This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Mayank Yuvaraj Junior Research Fellow Dept. of LIS, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, India firstname.lastname@example.org Ajay Pratap Singh Head & Associate Professor Dept. of LIS, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, India email@example.com
Cloud computing is the essence of future computing needs that has emerged to be a savior for library professionals. It is an emerging technology characterized by an element of novelty where the research community has recently embarked. Since, 2008 explosively increasing amount of research has been conducted. This paper presents a descriptive literature review of cloud computing paradigm from vivid perspectives. There has been drastic shift in the trinity of libraries: books which have become electronic, user which prefers web resources than print and the staff which has become cybrarian. In this changed library landscape there is need to shift our competencies for the challenges offered by IT. Availability of independent computing components on demand like cloud as CPU, Storage in cloud has removed the web of IT and librarians can focus on their mission and services. In this paper we analyze the normative literature to extract a functional methodology or working model of cloud computing to be implied in libraries. KEYWORDS: Cloud computing, Literature review, Libraries, Cloud computing in libraries
INTRODUCTION With the encroachment of IT in library services the commitment of library and information professionals to provide people with information has come to stake. Library and information professionals are involved in the business of buying, configuring, installing, and maintaining servers which has nothing to do with the day-to-day library mission and services. One must engage in such affairs unless we absolutely must do so. In such circumstances Cloud computing has emerged as blessings in disguise that has brought decentralization to the computing world. It is concerned with the abstraction of software, services and storage facilities provided the access to network. The concept of cloud computing has sprung from the “intergalactic computer network” developed by J.C.R Licklider in 1960s where he wanted that everyone could use computer and anyone could get data irrespective of location and time in world. In 1961 John McCarthy, a computer scientist predicted that someday the computational power will be offered as a public service, such as water and electricity. This concept however, declined in early 1970`s due to the lack of physical infrastructure that could satisfy the needs of implementation of cloud
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Vol.2 No.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
technology. The relative novelty and exploding growth of cloud computing makes it an exciting area for research. The present paper aims to assess the state of cloud computing research. METHODOLOGY Defining any term seeks to study the qualitative and quantitative behavior. Henceforth, the four methods of literature review viz. narrative review, descriptive review, vote counting and meta analysis has to be given the same treatment. King and He32 have placed the four methods in a “qualitative-quantitative continuum”. Figure 1. Qualitative-quantitative continuum
Narrative review is the traditional method of reassessment of literature slanted towards qualitative behavior of the literature. According to King and He32 this method is conducted by “verbally describing the past studies, focusing on theories and frameworks, elementary factors and their research outcomes, regarding a hypothesized relationship. However, Yang and Tate (2009) argues that “there is no consensus towards a standardized procedure of narrative review. How to conduct a narrative review largely depends on the reviewer’s personal preference, thus this approach is easily vulnerable to subjectivity”. (p. 808). It is not rare for “two reviewers to arrive at rather different conclusion from the same general body of literature” (Guzzo et al., 1987, p. 408). Descriptive review focuses on revealing an interpretable pattern from the existing literature (Guzzo et al., 1987). King and He (2005) surmises that descriptive review studies “produces some quantification, often in the form of frequency analysis, such as publication time, research methodology, research outcomes etc. Such a review method often has a systematic procedure including searching, filtering and classifying processes. First a reviewer needs to
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Vol.2 No.2 (Jul – Dec 2012)
In most cases. The incentive of this approach is to generate a much less judgmental and subjective literature review upon a specific research context. 2005. Since. according to Yang and Tate (2009) “focusing on limited outlets cannot be justified for a literature review on cloud computing as this is a recent phenomenon which just emerged two years ago. or theories. Vol. p. Most likely it is applied to generate insights from a series of experiments”. “Qualitative studies have to be excluded by a meta-analysis due to its extremely quantitative nature.conduct a comprehensive literature search to collect as many relevant papers as possible in an investigated area. Hence due to an element of novelty it was difficult to find plethora of information on this topic. It attempts to explore pertinent literature through computer or manual searches. 2005.2 No. As the concept is still in its infancy which has not fully ripened so it was difficult to fetch information from the library collections. (King and He . p. 668). The premise underlying this approach is that “repeated results in the same direction across multiple studies.The outcome of such a review is often claimed to be representative of the state of art of a research domain. Efforts were laid to get information from online databases. correlations. All the Web based references mentioned in 88 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. 809). search engines and repositories. Only similar quantitative studies are collected for a meta-analysis. 668). it may specifically examine the relationships between certain Independent Variables (IVs) and Dependent Variables (DVs) derived from existing research findings. Meta-analysis aims at statistically providing supports to a research topic by “combining and analyzing the quantitative results of many empirical studies” (King and He. may be more powerful evidence than a single significant result” (King and He.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . (Yang and Tate. therefore the publication channels are still largely scattered” (p. 2009. even some of them are non-significant. p. 809). For most of the concurrent phenomena Information Science researchers and scholars are using online databases as their first literature collecting strategy. journals. The facets of cloud computing is a dawning research area. 667). 2005. p. cloud computing arena is one of the sprouting sectors of computing world. Then the reviewer treats an individual study as one data record and identifies trends and patterns among the papers surveyed .” (p. Under such circumstances descriptive review is the most appropriate one. p. “Here a tally is made of the frequency with which existing research findings support a particular proposition. which makes it next to impossible to examine any variables. 808) Vote counting is generally used to “draw qualitative inferences upon focal relationships by combining individual research findings”. 2009. 809). LITERATURE SEARCH Literature search is a pre-requisite for reviewing literature on any subject. However. Traditionally this is done by scanning some prominent journals and conferences exclusively dedicated to the subject. ” (Yang and Tate.
accessibility. Table 1. Secondly. Impediments like language.com Google.com Scirus. the full text of the documents were reviewed and the Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. However due to the dynamicity of web they may not be functional now.com Mamma.com Freefullpdf.2 No.com Google books Google scholar Google analytics BASE JURN Total papers or documents 132 Relevant papers or documents 54 Online databases Institutional repositories or archives PDF documents search PPT search 20 5 80 48 89 60 75 38 55 Search engines Specialized searching Academic search engines 54 31 118 46 INFORMATION FILTERING PROCESS Out of the total information retrieved from the web-sources two methods were employed to get the desired information on cloud computing.org NOPR DJLIT Pdfgeni. it is almost impossible to review all the literature available on a concerned subject. time and proficiency keeps a check on it.net Authorstream.com Dogpile. In spite of these.com Slideshare.com Scribd. Firstly. attempts have been undertaken to review literature relevant to present study. the title and abstract of the document was scanned properly and those found to be relevant were take out. Keyword and abstract searching was done on following web-resources TOOLS o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o SOURCES ACM Digital library IEEE Xplore Proquest (ABI/INFORM) ScienceDirect (Elsevier) Eprints. Moreover.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .rclis.com Pdfqueen. Vol.this work were retrieved during research period of September 2011 to March 2012. Efforts have been laid to mention only those web addresses which are likely to work during this work but there are possibility that some links may not work.
Banerjee (2011): Idea Phase. and critical evaluation of each work. Cyberpassionteam (2011). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. NetCentric tried to trademark “cloud computing” but was abandoned in April 1999. “Cloud computing evolution can be split into three phases. Another feather in the cap was added by Google that developed Google Apps entirely based on architecture of cloud computing.g.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) 90 . Vol. Pre Cloud Phase. The great idea remained in history pages until it was put in application by salesforce. LITERATURE REVIEW Most challenging task of a research study is to review the past related literature to extract a functional methodology or working model for a research problem.2 No. summary. typically referring to a joint hardware and software deployment concept. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.(1999-2006): Internet developed as a mechanism to provide application as a service. conference proceedings) relevant to a particular issue. The purpose of a literature review is to offer an overview of significant literature published on a topic. the University of California. Literature review is an essential approach to “conceptualize research areas and survey and synthesize prior research” (Webster and Watson. “The history of cloud computing faced huge competition only when Amazon started its cloud-based Amazon web services”. Foster et al. area of research. The first public usage of the term “cloud” as a metaphor for the internet in a paper published by MIT in 1996. Lohr (2008). In May 1997. Berkeley.” Substantial amount of literature relating to cloud computing was collected. providing a description. 2002. p. Stanford University. a literature review surveys scholarly articles.com which used a simple website to deliver its enterprise application to users. For convenience the review study can be divided into various sections: Section I: Transition to cloud computing The roots of cloud computing can be traced to the days of mainframe computers (1960s) when the concept of utility computing came to light where the computing power could be split into metered service like power and telephone supply. scanned and reviewed. According to Lyons (2010) “Not to be confused with a book review.(2008) compare and contrasted cloud computing with grid computing and inferred that “cloud computing is an evolved version of grid computing”. First research initiatives were started by Google and IBM in cooperation with “six American universities: Carnegie Mellon. To keep pace with the technology. Microsoft in 2008 developed cloud based Azure services platform.documents rich in information content having no sketchy ideas dealing fundamentally with the research problem were finally taken into consideration for the research work. The term cloud computing was coined in 2007.(1960s-pre internet bubble era): During this period core ideas of utility and grid computing developed. books and other sources (e. xiii). or theory. the University of Maryland and the University of Washington”. dissertations.
and Salesforce.” Section II: The concept of cloud computing Plethora of interpretations has been contested on the conceptualization of Cloud Computing. Cloud Phase.(2007. 286). Voas & Zhang (2009)”. soon followed”. The computer industry is the only industry that is more fashion-driven than women's fashion. (p. I can't think of anything that isn't cloud computing with all of these announcements. several prominent technology companies. IBM.” Commenting on the evolution of the cloud landscape Yang and Hsu (2011) concludes that “Cloud computing services first emerged as an IT paradigm five years ago. Basically cloud is a metaphor for internet and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals”. Oracle. Further. their software. (2009) argues that “combining elements of existing technologies such as virtualization. They are joined by Gardner (2012) who argues that “cloud computing is often regarded as a revolution. Plummer et al. Out of these in fact. Weinhardt et al.” On the other hand.com. or control over the technology infrastructure that supports them. Users would not need to know or care about how the computers. scholars like Wohl (2009) perceive “Cloud Computing to be a vague term for a very vague and distant future in which computing would occur in a few remote locations without the need for very much human intervention. (2012) put forth her view that “Cloud computing is a paradigm that focuses on sharing data and computations over a scalable network of nodes. expertise with. grid computing and distributed computing. applicationcentric environment.” According to Mohamed (2009) “Cloud computing has evolved through a number of phases which included grid and utility computing. (2008) find “Cloud computing as a style of computing where massively scalable IT-enabled capabilities are delivered as a service to external customers using internet technologies”. it`s all about ways to improve delivery of the server-centric. 109). But to IT. PaaS & SaaS got formalized. For IT. R.till date) Cloud computing became popular and the sub classification IaaS. According to Farber (2008) “The interesting thing about cloud computing is that we've redefined cloud computing to include everything that we already do. Vol. application service position (ASP). Infinite computing resources would be available for any need at costs approaching zero. Madhubala. It is first initiated by Amazon. (p. It is a style of computing in which IT-related capabilities are provided as a service allowing users to access technology enabled services from the internet without knowledge of. or the network functioned. But the overarching concept of delivering computing resources through a global network is rooted in the sixties. SUN. cloud Computing delivers scalable IT services via the Internet on a payper-use basis” (p. Contrary to above arguments. and Software as a Service (SaaS). it`s just an evolution of infrastructure efficiency.” Sultan (2010) argues that “A study by McKinsey (the global management consulting firm) found that there are 22 possible separate definitions of cloud computing. such as Google. 392). But. no common standard or definition for cloud computing seems to exist Grossman (2009). Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) 91 .2 No.
2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . “cloud computing is not a fundamentally new paradigm.. Hartig (2008) refers to Cloud Computing as the phenomenon of “virtualization of resources that maintains and manages itself”. Geelan. Cloud computing is also. (2011) opines that “as we could expect. virtualization and pay-as-you-go pricing model. (2010). (2009) argues that “Cloud computing is the infrastructural paradigm shift that is sweeping across the Enterprise IT world that has as many definitions as there are squares on a chess-board”. e. Chen and Wu. (p. (2009). deﬁned as a collection of disembodied services accessible from anywhere using any mobile device with an internet-based connection. What is new is that cloud computing combines and integrates these approaches.4). Vol. such as utility computing. and centralized data centres. according to Weiss (2007). Chinyao. Kossmann and Kraska (2010) have put forth three important principles that depend on each other and can only provide additional value if implemented in concert These are: automation. 55). 17). Some of the scholars have attempted to trace the roots of Cloud Computing from business. Misra and Mondal. Boss et al. “Cloud computing has spread out through the main areas related to information systems and technologies.However. 122). The monitoring of resource utilization to support dynamic load-balancing and reallocations of applications and resources”. (p. Erdogmus. In nutshell. in which the imagery of a cloud is traditionally used to represent the internet or some large networked environment. (2010). such as operating systems. Sultan. 1007). According to Low. His arguments are supplemented by Hand (2007) who argues that “in cloud computing not just our data but even our software resides within the cloud. the convenience. software-as-a-service. and we access everything not only through our PCs 92 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. the term cloud is derived from the idea of businesses and users being able to access applications from anywhere in the world on demand”. application software. and the quality-stable technological support that can develop the enormous potential demand”. He opined that cloud computing is a new model of computing used widely in today`s industry and society. (2007) argues that “Cloud is a pool of virtualized computer resources which allows: The dynamic scale-in and scale-out of applications by the provisioning and deprovisioning of resources. Inspired by similar thoughts Low. Yahsueh and Wu. Chen.2 No.g by means of virtualization. ” Under such circumstances there is a general agreement of scholars like Buyya et al. distributed computing. It draws on existing technologies and approaches. (2009). However. Mingchang (2011) Cloud computing provides the opportunity of flexibility and adaptability to attract the market on demand.” (p. ( p. Pyke (2009) that “cloud computing services can provide the user seamlessly. and technological solutions for firms” Armbrust et al. (2010) (p. The concept is derived from the imagery of the Internet cloud.
the mega-computer enabled by virtualization and software as a service”. VMWare vCloud are some of its examples Jericho Forum (2009) has put forth “cloud cube model to differentiate cloud formations from each other and the manner of their provision. networking and processing of data. Client does not require to know programming language. For example email and few other services offered by Google. To run required service a special platform or application infrastructure is also being provided to the clients where clients can build their web based applications. and there might be constraints as to which applications can be deployed. to run applications. Skype etc. The Cloud Computing model constitutes three service delivery and three deployment models. clients are being offered with storage. enabling them to deploy their own software and applications in the cloud. Hotmail. Google App Engine and Force. PDAs. Platform as a Service (PaaS) Consumers purchase access to the platforms. The operating systems and network access are not managed by the consumer. Mell. applications. database management systems. Vol. and network connectivity. Scholars have also used models to study cloud computing.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) 93 . Generally models are employed to study such phenomenon which cannot be seen or felt. etc. Yahoo. storage. Windows Azure.but also cloud friendly devices. The cube represents four dimensions of cloud activities: Location of data: Internal/ External Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. such as smart phones. Section III: Models of cloud computing Models are mental or pictorial representation of an event or phenomenon. Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) or Simple Storage Service (S3). Sify. & Grance (2009): The service delivery models are: Private cloud: a cloud platform is dedicated for specific organization. 963). In IaaS.com can be few of good examples of PaaS Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Consumers control and manage the systems in terms of the operating systems.2 No. and Hybrid cloud: a private cloud that can extend to use resources in public clouds. Public cloud available to public users to register and use the available infrastructure. (p. The deployment models are: Software as a Service (SaaS) Consumers purchase the ability to access and use an application or service that is hosted in the cloud. but do not themselves control the cloud infrastructure.
26 -27). CPU power etc) Tsaravas and Themistocleous (2011) (p. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. VRML is an abstraction layer that sits on top of the IaaS layer and allows applications to access CPU. (p. From the ﬁnancial point of view. memory. which changed with the introduction of TCP and other Internet standards. Section IV: Standardization of cloud computing There are three active bodies working towards standardizing cloud computing practices: Cloud computing Interoperability Forum Open cloud consortium DMTF Open Cloud Standards Incubator 94 However. there is also a document called the open cloud manifesto in which various stake holders express why open standards will benefit cloud computing Sriram and Khajeh-Hosseini (2010). 156).2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Ownership of cloud technology: Proprietary/ Open Operations: Perimeterised (Within traditional IT perimeter)/ De-perimeterised (Outiside IT perimeter) Availability of service: Insourced (By third party)/ Outsourced (By own)” Mikkilineni and Sarathy (2009) “compared the evolution of cloud computing with intelligent network infrastructure in telecommunications and proposed a Virtual Resource Mediation Layer (VRML) to support interoperability between public and private clouds. government agencies. bandwidth and storage depending on needs” (p. Section V: Adoption of cloud computing The emergent phenomenon of cloud computing aims at transforming the traditional way of computing by providing both software applications and hardware resources as a service. businesses and/or individuals can either provide or use services within a near limitless computing environment (storage. achieving standardized API appears to be rather politically than technically challenging”. (2009) has enlisted the various difficulties of developing standards for effective cloud computing. These were resisted by the vendors just like the fate of cloud computing”. Grossman (2009) asserts that” the current state of standards and interoperability in cloud computing is similar to the early Internet era where each organization had its own network and data transfer was difficult. However. Keahey et al. Thus. Vol. 58). These are business models for companies with an existing IT infrastructure and business models for startup companies. Misra and Mondal (2010) built two types of business models that can be drawn for companies (cloud users) willing to adopt cloud computing services.2 No. According to Sriram and Khajeh-Hosseini (2010) “cloud computing can benefit from standardized API interfaces as generic tools that manage cloud infrastructures can be developed for all offerings.
Ironically. such as IBM. and emerging economies such as China. Governments that are looking for answers against bureaucracy and complication of procedures are almost obligated to implement new technological solutions to provide public services effectively”. According to Kossmann and Kraska (2010) “Cloud Computing promises to lower the bar for new services to become worthwhile by making things cheaper. (2009) stresses on “feedback control service for scaling in the cloud. Sotomayor et al. Section VI: Adoption of cloud computing in libraries Library and information centres are constantly in search of low-cost solutions due to low funding. This way. and thus. (2009) opines that Cloud computing and web collaboration are two major concepts that underlie new and innovative developments in library 95 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. cloud computing helps optimizing the long tail of processes which are currently not supported by IT and helps to reduce the cost of those processes that indeed are already automated” (p.resource lease manager.Various researches have been undertaken to imply cloud computing in various domains.com. such as Amazon. such as utility computing and the smart data centre. faster. Vol. Su (2011) In the field of education Thomas (2011) argues that “Cloud Computing has a signiﬁcant place in the higher education landscape both as a ubiquitous computing tool and a powerful platform that can enhance engagement among educational researchers and educators to understand and improve practice. increase the quality of their students’ learning outcomes”.virtual infrastructure manager and Haizea. 124). Vaquero et al. including both firms that specialize in cloud computing.S. Buyya et al. (2009) developed a cloud-based infrastructure that had been optimized for performance networks and supported necessary data mining applications. with the involvement with IT the commitment as well as services has been miserably infested. ( 2009) presents two tools for managing cloud infrastructure: OpenNebula. and automating the tasks that traditionally has also to be carried out by experts. On the supply side. cloud computing is being rapidly adopted by organizations in both developed countries such as the U. HP and Fujistu. and Salesforce. Scaling choices must be under control of the users. Lim et al. in order to have control over spending and to be able to work towards maximizing return on investments”. cloud computing is becoming a key service offering of many IT firms.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Buschman and Leckie (2009) posit that “librarians need to be critical in their use of technology”. Grossman et al. Banerjee (2009) provides an overview of technological research studies that were performed in HP labs and that adopted cloud-scale smart environments. and traditional IT service firms. Google.2 No. cloud computing is the savior of all the ebbs of the information technology. On the demand side. Under such conditions. (2009) have also dealt with market-oriented resource allocation of cloud computing by leveraging third-generation Aneka enterprise grid technology.
27).2 No. p. Historically libraries have turned to huge capital investment on IT infrastructure for various online as well as subscription based services. The future of computing lies in cloud computing. (2010). (2011) (p. From the emergence of World Wide Web. library and information science scholarship has remodeled the future for libraries. easier access. (1997). “First. Cloud computing will bring an end to the ILS server. the library`s users are accessing the information needed in the comfort and security of their homes or in their own personal or customized spaces. including OCLC. The introduction of the internet to libraries was part of a significant shift from print/in-house-focused services to online/ externally provided services. (2010). and more effective cost reduction. the economics. 1997. “Migrating to a cloud-based application may turn out to be cost neutral but at the same time still have the benefit of allowing staff to concentrate on libraryspecific issues”. Today`s consumers of information have more alternative and attractive ways of finding information than using the traditional library Sadeh. Much of these tools and services will not be owned by the library but are necessary to carry out the enduring work of making library collections and services known and accessible to users. With these success libraries are motivated for using subscription based cloud IT infrastructure. Instead. the embrace of cloud computing by many organizations. libraries need to adopt the communication and information tools and services that users are accustomed to Sadeh. plus the time these users spend on the internet. The growing internet usage among library users and potential users. (p. recognizing that future libraries may not own their collection of resources Lancaster. 59-60). Mitchell. and perhaps the personnel requirements of library computing in years to come”. OhioLink. SirsiDynix. scholastic predictions indicated that the library in serving future users may offer referral to “potentially appropriate points in a vast network of resources accessible through the internet or its successors” (Lancaster. reliability. Recently. OCLC started Web-scale management services which can perform the in-house library operations through mutual co-operation. 96 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Cloud services allow for more optimal resource utilization. Wolf (2010). 6). Vol. Moulasion and Corrado. The web has also expanded the scope of services provided by librarians. Today. whose major goal is reducing the cost of IT services while increasing processing throughput. (2007). and the Library of congress suggests that this mode of computing will have a significant impact on the configuration.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . has made it imperative that libraries offer their services online. (2007). To meet their needs. OCLC web scale management services.automation. Cloud computing is important in the context of LIS education for two reasons Tomer and Alman (2011). It will provide all its web-scale subscribers with a vendor database which will list their details avoiding data redundancy in libraries. Libraries can work cooperatively in a flexible environment where they can share solutions to problems instead of having to reinvent the wheel at each library. availability and flexibility and decreasing processing time Hayes (2008). These predictions have to come true.
Libraries are in a unique position to experiment with cloud computing given their service oriented mission and need to find appropriate solutions using limited resources. (2009). While cloud computing has been discussed as a new technology develop that can provide several advantages. Now the information formats have also changed. There seems to be an utmost use of web based services in libraries and information centres since the evolution of internet. Buyya et al. Blowers (2010). Smartphones are being used by the users these days for accessing information services for fast and easy communication.. sorting. As such cloud computing has the seeds for reinvigoration of library and information science professions. Fox (2009) observes that the goals of the organization have an impact on their use of cloud solutions. Wolf (2010). Moore (2010) asserts that “use analysis now requires a cloud computing orientation”. Vol. They have also emerged as an key players in the provision of internet services to the user communities Kinney (2010) During this time libraries have re-directed services both to support in-house internet use and to serve the needs of users via digital means. Moreover. categorization and analytics to help users manage the vast repositories of both structured and unstructured information) as well as the cost-savings and flexibility that they can provide. Internet world stats (2011). (2009). so you don`t need a client on your local PC. Goscinski and Brock.Other vendors can take advantage of the cloud.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . “There is a tremendous amount of enthusiasm around cloud-based solutions and services (filtering. It also lowers the technical skills needed to create web pages. It is imperative that all senior technologists have a solid understanding of the ramifications of cloud computing since its impact is likely to permeate the entire IT landscape” Rhoton. the cloud computing adoption rate is not growing as fast as expected Banerjee. (2011).2 No. “In World India is the third and in Asia second largest country in internet adoption”. both strategic and operational. and impacts and. Like other cloud applications it is accessible from any internet connection. “A study conducted by IMAI and IMRB reveals that there are 121 million internet users in India out of which 97 million access atleast once in a month” Times of India. vulnerabilities in cloud computing that may lead to such risks. which many libraries wouldn`t be able to create on their own. Vendors can provide a remotely hosted service which allows for the creation of modular content. (2010) Section VII: Security concerns of cloud computing ENISA firstly addressed the security risks related to adopting cloud computing along with the affected assets. Further. through cloud computing instead of having own servers and employing personnel for its maintenance libraries can hire a vendor on a monthly charge and enjoy the benefit of same server function. (2009). 97 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. to its adopters.
compared to $40. Hayes. Bernd et al. (2010) discusses high level security concerns in the cloud computing model such as data integrity. ﬁrms may not have conﬁdence in a cloud computing system because it is relatively new to them.. complexity of an innovation can act as a barrier to implementation of new 98 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.7 billion in 2010. better customer communications. It may take users a long time to understand and implement the new system. (2009). browsing history and other sensitive information in a single place. ease of implementation. Dasmalchi. “Providing IT services in the cloud shifts much of this expense to a pay-as-you-go-model and consequently offers significant cost advantages according to one view”. Web browsers generally store all of a user’s saved passwords. (2009). Vol. According to this report.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Armbrust et al. Some scholars are of the opinion that Cloud computing service providers are incentivized by the profits to be made from charging consumers for access to these services. The shift to Cloud computing moved much of a user’s normal activity to the Web browser. such as a logged in email account or online banking session. payment and privacy of sensitive information. Buyya et al. Trappler (2010) asserts that “if it is in the cloud. However. freeing up of internal resources. (2009). get it on paper”.Similar efforts have been laid by CSA . is using the skilled practitioners. segregation and data recovery.2 No. (2010) raises issues concerning the “security vulnerabilities existing in the cloud platform”. the market is expected to reach $241 billion in 2020. Thus. Lin. Subashini (2010) discusses the security challenges of the cloud service delivery model. Meiko et al. 50). Section VIII: Benefits of cloud computing Pyke (2009) has described the following benefits of cloud computing: scalability. Economic. Firms are attracted by the opportunity for reducing or eliminating costs associated with “in-house” provision of these services Buyya et al. and access to market information mobilization. and quality of service. Many see huge potential of the technology in reducing the cost of IT to organizations and freeing them from the expense and hassle of having to install and maintain applications locally Leavitt. efﬁcient coordination among ﬁrms. browser`s related attacks and flooding attacks. Zhu. simplification and convenience of the way computing-related services are delivered seem to be among the main drivers of cloud computing Erdogmus. The expected beneﬁts of embedded cloud computing services include the following: speed of business communications. IT research firm Forrester published the first industry report that offered a sizing of the cloud computing market. As such it is possible for malicious websites to exploit browser vulnerabilities in order to steal information associated with other existing or previous browsing sessions. Balchandra et al. Kresimir et al. (2009) discuss the security SLA`s specifications and objective relating to data locations. Fu. (2009).. (p. (2009). (2008).. (2010). (2009) discuss the technical security issues arising from adopting the cloud computing model such as XML-attacks.
(2011) “the services that libraries can acquire through the use of cloud computing platforms may indeed be valuable.. According to Moulasion and Corrado. Section IX: Downsides of cloud computing However. but 99 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. they can save their parent institution money.” Ramgovind et al. service portability. Once data are outsourced to a third-party cloud provider. just like they did before the digital age. . Vol. multi-tenancy and isolation. (1994). Madhubala. meaning that librarians can make use of services without incurring any cost for their libraries”. SLA management. Further cloud computing will given even the smallest organization the ability to use the power of network computing within a minimal infrastructure. and cloud security are well known open research problems in the cloud computing model. data management. there are reasons for concern about what can happen to the information. availability and reliability of data. Depending on the service. thereby allowing their own employees to take care of other obligations in lieu of monitoring version changes and upgrades. Tsaravas and Marinos (2011) Despite the potential benefits and revenues that could be gained from the cloud computing model.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .elasticity engines. and continue to function when the user is not connected to the Internet.287). As every technological concept. (2010) Katz (2009) focuses on many areas where the cloud may impinge on education.Moulasion and Corrado. they can also rely on the software provider to carry out all updates.(2010) “As computer manufacturers. research has shown that there are some major obstacles which hinder the adoption and growth of Cloud computing. R. the model still has a lot of open issues that impact the model creditability and pervasiveness. Wolf. This will free libraries from the shackles of IT management and allow us to focus on services and resources. cloud computing is not an exception in terms of trust and security issues. Potential Cloud organisations and vendors need to be aware that it may become easier for attackers to threaten clouds by moving towards a single cloud interface. Vendor lock-in. complexity factor is usually negatively affected. Premkumar et al. Grundy and Muller. (2010). 4-5). quite a few of the cloud-based software platforms are available for free.2 No. Furthermore. several concerns arise about security.technology. Morsy. (p. employers and universities deploy cloud based tools on desktops. This risk of confusion will likely increase when cloud based applications lack any recognizable browser branding. He advocates that because companies might be storing documents which should not be made public. (2012) (p. With cloud computing we are getting closer to the reality of purchasing computer power. “The elastic aspect of cloud computing allows applications to scale and grow without needing traditional ‘fork lift’ upgrades”. many users may fail to realize that they are in fact using an Internet based service.. (2011) “If librarians can save on buying and maintaining servers.
Pearson. 2009 Bernstein. elo.2009. 2010. 2009. 2007.. Assuncao et al. Vol.2008. et al. 100 Benefits Business Impediments Model Pricing Privacy Standards Security Storage Technology Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Mika and Tummar Chun and Maniatis 2009.. Kisker. 2009. Zeng etal.. Jan...2009. (p.2009. Jericho forum (2009). Harmer. Baars & Kemper. Sun.. Furht and Escalante..2010. Mikkilineni and Sarathy. 2009. 2009.2010. even if bandwidth is not currently at a premium..2010. 2010. 2010. 2009. 2009. Delic and Riley. 2009. Pueschel & Neumann. Matthew and Spraetz.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . et al. Ried. Shigeo and Nagamori. 2009.. Leimeister et al. Bhardwaj et al. Saya et al.. 2010. et al. Lenk. Vaquero et al. Mitshuharu.. 2009... Ratogi.2009. can become a considerable hurdle to effective provision of services”..Stefan. Keahey 2009..2010. 2008. 2009.. 2011 Buyya et al. et al.. 2009.2009. Koehler and Anandasivam. Yeo et al.. Velte et al.2009.. Pascal.2010. Wilson 2009. 2010.2010.the cost of internet access. Youseff et al.. Joint et al. et al. 2009. et al. Dikaiakos et al. et al. Wolf. Ohlman. 2009. Weinhardt et al. Table 2. Briscoe and Marions. Briscoe. Anandasivam & Weinhardt. 2009. Nurmi. Ramireddy. 2008.2009. 2009. Matthews. Dodda et al. Holger and Matzke. Armbrust et al. Lim et al. 2009.2009. 2009. Grossman. et al. Overview of cloud computing research ISSUES Adoption CONTRIBUTORS Hazelhurst. Sugimoto. Askhoj..2 No.. Vaquero et al. 2010. 5).
It revealed that cloud computing has gained tremendous popularity in India. During 2010 onwards it was at its peak.RESULTS Popularity of the terms and search To analyse the popularity of “cloud computing” searching was done on Google Trends. taken from Google Trends 101 Further. a comparative study of cloud computing.2 No. It revealed that the term gained momentum post-2009. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. libraries and online services was done on Google Insights to determine the interest areas worldwide.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Figure 2. Vol.com. Also there is high scope of research on cloud computing in conjunction with libraries in near future. Searches for cloud computing on Google.
Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.Figure 3.2 No. Table 4. Searches for cloud computing from Google books Ngram Viewer 102 It reveals that post 2006 there has been sharp increase in the usage of the term in books.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . It revealed that post 2006 there has been sudden increase in the usage of the term in books. Searches for cloud computing taken from Google Insights To analyse the average use of the term “cloud computing” in books searching was done on Google Books Ngram Viewer. Vol.
It revealed that conference proceedings were the best source of dissemination of the concept on cloud computing Figure 6.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Distribution of articles by year 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2 1 12 15 Distribution of articles by year 26 29 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 103 Distribution of articles by publication To analyse the most productive sources for “cloud computing” literature an analysis of the available literature was done. We found that during 2010 maximum number of literature was written.2 No. Distribution of articles by year 30 20 10 2 0 Distribution of articles by publication 19 15 18 20 22 10 12 14 12 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Vol. Figure 5.Distribution of articles by year An analytical study of the references was done to find out the most productive year for cloud computing literature.
com/node/1744132. hype. A. Computers in Libraries 30(4). (2009) Twenty-one experts define cloud computing. M. P. & LU. 25.sys-con.. OCLC Systems & Services. 12. Quan S. in Leckie.. (2009). and Buschman. I. R. 599-616 10. Legregni L. Malladi P. A view of cloud computing.. 1-28 9. 26. C. and Leckie. 4-6. 53." IEEE Security and Privacy. and reality for delivering computing as the 5th utility”. & Elmar Stöcker. A. Gardner.K.sys-con. The technology has been explored at its utmost from technical purview and its implication in library is yet to be explored due to its relative edge in libraries. G. Banerjee. USA. E-commerce times.. A. P. Broberg.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . 2.. 1-10. R.. Raleigh. Fox. Communications of the ACM. 7. Retrieved from: http://www. Introduction: information technologies and libraries – why do we need new critical approaches?. Joseph. I.J.. (2009). 156-161 15. NC. . Ramakrishna.. Konwinski. Cloud computing journal.2 No..Zhao. Blowers. Information technology in librarianship: new critical approaches Westport.cnet. (2010). (2010) From realities to values: a strategy for digital natives. and Zaharia. (2009). Tobias Walloschek . Udayan (2011) The evolution of cloud computing.D. Cloud computing: does Nirvana hide behind the nebula? IEEE Software. Buschman. REFERENCES 1. 104 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Technical report. I. Vol. Yeo. 5.jsp?punumber=4795428 4. S. 6. CNET News. 50-58. evolution. & Brandic. Banerjee. Erdogmus. HPCA. Cloud expo: blog feed post..CONCLUSION Cloud computing is a novel concept where theory building is not at the centre of research rather most studies focus on praxis.ecommercetimes.. Retrieved from http://cloudcomputing.. Geelan.0 8. G. R.com/history-of-cloud-computing/. Retrieved from: ieeexplore. Venugopa. and Rakshit. 3.J. A. H. Y... Proceedings of 15th International Symposium on High-performance Computer Architecture. J. An intelligent IT infrastructure for the future. 11. H. Future Generation Computer Systems.. 14.ieee. Patterson.E. G. Stoica. D. Retrieved from: http://yourravi. Retrieved from: http://cloudcomputing.Rabkin. January. J.S. Fox. (2009) Cloud security issues in PROC`09 IEEE International conference on services computing. J. (Eds). 2007-10-08. Foster. (2010) Understanding Cloud-Computing Vulnerabilities. Cyberpassionteam (2011) History of cloud computing. Version 1.com/rsstory/74559.Raicu. Retrieved from: http://news. & Hall H (2007) Cloud computing. September 26. 6-10.org/xpl/mostRecentIssue. Katz. London. 517-520. Cloud computing and emerging it platforms: vision. 50-57. Bernd Grobauer. Grifﬁth. 99. 25( 3).com/node/612375. Connecticut Libraries Unlimited.html. Lee. 16. (2009) Library in the clouds. Balchandra. Dan.com/8301-13953_3-10052188-80. Although the present paper cannot claim as exhaustive one yet it attempts to draw insights into the present state-ofthe-art. Dana (2012) Cloud computing: revolution vs. R. Buyya.S. J. I. 13. (2008) Oracle`s Ellison nails cloud computing.V. It is of prime importance for the reinvigoration of the library profession. Boss G. In grid computing workshop (GCE`08). M. A. R.html.E. (2008) Cloud computing and grid computing 360-degree compared. Farber. . Armbrust. IBM high performance on demand solutions. (2009).
Gu. 111(7). Future Generation Computer Systems. Is cloud computing really made for prime time? Computer.internetworldstats. Google and I. Meta-Analysis Analysis. Retrieved from: http://cloudcomputing. 29. W.. IT Professional. Tech Titans Building Boom.. Third international conference on Advances in Human-oriented and Personalized mechanisms. London. Nature. & Fortes. Keahey.H. Y. (2009) Sky computing. & Dasmalchi. Lim. M. 40. K. W. (2007) Heads in the clouds. 35. S. B. (1987). (2009) Automated control in cloud computing: challenges and opportunities. Retrieved from www. IEEE Spectrum. Kandakuri. 105 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Fu. Lohr. N. What is cloud computing? Cloud computing journal. in Raitt.opengroup. Library Association..I. & Parekh. & Thorn. 19. New York Times (8. S.M. 24. R.16. Hwang.com/2007/10/08/technology/08cloud. 10. 517-520. F. G. 344-349.nytimes. 22.pdf 28.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Popovic. 407-442. 39. M. and Brock. Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE International conference on Services computing. 33. 229-236 26. (2008). Hartig. H. Zeljko. Mingchang (2011) Understanding the determinants of cloud computing adoption. 43-51. Balachandra. Ramakrishna . & Wu. Jericho Forum Specification.B.) Libraries for the new millennium: implications for managers. state-of-theart. Katz. 2009.A. 25. (2010) An overview of virtual and cloud computing. 963. Tsugawa. Chinyao. Patauri. 10-13. 179-183. 51. Cloud computing. Grossman. 26 (3). Public library quarterly. Kinney.0 . 21. (2009) The case for cloud computing.. Research in Organizational Behavior.com/top20. Compute and storage clouds using wide area high performance networks.Tim (2010) Data management in the cloud: promises. J. Communications of the Association for Information Systems . 42(1).W. Frank Cervone. Technologies and services.G.L.com/node/579826.htm. & Katzell.. Atanu (2009) Cloud security issues. K. 121-129 34. Internet World Stats: usage and population statistics (2011). (2009).. 20.sys-con. Public libraries.H.E. 11( 2).2 No.Z. D. Hand. Vol. 27.html?_r=1&ex=1349496000&en=9227 f0f65ea0d75&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss&oref=slogin 40. 9-11. Matsunaga. Lin. (2010). Internet computing.R. Goscinski. Retrieved from: http://www. (2008). 32. Hayes. 25. A . Chase. J.L. (2008). Retrieved from http://www. (1999) The Effect of User Engagement on System Success: A MetaAnalytical Integration of Research Findings. Kossmann. R. E. M. Zhu. and the digital divide. M.. 1006-1023. R. Datenbank Spektrum. Artificial intelligence and expert system technologies: prospects. OCLC Systems & Services International digital library perspectives..org/jericho/cloud_cube_model_v1. Donald & Kraska. Grossman. (Ed. Sabala.17. (2009) Cloud Cube Model: Selecting Cloud Formations for Secure Collaboration Version 1. 2005. Hocenski. & Zhang.J. (2009). 15-20 37. Guzzo. 31. Industrial management & data systems. 13-18. King. Join in ‘Cloud Computing’ Research. & He. (2009). Reddy. 162 – 165. In ACDC`09: Proceedings of the 1st workshop on automated control of datacenters and clouds. Steve.I. & Zeljko (2010) Cloud computing security issues and challenges. & Rakshit.. 9. Babu. 1.A. and open questions. discovery and selection for cloud computing”. J. Chen. R. “Toward dynamic and attribute based publication. A. 29( 2). 18. Communications of the ACM. 104-161. 38. S. 46(2). D. 23-27. 23. Understanding the Role and Methods of Meta-Analysis in Is Research. Bo (2010) The Internet. Lancaster. . Kresimir. Yahsueh .. 30.35. 26. 947970. R. 19-38. Information & Management . October). Low. R. H. IT Professional. 36. (1997). 11( 2)..0. Cloud computing: IT as a service.. IEEE 13( 5). Future Generation Computer Systems.G.. Leavitt. 449. Jackson. Jericho Forum.
1849.R. 55." Management Science.com. 3-11 51. Premkumar. (1994).. 43. E. URL: http://library. Sabherwal. 18th International Workshops on. 1-7 60. 53. The Electronic Library. Moore. S. and Smith. Moulasion.pdf. (2010). & McLean. International journal of soft computing and engineering.amazon. 286-290. K.41. Retrieved from: www. Misra.ac. & Chowa. S. Retrieved from: www. Youtube video. 47. 48. Arif (2009) A history of cloud computing. David W. & Sree. Ingo (2010) An analysis of the cloud computing security problem. Kenneth (2010) Concordia University libraries. & Muller. V. (2009) Cloud computing and the lessons from the past. Rhoton. 53.. Mikkilineni. A.C. UK: Facet. In Edward M.. Daryl. In Enabling Technologies: infrastructure for collaborative enterprises. "Information System Success: Individual and Organizational Determinants. In Edward M. C. Retrieved from: www.computerweekly. Vol. Nils. John (2009) Cloud computing explained: implementation handbook for enterprises.Getting started with cloud computing. 2006.com/cordyscms_sites/objects/bb1a0bd7f47b1c91ddf36ba7db88241d/time_to_take_t he_cloud_seroiusly_online_1_. 2009. J. 29 ( 2). R.pdf 54.. 157-186.gov/itl/cloud/upload/cloud-def-v15. Corrado and Heather Lea Moulasion. Retrieved from: http://www." Information & Management. C. Madhubala.ca/help/howto/litreview. R. 56. N. (2011) Perspectives on cloud computing in libraries. M. Geoffrey (2010) Atmosphere: core. 52. 11.com/feature/A-history-of-cloud-computing. Retrieved from: http://www.com/eventsatgoogle#p/u/8/0swJCYLH. Computerweekly. 49. Ramgovind. Retrieved from: http://www.nz/~john-g/papers/cloud2010_1. G. “Now is the time to take the cloud seriously”. Thomas J. Gruschka and Iacono. Mohamed.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . A. Mathematical and Computer Modelling. 1-5. Kindle e-book. R. Banglore 2009. (2011) Cloud computing: A potential paradigm for practicing the scholarship of teaching and learning. Thomas. The Management of Security in 58. Mohamed Al. Mell. 344-349. & Smith. Heather Lea & Corrado. & Luigi Lo (2009) On cloud technical security issues in cloud computing in IEEE ICCC. Ramamurthy.youtube. Meiko.pdf. Mitchell. 159-166. 1( 6). Peter & Grance.cordys. 57-62. 57. "A Meta-Analytic Assessment of the Delone and Mclean Is Success Model: An Examination of Is Success at the Individual Level. Erik (2010) What cloud computing means for libraries. . Lyons. Petter.cs.com/Cloud-ComputingExplained-Implementation-ebook/dp/B003LO1H2W 61. Tim (2009) The NIST definition of cloud computing. Austin. Cloud Computing.php 42. Edward M. Pyke. Cearley. 214 –224.auckland. posted by EVENTS@google. & Mondal. April 12.(2010).nist.2 No. 2009. WETICE` 09. David Mitchell (2008) Cloud Computing: defining and describing an emerging phenomenon. P. & Sarathy. Tom. Identiﬁcation of a company’s suitability for the adoption of cloud computing and modelling its corresponding return on investment. 50. White Paper. How to write a literature review.. Retrieved from: http://www. “Implementation of electronic data interchange: an innovation diffusion perspective”. 504-21. 46(3). Schwenk. Getting started with cloud computing UK: Facet. Recursive press.Y.pdf 45. Security for South Africa (ISSA). Bittman. .emory. Plummer.edu/BUSINESS/readings/CloudComputing/Gartner_cloud_computing_definin g. Grundy. Jeyaraj. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 2010 Information 59. content and the cloud. John . 42:33. (2009). 46. Corrado and Heather Lea Moulasion. 52(12). Journal of Management Information Systems. (2012) An illustrative study on cloud computing. 106 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. E. Eloff. S.. Morsy. 44. Proceedings of ASPEC 2010 Cloud workshop..M.concordia. Jensenh Jorg.
66. I. Wohl. European. Haibo and Tate. & M. Retrieved from: http://www.org/webscale/default. Retrieved from: http://www. T.com/blog/a-brief-history-of-cloud-computing/ 82.indiatimes. and Research Directions. J. L.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly 72. 63. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review. 85. & Kavitha.T. Subhasini. 70. In 1st ACM Symposium on Cloud Computing. Meinl. Blau. N. (2002).Amy (2009) Succeeding at SaaS: computing in the cloud.pdf 107 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.tagsolutions. 13(5).chinacloud. 79. 391-399. (2009) Cloud Computing—A classification.. Stößer. "Where are we at with Cloud Computing?: A Descriptive Literature Review" (2009). Vol. Voas. Robert (2010) Cloud computing. V. Web-scale management services. 39(1 ). 257-271. Sriram. ACIS 2009 Proceedings.. 75.2 No. T. 71. Analyzing the Past to Prepare for the Future: Writing a Literature Review. Shirley Ou & Hsu. 30-31. Getting started with cloud computing.. 68. Webster.cn/upload/2011-12/11122914459904. Yang. 73. Anadasivam.). 65. J. 81.org/pdf/1001. URL : http://aisel. “Time for a change: new approaches for a new generation of library users”. 12( 4). Retrieved from: www.62. In: ICISAssociation for Information Systems. MD: Zenoss. (2009) A Break in the Clouds: Towards a Cloud Definition. (2010). Tomer. Weinhardt.cms 69. EDUCAUSE Q. North Carolina libraries. 108 ( 7/8). Vaquero. 30.. Thomas. The Electronic library. R. & Foster. Trappler. Internet computing. 26 (2). Ruba. 11( 2). Times of India report (2011) Retrieved from: http://timesofindia. Borissov. J. (2007). Wolf. B. Michalk. Journal of electronic commerce research.undertheradarblog.aisnet. I. 50-55. Anapolis. Lindner. http://www.Y. Rodero-Merino. Ali (2010) Research agenda in cloud technologies. 109-116. J.. Thomas J. Caceres. IEEE. Paper 26. P. 83. 16-25. Susan W.com/solutions/virtualization/resources/2010_Virtualization_and_Cloud_ Computing_Survey_(Zenoss). Get it on Paper: Cloud Computing Contract Issues. Sultan. Mary. L. Charalampos & Themistocleous. Weiss A (2007) Computing in the clouds. iii-xiii. 84. Journal of network and computer applications. 68( 2).com/tech/news/internet/121m-internet-users-in-India-by-2011-endReport/articleshow/10641973. Sotomayor. New Library World. 307-316. UK: Facet. Corrado & Heather Lea Moulasion(Ed. 1(5). Retrieved from: aisel. Retrieved from: 77. Business & Information Systems Engineering.pdf 67. & Zhang. Retrieved from: http://www. (2011) Cloud Computing: a potential paradigm for practicing the scholarship of teaching and learning. 64. Cloud computing for education: a new dawn?. IT Professional.htm 78. In Edward M. Zenoss (2010) 2010 Virtualization and cloud computing survey. & Watson.aisnet. /EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/IfItsintheCloudGetItonPaperClo/206532.3259. 15-17.. Christinger & Alman. N. Yang.org/acis2009/26. A.org/icis2011/proceedings/breakthroughideas/11/. Networker 11(4). International Journal of Information Management. 14-22. 80. I. Marinos (2011) Cloud computing and Egovernment: a literature review. 214-224. S. 76. & J. A. If it’s in the Cloud. W. SOCC URL: arxiv. (2009) Cloud computing: new wine or a just a new bottle. 154-164 74. 59-68. 29 (2). (2011) Cloud computing for lis education. (2009) Virtual infrastructure management in private and hybrid clouds. (2010)..2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .oclc. Sadeh. Su. Llorente. Tsaravas. Business Models. Carol (2011) The organizing vision of cloud computing in Taiwan.educause. C. & Khajeh-Hosseini. (2010) A survey on security issues in service delivery models of cloud computing. B. Ning (2011)Emergence of Cloud Computing: An Institutional Innovation Perspective. Mediterranean & Middle Eastern conference on Information system. MIS Quarterly.