Cloud Computing in Conjunction with Libraries: Descriptive Literature Review

Mayank Yuvaraj Junior Research Fellow Dept. of LIS, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, India mayank.yuvaraj@gmail.com Ajay Pratap Singh Head & Associate Professor Dept. of LIS, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, India apsingh_73@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Cloud computing is the essence of future computing needs that has emerged to be a savior for library professionals. It is an emerging technology characterized by an element of novelty where the research community has recently embarked. Since, 2008 explosively increasing amount of research has been conducted. This paper presents a descriptive literature review of cloud computing paradigm from vivid perspectives. There has been drastic shift in the trinity of libraries: books which have become electronic, user which prefers web resources than print and the staff which has become cybrarian. In this changed library landscape there is need to shift our competencies for the challenges offered by IT. Availability of independent computing components on demand like cloud as CPU, Storage in cloud has removed the web of IT and librarians can focus on their mission and services. In this paper we analyze the normative literature to extract a functional methodology or working model of cloud computing to be implied in libraries. KEYWORDS: Cloud computing, Literature review, Libraries, Cloud computing in libraries

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INTRODUCTION With the encroachment of IT in library services the commitment of library and information professionals to provide people with information has come to stake. Library and information professionals are involved in the business of buying, configuring, installing, and maintaining servers which has nothing to do with the day-to-day library mission and services. One must engage in such affairs unless we absolutely must do so. In such circumstances Cloud computing has emerged as blessings in disguise that has brought decentralization to the computing world. It is concerned with the abstraction of software, services and storage facilities provided the access to network. The concept of cloud computing has sprung from the “intergalactic computer network” developed by J.C.R Licklider in 1960s where he wanted that everyone could use computer and anyone could get data irrespective of location and time in world. In 1961 John McCarthy, a computer scientist predicted that someday the computational power will be offered as a public service, such as water and electricity. This concept however, declined in early 1970`s due to the lack of physical infrastructure that could satisfy the needs of implementation of cloud

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technology. The relative novelty and exploding growth of cloud computing makes it an exciting area for research. The present paper aims to assess the state of cloud computing research. METHODOLOGY Defining any term seeks to study the qualitative and quantitative behavior. Henceforth, the four methods of literature review viz. narrative review, descriptive review, vote counting and meta analysis has to be given the same treatment. King and He32 have placed the four methods in a “qualitative-quantitative continuum”. Figure 1. Qualitative-quantitative continuum

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Narrative review is the traditional method of reassessment of literature slanted towards qualitative behavior of the literature. According to King and He32 this method is conducted by “verbally describing the past studies, focusing on theories and frameworks, elementary factors and their research outcomes, regarding a hypothesized relationship. However, Yang and Tate (2009) argues that “there is no consensus towards a standardized procedure of narrative review. How to conduct a narrative review largely depends on the reviewer’s personal preference, thus this approach is easily vulnerable to subjectivity”. (p. 808). It is not rare for “two reviewers to arrive at rather different conclusion from the same general body of literature” (Guzzo et al., 1987, p. 408). Descriptive review focuses on revealing an interpretable pattern from the existing literature (Guzzo et al., 1987). King and He (2005) surmises that descriptive review studies “produces some quantification, often in the form of frequency analysis, such as publication time, research methodology, research outcomes etc. Such a review method often has a systematic procedure including searching, filtering and classifying processes. First a reviewer needs to

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The facets of cloud computing is a dawning research area. All the Web based references mentioned in 88 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. LITERATURE SEARCH Literature search is a pre-requisite for reviewing literature on any subject. 809). p. 809). Most likely it is applied to generate insights from a series of experiments”. which makes it next to impossible to examine any variables. The premise underlying this approach is that “repeated results in the same direction across multiple studies. Then the reviewer treats an individual study as one data record and identifies trends and patterns among the papers surveyed .conduct a comprehensive literature search to collect as many relevant papers as possible in an investigated area. according to Yang and Tate (2009) “focusing on limited outlets cannot be justified for a literature review on cloud computing as this is a recent phenomenon which just emerged two years ago. It attempts to explore pertinent literature through computer or manual searches. For most of the concurrent phenomena Information Science researchers and scholars are using online databases as their first literature collecting strategy. The incentive of this approach is to generate a much less judgmental and subjective literature review upon a specific research context. Since. p. In most cases. “Qualitative studies have to be excluded by a meta-analysis due to its extremely quantitative nature.2 No. journals. may be more powerful evidence than a single significant result” (King and He. (Yang and Tate. search engines and repositories. “Here a tally is made of the frequency with which existing research findings support a particular proposition. p. p. (King and He . Only similar quantitative studies are collected for a meta-analysis.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . 2009. ” (Yang and Tate. p. 2005. it may specifically examine the relationships between certain Independent Variables (IVs) and Dependent Variables (DVs) derived from existing research findings. or theories. Traditionally this is done by scanning some prominent journals and conferences exclusively dedicated to the subject. 668). 668). therefore the publication channels are still largely scattered” (p. Meta-analysis aims at statistically providing supports to a research topic by “combining and analyzing the quantitative results of many empirical studies” (King and He. Efforts were laid to get information from online databases. 808) Vote counting is generally used to “draw qualitative inferences upon focal relationships by combining individual research findings”. As the concept is still in its infancy which has not fully ripened so it was difficult to fetch information from the library collections. 809). Vol. Hence due to an element of novelty it was difficult to find plethora of information on this topic. cloud computing arena is one of the sprouting sectors of computing world.The outcome of such a review is often claimed to be representative of the state of art of a research domain. even some of them are non-significant. Under such circumstances descriptive review is the most appropriate one. 2005.” (p. correlations. However. 2009. 2005. 667).

attempts have been undertaken to review literature relevant to present study. accessibility. Moreover.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .com Google books Google scholar Google analytics BASE JURN Total papers or documents 132 Relevant papers or documents 54 Online databases Institutional repositories or archives PDF documents search PPT search 20 5 80 48 89 60 75 38 55 Search engines Specialized searching Academic search engines 54 31 118 46 INFORMATION FILTERING PROCESS Out of the total information retrieved from the web-sources two methods were employed to get the desired information on cloud computing. However due to the dynamicity of web they may not be functional now.com Scribd.com Google.com Pdfqueen. it is almost impossible to review all the literature available on a concerned subject.com Scirus. Impediments like language. the title and abstract of the document was scanned properly and those found to be relevant were take out. the full text of the documents were reviewed and the Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.2 No. Efforts have been laid to mention only those web addresses which are likely to work during this work but there are possibility that some links may not work. Vol.org NOPR DJLIT Pdfgeni.com Freefullpdf.rclis. Firstly.net Authorstream. Secondly.com Mamma. In spite of these.this work were retrieved during research period of September 2011 to March 2012.com Dogpile.com Slideshare. Table 1. Keyword and abstract searching was done on following web-resources TOOLS o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o SOURCES ACM Digital library IEEE Xplore Proquest (ABI/INFORM) ScienceDirect (Elsevier) Eprints. time and proficiency keeps a check on it.

providing a description. In May 1997. the University of California. or theory. First research initiatives were started by Google and IBM in cooperation with “six American universities: Carnegie Mellon. a literature review surveys scholarly articles. The great idea remained in history pages until it was put in application by salesforce. Literature review is an essential approach to “conceptualize research areas and survey and synthesize prior research” (Webster and Watson. “The history of cloud computing faced huge competition only when Amazon started its cloud-based Amazon web services”.(1960s-pre internet bubble era): During this period core ideas of utility and grid computing developed. Cyberpassionteam (2011). The term cloud computing was coined in 2007. NetCentric tried to trademark “cloud computing” but was abandoned in April 1999.” Substantial amount of literature relating to cloud computing was collected. conference proceedings) relevant to a particular issue.  Pre Cloud Phase. p.g. dissertations. Stanford University. books and other sources (e. Microsoft in 2008 developed cloud based Azure services platform. Another feather in the cap was added by Google that developed Google Apps entirely based on architecture of cloud computing. The purpose of a literature review is to offer an overview of significant literature published on a topic.com which used a simple website to deliver its enterprise application to users. summary. Foster et al.(2008) compare and contrasted cloud computing with grid computing and inferred that “cloud computing is an evolved version of grid computing”.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) 90 . Lohr (2008). typically referring to a joint hardware and software deployment concept. area of research. “Cloud computing evolution can be split into three phases. the University of Maryland and the University of Washington”. For convenience the review study can be divided into various sections: Section I: Transition to cloud computing The roots of cloud computing can be traced to the days of mainframe computers (1960s) when the concept of utility computing came to light where the computing power could be split into metered service like power and telephone supply. Vol. According to Lyons (2010) “Not to be confused with a book review. Banerjee (2011):  Idea Phase. 2002. Berkeley. To keep pace with the technology.2 No. xiii). scanned and reviewed. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.(1999-2006): Internet developed as a mechanism to provide application as a service. and critical evaluation of each work. LITERATURE REVIEW Most challenging task of a research study is to review the past related literature to extract a functional methodology or working model for a research problem.documents rich in information content having no sketchy ideas dealing fundamentally with the research problem were finally taken into consideration for the research work. The first public usage of the term “cloud” as a metaphor for the internet in a paper published by MIT in 1996.

or the network functioned. (p. and Salesforce. Cloud Phase.” Sultan (2010) argues that “A study by McKinsey (the global management consulting firm) found that there are 22 possible separate definitions of cloud computing. Madhubala. It is a style of computing in which IT-related capabilities are provided as a service allowing users to access technology enabled services from the internet without knowledge of.” According to Mohamed (2009) “Cloud computing has evolved through a number of phases which included grid and utility computing. and Software as a Service (SaaS). applicationcentric environment. 109). grid computing and distributed computing.” Section II: The concept of cloud computing Plethora of interpretations has been contested on the conceptualization of Cloud Computing. 392). Infinite computing resources would be available for any need at costs approaching zero. Basically cloud is a metaphor for internet and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals”. expertise with. Contrary to above arguments.till date) Cloud computing became popular and the sub classification IaaS. several prominent technology companies. PaaS & SaaS got formalized. Users would not need to know or care about how the computers. cloud Computing delivers scalable IT services via the Internet on a payper-use basis” (p.(2007. (2012) put forth her view that “Cloud computing is a paradigm that focuses on sharing data and computations over a scalable network of nodes.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) 91 . I can't think of anything that isn't cloud computing with all of these announcements. The computer industry is the only industry that is more fashion-driven than women's fashion. For IT.2 No. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. it`s just an evolution of infrastructure efficiency. or control over the technology infrastructure that supports them. application service position (ASP). SUN. It is first initiated by Amazon. (p. They are joined by Gardner (2012) who argues that “cloud computing is often regarded as a revolution. Voas & Zhang (2009)”. Out of these in fact.” Commenting on the evolution of the cloud landscape Yang and Hsu (2011) concludes that “Cloud computing services first emerged as an IT paradigm five years ago. such as Google. their software. soon followed”. But to IT. Weinhardt et al. scholars like Wohl (2009) perceive “Cloud Computing to be a vague term for a very vague and distant future in which computing would occur in a few remote locations without the need for very much human intervention. But. (2008) find “Cloud computing as a style of computing where massively scalable IT-enabled capabilities are delivered as a service to external customers using internet technologies”. Further. R. Vol. According to Farber (2008) “The interesting thing about cloud computing is that we've redefined cloud computing to include everything that we already do.com.” On the other hand. IBM. 286). it`s all about ways to improve delivery of the server-centric. But the overarching concept of delivering computing resources through a global network is rooted in the sixties. no common standard or definition for cloud computing seems to exist Grossman (2009). Oracle. (2009) argues that “combining elements of existing technologies such as virtualization. Plummer et al.

and we access everything not only through our PCs 92 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. ” Under such circumstances there is a general agreement of scholars like Buyya et al. Chinyao. Misra and Mondal. “cloud computing is not a fundamentally new paradigm. the convenience.  The monitoring of resource utilization to support dynamic load-balancing and reallocations of applications and resources”. such as utility computing. Inspired by similar thoughts Low. ( p. Mingchang (2011) Cloud computing provides the opportunity of flexibility and adaptability to attract the market on demand. Cloud computing is also. defined as a collection of disembodied services accessible from anywhere using any mobile device with an internet-based connection. The concept is derived from the imagery of the Internet cloud. (2010). Hartig (2008) refers to Cloud Computing as the phenomenon of “virtualization of resources that maintains and manages itself”. (p. such as operating systems. In nutshell. software-as-a-service. in which the imagery of a cloud is traditionally used to represent the internet or some large networked environment. (2007) argues that “Cloud is a pool of virtualized computer resources which allows:  The dynamic scale-in and scale-out of applications by the provisioning and deprovisioning of resources. Chen and Wu. What is new is that cloud computing combines and integrates these approaches. according to Weiss (2007). Chen. Sultan. According to Low. distributed computing. and technological solutions for firms” Armbrust et al. Kossmann and Kraska (2010) have put forth three important principles that depend on each other and can only provide additional value if implemented in concert These are: automation. e.g by means of virtualization. the term cloud is derived from the idea of businesses and users being able to access applications from anywhere in the world on demand”. Geelan. (2011) opines that “as we could expect.However. (2009) argues that “Cloud computing is the infrastructural paradigm shift that is sweeping across the Enterprise IT world that has as many definitions as there are squares on a chess-board”. virtualization and pay-as-you-go pricing model. 1007). Some of the scholars have attempted to trace the roots of Cloud Computing from business. His arguments are supplemented by Hand (2007) who argues that “in cloud computing not just our data but even our software resides within the cloud. 122). Erdogmus. Boss et al.4). 55). Pyke (2009) that “cloud computing services can provide the user seamlessly. and the quality-stable technological support that can develop the enormous potential demand”.” (p. (p. “Cloud computing has spread out through the main areas related to information systems and technologies. Vol. application software. However. (2009). (2010).2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .. It draws on existing technologies and approaches. (2010) (p. 17). and centralized data centres. Yahsueh and Wu. He opined that cloud computing is a new model of computing used widely in today`s industry and society.2 No. (2009).

the mega-computer enabled by virtualization and software as a service”.com can be few of good examples of PaaS  Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Consumers control and manage the systems in terms of the operating systems. but do not themselves control the cloud infrastructure. and Hybrid cloud: a private cloud that can extend to use resources in public clouds. Section III: Models of cloud computing Models are mental or pictorial representation of an event or phenomenon. clients are being offered with storage. to run applications. database management systems. 963). Mell. storage.  Platform as a Service (PaaS) Consumers purchase access to the platforms. such as smart phones. Windows Azure. PDAs. Scholars have also used models to study cloud computing. Generally models are employed to study such phenomenon which cannot be seen or felt. and network connectivity. enabling them to deploy their own software and applications in the cloud. Sify. Public cloud available to public users to register and use the available infrastructure. VMWare vCloud are some of its examples Jericho Forum (2009) has put forth “cloud cube model to differentiate cloud formations from each other and the manner of their provision. Yahoo. Client does not require to know programming language. The cube represents four dimensions of cloud activities:  Location of data: Internal/ External Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. To run required service a special platform or application infrastructure is also being provided to the clients where clients can build their web based applications. Hotmail. Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) or Simple Storage Service (S3). The Cloud Computing model constitutes three service delivery and three deployment models. Skype etc. and there might be constraints as to which applications can be deployed. The operating systems and network access are not managed by the consumer. etc. Vol. networking and processing of data. For example email and few other services offered by Google. applications. In IaaS. The deployment models are:  Software as a Service (SaaS) Consumers purchase the ability to access and use an application or service that is hosted in the cloud.2 No.but also cloud friendly devices.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) 93 . Google App Engine and Force. & Grance (2009): The service delivery models are: Private cloud: a cloud platform is dedicated for specific organization. (p.

However. Grossman (2009) asserts that” the current state of standards and interoperability in cloud computing is similar to the early Internet era where each organization had its own network and data transfer was difficult. VRML is an abstraction layer that sits on top of the IaaS layer and allows applications to access CPU. These are business models for companies with an existing IT infrastructure and business models for startup companies. CPU power etc) Tsaravas and Themistocleous (2011) (p. These were resisted by the vendors just like the fate of cloud computing”. (2009) has enlisted the various difficulties of developing standards for effective cloud computing. Misra and Mondal (2010) built two types of business models that can be drawn for companies (cloud users) willing to adopt cloud computing services.26 -27). memory.   Ownership of cloud technology: Proprietary/ Open Operations: Perimeterised (Within traditional IT perimeter)/ De-perimeterised (Outiside IT perimeter) Availability of service: Insourced (By third party)/ Outsourced (By own)” Mikkilineni and Sarathy (2009) “compared the evolution of cloud computing with intelligent network infrastructure in telecommunications and proposed a Virtual Resource Mediation Layer (VRML) to support interoperability between public and private clouds. there is also a document called the open cloud manifesto in which various stake holders express why open standards will benefit cloud computing Sriram and Khajeh-Hosseini (2010). businesses and/or individuals can either provide or use services within a near limitless computing environment (storage. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. From the financial point of view. government agencies. (p. bandwidth and storage depending on needs” (p. 58). which changed with the introduction of TCP and other Internet standards. Keahey et al. Vol. 156). Section V: Adoption of cloud computing The emergent phenomenon of cloud computing aims at transforming the traditional way of computing by providing both software applications and hardware resources as a service.2 No. achieving standardized API appears to be rather politically than technically challenging”. Thus.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . According to Sriram and Khajeh-Hosseini (2010) “cloud computing can benefit from standardized API interfaces as generic tools that manage cloud infrastructures can be developed for all offerings. Section IV: Standardization of cloud computing There are three active bodies working towards standardizing cloud computing practices:    Cloud computing Interoperability Forum Open cloud consortium DMTF Open Cloud Standards Incubator 94 However.

Google. HP and Fujistu. with the involvement with IT the commitment as well as services has been miserably infested. and Salesforce. such as utility computing and the smart data centre. cloud computing is becoming a key service offering of many IT firms. ( 2009) presents two tools for managing cloud infrastructure: OpenNebula. faster. Scaling choices must be under control of the users. (2009) developed a cloud-based infrastructure that had been optimized for performance networks and supported necessary data mining applications. and thus.virtual infrastructure manager and Haizea. On the demand side. and traditional IT service firms.S. including both firms that specialize in cloud computing. This way. Buyya et al. 124). Lim et al.Various researches have been undertaken to imply cloud computing in various domains. (2009) have also dealt with market-oriented resource allocation of cloud computing by leveraging third-generation Aneka enterprise grid technology. Vol. Governments that are looking for answers against bureaucracy and complication of procedures are almost obligated to implement new technological solutions to provide public services effectively”. and emerging economies such as China. cloud computing is being rapidly adopted by organizations in both developed countries such as the U. Ironically. (2009) stresses on “feedback control service for scaling in the cloud. Under such conditions. According to Kossmann and Kraska (2010) “Cloud Computing promises to lower the bar for new services to become worthwhile by making things cheaper. (2009) opines that Cloud computing and web collaboration are two major concepts that underlie new and innovative developments in library 95 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. increase the quality of their students’ learning outcomes”.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . and automating the tasks that traditionally has also to be carried out by experts.2 No.com. Section VI: Adoption of cloud computing in libraries Library and information centres are constantly in search of low-cost solutions due to low funding. On the supply side. cloud computing is the savior of all the ebbs of the information technology. Sotomayor et al. such as IBM. such as Amazon. Buschman and Leckie (2009) posit that “librarians need to be critical in their use of technology”. Su (2011) In the field of education Thomas (2011) argues that “Cloud Computing has a significant place in the higher education landscape both as a ubiquitous computing tool and a powerful platform that can enhance engagement among educational researchers and educators to understand and improve practice. in order to have control over spending and to be able to work towards maximizing return on investments”.resource lease manager. cloud computing helps optimizing the long tail of processes which are currently not supported by IT and helps to reduce the cost of those processes that indeed are already automated” (p. Banerjee (2009) provides an overview of technological research studies that were performed in HP labs and that adopted cloud-scale smart environments. Grossman et al. Vaquero et al.

Much of these tools and services will not be owned by the library but are necessary to carry out the enduring work of making library collections and services known and accessible to users. Mitchell.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . libraries need to adopt the communication and information tools and services that users are accustomed to Sadeh. (2007). availability and flexibility and decreasing processing time Hayes (2008). (2010). and the Library of congress suggests that this mode of computing will have a significant impact on the configuration. 6). SirsiDynix. 1997. Today`s consumers of information have more alternative and attractive ways of finding information than using the traditional library Sadeh. OCLC web scale management services. OCLC started Web-scale management services which can perform the in-house library operations through mutual co-operation. and more effective cost reduction. OhioLink. 59-60). easier access. Historically libraries have turned to huge capital investment on IT infrastructure for various online as well as subscription based services. It will provide all its web-scale subscribers with a vendor database which will list their details avoiding data redundancy in libraries. Recently. “Migrating to a cloud-based application may turn out to be cost neutral but at the same time still have the benefit of allowing staff to concentrate on libraryspecific issues”. Libraries can work cooperatively in a flexible environment where they can share solutions to problems instead of having to reinvent the wheel at each library. With these success libraries are motivated for using subscription based cloud IT infrastructure. To meet their needs. whose major goal is reducing the cost of IT services while increasing processing throughput. Today. The web has also expanded the scope of services provided by librarians. (1997). “First. and perhaps the personnel requirements of library computing in years to come”. reliability. has made it imperative that libraries offer their services online. the economics. From the emergence of World Wide Web. These predictions have to come true. Vol. scholastic predictions indicated that the library in serving future users may offer referral to “potentially appropriate points in a vast network of resources accessible through the internet or its successors” (Lancaster. p. recognizing that future libraries may not own their collection of resources Lancaster. (p. (2011) (p. Wolf (2010). Cloud computing is important in the context of LIS education for two reasons Tomer and Alman (2011).automation. the embrace of cloud computing by many organizations. 27). Cloud computing will bring an end to the ILS server. (2007). 96 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. plus the time these users spend on the internet. the library`s users are accessing the information needed in the comfort and security of their homes or in their own personal or customized spaces. library and information science scholarship has remodeled the future for libraries.2 No. Cloud services allow for more optimal resource utilization. (2010). The growing internet usage among library users and potential users. Instead. Moulasion and Corrado. The introduction of the internet to libraries was part of a significant shift from print/in-house-focused services to online/ externally provided services. The future of computing lies in cloud computing. including OCLC.

Smartphones are being used by the users these days for accessing information services for fast and easy communication. They have also emerged as an key players in the provision of internet services to the user communities Kinney (2010) During this time libraries have re-directed services both to support in-house internet use and to serve the needs of users via digital means. It is imperative that all senior technologists have a solid understanding of the ramifications of cloud computing since its impact is likely to permeate the entire IT landscape” Rhoton. Goscinski and Brock. Buyya et al. As such cloud computing has the seeds for reinvigoration of library and information science professions. categorization and analytics to help users manage the vast repositories of both structured and unstructured information) as well as the cost-savings and flexibility that they can provide. “There is a tremendous amount of enthusiasm around cloud-based solutions and services (filtering. Moreover. through cloud computing instead of having own servers and employing personnel for its maintenance libraries can hire a vendor on a monthly charge and enjoy the benefit of same server function. Further. “A study conducted by IMAI and IMRB reveals that there are 121 million internet users in India out of which 97 million access atleast once in a month” Times of India. “In World India is the third and in Asia second largest country in internet adoption”.. (2009). so you don`t need a client on your local PC. Vendors can provide a remotely hosted service which allows for the creation of modular content. Internet world stats (2011). Blowers (2010). While cloud computing has been discussed as a new technology develop that can provide several advantages.2 No.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Fox (2009) observes that the goals of the organization have an impact on their use of cloud solutions. It also lowers the technical skills needed to create web pages.Other vendors can take advantage of the cloud. Moore (2010) asserts that “use analysis now requires a cloud computing orientation”. There seems to be an utmost use of web based services in libraries and information centres since the evolution of internet. and impacts and. (2010) Section VII: Security concerns of cloud computing ENISA firstly addressed the security risks related to adopting cloud computing along with the affected assets. (2009). both strategic and operational. the cloud computing adoption rate is not growing as fast as expected Banerjee. Vol. which many libraries wouldn`t be able to create on their own. sorting. (2011). vulnerabilities in cloud computing that may lead to such risks. Wolf (2010). Like other cloud applications it is accessible from any internet connection. Libraries are in a unique position to experiment with cloud computing given their service oriented mission and need to find appropriate solutions using limited resources. Now the information formats have also changed. (2009). 97 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. to its adopters.

As such it is possible for malicious websites to exploit browser vulnerabilities in order to steal information associated with other existing or previous browsing sessions. Many see huge potential of the technology in reducing the cost of IT to organizations and freeing them from the expense and hassle of having to install and maintain applications locally Leavitt. simplification and convenience of the way computing-related services are delivered seem to be among the main drivers of cloud computing Erdogmus. Firms are attracted by the opportunity for reducing or eliminating costs associated with “in-house” provision of these services Buyya et al. and access to market information mobilization. get it on paper”. (2009) discuss the security SLA`s specifications and objective relating to data locations. Section VIII: Benefits of cloud computing Pyke (2009) has described the following benefits of cloud computing: scalability.7 billion in 2010. compared to $40. efficient coordination among firms. (2010). firms may not have confidence in a cloud computing system because it is relatively new to them. Web browsers generally store all of a user’s saved passwords. Subashini (2010) discusses the security challenges of the cloud service delivery model. Lin. (2009). (p. Zhu. Hayes. The shift to Cloud computing moved much of a user’s normal activity to the Web browser. Fu. Buyya et al. Kresimir et al. Trappler (2010) asserts that “if it is in the cloud. the market is expected to reach $241 billion in 2020.. (2009).. However. According to this report. IT research firm Forrester published the first industry report that offered a sizing of the cloud computing market. Balchandra et al. Bernd et al. freeing up of internal resources. (2008). (2010) discusses high level security concerns in the cloud computing model such as data integrity. payment and privacy of sensitive information. Meiko et al. Economic. is using the skilled practitioners.. better customer communications. browsing history and other sensitive information in a single place. segregation and data recovery. Thus. Dasmalchi.2 No.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . (2009). (2009) discuss the technical security issues arising from adopting the cloud computing model such as XML-attacks. Some scholars are of the opinion that Cloud computing service providers are incentivized by the profits to be made from charging consumers for access to these services. ease of implementation. (2010) raises issues concerning the “security vulnerabilities existing in the cloud platform”. such as a logged in email account or online banking session. “Providing IT services in the cloud shifts much of this expense to a pay-as-you-go-model and consequently offers significant cost advantages according to one view”. (2009). The expected benefits of embedded cloud computing services include the following: speed of business communications. and quality of service. (2009). 50). browser`s related attacks and flooding attacks. complexity of an innovation can act as a barrier to implementation of new 98 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. It may take users a long time to understand and implement the new system. Armbrust et al. Vol.Similar efforts have been laid by CSA .

Morsy. Section IX: Downsides of cloud computing However.(2011) “the services that libraries can acquire through the use of cloud computing platforms may indeed be valuable. meaning that librarians can make use of services without incurring any cost for their libraries”. Further cloud computing will given even the smallest organization the ability to use the power of network computing within a minimal infrastructure. research has shown that there are some major obstacles which hinder the adoption and growth of Cloud computing. the model still has a lot of open issues that impact the model creditability and pervasiveness. As every technological concept.technology. many users may fail to realize that they are in fact using an Internet based service. . (2011) “If librarians can save on buying and maintaining servers. This risk of confusion will likely increase when cloud based applications lack any recognizable browser branding. (2010) Katz (2009) focuses on many areas where the cloud may impinge on education.. Furthermore. cloud computing is not an exception in terms of trust and security issues. several concerns arise about security. employers and universities deploy cloud based tools on desktops. Vendor lock-in. Once data are outsourced to a third-party cloud provider. and cloud security are well known open research problems in the cloud computing model.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . but 99 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. (2010).elasticity engines.Moulasion and Corrado. (2012) (p. thereby allowing their own employees to take care of other obligations in lieu of monitoring version changes and upgrades. This will free libraries from the shackles of IT management and allow us to focus on services and resources. (p. Madhubala. Vol. complexity factor is usually negatively affected. Depending on the service.287). He advocates that because companies might be storing documents which should not be made public.. Tsaravas and Marinos (2011) Despite the potential benefits and revenues that could be gained from the cloud computing model. there are reasons for concern about what can happen to the information.(2010) “As computer manufacturers. and continue to function when the user is not connected to the Internet. they can also rely on the software provider to carry out all updates. availability and reliability of data. (1994). 4-5). quite a few of the cloud-based software platforms are available for free. According to Moulasion and Corrado. With cloud computing we are getting closer to the reality of purchasing computer power.” Ramgovind et al. they can save their parent institution money. Grundy and Muller. “The elastic aspect of cloud computing allows applications to scale and grow without needing traditional ‘fork lift’ upgrades”. service portability. R. Wolf.2 No. just like they did before the digital age. multi-tenancy and isolation. SLA management. Potential Cloud organisations and vendors need to be aware that it may become easier for attackers to threaten clouds by moving towards a single cloud interface. Premkumar et al. data management.

Zeng etal.the cost of internet access. Wolf.2009. 2008. 2009. 2008... Mika and Tummar Chun and Maniatis 2009.. Shigeo and Nagamori. 2009. 2009. 2009. Briscoe. Sugimoto. even if bandwidth is not currently at a premium. Mitshuharu. et al. 2011 Buyya et al.. Jericho forum (2009). 2009. 2009. 2010. Pueschel & Neumann. 5). elo. Askhoj.2010. 2009.. et al.2010.2009. Pascal.2009. 2009. Armbrust et al. Saya et al. Ramireddy.2010. Mikkilineni and Sarathy. Harmer. Assuncao et al.2010. 2010.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Matthew and Spraetz..2009. Overview of cloud computing research ISSUES Adoption CONTRIBUTORS Hazelhurst. Anandasivam & Weinhardt.. Weinhardt et al.2009. Holger and Matzke.. Lenk. Delic and Riley. 2010. 2009. Table 2.2 No. et al.. Dikaiakos et al. Ried. Grossman.2009. Dodda et al. Ratogi. 2009. Nurmi. 2009. et al. 100 Benefits Business Impediments Model Pricing Privacy Standards Security Storage Technology Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. (p. et al.. Pearson. 2010. 2009. 2009. Yeo et al.Stefan. Bhardwaj et al.... et al..2008. can become a considerable hurdle to effective provision of services”. Keahey 2009.. Sun. Furht and Escalante.. 2009. 2009 Bernstein. 2009. 2009.. Wilson 2009. Kisker.2010. Lim et al.. Jan. et al.. et al.2009. 2010. 2007. Vol. 2010. Velte et al. 2009.2010. Joint et al.2009. Leimeister et al.. Briscoe and Marions. Youseff et al. Matthews. Ohlman.. Vaquero et al. Baars & Kemper. Vaquero et al. Koehler and Anandasivam..

2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .RESULTS Popularity of the terms and search To analyse the popularity of “cloud computing” searching was done on Google Trends. taken from Google Trends 101 Further. Also there is high scope of research on cloud computing in conjunction with libraries in near future.com.2 No. libraries and online services was done on Google Insights to determine the interest areas worldwide. It revealed that the term gained momentum post-2009. Figure 2. a comparative study of cloud computing. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. It revealed that cloud computing has gained tremendous popularity in India. Vol. During 2010 onwards it was at its peak. Searches for cloud computing on Google.

Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.2 No.Figure 3. Searches for cloud computing taken from Google Insights To analyse the average use of the term “cloud computing” in books searching was done on Google Books Ngram Viewer.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Searches for cloud computing from Google books Ngram Viewer 102 It reveals that post 2006 there has been sharp increase in the usage of the term in books. Vol. It revealed that post 2006 there has been sudden increase in the usage of the term in books. Table 4.

Distribution of articles by year An analytical study of the references was done to find out the most productive year for cloud computing literature. Distribution of articles by year 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2 1 12 15 Distribution of articles by year 26 29 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 103 Distribution of articles by publication To analyse the most productive sources for “cloud computing” literature an analysis of the available literature was done. We found that during 2010 maximum number of literature was written.2 No.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Vol. It revealed that conference proceedings were the best source of dissemination of the concept on cloud computing Figure 6. Distribution of articles by year 30 20 10 2 0 Distribution of articles by publication 19 15 18 20 22 10 12 14 12 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Figure 5.

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