Cloud Computing in Conjunction with Libraries: Descriptive Literature Review
Mayank Yuvaraj Junior Research Fellow Dept. of LIS, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, India email@example.com Ajay Pratap Singh Head & Associate Professor Dept. of LIS, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, India firstname.lastname@example.org
Cloud computing is the essence of future computing needs that has emerged to be a savior for library professionals. It is an emerging technology characterized by an element of novelty where the research community has recently embarked. Since, 2008 explosively increasing amount of research has been conducted. This paper presents a descriptive literature review of cloud computing paradigm from vivid perspectives. There has been drastic shift in the trinity of libraries: books which have become electronic, user which prefers web resources than print and the staff which has become cybrarian. In this changed library landscape there is need to shift our competencies for the challenges offered by IT. Availability of independent computing components on demand like cloud as CPU, Storage in cloud has removed the web of IT and librarians can focus on their mission and services. In this paper we analyze the normative literature to extract a functional methodology or working model of cloud computing to be implied in libraries. KEYWORDS: Cloud computing, Literature review, Libraries, Cloud computing in libraries
INTRODUCTION With the encroachment of IT in library services the commitment of library and information professionals to provide people with information has come to stake. Library and information professionals are involved in the business of buying, configuring, installing, and maintaining servers which has nothing to do with the day-to-day library mission and services. One must engage in such affairs unless we absolutely must do so. In such circumstances Cloud computing has emerged as blessings in disguise that has brought decentralization to the computing world. It is concerned with the abstraction of software, services and storage facilities provided the access to network. The concept of cloud computing has sprung from the “intergalactic computer network” developed by J.C.R Licklider in 1960s where he wanted that everyone could use computer and anyone could get data irrespective of location and time in world. In 1961 John McCarthy, a computer scientist predicted that someday the computational power will be offered as a public service, such as water and electricity. This concept however, declined in early 1970`s due to the lack of physical infrastructure that could satisfy the needs of implementation of cloud
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technology. The relative novelty and exploding growth of cloud computing makes it an exciting area for research. The present paper aims to assess the state of cloud computing research. METHODOLOGY Defining any term seeks to study the qualitative and quantitative behavior. Henceforth, the four methods of literature review viz. narrative review, descriptive review, vote counting and meta analysis has to be given the same treatment. King and He32 have placed the four methods in a “qualitative-quantitative continuum”. Figure 1. Qualitative-quantitative continuum
Narrative review is the traditional method of reassessment of literature slanted towards qualitative behavior of the literature. According to King and He32 this method is conducted by “verbally describing the past studies, focusing on theories and frameworks, elementary factors and their research outcomes, regarding a hypothesized relationship. However, Yang and Tate (2009) argues that “there is no consensus towards a standardized procedure of narrative review. How to conduct a narrative review largely depends on the reviewer’s personal preference, thus this approach is easily vulnerable to subjectivity”. (p. 808). It is not rare for “two reviewers to arrive at rather different conclusion from the same general body of literature” (Guzzo et al., 1987, p. 408). Descriptive review focuses on revealing an interpretable pattern from the existing literature (Guzzo et al., 1987). King and He (2005) surmises that descriptive review studies “produces some quantification, often in the form of frequency analysis, such as publication time, research methodology, research outcomes etc. Such a review method often has a systematic procedure including searching, filtering and classifying processes. First a reviewer needs to
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Vol.2 No.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
808) Vote counting is generally used to “draw qualitative inferences upon focal relationships by combining individual research findings”. Vol. As the concept is still in its infancy which has not fully ripened so it was difficult to fetch information from the library collections. LITERATURE SEARCH Literature search is a pre-requisite for reviewing literature on any subject. correlations. it may specifically examine the relationships between certain Independent Variables (IVs) and Dependent Variables (DVs) derived from existing research findings. All the Web based references mentioned in
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. 809). p. It attempts to explore pertinent literature through computer or manual searches. p. 2005. For most of the concurrent phenomena Information Science researchers and scholars are using online databases as their first literature collecting strategy. which makes it next to impossible to examine any variables. ” (Yang and Tate. Hence due to an element of novelty it was difficult to find plethora of information on this topic. Most likely it is applied to generate insights from a series of experiments”. Under such circumstances descriptive review is the most appropriate one. p. 2009. Meta-analysis aims at statistically providing supports to a research topic by “combining and analyzing the quantitative results of many empirical studies” (King and He.” (p. The premise underlying this approach is that “repeated results in the same direction across multiple studies. Only similar quantitative studies are collected for a meta-analysis.The outcome of such a review is often claimed to be representative of the state of art of a research domain. 668). 668). The facets of cloud computing is a dawning research area. 2005. However. 809). cloud computing arena is one of the sprouting sectors of computing world. p. The incentive of this approach is to generate a much less judgmental and subjective literature review upon a specific research context.conduct a comprehensive literature search to collect as many relevant papers as possible in an investigated area. 2005. may be more powerful evidence than a single significant result” (King and He. (Yang and Tate. (King and He . p. journals. according to Yang and Tate (2009) “focusing on limited outlets cannot be justified for a literature review on cloud computing as this is a recent phenomenon which just emerged two years ago. Traditionally this is done by scanning some prominent journals and conferences exclusively dedicated to the subject. or theories. Since. 2009. even some of them are non-significant. Then the reviewer treats an individual study as one data record and identifies trends and patterns among the papers surveyed . 667). Efforts were laid to get information from online databases. “Qualitative studies have to be excluded by a meta-analysis due to its extremely quantitative nature.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
. therefore the publication channels are still largely scattered” (p. In most cases. 809). “Here a tally is made of the frequency with which existing research findings support a particular proposition.2 No. search engines and repositories.
Moreover.com Pdfqueen.org NOPR DJLIT Pdfgeni.com Slideshare.com Scribd. However due to the dynamicity of web they may not be functional now. attempts have been undertaken to review literature relevant to present study.net Authorstream. Efforts have been laid to mention only those web addresses which are likely to work during this work but there are possibility that some links may not work. time and proficiency keeps a check on it.com Google books Google scholar Google analytics BASE JURN Total papers or documents 132 Relevant papers or documents 54
Institutional repositories or archives PDF documents search PPT search
Specialized searching Academic search engines
INFORMATION FILTERING PROCESS Out of the total information retrieved from the web-sources two methods were employed to get the desired information on cloud computing.this work were retrieved during research period of September 2011 to March 2012. Firstly. the full text of the documents were reviewed and the
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. the title and abstract of the document was scanned properly and those found to be relevant were take out. Secondly. Table 1.2 No.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
. Impediments like language.com Dogpile.com Google.com Mamma. Keyword and abstract searching was done on following web-resources TOOLS o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o SOURCES ACM Digital library IEEE Xplore Proquest (ABI/INFORM) ScienceDirect (Elsevier) Eprints.com Scirus.com Freefullpdf. it is almost impossible to review all the literature available on a concerned subject.rclis. In spite of these. Vol. accessibility.
scanned and reviewed.(1960s-pre internet bubble era): During this period core ideas of utility and grid computing developed.documents rich in information content having no sketchy ideas dealing fundamentally with the research problem were finally taken into consideration for the research work. Vol. area of research. typically referring to a joint hardware and software deployment concept. The first public usage of the term “cloud” as a metaphor for the internet in a paper published by MIT in 1996. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. NetCentric tried to trademark “cloud computing” but was abandoned in April 1999. dissertations. xiii). First research initiatives were started by Google and IBM in cooperation with “six American universities: Carnegie Mellon. Microsoft in 2008 developed cloud based Azure services platform. Stanford University. In May 1997.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
. The great idea remained in history pages until it was put in application by salesforce. Lohr (2008).2 No. Another feather in the cap was added by Google that developed Google Apps entirely based on architecture of cloud computing. For convenience the review study can be divided into various sections: Section I: Transition to cloud computing The roots of cloud computing can be traced to the days of mainframe computers (1960s) when the concept of utility computing came to light where the computing power could be split into metered service like power and telephone supply.g. p. providing a description. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Pre Cloud Phase. a literature review surveys scholarly articles. conference proceedings) relevant to a particular issue. According to Lyons (2010) “Not to be confused with a book review. books and other sources (e. Literature review is an essential approach to “conceptualize research areas and survey and synthesize prior research” (Webster and Watson. The term cloud computing was coined in 2007. summary. LITERATURE REVIEW Most challenging task of a research study is to review the past related literature to extract a functional methodology or working model for a research problem. the University of California. 2002. The purpose of a literature review is to offer an overview of significant literature published on a topic. the University of Maryland and the University of Washington”. Banerjee (2011): Idea Phase. Cyberpassionteam (2011).(1999-2006): Internet developed as a mechanism to provide application as a service. “Cloud computing evolution can be split into three phases. “The history of cloud computing faced huge competition only when Amazon started its cloud-based Amazon web services”. and critical evaluation of each work.(2008) compare and contrasted cloud computing with grid computing and inferred that “cloud computing is an evolved version of grid computing”. To keep pace with the technology.com which used a simple website to deliver its enterprise application to users. or theory. Foster et al.” Substantial amount of literature relating to cloud computing was collected. Berkeley.
SUN. (p.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
Cloud Phase. Vol. no common standard or definition for cloud computing seems to exist Grossman (2009). (2008) find “Cloud computing as a style of computing where massively scalable IT-enabled capabilities are delivered as a service to external customers using internet technologies”. 109). or control over the technology infrastructure that supports them. grid computing and distributed computing. expertise with. and Software as a Service (SaaS).till date)
Cloud computing became popular and the sub classification IaaS. Plummer et al.(2007. Weinhardt et al. it`s all about ways to improve delivery of the server-centric. But the overarching concept of delivering computing resources through a global network is rooted in the sixties. Infinite computing resources would be available for any need at costs approaching zero. several prominent technology companies.” On the other hand. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. But. (2009) argues that “combining elements of existing technologies such as virtualization. Further. It is a style of computing in which IT-related capabilities are provided as a service allowing users to access technology enabled services from the internet without knowledge of. Madhubala.” Section II: The concept of cloud computing Plethora of interpretations has been contested on the conceptualization of Cloud Computing. such as Google. cloud Computing delivers scalable IT services via the Internet on a payper-use basis” (p. For IT. their software. PaaS & SaaS got formalized.com. applicationcentric environment. application service position (ASP). Basically cloud is a metaphor for internet and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals”.” Commenting on the evolution of the cloud landscape Yang and Hsu (2011) concludes that “Cloud computing services first emerged as an IT paradigm five years ago. soon followed”. it`s just an evolution of infrastructure efficiency. R. They are joined by Gardner (2012) who argues that “cloud computing is often regarded as a revolution. Voas & Zhang (2009)”. According to Farber (2008) “The interesting thing about cloud computing is that we've redefined cloud computing to include everything that we already do. Users would not need to know or care about how the computers. (p. IBM. 286). and Salesforce. But to IT.” According to Mohamed (2009) “Cloud computing has evolved through a number of phases which included grid and utility computing.2 No. or the network functioned. Out of these in fact. Oracle. 392). It is first initiated by Amazon. Contrary to above arguments. (2012) put forth her view that “Cloud computing is a paradigm that focuses on sharing data and computations over a scalable network of nodes. scholars like Wohl (2009) perceive “Cloud Computing to be a vague term for a very vague and distant future in which computing would occur in a few remote locations without the need for very much human intervention. I can't think of anything that isn't cloud computing with all of these announcements. The computer industry is the only industry that is more fashion-driven than women's fashion.” Sultan (2010) argues that “A study by McKinsey (the global management consulting firm) found that there are 22 possible separate definitions of cloud computing.
Kossmann and Kraska (2010) have put forth three important principles that depend on each other and can only provide additional value if implemented in concert These are: automation. (2009) argues that “Cloud computing is the infrastructural paradigm shift that is sweeping across the Enterprise IT world that has as many definitions as there are squares on a chess-board”. Pyke (2009) that “cloud computing services can provide the user seamlessly. and technological solutions for firms” Armbrust et al. In nutshell. virtualization and pay-as-you-go pricing model. Erdogmus. Some of the scholars have attempted to trace the roots of Cloud Computing from business.4). and centralized data centres. (p. 1007). (2010) (p. (2007) argues that “Cloud is a pool of virtualized computer resources which allows: The dynamic scale-in and scale-out of applications by the provisioning and deprovisioning of resources. the term cloud is derived from the idea of businesses and users being able to access applications from anywhere in the world on demand”.” (p.2 No. Sultan. and we access everything not only through our PCs
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. deﬁned as a collection of disembodied services accessible from anywhere using any mobile device with an internet-based connection. His arguments are supplemented by Hand (2007) who argues that “in cloud computing not just our data but even our software resides within the cloud. (2010). The monitoring of resource utilization to support dynamic load-balancing and reallocations of applications and resources”. software-as-a-service. Inspired by similar thoughts Low. Boss et al. It draws on existing technologies and approaches. Chinyao. (2009). However. according to Weiss (2007). (p. Geelan. (2011) opines that “as we could expect. “cloud computing is not a fundamentally new paradigm. distributed computing. 17).g by means of virtualization. such as utility computing. Misra and Mondal. He opined that cloud computing is a new model of computing used widely in today`s industry and society. ( p. Vol. (2009). such as operating systems. application software. e. What is new is that cloud computing combines and integrates these approaches. Mingchang (2011) Cloud computing provides the opportunity of flexibility and adaptability to attract the market on demand. and the quality-stable technological support that can develop the enormous potential demand”. the convenience. According to Low. Yahsueh and Wu. 55). ” Under such circumstances there is a general agreement of scholars like Buyya et al. Chen and Wu. Cloud computing is also. Hartig (2008) refers to Cloud Computing as the phenomenon of “virtualization of resources that maintains and manages itself”. Chen. The concept is derived from the imagery of the Internet cloud.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
. “Cloud computing has spread out through the main areas related to information systems and technologies. 122).. in which the imagery of a cloud is traditionally used to represent the internet or some large networked environment. (2010).However.
but also cloud friendly devices. networking and processing of data. The operating systems and network access are not managed by the consumer. such as smart phones. Platform as a Service (PaaS) Consumers purchase access to the platforms.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
. PDAs. and there might be constraints as to which applications can be deployed. storage. enabling them to deploy their own software and applications in the cloud. etc. Section III: Models of cloud computing Models are mental or pictorial representation of an event or phenomenon. to run applications. In IaaS. & Grance (2009): The service delivery models are: Private cloud: a cloud platform is dedicated for specific organization. VMWare vCloud are some of its examples Jericho Forum (2009) has put forth “cloud cube model to differentiate cloud formations from each other and the manner of their provision.2 No. Google App Engine and Force. Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) or Simple Storage Service (S3). clients are being offered with storage. and network connectivity. Mell. (p. For example email and few other services offered by Google. The Cloud Computing model constitutes three service delivery and three deployment models. and Hybrid cloud: a private cloud that can extend to use resources in public clouds. Generally models are employed to study such phenomenon which cannot be seen or felt. 963). Sify. The deployment models are: Software as a Service (SaaS) Consumers purchase the ability to access and use an application or service that is hosted in the cloud. Skype etc. Scholars have also used models to study cloud computing. the mega-computer enabled by virtualization and software as a service”. To run required service a special platform or application infrastructure is also being provided to the clients where clients can build their web based applications. Client does not require to know programming language. Vol.com can be few of good examples of PaaS Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Consumers control and manage the systems in terms of the operating systems. Public cloud available to public users to register and use the available infrastructure. Yahoo. Hotmail. The cube represents four dimensions of cloud activities: Location of data: Internal/ External Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. database management systems. Windows Azure. but do not themselves control the cloud infrastructure. applications.
Section V: Adoption of cloud computing The emergent phenomenon of cloud computing aims at transforming the traditional way of computing by providing both software applications and hardware resources as a service. (p. achieving standardized API appears to be rather politically than technically challenging”. there is also a document called the open cloud manifesto in which various stake holders express why open standards will benefit cloud computing Sriram and Khajeh-Hosseini (2010). According to Sriram and Khajeh-Hosseini (2010) “cloud computing can benefit from standardized API interfaces as generic tools that manage cloud infrastructures can be developed for all offerings.
Ownership of cloud technology: Proprietary/ Open Operations: Perimeterised (Within traditional IT perimeter)/ De-perimeterised (Outiside IT perimeter) Availability of service: Insourced (By third party)/ Outsourced (By own)”
Mikkilineni and Sarathy (2009) “compared the evolution of cloud computing with intelligent network infrastructure in telecommunications and proposed a Virtual Resource Mediation Layer (VRML) to support interoperability between public and private clouds.26 -27). 156). However. These were resisted by the vendors just like the fate of cloud computing”.
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.2 No. 58). These are business models for companies with an existing IT infrastructure and business models for startup companies. From the ﬁnancial point of view. Section IV: Standardization of cloud computing There are three active bodies working towards standardizing cloud computing practices: Cloud computing Interoperability Forum Open cloud consortium DMTF Open Cloud Standards Incubator
However. (2009) has enlisted the various difficulties of developing standards for effective cloud computing. CPU power etc) Tsaravas and Themistocleous (2011) (p. which changed with the introduction of TCP and other Internet standards. memory. government agencies.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
. VRML is an abstraction layer that sits on top of the IaaS layer and allows applications to access CPU. Grossman (2009) asserts that” the current state of standards and interoperability in cloud computing is similar to the early Internet era where each organization had its own network and data transfer was difficult. Thus. Vol. bandwidth and storage depending on needs” (p. Keahey et al. Misra and Mondal (2010) built two types of business models that can be drawn for companies (cloud users) willing to adopt cloud computing services. businesses and/or individuals can either provide or use services within a near limitless computing environment (storage.
including both firms that specialize in cloud computing. Scaling choices must be under control of the users. with the involvement with IT the commitment as well as services has been miserably infested.S.2 No. and traditional IT service firms. 124). and thus. Ironically. cloud computing is the savior of all the ebbs of the information technology. such as Amazon.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
. HP and Fujistu. such as utility computing and the smart data centre. Google. faster. Sotomayor et al. Su (2011) In the field of education Thomas (2011) argues that “Cloud Computing has a signiﬁcant place in the higher education landscape both as a ubiquitous computing tool and a powerful platform that can enhance engagement among educational researchers and educators to understand and improve practice. This way. Governments that are looking for answers against bureaucracy and complication of procedures are almost obligated to implement new technological solutions to provide public services effectively”. (2009) developed a cloud-based infrastructure that had been optimized for performance networks and supported necessary data mining applications. Grossman et al. cloud computing helps optimizing the long tail of processes which are currently not supported by IT and helps to reduce the cost of those processes that indeed are already automated” (p. Banerjee (2009) provides an overview of technological research studies that were performed in HP labs and that adopted cloud-scale smart environments. Section VI: Adoption of cloud computing in libraries Library and information centres are constantly in search of low-cost solutions due to low funding. According to Kossmann and Kraska (2010) “Cloud Computing promises to lower the bar for new services to become worthwhile by making things cheaper. and Salesforce. Buschman and Leckie (2009) posit that “librarians need to be critical in their use of technology”. On the demand side. increase the quality of their students’ learning outcomes”. in order to have control over spending and to be able to work towards maximizing return on investments”. Vol.resource lease manager. Buyya et al. and automating the tasks that traditionally has also to be carried out by experts. cloud computing is becoming a key service offering of many IT firms. such as IBM. (2009) have also dealt with market-oriented resource allocation of cloud computing by leveraging third-generation Aneka enterprise grid technology.virtual infrastructure manager and Haizea. and emerging economies such as China. ( 2009) presents two tools for managing cloud infrastructure: OpenNebula. cloud computing is being rapidly adopted by organizations in both developed countries such as the U.com. Vaquero et al. (2009) stresses on “feedback control service for scaling in the cloud. Lim et al.Various researches have been undertaken to imply cloud computing in various domains. (2009) opines that Cloud computing and web collaboration are two major concepts that underlie new and innovative developments in library
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. On the supply side. Under such conditions.
Cloud services allow for more optimal resource utilization. 1997. Moulasion and Corrado. including OCLC. OCLC started Web-scale management services which can perform the in-house library operations through mutual co-operation. Instead. (2011) (p.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
. (2007). availability and flexibility and decreasing processing time Hayes (2008). 59-60). It will provide all its web-scale subscribers with a vendor database which will list their details avoiding data redundancy in libraries. (p. the library`s users are accessing the information needed in the comfort and security of their homes or in their own personal or customized spaces. The introduction of the internet to libraries was part of a significant shift from print/in-house-focused services to online/ externally provided services. From the emergence of World Wide Web. 6). OhioLink. reliability. (2007). Recently. Historically libraries have turned to huge capital investment on IT infrastructure for various online as well as subscription based services. recognizing that future libraries may not own their collection of resources Lancaster. easier access. Libraries can work cooperatively in a flexible environment where they can share solutions to problems instead of having to reinvent the wheel at each library. OCLC web scale management services. With these success libraries are motivated for using subscription based cloud IT infrastructure. (2010). (2010). and the Library of congress suggests that this mode of computing will have a significant impact on the configuration. Today. “First. whose major goal is reducing the cost of IT services while increasing processing throughput. These predictions have to come true. plus the time these users spend on the internet. 27). the economics. scholastic predictions indicated that the library in serving future users may offer referral to “potentially appropriate points in a vast network of resources accessible through the internet or its successors” (Lancaster. and perhaps the personnel requirements of library computing in years to come”. and more effective cost reduction. Much of these tools and services will not be owned by the library but are necessary to carry out the enduring work of making library collections and services known and accessible to users. Cloud computing is important in the context of LIS education for two reasons Tomer and Alman (2011). Vol. libraries need to adopt the communication and information tools and services that users are accustomed to Sadeh. Wolf (2010).
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Cloud computing will bring an end to the ILS server. The growing internet usage among library users and potential users. The future of computing lies in cloud computing. Today`s consumers of information have more alternative and attractive ways of finding information than using the traditional library Sadeh. the embrace of cloud computing by many organizations. library and information science scholarship has remodeled the future for libraries. (1997). “Migrating to a cloud-based application may turn out to be cost neutral but at the same time still have the benefit of allowing staff to concentrate on libraryspecific issues”. has made it imperative that libraries offer their services online. p. SirsiDynix. The web has also expanded the scope of services provided by librarians.2 No.automation. Mitchell. To meet their needs.
(2009). Wolf (2010). Vol.2 No. They have also emerged as an key players in the provision of internet services to the user communities Kinney (2010) During this time libraries have re-directed services both to support in-house internet use and to serve the needs of users via digital means. and impacts and. so you don`t need a client on your local PC. Libraries are in a unique position to experiment with cloud computing given their service oriented mission and need to find appropriate solutions using limited resources. Vendors can provide a remotely hosted service which allows for the creation of modular content. categorization and analytics to help users manage the vast repositories of both structured and unstructured information) as well as the cost-savings and flexibility that they can provide. the cloud computing adoption rate is not growing as fast as expected Banerjee. “There is a tremendous amount of enthusiasm around cloud-based solutions and services (filtering. It also lowers the technical skills needed to create web pages.. sorting. Fox (2009) observes that the goals of the organization have an impact on their use of cloud solutions.Other vendors can take advantage of the cloud. which many libraries wouldn`t be able to create on their own. Now the information formats have also changed. “A study conducted by IMAI and IMRB reveals that there are 121 million internet users in India out of which 97 million access atleast once in a month” Times of India. Internet world stats (2011). Goscinski and Brock. to its adopters. (2009). (2010) Section VII: Security concerns of cloud computing ENISA firstly addressed the security risks related to adopting cloud computing along with the affected assets. There seems to be an utmost use of web based services in libraries and information centres since the evolution of internet. As such cloud computing has the seeds for reinvigoration of library and information science professions. (2009). Like other cloud applications it is accessible from any internet connection. (2011). Further.
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. both strategic and operational. Smartphones are being used by the users these days for accessing information services for fast and easy communication. Moore (2010) asserts that “use analysis now requires a cloud computing orientation”. through cloud computing instead of having own servers and employing personnel for its maintenance libraries can hire a vendor on a monthly charge and enjoy the benefit of same server function. Moreover. It is imperative that all senior technologists have a solid understanding of the ramifications of cloud computing since its impact is likely to permeate the entire IT landscape” Rhoton. Buyya et al. While cloud computing has been discussed as a new technology develop that can provide several advantages. Blowers (2010).2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
. “In World India is the third and in Asia second largest country in internet adoption”. vulnerabilities in cloud computing that may lead to such risks.
2 No. (2010) raises issues concerning the “security vulnerabilities existing in the cloud platform”. efﬁcient coordination among ﬁrms.. Many see huge potential of the technology in reducing the cost of IT to organizations and freeing them from the expense and hassle of having to install and maintain applications locally Leavitt. (2009) discuss the security SLA`s specifications and objective relating to data locations. Bernd et al. Trappler (2010) asserts that “if it is in the cloud.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
. The shift to Cloud computing moved much of a user’s normal activity to the Web browser. Buyya et al. Balchandra et al. Hayes. Some scholars are of the opinion that Cloud computing service providers are incentivized by the profits to be made from charging consumers for access to these services. ease of implementation. “Providing IT services in the cloud shifts much of this expense to a pay-as-you-go-model and consequently offers significant cost advantages according to one view”. Subashini (2010) discusses the security challenges of the cloud service delivery model. (2010). (2009). According to this report. Zhu. (2009). the market is expected to reach $241 billion in 2020. (p.7 billion in 2010. simplification and convenience of the way computing-related services are delivered seem to be among the main drivers of cloud computing Erdogmus. Kresimir et al.. As such it is possible for malicious websites to exploit browser vulnerabilities in order to steal information associated with other existing or previous browsing sessions. browsing history and other sensitive information in a single place. is using the skilled practitioners. Dasmalchi. get it on paper”. complexity of an innovation can act as a barrier to implementation of new
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. (2008). Economic. and access to market information mobilization. Web browsers generally store all of a user’s saved passwords. browser`s related attacks and flooding attacks. Vol. payment and privacy of sensitive information. 50). segregation and data recovery. better customer communications. Fu. (2009). Armbrust et al. (2009) discuss the technical security issues arising from adopting the cloud computing model such as XML-attacks. Meiko et al. ﬁrms may not have conﬁdence in a cloud computing system because it is relatively new to them.. The expected beneﬁts of embedded cloud computing services include the following: speed of business communications. Thus. IT research firm Forrester published the first industry report that offered a sizing of the cloud computing market. Lin. (2009). Section VIII: Benefits of cloud computing Pyke (2009) has described the following benefits of cloud computing: scalability. compared to $40. (2009). and quality of service. (2010) discusses high level security concerns in the cloud computing model such as data integrity. However.Similar efforts have been laid by CSA . It may take users a long time to understand and implement the new system. Firms are attracted by the opportunity for reducing or eliminating costs associated with “in-house” provision of these services Buyya et al. freeing up of internal resources. such as a logged in email account or online banking session.
With cloud computing we are getting closer to the reality of purchasing computer power. complexity factor is usually negatively affected. This will free libraries from the shackles of IT management and allow us to focus on services and resources. service portability. Further cloud computing will given even the smallest organization the ability to use the power of network computing within a minimal infrastructure.(2011) “the services that libraries can acquire through the use of cloud computing platforms may indeed be valuable.2 No. data management. Depending on the service. employers and universities deploy cloud based tools on desktops. He advocates that because companies might be storing documents which should not be made public. Furthermore. Morsy. “The elastic aspect of cloud computing allows applications to scale and grow without needing traditional ‘fork lift’ upgrades”. R. (2012) (p. several concerns arise about security.technology. many users may fail to realize that they are in fact using an Internet based service. multi-tenancy and isolation. Tsaravas and Marinos (2011) Despite the potential benefits and revenues that could be gained from the cloud computing model. As every technological concept. Madhubala. .” Ramgovind et al. Once data are outsourced to a third-party cloud provider. there are reasons for concern about what can happen to the information. meaning that librarians can make use of services without incurring any cost for their libraries”. availability and reliability of data.. Premkumar et al. Wolf. 4-5). quite a few of the cloud-based software platforms are available for free. research has shown that there are some major obstacles which hinder the adoption and growth of Cloud computing. (2010). cloud computing is not an exception in terms of trust and security issues. (1994).287).(2010) “As computer manufacturers. but
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
.. (p. just like they did before the digital age. (2010) Katz (2009) focuses on many areas where the cloud may impinge on education. the model still has a lot of open issues that impact the model creditability and pervasiveness.Moulasion and Corrado. Grundy and Muller. and continue to function when the user is not connected to the Internet. Potential Cloud organisations and vendors need to be aware that it may become easier for attackers to threaten clouds by moving towards a single cloud interface. SLA management.elasticity engines. and cloud security are well known open research problems in the cloud computing model. Vendor lock-in. Vol. (2011) “If librarians can save on buying and maintaining servers. they can also rely on the software provider to carry out all updates. This risk of confusion will likely increase when cloud based applications lack any recognizable browser branding. Section IX: Downsides of cloud computing However. According to Moulasion and Corrado. thereby allowing their own employees to take care of other obligations in lieu of monitoring version changes and upgrades. they can save their parent institution money.
et al.2009. 2009.2008. et al.2009. 2009. 2009. 2010. 2010. Grossman..2010.2009. Velte et al..2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
. Vaquero et al.2010. 2010. 2009.. Holger and Matzke.. 2008. Armbrust et al. Dikaiakos et al.2010.. Briscoe and Marions. et al. 2010. Zeng etal. Jericho forum (2009).. et al.2 No.2009. et al. et al.. Sugimoto. Leimeister et al. Koehler and Anandasivam. 2009. Table 2. 2007.. Pueschel & Neumann... Askhoj.Stefan.. Nurmi. Baars & Kemper. Ried. Kisker..2010.2009. 2009.2009. (p. Overview of cloud computing research ISSUES Adoption CONTRIBUTORS Hazelhurst. Mitshuharu. can become a considerable hurdle to effective provision of services”.2009.. even if bandwidth is not currently at a premium. Shigeo and Nagamori. Wolf.the cost of internet access.. Matthews. Ramireddy. et al. Anandasivam & Weinhardt.. 2010. 2008. Ohlman. Ratogi. Jan. 2009. Saya et al.2010. Briscoe.2010. Yeo et al. 2009. Mika and Tummar Chun and Maniatis 2009... 2009. 5). 2009. Assuncao et al. 2009 Bernstein. Harmer. 2010. Wilson 2009. Furht and Escalante. Bhardwaj et al. 2009. 2009. Sun.. Pearson.. Mikkilineni and Sarathy.2009. Weinhardt et al. 2009. elo. 2009. Keahey 2009. 2009. Matthew and Spraetz. Vaquero et al. Pascal. 2011 Buyya et al. Youseff et al.
Impediments Model Pricing
Security Storage Technology
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Joint et al. Delic and Riley. Dodda et al. et al. Lim et al. Vol. 2009. Lenk.. 2009...
Searches for cloud computing on Google. It revealed that cloud computing has gained tremendous popularity in India.
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. It revealed that the term gained momentum post-2009. Vol. libraries and online services was done on Google Insights to determine the interest areas worldwide. During 2010 onwards it was at its peak.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
.2 No. taken from Google Trends
Further. Also there is high scope of research on cloud computing in conjunction with libraries in near future.RESULTS Popularity of the terms and search To analyse the popularity of “cloud computing” searching was done on Google Trends.com. Figure 2. a comparative study of cloud computing.
Searches for cloud computing from Google books Ngram Viewer
It reveals that post 2006 there has been sharp increase in the usage of the term in books.Figure 3. Searches for cloud computing taken from Google Insights
To analyse the average use of the term “cloud computing” in books searching was done on Google Books Ngram Viewer. Table 4.
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Vol.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
.2 No. It revealed that post 2006 there has been sudden increase in the usage of the term in books.
Distribution of articles by year
30 20 10 2 0 Distribution of articles by publication 19 15 18 20 22 10 12 14 12
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Distribution of articles by year
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2 1 12 15 Distribution of articles by year 26 29
Distribution of articles by publication To analyse the most productive sources for “cloud computing” literature an analysis of the available literature was done. We found that during 2010 maximum number of literature was written.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
. It revealed that conference proceedings were the best source of dissemination of the concept on cloud computing Figure 6. Vol.2 No.Distribution of articles by year An analytical study of the references was done to find out the most productive year for cloud computing literature. Figure 5.
12. in Leckie. The technology has been explored at its utmost from technical purview and its implication in library is yet to be explored due to its relative edge in libraries.CONCLUSION Cloud computing is a novel concept where theory building is not at the centre of research rather most studies focus on praxis. 2007-10-08. Patterson. 99. M. Malladi P. Bernd Grobauer. A view of cloud computing.. Legregni L.org/xpl/mostRecentIssue. (2009). (Eds). . (2010) From realities to values: a strategy for digital natives.. 25. Buschman.com/history-of-cloud-computing/. REFERENCES
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