Cloud Computing in Conjunction with Libraries: Descriptive Literature Review

Mayank Yuvaraj Junior Research Fellow Dept. of LIS, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, India mayank.yuvaraj@gmail.com Ajay Pratap Singh Head & Associate Professor Dept. of LIS, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, India apsingh_73@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Cloud computing is the essence of future computing needs that has emerged to be a savior for library professionals. It is an emerging technology characterized by an element of novelty where the research community has recently embarked. Since, 2008 explosively increasing amount of research has been conducted. This paper presents a descriptive literature review of cloud computing paradigm from vivid perspectives. There has been drastic shift in the trinity of libraries: books which have become electronic, user which prefers web resources than print and the staff which has become cybrarian. In this changed library landscape there is need to shift our competencies for the challenges offered by IT. Availability of independent computing components on demand like cloud as CPU, Storage in cloud has removed the web of IT and librarians can focus on their mission and services. In this paper we analyze the normative literature to extract a functional methodology or working model of cloud computing to be implied in libraries. KEYWORDS: Cloud computing, Literature review, Libraries, Cloud computing in libraries

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INTRODUCTION With the encroachment of IT in library services the commitment of library and information professionals to provide people with information has come to stake. Library and information professionals are involved in the business of buying, configuring, installing, and maintaining servers which has nothing to do with the day-to-day library mission and services. One must engage in such affairs unless we absolutely must do so. In such circumstances Cloud computing has emerged as blessings in disguise that has brought decentralization to the computing world. It is concerned with the abstraction of software, services and storage facilities provided the access to network. The concept of cloud computing has sprung from the “intergalactic computer network” developed by J.C.R Licklider in 1960s where he wanted that everyone could use computer and anyone could get data irrespective of location and time in world. In 1961 John McCarthy, a computer scientist predicted that someday the computational power will be offered as a public service, such as water and electricity. This concept however, declined in early 1970`s due to the lack of physical infrastructure that could satisfy the needs of implementation of cloud

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technology. The relative novelty and exploding growth of cloud computing makes it an exciting area for research. The present paper aims to assess the state of cloud computing research. METHODOLOGY Defining any term seeks to study the qualitative and quantitative behavior. Henceforth, the four methods of literature review viz. narrative review, descriptive review, vote counting and meta analysis has to be given the same treatment. King and He32 have placed the four methods in a “qualitative-quantitative continuum”. Figure 1. Qualitative-quantitative continuum

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Narrative review is the traditional method of reassessment of literature slanted towards qualitative behavior of the literature. According to King and He32 this method is conducted by “verbally describing the past studies, focusing on theories and frameworks, elementary factors and their research outcomes, regarding a hypothesized relationship. However, Yang and Tate (2009) argues that “there is no consensus towards a standardized procedure of narrative review. How to conduct a narrative review largely depends on the reviewer’s personal preference, thus this approach is easily vulnerable to subjectivity”. (p. 808). It is not rare for “two reviewers to arrive at rather different conclusion from the same general body of literature” (Guzzo et al., 1987, p. 408). Descriptive review focuses on revealing an interpretable pattern from the existing literature (Guzzo et al., 1987). King and He (2005) surmises that descriptive review studies “produces some quantification, often in the form of frequency analysis, such as publication time, research methodology, research outcomes etc. Such a review method often has a systematic procedure including searching, filtering and classifying processes. First a reviewer needs to

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Traditionally this is done by scanning some prominent journals and conferences exclusively dedicated to the subject. p. 2005. p. Since. 2009. journals. LITERATURE SEARCH Literature search is a pre-requisite for reviewing literature on any subject. p. or theories. 2009. Most likely it is applied to generate insights from a series of experiments”. Meta-analysis aims at statistically providing supports to a research topic by “combining and analyzing the quantitative results of many empirical studies” (King and He. 2005. cloud computing arena is one of the sprouting sectors of computing world. according to Yang and Tate (2009) “focusing on limited outlets cannot be justified for a literature review on cloud computing as this is a recent phenomenon which just emerged two years ago. The incentive of this approach is to generate a much less judgmental and subjective literature review upon a specific research context. Hence due to an element of novelty it was difficult to find plethora of information on this topic. 809). For most of the concurrent phenomena Information Science researchers and scholars are using online databases as their first literature collecting strategy. Vol. p. ” (Yang and Tate. The premise underlying this approach is that “repeated results in the same direction across multiple studies. it may specifically examine the relationships between certain Independent Variables (IVs) and Dependent Variables (DVs) derived from existing research findings. Under such circumstances descriptive review is the most appropriate one.” (p. p. therefore the publication channels are still largely scattered” (p. may be more powerful evidence than a single significant result” (King and He. “Qualitative studies have to be excluded by a meta-analysis due to its extremely quantitative nature. The facets of cloud computing is a dawning research area. Then the reviewer treats an individual study as one data record and identifies trends and patterns among the papers surveyed . (Yang and Tate. correlations. even some of them are non-significant. All the Web based references mentioned in 88 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Only similar quantitative studies are collected for a meta-analysis. In most cases.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .conduct a comprehensive literature search to collect as many relevant papers as possible in an investigated area. which makes it next to impossible to examine any variables. 667). 808) Vote counting is generally used to “draw qualitative inferences upon focal relationships by combining individual research findings”. Efforts were laid to get information from online databases. search engines and repositories.The outcome of such a review is often claimed to be representative of the state of art of a research domain. 809). As the concept is still in its infancy which has not fully ripened so it was difficult to fetch information from the library collections. 2005. However. 809). 668). “Here a tally is made of the frequency with which existing research findings support a particular proposition. (King and He . 668).2 No. It attempts to explore pertinent literature through computer or manual searches.

Table 1. Vol.2 No. Efforts have been laid to mention only those web addresses which are likely to work during this work but there are possibility that some links may not work.com Mamma.org NOPR DJLIT Pdfgeni. In spite of these.this work were retrieved during research period of September 2011 to March 2012. the title and abstract of the document was scanned properly and those found to be relevant were take out.com Freefullpdf. attempts have been undertaken to review literature relevant to present study.com Pdfqueen.rclis. Firstly. Impediments like language.com Google. time and proficiency keeps a check on it.com Scirus. Moreover.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .com Slideshare. Secondly.com Scribd.com Dogpile.com Google books Google scholar Google analytics BASE JURN Total papers or documents 132 Relevant papers or documents 54 Online databases Institutional repositories or archives PDF documents search PPT search 20 5 80 48 89 60 75 38 55 Search engines Specialized searching Academic search engines 54 31 118 46 INFORMATION FILTERING PROCESS Out of the total information retrieved from the web-sources two methods were employed to get the desired information on cloud computing.net Authorstream. it is almost impossible to review all the literature available on a concerned subject. Keyword and abstract searching was done on following web-resources TOOLS o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o SOURCES ACM Digital library IEEE Xplore Proquest (ABI/INFORM) ScienceDirect (Elsevier) Eprints. the full text of the documents were reviewed and the Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. However due to the dynamicity of web they may not be functional now. accessibility.

area of research. “Cloud computing evolution can be split into three phases.(2008) compare and contrasted cloud computing with grid computing and inferred that “cloud computing is an evolved version of grid computing”. a literature review surveys scholarly articles. For convenience the review study can be divided into various sections: Section I: Transition to cloud computing The roots of cloud computing can be traced to the days of mainframe computers (1960s) when the concept of utility computing came to light where the computing power could be split into metered service like power and telephone supply. The great idea remained in history pages until it was put in application by salesforce. conference proceedings) relevant to a particular issue. Microsoft in 2008 developed cloud based Azure services platform. and critical evaluation of each work. or theory. the University of California. According to Lyons (2010) “Not to be confused with a book review. In May 1997. Vol. p. Foster et al. Banerjee (2011):  Idea Phase. books and other sources (e.2 No. summary.documents rich in information content having no sketchy ideas dealing fundamentally with the research problem were finally taken into consideration for the research work. NetCentric tried to trademark “cloud computing” but was abandoned in April 1999. scanned and reviewed. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Stanford University.g. 2002. the University of Maryland and the University of Washington”.” Substantial amount of literature relating to cloud computing was collected. The purpose of a literature review is to offer an overview of significant literature published on a topic. xiii).(1960s-pre internet bubble era): During this period core ideas of utility and grid computing developed. dissertations. To keep pace with the technology. Another feather in the cap was added by Google that developed Google Apps entirely based on architecture of cloud computing. “The history of cloud computing faced huge competition only when Amazon started its cloud-based Amazon web services”. First research initiatives were started by Google and IBM in cooperation with “six American universities: Carnegie Mellon.com which used a simple website to deliver its enterprise application to users. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. providing a description. Berkeley.(1999-2006): Internet developed as a mechanism to provide application as a service. The first public usage of the term “cloud” as a metaphor for the internet in a paper published by MIT in 1996. The term cloud computing was coined in 2007. typically referring to a joint hardware and software deployment concept. LITERATURE REVIEW Most challenging task of a research study is to review the past related literature to extract a functional methodology or working model for a research problem. Lohr (2008).2 (Jul – Dec 2012) 90 .  Pre Cloud Phase. Cyberpassionteam (2011). Literature review is an essential approach to “conceptualize research areas and survey and synthesize prior research” (Webster and Watson.

Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Weinhardt et al. Madhubala. or the network functioned. grid computing and distributed computing. It is a style of computing in which IT-related capabilities are provided as a service allowing users to access technology enabled services from the internet without knowledge of.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) 91 . But the overarching concept of delivering computing resources through a global network is rooted in the sixties.(2007. 286). Voas & Zhang (2009)”. But to IT. But. cloud Computing delivers scalable IT services via the Internet on a payper-use basis” (p. It is first initiated by Amazon. Contrary to above arguments. (p. or control over the technology infrastructure that supports them.” According to Mohamed (2009) “Cloud computing has evolved through a number of phases which included grid and utility computing. 392). (2012) put forth her view that “Cloud computing is a paradigm that focuses on sharing data and computations over a scalable network of nodes. IBM. their software. Further. Users would not need to know or care about how the computers. They are joined by Gardner (2012) who argues that “cloud computing is often regarded as a revolution.till date) Cloud computing became popular and the sub classification IaaS. such as Google. Cloud Phase. I can't think of anything that isn't cloud computing with all of these announcements.” Section II: The concept of cloud computing Plethora of interpretations has been contested on the conceptualization of Cloud Computing. (2008) find “Cloud computing as a style of computing where massively scalable IT-enabled capabilities are delivered as a service to external customers using internet technologies”.2 No. and Software as a Service (SaaS). applicationcentric environment. Basically cloud is a metaphor for internet and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals”. For IT. Out of these in fact.” Sultan (2010) argues that “A study by McKinsey (the global management consulting firm) found that there are 22 possible separate definitions of cloud computing. soon followed”.com. The computer industry is the only industry that is more fashion-driven than women's fashion.” On the other hand. application service position (ASP). Infinite computing resources would be available for any need at costs approaching zero. R. (2009) argues that “combining elements of existing technologies such as virtualization. Oracle. Vol. Plummer et al. According to Farber (2008) “The interesting thing about cloud computing is that we've redefined cloud computing to include everything that we already do. no common standard or definition for cloud computing seems to exist Grossman (2009). scholars like Wohl (2009) perceive “Cloud Computing to be a vague term for a very vague and distant future in which computing would occur in a few remote locations without the need for very much human intervention.” Commenting on the evolution of the cloud landscape Yang and Hsu (2011) concludes that “Cloud computing services first emerged as an IT paradigm five years ago. 109). and Salesforce. it`s all about ways to improve delivery of the server-centric. PaaS & SaaS got formalized. several prominent technology companies. expertise with. (p. it`s just an evolution of infrastructure efficiency. SUN.

“Cloud computing has spread out through the main areas related to information systems and technologies. Kossmann and Kraska (2010) have put forth three important principles that depend on each other and can only provide additional value if implemented in concert These are: automation. He opined that cloud computing is a new model of computing used widely in today`s industry and society. and we access everything not only through our PCs 92 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Boss et al. and the quality-stable technological support that can develop the enormous potential demand”. (2009) argues that “Cloud computing is the infrastructural paradigm shift that is sweeping across the Enterprise IT world that has as many definitions as there are squares on a chess-board”. Misra and Mondal. According to Low. (2007) argues that “Cloud is a pool of virtualized computer resources which allows:  The dynamic scale-in and scale-out of applications by the provisioning and deprovisioning of resources. distributed computing. What is new is that cloud computing combines and integrates these approaches. His arguments are supplemented by Hand (2007) who argues that “in cloud computing not just our data but even our software resides within the cloud.4). Pyke (2009) that “cloud computing services can provide the user seamlessly. (2009). e. (2010) (p.2 No. (2009). 122). and centralized data centres. Erdogmus. (p. the term cloud is derived from the idea of businesses and users being able to access applications from anywhere in the world on demand”. Chinyao. Vol. In nutshell. Chen and Wu. (2010). Geelan. ” Under such circumstances there is a general agreement of scholars like Buyya et al. Yahsueh and Wu. However. such as utility computing. Hartig (2008) refers to Cloud Computing as the phenomenon of “virtualization of resources that maintains and manages itself”. Sultan. virtualization and pay-as-you-go pricing model. Mingchang (2011) Cloud computing provides the opportunity of flexibility and adaptability to attract the market on demand.  The monitoring of resource utilization to support dynamic load-balancing and reallocations of applications and resources”. and technological solutions for firms” Armbrust et al. (2010).2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . It draws on existing technologies and approaches.” (p.However. (p. Some of the scholars have attempted to trace the roots of Cloud Computing from business. application software. Chen.g by means of virtualization. 55). software-as-a-service. (2011) opines that “as we could expect.. ( p. Cloud computing is also. The concept is derived from the imagery of the Internet cloud. Inspired by similar thoughts Low. defined as a collection of disembodied services accessible from anywhere using any mobile device with an internet-based connection. in which the imagery of a cloud is traditionally used to represent the internet or some large networked environment. 17). “cloud computing is not a fundamentally new paradigm. 1007). such as operating systems. the convenience. according to Weiss (2007).

In IaaS. storage. 963). Public cloud available to public users to register and use the available infrastructure.com can be few of good examples of PaaS  Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Consumers control and manage the systems in terms of the operating systems. Skype etc. networking and processing of data. and there might be constraints as to which applications can be deployed. Client does not require to know programming language. Yahoo. VMWare vCloud are some of its examples Jericho Forum (2009) has put forth “cloud cube model to differentiate cloud formations from each other and the manner of their provision. Mell. To run required service a special platform or application infrastructure is also being provided to the clients where clients can build their web based applications.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) 93 . and Hybrid cloud: a private cloud that can extend to use resources in public clouds. such as smart phones. but do not themselves control the cloud infrastructure. Section III: Models of cloud computing Models are mental or pictorial representation of an event or phenomenon. database management systems. For example email and few other services offered by Google. The deployment models are:  Software as a Service (SaaS) Consumers purchase the ability to access and use an application or service that is hosted in the cloud. to run applications. Sify. applications. the mega-computer enabled by virtualization and software as a service”. Scholars have also used models to study cloud computing. Vol. etc. clients are being offered with storage.but also cloud friendly devices. Windows Azure.2 No. The Cloud Computing model constitutes three service delivery and three deployment models. enabling them to deploy their own software and applications in the cloud. Generally models are employed to study such phenomenon which cannot be seen or felt. Hotmail. The operating systems and network access are not managed by the consumer.  Platform as a Service (PaaS) Consumers purchase access to the platforms. (p. and network connectivity. Google App Engine and Force. The cube represents four dimensions of cloud activities:  Location of data: Internal/ External Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) or Simple Storage Service (S3). & Grance (2009): The service delivery models are: Private cloud: a cloud platform is dedicated for specific organization. PDAs.

memory. Thus. However. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Keahey et al. achieving standardized API appears to be rather politically than technically challenging”. These are business models for companies with an existing IT infrastructure and business models for startup companies. which changed with the introduction of TCP and other Internet standards. Section V: Adoption of cloud computing The emergent phenomenon of cloud computing aims at transforming the traditional way of computing by providing both software applications and hardware resources as a service.2 No.   Ownership of cloud technology: Proprietary/ Open Operations: Perimeterised (Within traditional IT perimeter)/ De-perimeterised (Outiside IT perimeter) Availability of service: Insourced (By third party)/ Outsourced (By own)” Mikkilineni and Sarathy (2009) “compared the evolution of cloud computing with intelligent network infrastructure in telecommunications and proposed a Virtual Resource Mediation Layer (VRML) to support interoperability between public and private clouds. Section IV: Standardization of cloud computing There are three active bodies working towards standardizing cloud computing practices:    Cloud computing Interoperability Forum Open cloud consortium DMTF Open Cloud Standards Incubator 94 However.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . there is also a document called the open cloud manifesto in which various stake holders express why open standards will benefit cloud computing Sriram and Khajeh-Hosseini (2010). Misra and Mondal (2010) built two types of business models that can be drawn for companies (cloud users) willing to adopt cloud computing services. government agencies. From the financial point of view. (p. businesses and/or individuals can either provide or use services within a near limitless computing environment (storage. Vol. These were resisted by the vendors just like the fate of cloud computing”. (2009) has enlisted the various difficulties of developing standards for effective cloud computing. 58). According to Sriram and Khajeh-Hosseini (2010) “cloud computing can benefit from standardized API interfaces as generic tools that manage cloud infrastructures can be developed for all offerings. Grossman (2009) asserts that” the current state of standards and interoperability in cloud computing is similar to the early Internet era where each organization had its own network and data transfer was difficult.26 -27). bandwidth and storage depending on needs” (p. CPU power etc) Tsaravas and Themistocleous (2011) (p. VRML is an abstraction layer that sits on top of the IaaS layer and allows applications to access CPU. 156).

cloud computing is the savior of all the ebbs of the information technology. and automating the tasks that traditionally has also to be carried out by experts. Ironically.resource lease manager. Governments that are looking for answers against bureaucracy and complication of procedures are almost obligated to implement new technological solutions to provide public services effectively”. Google. in order to have control over spending and to be able to work towards maximizing return on investments”. 124). with the involvement with IT the commitment as well as services has been miserably infested. cloud computing helps optimizing the long tail of processes which are currently not supported by IT and helps to reduce the cost of those processes that indeed are already automated” (p. Su (2011) In the field of education Thomas (2011) argues that “Cloud Computing has a significant place in the higher education landscape both as a ubiquitous computing tool and a powerful platform that can enhance engagement among educational researchers and educators to understand and improve practice. Sotomayor et al. ( 2009) presents two tools for managing cloud infrastructure: OpenNebula. Banerjee (2009) provides an overview of technological research studies that were performed in HP labs and that adopted cloud-scale smart environments. On the demand side. and Salesforce. Buyya et al. such as utility computing and the smart data centre. and traditional IT service firms.S. Section VI: Adoption of cloud computing in libraries Library and information centres are constantly in search of low-cost solutions due to low funding. Vol. Grossman et al. Buschman and Leckie (2009) posit that “librarians need to be critical in their use of technology”. Vaquero et al. such as IBM. According to Kossmann and Kraska (2010) “Cloud Computing promises to lower the bar for new services to become worthwhile by making things cheaper. faster. including both firms that specialize in cloud computing.virtual infrastructure manager and Haizea. (2009) stresses on “feedback control service for scaling in the cloud. and thus. Scaling choices must be under control of the users. (2009) developed a cloud-based infrastructure that had been optimized for performance networks and supported necessary data mining applications.2 No.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . such as Amazon. Under such conditions. Lim et al. cloud computing is becoming a key service offering of many IT firms. (2009) have also dealt with market-oriented resource allocation of cloud computing by leveraging third-generation Aneka enterprise grid technology. HP and Fujistu.Various researches have been undertaken to imply cloud computing in various domains. On the supply side. cloud computing is being rapidly adopted by organizations in both developed countries such as the U. This way. (2009) opines that Cloud computing and web collaboration are two major concepts that underlie new and innovative developments in library 95 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. and emerging economies such as China. increase the quality of their students’ learning outcomes”.com.

the economics. OCLC web scale management services. including OCLC.automation. library and information science scholarship has remodeled the future for libraries. p. (1997).2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . It will provide all its web-scale subscribers with a vendor database which will list their details avoiding data redundancy in libraries. (2007). These predictions have to come true. has made it imperative that libraries offer their services online. the library`s users are accessing the information needed in the comfort and security of their homes or in their own personal or customized spaces. (p. OhioLink. SirsiDynix. From the emergence of World Wide Web. OCLC started Web-scale management services which can perform the in-house library operations through mutual co-operation. To meet their needs. Today`s consumers of information have more alternative and attractive ways of finding information than using the traditional library Sadeh. Instead. (2010). The introduction of the internet to libraries was part of a significant shift from print/in-house-focused services to online/ externally provided services. (2010). easier access. the embrace of cloud computing by many organizations. Cloud computing will bring an end to the ILS server. Today. “First. Cloud services allow for more optimal resource utilization. recognizing that future libraries may not own their collection of resources Lancaster. With these success libraries are motivated for using subscription based cloud IT infrastructure.2 No. scholastic predictions indicated that the library in serving future users may offer referral to “potentially appropriate points in a vast network of resources accessible through the internet or its successors” (Lancaster. The web has also expanded the scope of services provided by librarians. Moulasion and Corrado. (2007). Recently. Wolf (2010). whose major goal is reducing the cost of IT services while increasing processing throughput. plus the time these users spend on the internet. Much of these tools and services will not be owned by the library but are necessary to carry out the enduring work of making library collections and services known and accessible to users. “Migrating to a cloud-based application may turn out to be cost neutral but at the same time still have the benefit of allowing staff to concentrate on libraryspecific issues”. and perhaps the personnel requirements of library computing in years to come”. 96 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. 59-60). Mitchell. The future of computing lies in cloud computing. The growing internet usage among library users and potential users. 1997. 27). libraries need to adopt the communication and information tools and services that users are accustomed to Sadeh. Vol. Libraries can work cooperatively in a flexible environment where they can share solutions to problems instead of having to reinvent the wheel at each library. 6). Cloud computing is important in the context of LIS education for two reasons Tomer and Alman (2011). availability and flexibility and decreasing processing time Hayes (2008). and more effective cost reduction. and the Library of congress suggests that this mode of computing will have a significant impact on the configuration. Historically libraries have turned to huge capital investment on IT infrastructure for various online as well as subscription based services. (2011) (p. reliability.

the cloud computing adoption rate is not growing as fast as expected Banerjee. both strategic and operational. (2009). (2009). While cloud computing has been discussed as a new technology develop that can provide several advantages. categorization and analytics to help users manage the vast repositories of both structured and unstructured information) as well as the cost-savings and flexibility that they can provide. Smartphones are being used by the users these days for accessing information services for fast and easy communication.Other vendors can take advantage of the cloud. Now the information formats have also changed. There seems to be an utmost use of web based services in libraries and information centres since the evolution of internet. Libraries are in a unique position to experiment with cloud computing given their service oriented mission and need to find appropriate solutions using limited resources. Moreover. Buyya et al. (2011). Further. Goscinski and Brock.2 No. “In World India is the third and in Asia second largest country in internet adoption”. Blowers (2010). to its adopters. Vendors can provide a remotely hosted service which allows for the creation of modular content. so you don`t need a client on your local PC.. vulnerabilities in cloud computing that may lead to such risks. It also lowers the technical skills needed to create web pages. sorting. Moore (2010) asserts that “use analysis now requires a cloud computing orientation”. (2009). Wolf (2010). As such cloud computing has the seeds for reinvigoration of library and information science professions. and impacts and. (2010) Section VII: Security concerns of cloud computing ENISA firstly addressed the security risks related to adopting cloud computing along with the affected assets. 97 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. It is imperative that all senior technologists have a solid understanding of the ramifications of cloud computing since its impact is likely to permeate the entire IT landscape” Rhoton. They have also emerged as an key players in the provision of internet services to the user communities Kinney (2010) During this time libraries have re-directed services both to support in-house internet use and to serve the needs of users via digital means. Fox (2009) observes that the goals of the organization have an impact on their use of cloud solutions. Like other cloud applications it is accessible from any internet connection. Internet world stats (2011).2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . “A study conducted by IMAI and IMRB reveals that there are 121 million internet users in India out of which 97 million access atleast once in a month” Times of India. through cloud computing instead of having own servers and employing personnel for its maintenance libraries can hire a vendor on a monthly charge and enjoy the benefit of same server function. which many libraries wouldn`t be able to create on their own. “There is a tremendous amount of enthusiasm around cloud-based solutions and services (filtering. Vol.

Vol. ease of implementation. (2010). efficient coordination among firms. (2010) raises issues concerning the “security vulnerabilities existing in the cloud platform”. Thus. The shift to Cloud computing moved much of a user’s normal activity to the Web browser. Meiko et al. segregation and data recovery. firms may not have confidence in a cloud computing system because it is relatively new to them. Firms are attracted by the opportunity for reducing or eliminating costs associated with “in-house” provision of these services Buyya et al. Hayes. (2009).7 billion in 2010. Section VIII: Benefits of cloud computing Pyke (2009) has described the following benefits of cloud computing: scalability. browser`s related attacks and flooding attacks. such as a logged in email account or online banking session. payment and privacy of sensitive information. Dasmalchi. As such it is possible for malicious websites to exploit browser vulnerabilities in order to steal information associated with other existing or previous browsing sessions. and quality of service. (p.. browsing history and other sensitive information in a single place. Lin. the market is expected to reach $241 billion in 2020. However. Trappler (2010) asserts that “if it is in the cloud. and access to market information mobilization. get it on paper”. Subashini (2010) discusses the security challenges of the cloud service delivery model.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .Similar efforts have been laid by CSA . It may take users a long time to understand and implement the new system. Armbrust et al. (2009). better customer communications. (2009) discuss the security SLA`s specifications and objective relating to data locations. Web browsers generally store all of a user’s saved passwords. The expected benefits of embedded cloud computing services include the following: speed of business communications. Economic. (2009). compared to $40. “Providing IT services in the cloud shifts much of this expense to a pay-as-you-go-model and consequently offers significant cost advantages according to one view”. IT research firm Forrester published the first industry report that offered a sizing of the cloud computing market. Balchandra et al. Fu. Zhu. is using the skilled practitioners. complexity of an innovation can act as a barrier to implementation of new 98 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. freeing up of internal resources. Many see huge potential of the technology in reducing the cost of IT to organizations and freeing them from the expense and hassle of having to install and maintain applications locally Leavitt. (2009). (2009). 50).. simplification and convenience of the way computing-related services are delivered seem to be among the main drivers of cloud computing Erdogmus. Bernd et al. Kresimir et al. (2010) discusses high level security concerns in the cloud computing model such as data integrity.2 No. According to this report. (2009) discuss the technical security issues arising from adopting the cloud computing model such as XML-attacks. Some scholars are of the opinion that Cloud computing service providers are incentivized by the profits to be made from charging consumers for access to these services.. Buyya et al. (2008).

. Vendor lock-in. but 99 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. and cloud security are well known open research problems in the cloud computing model. meaning that librarians can make use of services without incurring any cost for their libraries”. Vol. research has shown that there are some major obstacles which hinder the adoption and growth of Cloud computing. With cloud computing we are getting closer to the reality of purchasing computer power. Grundy and Muller. (1994). This will free libraries from the shackles of IT management and allow us to focus on services and resources.. Furthermore. quite a few of the cloud-based software platforms are available for free. Depending on the service. “The elastic aspect of cloud computing allows applications to scale and grow without needing traditional ‘fork lift’ upgrades”. This risk of confusion will likely increase when cloud based applications lack any recognizable browser branding. employers and universities deploy cloud based tools on desktops. Wolf. Tsaravas and Marinos (2011) Despite the potential benefits and revenues that could be gained from the cloud computing model. and continue to function when the user is not connected to the Internet. (2012) (p. data management.Moulasion and Corrado. several concerns arise about security. 4-5).(2011) “the services that libraries can acquire through the use of cloud computing platforms may indeed be valuable. service portability.technology. Madhubala. availability and reliability of data. the model still has a lot of open issues that impact the model creditability and pervasiveness. (2010). As every technological concept. (p.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . many users may fail to realize that they are in fact using an Internet based service. Morsy. they can save their parent institution money. Potential Cloud organisations and vendors need to be aware that it may become easier for attackers to threaten clouds by moving towards a single cloud interface.elasticity engines. Further cloud computing will given even the smallest organization the ability to use the power of network computing within a minimal infrastructure.2 No. According to Moulasion and Corrado. He advocates that because companies might be storing documents which should not be made public.287). complexity factor is usually negatively affected. cloud computing is not an exception in terms of trust and security issues. Section IX: Downsides of cloud computing However. (2011) “If librarians can save on buying and maintaining servers. Once data are outsourced to a third-party cloud provider. multi-tenancy and isolation. SLA management..(2010) “As computer manufacturers. they can also rely on the software provider to carry out all updates. there are reasons for concern about what can happen to the information.” Ramgovind et al. just like they did before the digital age. thereby allowing their own employees to take care of other obligations in lieu of monitoring version changes and upgrades. (2010) Katz (2009) focuses on many areas where the cloud may impinge on education. R. Premkumar et al.

Jericho forum (2009). Shigeo and Nagamori. et al. 2009. 2009.. Furht and Escalante. 2009 Bernstein. Grossman. Leimeister et al. 2009..2009.. Joint et al. Ramireddy. Baars & Kemper. 2010.. Pascal. 2009. 100 Benefits Business Impediments Model Pricing Privacy Standards Security Storage Technology Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Matthew and Spraetz. Zeng etal.. Table 2. Briscoe.the cost of internet access. 2009. Sun.2009. et al. Vaquero et al. Ried. 2008. 2009.2 No.. 5). 2009. Lenk. can become a considerable hurdle to effective provision of services”. Pearson.2009. Velte et al.. Harmer. 2009. Jan. 2010. even if bandwidth is not currently at a premium. Dodda et al. Yeo et al..2009. 2008. Keahey 2009. Anandasivam & Weinhardt. 2009.. et al. Vaquero et al. 2007. Overview of cloud computing research ISSUES Adoption CONTRIBUTORS Hazelhurst. 2009. Ohlman.. et al. et al. Bhardwaj et al. Mitshuharu. Pueschel & Neumann. Wolf.2010. Wilson 2009. Saya et al. et al.2009. 2009.2010. Kisker.. Askhoj. 2009. et al. et al. Youseff et al.2009. 2010. Armbrust et al.. Dikaiakos et al.2010.. Mika and Tummar Chun and Maniatis 2009. 2009.2010. 2009. elo. Nurmi. Delic and Riley. Lim et al. 2009. Sugimoto. 2011 Buyya et al..2010.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .2008. Ratogi.. 2009. Holger and Matzke..2009. Matthews. 2010. (p. Vol.2010... Briscoe and Marions. Koehler and Anandasivam. Mikkilineni and Sarathy.. 2010. 2010.. Weinhardt et al.2009... Assuncao et al. 2009.Stefan.

It revealed that cloud computing has gained tremendous popularity in India. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. During 2010 onwards it was at its peak. It revealed that the term gained momentum post-2009. Also there is high scope of research on cloud computing in conjunction with libraries in near future.com. libraries and online services was done on Google Insights to determine the interest areas worldwide.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . taken from Google Trends 101 Further. Searches for cloud computing on Google.2 No. Figure 2. a comparative study of cloud computing.RESULTS Popularity of the terms and search To analyse the popularity of “cloud computing” searching was done on Google Trends. Vol.

It revealed that post 2006 there has been sudden increase in the usage of the term in books.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Searches for cloud computing from Google books Ngram Viewer 102 It reveals that post 2006 there has been sharp increase in the usage of the term in books. Table 4. Searches for cloud computing taken from Google Insights To analyse the average use of the term “cloud computing” in books searching was done on Google Books Ngram Viewer.2 No. Vol.Figure 3. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.

2 No. We found that during 2010 maximum number of literature was written. It revealed that conference proceedings were the best source of dissemination of the concept on cloud computing Figure 6. Distribution of articles by year 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2 1 12 15 Distribution of articles by year 26 29 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 103 Distribution of articles by publication To analyse the most productive sources for “cloud computing” literature an analysis of the available literature was done.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .Distribution of articles by year An analytical study of the references was done to find out the most productive year for cloud computing literature. Figure 5. Distribution of articles by year 30 20 10 2 0 Distribution of articles by publication 19 15 18 20 22 10 12 14 12 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Vol.

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