Cloud Computing in Conjunction with Libraries: Descriptive Literature Review

Mayank Yuvaraj Junior Research Fellow Dept. of LIS, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, India mayank.yuvaraj@gmail.com Ajay Pratap Singh Head & Associate Professor Dept. of LIS, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, India apsingh_73@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Cloud computing is the essence of future computing needs that has emerged to be a savior for library professionals. It is an emerging technology characterized by an element of novelty where the research community has recently embarked. Since, 2008 explosively increasing amount of research has been conducted. This paper presents a descriptive literature review of cloud computing paradigm from vivid perspectives. There has been drastic shift in the trinity of libraries: books which have become electronic, user which prefers web resources than print and the staff which has become cybrarian. In this changed library landscape there is need to shift our competencies for the challenges offered by IT. Availability of independent computing components on demand like cloud as CPU, Storage in cloud has removed the web of IT and librarians can focus on their mission and services. In this paper we analyze the normative literature to extract a functional methodology or working model of cloud computing to be implied in libraries. KEYWORDS: Cloud computing, Literature review, Libraries, Cloud computing in libraries

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INTRODUCTION With the encroachment of IT in library services the commitment of library and information professionals to provide people with information has come to stake. Library and information professionals are involved in the business of buying, configuring, installing, and maintaining servers which has nothing to do with the day-to-day library mission and services. One must engage in such affairs unless we absolutely must do so. In such circumstances Cloud computing has emerged as blessings in disguise that has brought decentralization to the computing world. It is concerned with the abstraction of software, services and storage facilities provided the access to network. The concept of cloud computing has sprung from the “intergalactic computer network” developed by J.C.R Licklider in 1960s where he wanted that everyone could use computer and anyone could get data irrespective of location and time in world. In 1961 John McCarthy, a computer scientist predicted that someday the computational power will be offered as a public service, such as water and electricity. This concept however, declined in early 1970`s due to the lack of physical infrastructure that could satisfy the needs of implementation of cloud

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technology. The relative novelty and exploding growth of cloud computing makes it an exciting area for research. The present paper aims to assess the state of cloud computing research. METHODOLOGY Defining any term seeks to study the qualitative and quantitative behavior. Henceforth, the four methods of literature review viz. narrative review, descriptive review, vote counting and meta analysis has to be given the same treatment. King and He32 have placed the four methods in a “qualitative-quantitative continuum”. Figure 1. Qualitative-quantitative continuum

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Narrative review is the traditional method of reassessment of literature slanted towards qualitative behavior of the literature. According to King and He32 this method is conducted by “verbally describing the past studies, focusing on theories and frameworks, elementary factors and their research outcomes, regarding a hypothesized relationship. However, Yang and Tate (2009) argues that “there is no consensus towards a standardized procedure of narrative review. How to conduct a narrative review largely depends on the reviewer’s personal preference, thus this approach is easily vulnerable to subjectivity”. (p. 808). It is not rare for “two reviewers to arrive at rather different conclusion from the same general body of literature” (Guzzo et al., 1987, p. 408). Descriptive review focuses on revealing an interpretable pattern from the existing literature (Guzzo et al., 1987). King and He (2005) surmises that descriptive review studies “produces some quantification, often in the form of frequency analysis, such as publication time, research methodology, research outcomes etc. Such a review method often has a systematic procedure including searching, filtering and classifying processes. First a reviewer needs to

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Hence due to an element of novelty it was difficult to find plethora of information on this topic. Meta-analysis aims at statistically providing supports to a research topic by “combining and analyzing the quantitative results of many empirical studies” (King and He. 809). p. journals. “Qualitative studies have to be excluded by a meta-analysis due to its extremely quantitative nature. 2005. 809).” (p. Vol. 668). Most likely it is applied to generate insights from a series of experiments”. Since. (King and He . Efforts were laid to get information from online databases. The facets of cloud computing is a dawning research area. 2009. p. which makes it next to impossible to examine any variables. 809). Only similar quantitative studies are collected for a meta-analysis. 808) Vote counting is generally used to “draw qualitative inferences upon focal relationships by combining individual research findings”. 667). As the concept is still in its infancy which has not fully ripened so it was difficult to fetch information from the library collections. In most cases. even some of them are non-significant.conduct a comprehensive literature search to collect as many relevant papers as possible in an investigated area. Traditionally this is done by scanning some prominent journals and conferences exclusively dedicated to the subject. The incentive of this approach is to generate a much less judgmental and subjective literature review upon a specific research context. 2005. it may specifically examine the relationships between certain Independent Variables (IVs) and Dependent Variables (DVs) derived from existing research findings. It attempts to explore pertinent literature through computer or manual searches. LITERATURE SEARCH Literature search is a pre-requisite for reviewing literature on any subject. p. 2005.2 No. cloud computing arena is one of the sprouting sectors of computing world. ” (Yang and Tate. Under such circumstances descriptive review is the most appropriate one. 668). All the Web based references mentioned in 88 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Then the reviewer treats an individual study as one data record and identifies trends and patterns among the papers surveyed . (Yang and Tate. The premise underlying this approach is that “repeated results in the same direction across multiple studies. search engines and repositories. according to Yang and Tate (2009) “focusing on limited outlets cannot be justified for a literature review on cloud computing as this is a recent phenomenon which just emerged two years ago. 2009. “Here a tally is made of the frequency with which existing research findings support a particular proposition. may be more powerful evidence than a single significant result” (King and He. or theories.The outcome of such a review is often claimed to be representative of the state of art of a research domain. correlations. p.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . therefore the publication channels are still largely scattered” (p. For most of the concurrent phenomena Information Science researchers and scholars are using online databases as their first literature collecting strategy. However. p.

Efforts have been laid to mention only those web addresses which are likely to work during this work but there are possibility that some links may not work. Moreover.2 No. attempts have been undertaken to review literature relevant to present study.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Impediments like language. Keyword and abstract searching was done on following web-resources TOOLS o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o SOURCES ACM Digital library IEEE Xplore Proquest (ABI/INFORM) ScienceDirect (Elsevier) Eprints. In spite of these.com Freefullpdf.com Scribd.com Mamma. the title and abstract of the document was scanned properly and those found to be relevant were take out.net Authorstream.com Google books Google scholar Google analytics BASE JURN Total papers or documents 132 Relevant papers or documents 54 Online databases Institutional repositories or archives PDF documents search PPT search 20 5 80 48 89 60 75 38 55 Search engines Specialized searching Academic search engines 54 31 118 46 INFORMATION FILTERING PROCESS Out of the total information retrieved from the web-sources two methods were employed to get the desired information on cloud computing.com Dogpile. it is almost impossible to review all the literature available on a concerned subject.com Pdfqueen. Secondly.com Google.com Slideshare. However due to the dynamicity of web they may not be functional now. accessibility.rclis. Vol. the full text of the documents were reviewed and the Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. time and proficiency keeps a check on it.this work were retrieved during research period of September 2011 to March 2012.com Scirus. Firstly. Table 1.org NOPR DJLIT Pdfgeni.

According to Lyons (2010) “Not to be confused with a book review. Stanford University. In May 1997. area of research. and critical evaluation of each work. books and other sources (e. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Lohr (2008). LITERATURE REVIEW Most challenging task of a research study is to review the past related literature to extract a functional methodology or working model for a research problem. Banerjee (2011):  Idea Phase. a literature review surveys scholarly articles.(1960s-pre internet bubble era): During this period core ideas of utility and grid computing developed.(2008) compare and contrasted cloud computing with grid computing and inferred that “cloud computing is an evolved version of grid computing”. The term cloud computing was coined in 2007. “Cloud computing evolution can be split into three phases. xiii). scanned and reviewed. Another feather in the cap was added by Google that developed Google Apps entirely based on architecture of cloud computing. or theory. p. Foster et al.g. the University of California. typically referring to a joint hardware and software deployment concept.(1999-2006): Internet developed as a mechanism to provide application as a service.” Substantial amount of literature relating to cloud computing was collected.2 No. dissertations. Vol. The purpose of a literature review is to offer an overview of significant literature published on a topic. providing a description. Cyberpassionteam (2011).documents rich in information content having no sketchy ideas dealing fundamentally with the research problem were finally taken into consideration for the research work.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) 90 . For convenience the review study can be divided into various sections: Section I: Transition to cloud computing The roots of cloud computing can be traced to the days of mainframe computers (1960s) when the concept of utility computing came to light where the computing power could be split into metered service like power and telephone supply. Literature review is an essential approach to “conceptualize research areas and survey and synthesize prior research” (Webster and Watson. conference proceedings) relevant to a particular issue. To keep pace with the technology. the University of Maryland and the University of Washington”. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2002. First research initiatives were started by Google and IBM in cooperation with “six American universities: Carnegie Mellon. summary. Berkeley.  Pre Cloud Phase. The first public usage of the term “cloud” as a metaphor for the internet in a paper published by MIT in 1996. “The history of cloud computing faced huge competition only when Amazon started its cloud-based Amazon web services”. NetCentric tried to trademark “cloud computing” but was abandoned in April 1999.com which used a simple website to deliver its enterprise application to users. The great idea remained in history pages until it was put in application by salesforce. Microsoft in 2008 developed cloud based Azure services platform.

According to Farber (2008) “The interesting thing about cloud computing is that we've redefined cloud computing to include everything that we already do. I can't think of anything that isn't cloud computing with all of these announcements.2 No. and Salesforce. It is first initiated by Amazon. it`s all about ways to improve delivery of the server-centric. Weinhardt et al. it`s just an evolution of infrastructure efficiency. Contrary to above arguments. their software. (p.till date) Cloud computing became popular and the sub classification IaaS. 286). But the overarching concept of delivering computing resources through a global network is rooted in the sixties. (p.” According to Mohamed (2009) “Cloud computing has evolved through a number of phases which included grid and utility computing. (2012) put forth her view that “Cloud computing is a paradigm that focuses on sharing data and computations over a scalable network of nodes. (2008) find “Cloud computing as a style of computing where massively scalable IT-enabled capabilities are delivered as a service to external customers using internet technologies”.(2007. It is a style of computing in which IT-related capabilities are provided as a service allowing users to access technology enabled services from the internet without knowledge of. Cloud Phase.” On the other hand. Further. The computer industry is the only industry that is more fashion-driven than women's fashion. no common standard or definition for cloud computing seems to exist Grossman (2009). For IT. Basically cloud is a metaphor for internet and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals”. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. They are joined by Gardner (2012) who argues that “cloud computing is often regarded as a revolution. Users would not need to know or care about how the computers. Vol. application service position (ASP). SUN.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) 91 . soon followed”. Oracle. But.com. Plummer et al.” Section II: The concept of cloud computing Plethora of interpretations has been contested on the conceptualization of Cloud Computing. IBM. applicationcentric environment. grid computing and distributed computing. Madhubala. expertise with. 109). PaaS & SaaS got formalized. scholars like Wohl (2009) perceive “Cloud Computing to be a vague term for a very vague and distant future in which computing would occur in a few remote locations without the need for very much human intervention. such as Google. 392).” Commenting on the evolution of the cloud landscape Yang and Hsu (2011) concludes that “Cloud computing services first emerged as an IT paradigm five years ago. But to IT. Infinite computing resources would be available for any need at costs approaching zero. Out of these in fact.” Sultan (2010) argues that “A study by McKinsey (the global management consulting firm) found that there are 22 possible separate definitions of cloud computing. or the network functioned. R. Voas & Zhang (2009)”. or control over the technology infrastructure that supports them. and Software as a Service (SaaS). several prominent technology companies. (2009) argues that “combining elements of existing technologies such as virtualization. cloud Computing delivers scalable IT services via the Internet on a payper-use basis” (p.

2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Mingchang (2011) Cloud computing provides the opportunity of flexibility and adaptability to attract the market on demand. application software. Yahsueh and Wu. (2010). the convenience. ” Under such circumstances there is a general agreement of scholars like Buyya et al. (2010). defined as a collection of disembodied services accessible from anywhere using any mobile device with an internet-based connection. 17).However.4). 122). Chen. and we access everything not only through our PCs 92 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. according to Weiss (2007). Erdogmus.2 No. It draws on existing technologies and approaches. Chinyao. (2009). and centralized data centres.” (p. Chen and Wu. in which the imagery of a cloud is traditionally used to represent the internet or some large networked environment. Pyke (2009) that “cloud computing services can provide the user seamlessly.  The monitoring of resource utilization to support dynamic load-balancing and reallocations of applications and resources”. Kossmann and Kraska (2010) have put forth three important principles that depend on each other and can only provide additional value if implemented in concert These are: automation. Inspired by similar thoughts Low. In nutshell. (p. (2009) argues that “Cloud computing is the infrastructural paradigm shift that is sweeping across the Enterprise IT world that has as many definitions as there are squares on a chess-board”. 55). “cloud computing is not a fundamentally new paradigm. Sultan. such as utility computing. e. He opined that cloud computing is a new model of computing used widely in today`s industry and society. ( p. Some of the scholars have attempted to trace the roots of Cloud Computing from business.. However. His arguments are supplemented by Hand (2007) who argues that “in cloud computing not just our data but even our software resides within the cloud. Boss et al. and the quality-stable technological support that can develop the enormous potential demand”. (p. Geelan. (2011) opines that “as we could expect. According to Low. software-as-a-service. virtualization and pay-as-you-go pricing model. “Cloud computing has spread out through the main areas related to information systems and technologies.g by means of virtualization. Hartig (2008) refers to Cloud Computing as the phenomenon of “virtualization of resources that maintains and manages itself”. What is new is that cloud computing combines and integrates these approaches. The concept is derived from the imagery of the Internet cloud. the term cloud is derived from the idea of businesses and users being able to access applications from anywhere in the world on demand”. (2010) (p. such as operating systems. and technological solutions for firms” Armbrust et al. (2009). Cloud computing is also. Misra and Mondal. distributed computing. (2007) argues that “Cloud is a pool of virtualized computer resources which allows:  The dynamic scale-in and scale-out of applications by the provisioning and deprovisioning of resources. 1007). Vol.

Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) or Simple Storage Service (S3). The operating systems and network access are not managed by the consumer.2 No. & Grance (2009): The service delivery models are: Private cloud: a cloud platform is dedicated for specific organization. Generally models are employed to study such phenomenon which cannot be seen or felt. enabling them to deploy their own software and applications in the cloud. Scholars have also used models to study cloud computing. Hotmail. storage. etc. clients are being offered with storage. applications. The Cloud Computing model constitutes three service delivery and three deployment models. The deployment models are:  Software as a Service (SaaS) Consumers purchase the ability to access and use an application or service that is hosted in the cloud. Public cloud available to public users to register and use the available infrastructure. Yahoo. Client does not require to know programming language.com can be few of good examples of PaaS  Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Consumers control and manage the systems in terms of the operating systems.but also cloud friendly devices. networking and processing of data. and Hybrid cloud: a private cloud that can extend to use resources in public clouds.  Platform as a Service (PaaS) Consumers purchase access to the platforms. such as smart phones. but do not themselves control the cloud infrastructure. (p.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) 93 . The cube represents four dimensions of cloud activities:  Location of data: Internal/ External Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Section III: Models of cloud computing Models are mental or pictorial representation of an event or phenomenon. and network connectivity. Skype etc. In IaaS. PDAs. and there might be constraints as to which applications can be deployed. VMWare vCloud are some of its examples Jericho Forum (2009) has put forth “cloud cube model to differentiate cloud formations from each other and the manner of their provision. Windows Azure. 963). database management systems. to run applications. For example email and few other services offered by Google. Google App Engine and Force. To run required service a special platform or application infrastructure is also being provided to the clients where clients can build their web based applications. Vol. Sify. Mell. the mega-computer enabled by virtualization and software as a service”.

Vol. Thus.2 No. According to Sriram and Khajeh-Hosseini (2010) “cloud computing can benefit from standardized API interfaces as generic tools that manage cloud infrastructures can be developed for all offerings. However. Misra and Mondal (2010) built two types of business models that can be drawn for companies (cloud users) willing to adopt cloud computing services. bandwidth and storage depending on needs” (p. government agencies. (2009) has enlisted the various difficulties of developing standards for effective cloud computing. From the financial point of view.   Ownership of cloud technology: Proprietary/ Open Operations: Perimeterised (Within traditional IT perimeter)/ De-perimeterised (Outiside IT perimeter) Availability of service: Insourced (By third party)/ Outsourced (By own)” Mikkilineni and Sarathy (2009) “compared the evolution of cloud computing with intelligent network infrastructure in telecommunications and proposed a Virtual Resource Mediation Layer (VRML) to support interoperability between public and private clouds. businesses and/or individuals can either provide or use services within a near limitless computing environment (storage. Grossman (2009) asserts that” the current state of standards and interoperability in cloud computing is similar to the early Internet era where each organization had its own network and data transfer was difficult. (p. These are business models for companies with an existing IT infrastructure and business models for startup companies. These were resisted by the vendors just like the fate of cloud computing”. CPU power etc) Tsaravas and Themistocleous (2011) (p. Section V: Adoption of cloud computing The emergent phenomenon of cloud computing aims at transforming the traditional way of computing by providing both software applications and hardware resources as a service. Section IV: Standardization of cloud computing There are three active bodies working towards standardizing cloud computing practices:    Cloud computing Interoperability Forum Open cloud consortium DMTF Open Cloud Standards Incubator 94 However.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . VRML is an abstraction layer that sits on top of the IaaS layer and allows applications to access CPU.26 -27). there is also a document called the open cloud manifesto in which various stake holders express why open standards will benefit cloud computing Sriram and Khajeh-Hosseini (2010). 156). which changed with the introduction of TCP and other Internet standards. 58). achieving standardized API appears to be rather politically than technically challenging”. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. memory. Keahey et al.

( 2009) presents two tools for managing cloud infrastructure: OpenNebula. such as utility computing and the smart data centre.2 No. Sotomayor et al. including both firms that specialize in cloud computing. faster.resource lease manager. 124).S. and Salesforce. According to Kossmann and Kraska (2010) “Cloud Computing promises to lower the bar for new services to become worthwhile by making things cheaper. Governments that are looking for answers against bureaucracy and complication of procedures are almost obligated to implement new technological solutions to provide public services effectively”. Section VI: Adoption of cloud computing in libraries Library and information centres are constantly in search of low-cost solutions due to low funding. Google. Scaling choices must be under control of the users. HP and Fujistu. Under such conditions.virtual infrastructure manager and Haizea.com.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . cloud computing helps optimizing the long tail of processes which are currently not supported by IT and helps to reduce the cost of those processes that indeed are already automated” (p. On the demand side. Lim et al. Vaquero et al. and automating the tasks that traditionally has also to be carried out by experts. Grossman et al. Banerjee (2009) provides an overview of technological research studies that were performed in HP labs and that adopted cloud-scale smart environments. cloud computing is being rapidly adopted by organizations in both developed countries such as the U. Vol. Su (2011) In the field of education Thomas (2011) argues that “Cloud Computing has a significant place in the higher education landscape both as a ubiquitous computing tool and a powerful platform that can enhance engagement among educational researchers and educators to understand and improve practice. (2009) developed a cloud-based infrastructure that had been optimized for performance networks and supported necessary data mining applications. and thus. increase the quality of their students’ learning outcomes”. (2009) opines that Cloud computing and web collaboration are two major concepts that underlie new and innovative developments in library 95 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Buyya et al. and traditional IT service firms. such as Amazon. Buschman and Leckie (2009) posit that “librarians need to be critical in their use of technology”. On the supply side. cloud computing is becoming a key service offering of many IT firms. in order to have control over spending and to be able to work towards maximizing return on investments”. and emerging economies such as China. Ironically. cloud computing is the savior of all the ebbs of the information technology.Various researches have been undertaken to imply cloud computing in various domains. This way. with the involvement with IT the commitment as well as services has been miserably infested. (2009) have also dealt with market-oriented resource allocation of cloud computing by leveraging third-generation Aneka enterprise grid technology. such as IBM. (2009) stresses on “feedback control service for scaling in the cloud.

Historically libraries have turned to huge capital investment on IT infrastructure for various online as well as subscription based services. (2007). easier access. including OCLC. The web has also expanded the scope of services provided by librarians. Cloud computing is important in the context of LIS education for two reasons Tomer and Alman (2011). “Migrating to a cloud-based application may turn out to be cost neutral but at the same time still have the benefit of allowing staff to concentrate on libraryspecific issues”. Instead. Cloud services allow for more optimal resource utilization. (2011) (p. OCLC web scale management services. and the Library of congress suggests that this mode of computing will have a significant impact on the configuration. The future of computing lies in cloud computing.2 No.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . From the emergence of World Wide Web. To meet their needs. (2007). Today`s consumers of information have more alternative and attractive ways of finding information than using the traditional library Sadeh. “First. has made it imperative that libraries offer their services online. Much of these tools and services will not be owned by the library but are necessary to carry out the enduring work of making library collections and services known and accessible to users. OhioLink. (2010). 27). The introduction of the internet to libraries was part of a significant shift from print/in-house-focused services to online/ externally provided services. 96 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.automation. With these success libraries are motivated for using subscription based cloud IT infrastructure. 1997. Today. availability and flexibility and decreasing processing time Hayes (2008). The growing internet usage among library users and potential users. p. and perhaps the personnel requirements of library computing in years to come”. libraries need to adopt the communication and information tools and services that users are accustomed to Sadeh. (1997). Mitchell. Recently. 6). 59-60). reliability. library and information science scholarship has remodeled the future for libraries. Wolf (2010). OCLC started Web-scale management services which can perform the in-house library operations through mutual co-operation. Libraries can work cooperatively in a flexible environment where they can share solutions to problems instead of having to reinvent the wheel at each library. (p. the library`s users are accessing the information needed in the comfort and security of their homes or in their own personal or customized spaces. the embrace of cloud computing by many organizations. scholastic predictions indicated that the library in serving future users may offer referral to “potentially appropriate points in a vast network of resources accessible through the internet or its successors” (Lancaster. It will provide all its web-scale subscribers with a vendor database which will list their details avoiding data redundancy in libraries. These predictions have to come true. recognizing that future libraries may not own their collection of resources Lancaster. Moulasion and Corrado. plus the time these users spend on the internet. whose major goal is reducing the cost of IT services while increasing processing throughput. (2010). SirsiDynix. Vol. and more effective cost reduction. Cloud computing will bring an end to the ILS server. the economics.

It also lowers the technical skills needed to create web pages. As such cloud computing has the seeds for reinvigoration of library and information science professions. sorting. Buyya et al. Now the information formats have also changed. to its adopters. (2009). so you don`t need a client on your local PC. (2009). “There is a tremendous amount of enthusiasm around cloud-based solutions and services (filtering. Internet world stats (2011). Like other cloud applications it is accessible from any internet connection.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Goscinski and Brock. vulnerabilities in cloud computing that may lead to such risks. Further. They have also emerged as an key players in the provision of internet services to the user communities Kinney (2010) During this time libraries have re-directed services both to support in-house internet use and to serve the needs of users via digital means. (2011). “A study conducted by IMAI and IMRB reveals that there are 121 million internet users in India out of which 97 million access atleast once in a month” Times of India. Moreover. and impacts and. Wolf (2010). “In World India is the third and in Asia second largest country in internet adoption”. categorization and analytics to help users manage the vast repositories of both structured and unstructured information) as well as the cost-savings and flexibility that they can provide. It is imperative that all senior technologists have a solid understanding of the ramifications of cloud computing since its impact is likely to permeate the entire IT landscape” Rhoton. through cloud computing instead of having own servers and employing personnel for its maintenance libraries can hire a vendor on a monthly charge and enjoy the benefit of same server function. Libraries are in a unique position to experiment with cloud computing given their service oriented mission and need to find appropriate solutions using limited resources. Moore (2010) asserts that “use analysis now requires a cloud computing orientation”.Other vendors can take advantage of the cloud. There seems to be an utmost use of web based services in libraries and information centres since the evolution of internet. (2010) Section VII: Security concerns of cloud computing ENISA firstly addressed the security risks related to adopting cloud computing along with the affected assets. which many libraries wouldn`t be able to create on their own.. both strategic and operational. While cloud computing has been discussed as a new technology develop that can provide several advantages. (2009).2 No. Blowers (2010). the cloud computing adoption rate is not growing as fast as expected Banerjee. Vol. 97 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Smartphones are being used by the users these days for accessing information services for fast and easy communication. Fox (2009) observes that the goals of the organization have an impact on their use of cloud solutions. Vendors can provide a remotely hosted service which allows for the creation of modular content.

complexity of an innovation can act as a barrier to implementation of new 98 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Balchandra et al. (2009). (2010) discusses high level security concerns in the cloud computing model such as data integrity. Bernd et al. 50). (2009) discuss the technical security issues arising from adopting the cloud computing model such as XML-attacks. Zhu.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .Similar efforts have been laid by CSA . Some scholars are of the opinion that Cloud computing service providers are incentivized by the profits to be made from charging consumers for access to these services. freeing up of internal resources. browsing history and other sensitive information in a single place. (2008). ease of implementation. Kresimir et al. Meiko et al. (2009). As such it is possible for malicious websites to exploit browser vulnerabilities in order to steal information associated with other existing or previous browsing sessions. (2009). Subashini (2010) discusses the security challenges of the cloud service delivery model. Hayes. and access to market information mobilization. browser`s related attacks and flooding attacks. (2009). Section VIII: Benefits of cloud computing Pyke (2009) has described the following benefits of cloud computing: scalability. better customer communications. compared to $40. firms may not have confidence in a cloud computing system because it is relatively new to them. and quality of service. Economic. The expected benefits of embedded cloud computing services include the following: speed of business communications. However. According to this report. Lin. Firms are attracted by the opportunity for reducing or eliminating costs associated with “in-house” provision of these services Buyya et al. efficient coordination among firms. Buyya et al. Thus. (p. (2009) discuss the security SLA`s specifications and objective relating to data locations. simplification and convenience of the way computing-related services are delivered seem to be among the main drivers of cloud computing Erdogmus. such as a logged in email account or online banking session.. segregation and data recovery. get it on paper”. Trappler (2010) asserts that “if it is in the cloud.. Fu. IT research firm Forrester published the first industry report that offered a sizing of the cloud computing market. It may take users a long time to understand and implement the new system. (2010) raises issues concerning the “security vulnerabilities existing in the cloud platform”.. Web browsers generally store all of a user’s saved passwords. is using the skilled practitioners. Dasmalchi. “Providing IT services in the cloud shifts much of this expense to a pay-as-you-go-model and consequently offers significant cost advantages according to one view”.7 billion in 2010. Vol. Armbrust et al. the market is expected to reach $241 billion in 2020.2 No. Many see huge potential of the technology in reducing the cost of IT to organizations and freeing them from the expense and hassle of having to install and maintain applications locally Leavitt. (2009). (2010). The shift to Cloud computing moved much of a user’s normal activity to the Web browser. payment and privacy of sensitive information.

Potential Cloud organisations and vendors need to be aware that it may become easier for attackers to threaten clouds by moving towards a single cloud interface. they can also rely on the software provider to carry out all updates. Madhubala. “The elastic aspect of cloud computing allows applications to scale and grow without needing traditional ‘fork lift’ upgrades”. Tsaravas and Marinos (2011) Despite the potential benefits and revenues that could be gained from the cloud computing model. Further cloud computing will given even the smallest organization the ability to use the power of network computing within a minimal infrastructure. (2010). service portability. Vol.. With cloud computing we are getting closer to the reality of purchasing computer power. Wolf. the model still has a lot of open issues that impact the model creditability and pervasiveness. (2010) Katz (2009) focuses on many areas where the cloud may impinge on education. meaning that librarians can make use of services without incurring any cost for their libraries”. availability and reliability of data. cloud computing is not an exception in terms of trust and security issues. Once data are outsourced to a third-party cloud provider. just like they did before the digital age. R. research has shown that there are some major obstacles which hinder the adoption and growth of Cloud computing. SLA management. Grundy and Muller.2 No.(2010) “As computer manufacturers. thereby allowing their own employees to take care of other obligations in lieu of monitoring version changes and upgrades. As every technological concept.287). many users may fail to realize that they are in fact using an Internet based service. Premkumar et al.Moulasion and Corrado. and cloud security are well known open research problems in the cloud computing model. Morsy. employers and universities deploy cloud based tools on desktops. (1994). Furthermore.technology. data management. (p. quite a few of the cloud-based software platforms are available for free. He advocates that because companies might be storing documents which should not be made public.elasticity engines. and continue to function when the user is not connected to the Internet. Section IX: Downsides of cloud computing However.(2011) “the services that libraries can acquire through the use of cloud computing platforms may indeed be valuable. several concerns arise about security. Vendor lock-in. . (2011) “If librarians can save on buying and maintaining servers. This risk of confusion will likely increase when cloud based applications lack any recognizable browser branding. (2012) (p.. they can save their parent institution money. multi-tenancy and isolation.” Ramgovind et al. but 99 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Depending on the service. According to Moulasion and Corrado. there are reasons for concern about what can happen to the information. complexity factor is usually negatively affected.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . This will free libraries from the shackles of IT management and allow us to focus on services and resources. 4-5).

even if bandwidth is not currently at a premium. 2009.. 2009.. Table 2. 2008. Armbrust et al. Nurmi. Bhardwaj et al. 2010. Anandasivam & Weinhardt.. Shigeo and Nagamori. Saya et al. Overview of cloud computing research ISSUES Adoption CONTRIBUTORS Hazelhurst. Ramireddy.2 No..2008. et al. 2009. Mikkilineni and Sarathy. Ratogi.the cost of internet access.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . et al. Holger and Matzke.2010.2009.. 2010. Velte et al. 2009. 2009.. Matthews. 2009.. Dikaiakos et al. Keahey 2009. et al. 2011 Buyya et al. Vaquero et al. 2009. et al. Pueschel & Neumann. Baars & Kemper. can become a considerable hurdle to effective provision of services”.2009.. 5)... Jericho forum (2009). Mitshuharu.2009. Yeo et al. Lenk. Vol.2009. elo. Harmer.2009. Grossman. 2009. Kisker..2010. Furht and Escalante. Wilson 2009. Delic and Riley. Briscoe. Sun. et al. Mika and Tummar Chun and Maniatis 2009. Zeng etal.2009. et al. 2009.Stefan. 2009. Joint et al. 2009. Dodda et al. Jan. Koehler and Anandasivam. Matthew and Spraetz. 2009. 2009. 2009. 100 Benefits Business Impediments Model Pricing Privacy Standards Security Storage Technology Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Sugimoto. 2007.. et al. Ohlman.2009. Leimeister et al.. et al. 2009. (p. Youseff et al. 2010. 2010. Askhoj.2009. 2008. Weinhardt et al.2010. Ried. 2009. Pascal. Assuncao et al.. 2010. Lim et al..2010. Pearson. Vaquero et al. Wolf......2010.. 2009 Bernstein.2010.. Briscoe and Marions. 2010. 2009.

Figure 2. a comparative study of cloud computing.RESULTS Popularity of the terms and search To analyse the popularity of “cloud computing” searching was done on Google Trends.2 No. libraries and online services was done on Google Insights to determine the interest areas worldwide. It revealed that cloud computing has gained tremendous popularity in India.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Searches for cloud computing on Google. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. taken from Google Trends 101 Further. Also there is high scope of research on cloud computing in conjunction with libraries in near future.com. Vol. During 2010 onwards it was at its peak. It revealed that the term gained momentum post-2009.

Searches for cloud computing from Google books Ngram Viewer 102 It reveals that post 2006 there has been sharp increase in the usage of the term in books. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Vol. It revealed that post 2006 there has been sudden increase in the usage of the term in books.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Table 4.2 No. Searches for cloud computing taken from Google Insights To analyse the average use of the term “cloud computing” in books searching was done on Google Books Ngram Viewer.Figure 3.

It revealed that conference proceedings were the best source of dissemination of the concept on cloud computing Figure 6. Figure 5.Distribution of articles by year An analytical study of the references was done to find out the most productive year for cloud computing literature.2 No. Distribution of articles by year 30 20 10 2 0 Distribution of articles by publication 19 15 18 20 22 10 12 14 12 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Vol. Distribution of articles by year 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2 1 12 15 Distribution of articles by year 26 29 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 103 Distribution of articles by publication To analyse the most productive sources for “cloud computing” literature an analysis of the available literature was done. We found that during 2010 maximum number of literature was written.

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