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Multidisciplinary optimization of an ethanol SI-engine

Bernardo Reis Dreyer de Souza, M.Sc.

About Sygma Motors Motivation and Objectives Problem Definition Multidisciplinary Workflow Disciplinary Workflows Preliminary Results

To provide innovative solutions, with high technological content and environmentally responsible, to be used in internal combustion engines.

Customers & Projects

VSE Vale Solues em Energia: Ethanol / VNG Engines Project. VSE - Vale Solues em Energia: Ethanol GenSet Project. FPT FIAT Powertrain Technologies: Engines Characterization Services



Engine Control Systems


Combustion Visualization Systems

Digital Scanning

Valve train bench


PIV Particle Image Velocimetry

Spray Visualization System

SCRE Single Cylinder Research Engine


Rapid Prototyping

Mechanical Design Performance Modeling

CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics

Motivation and Objectives

Engine design is a multidisciplinary process Ethanol engines are receiving more attention Lower carbon emissions Higher knocking resistance compared to gasoline Renewable

Demonstrate an application of multidisciplinary design optimization in internal combustion engines Apply the process for a research engine Models are validated Show some techniques that aid in the integration of several disciplines in modeFRONTIER

Problem Definition
Optimize the engine efficiency
Indicated Efficiency Engine efficiency without taking friction into account Volumetric Efficiency Breathing capacity Enables the engine to deliver more power

Design Variables
Piston bowl geometry Keeping the compression ratio Lift profiles for intake and exhaust valves Ignition timing Fuel mass per cycle

Valvetrain dynamic behavior Avoid collision between valves and piston Piston maximum temperature Piston maximum stress

Analysis and Design Process

Parameterized Geometry Thermo-mechanical Analysis

Performance Analysis

Parameterized Kinematics

Dynamics Optimization

Workflow Implementation
The worfkflow is divided into disciplinary subsystems Data packges are exchanged between disciplines

Typical disciplinary implementation in modeFRONTIER

Disciplinary Variables Receive Data Deliver Data External Variables

Process Execution

GG - Geometry Generation
Piston bowl shape parameterization Separate models for mesh generation and performance analysis
Full piston model for mesh generation Piston crown model for performance analysis

VKD - Valvetrain Kinematics Design

Kinematic Design and Analysis Valve lift profiles parameterization
Polynomial segments

Cam profile generation Valve/Piston collision analysis

PFA Performance Analysis

1-D thermodynamic simulation of the four-stroke cycle Calculates the efficiencies, heat flow and pressure Runs a predictive combustion model

Pressure Heat Flow

Influence of piston bowl geometry on combustion

Predictive combustion model
Interaction between flame front and combustion chambers walls

Flame front area Fuel burn rate

p-V Diagram

TMA Thermo-mechanical analysis

Piston finite element meshing Temperature analysis Stress analysis

Pressure Heat Flow

VDD Valvetrain Dynamics Design

Checks if the valvelifts profiles generated by VKD satisfy dynamic constraints Enters a local optimization for each valve, if constraints are violated
Nested workflows

Check dynamics

Optimize dynamics

VDO Valvetrain Dynamics Optimization

Optimizes specific variables of the dynamic domain of the valvetrain system The same dynamic model from VDD is used

Preliminary results using Surrogate models
Radial Basis Functions interpolation

Optimization run with NSGA-II

Population of 50 individuals 100 generations

High Indicated Efficiency Profile Parallel chart for Pareto frontier

High Volumetric Efficiency Profile

Opposite trend obtained from CFD!

Correlation on Pareto frontier

Multidisciplinary design optimization will help us design competitive technologies More disciplines have to be included
Obtain turbulence parameters by CFD swirl, tumble and squish

Models need to be improved

Emissions prediction

Patrick Cardoso Clayton Zabeu Giovanni Kotinda Jean Rezende Felipe Cardoso Leandro Vieira Olindo Cruz Oswaldo Franca Jr. Ivan Trindade