI.4 (9) mood H&CTp08HMB ( 14) more 66nee, 66n1owe (9) (18) (22),

AMp6KTOP (23)
manner 66pa3 (29) many MH6ro (9) + gen. many (people) MH6rMB (pl.adj) (13) map KAPTB (10), (of town) nnaH (7) March M&pT ( 17) mark (celebrate) OTM8'16Tio' (14)

market pbiH(O)K (8) marriage 6paK (22) married (of a man) :IKBHBT (30) (short adj) marry (of a man) :IKBHMTitcR'10 (28) marry (of a woman) awxoAiT~o'/

8WMTM0 aliMYJK (29)

master (noun) xo311MH (25) master (verb) BbiJ'IMTio0 (13),

eaqi (9)
morning jTpo (3) Moscow MocKaa (3), MOCK6acKMi (17) (adj) most (majority) 6onloWMHCTB6 ( 17) most (forms superlative) cliMioli (18),

M3J'IMTio0 ( 13)
material M&TapMiin (26) matter A6no (19) May M&i(17) meal o66A (12) meaning 3HB't8HMB (24) meat MRCO (8) medicine MBAMqMH& (28) meet (have a meeting with)

H&M- (18), H&M66nee (29)

mother M&Tio (f) (3) (5.6), MaMa (11) mother-in-law (wife's mother) mountain ropli (18) move (house) nepe8311(8Tio; (13)

Tt...- (19)

BCTPB'fBTioCR' ( 19) (BCTp6TMTioCR 0 )

meet (become acquainted with)

move (resettle) nepecenm' (21)

3H&K611MTioCR; (no-)
meeting ac:TP~Pia (23), 38c:eAiiHMe (28), CBMABHMB (9) memory naMRTio (f) (17)

move away OTXOAMTio; (20) (oToiTM') much MH6ro (9) + gen.



much (with comparatives) ropa:JAO (18), H8MH6ro (18) Muscovite MOCKBM'I ( 17) museum MY361ii (5), MY361iiHbllii (29) (adj) mushroom rpM6 (12), (adj) rpM6H61ii (28) music MJ3b1KB (6) musician MY3biKiiHT (16) must HiiAo (14), A6mKeH (19) my M61ii (6) (T6) name (first name) MMR (n) (6) (T4) name (of thing) H83BiiHMe (16) name (surname) CIMIMMnMR (6) name (verb) H83blaBTb' ( 11)

newspaper ra38Ta (3) next (nearest) 6nMMllliiwMiii (18) (23) next (then) noT6M (12), 38T6M (17) next (following) cn6AYIDiqMiii (8) next (next door) coetiAHMiii (20) night H6'4b (f) (9) nine A6BRTb (9) nine hundred A&BRTbC6T (9) nineteen A&BRTHiiA148Tb (9) ninety A8BRH6CTO (9) no HeT (3) no (none at all) HMKaK61ii (24) no longer yM6 He (24) nobleman ABOpRHMH (28) nobody HMKT6 (24), (there is nobody)

H6Koro (24)
noisy wjMHbllii (26), (it's noisy)

(H83UTb) nation H8p6A (13) national H84MOHilnbHbiM (26)

native PDAH61ii (28) nature npMp6A8 ( 17) near 6nM3KMiii (18) near 6Kono (10) +gen., y (10) +gen. nearby pfiAoM (7) (16) c + inst. nearest 6nMMaliiwMiii (18) (23) necessary (adj) HYJKBH (short adj) (29), HYMHbiM (29) necessary: it's necessary HYJKHO ( 11 ),

WJMHO (14)
north ceaep (18) northern ceaepHbllii ( 18) not He (4) not allowed Henb3R (14) notbad Henn6xo(6) not far HBA&neK6 ( 14) not much.- Milno (9) + gen. not yet noKil HBT (15) note 38RMCK8 (15) note down 38RMCbiB8Tb' (19)

HiiAO (14)
necessity Heo6XOAMMOCTb (f) (28) negotiations neperoa6pbl (m pl.) (23) neighbour coc6A (11) neighbouring coc6AHMiii (20) neither ... nor HM . .. HM (24) network ceTb (f) (21) never HMKorA& (16) (24) nevertheless aci-TBKM (19) new H6Bbllii (7) New Year (adj) Hoaor6AHMiii (26)

nothing HM'4T6 (24), (there is nothing)

H6'4ero (24)
novel poMaH ( 13) November HOR6p., (m) (17) now Tenepb (4), (at this moment)

nowhere (motion) HMKYAB (24), (there is nowhere) H6KYA8 (24) nowhere (place) HMrA6 (24), (there is nowhere) H6rAB (24)



number H6Mep (5) (21), '1Mcn6 (22) Object B03p&UTb' (14) (B03pa3MTb) obliged A6nJKeH (19) obtain AOCTea8n.' (18) (AocTaTb) occupied 38HRT (25) OCCupy 38HMIIBTb' (18) (38HRrb) occur npoMCXOAiiiTb' (22)

opposite (adv) HBnp6TMB (10) opposite (prep.) np6TMB (10) +gen. or liinM (9) orange anenbCiiiH (8) orchard C8A (5) order (command) npMK83 (28) order (for goods, services) 38KB3 (27) order (s.o. to do sth) npMKB3biB8Tb' (13) (npMK8RTb) order (goods or services)

(npoM30iTiii) ocean OKUH (29) o'clock '18C (17) October oKTil6pb (m) (17) of course KOH8'1Ho (10) [ka-nyesh-na]

38KB3b1B8Tb' (23) (38K838Tb)

organization opraHMRI(IIR (16) organize yCTp8MaaTb; (21)

c (10) +gen.

(yCTpOMTb) opr8HM30aiTbifp (27)

organizer opraHM38Top (28) original (noun) opMrMHBn (13) our Haw (6) (T6) out of M3 (10) +gen. outstanding Bb!ABibutMicR (28) overcoat nan~oT6 (n indecl) (7) overcome np&OAonea8Tb' (28)

offend o6MidTb; (25) (o61iiAeT~o) office 6JOI)6 (n indecl) (17) often 'IBCTO (12) oil (cooking, lubrication) 118cno (8) OK xopow6 (4) old cT8p~o1i (7) old man CT&pliiK (26) old woman CTapjwKa (26) olive MacnliiHa (28) on Ha (4) +prep. on foot newK6M (20) once OAHBlKAw (23) one OAiiiH (m)/OAH8 (f)/OAHO (n) (9) one and a half nonTopa (22) one day OAHBJKAbl (23) oneself (emphatic) caM (13) (T4) onions nyK (28) only T6nbKO (8), acer6 (10) onwards A&n~owe (16) open OTKpbla8Tb(CR); ( 11)

own (of family relationships) poAH6i (28) own ca6i (21), c66CTaeHHbli (21) owner X03RMH (25) palace ABOp(8)14 (29) pancake 6nMH (8) paper 6YM8ra (21) parents poA!iiTMM (m pl.) (9) park napK (20) part '18CTb (f) (18) participate Y'liiCTaoaaTb; (27) parting npolqiiHMe (30) party a8'1ep (16), 38CT6nb8 (26) pass (sth