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Sahin Ahmed et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(9), 2010, 4902-4911

ANALYTICAL MODEL OF MHD MIXED CONVECTIVE RADIATING FLUID WITH VISCOUS DISSIPATIVE HEAT

Sahin Ahmed

Fluid Mechanics Research, Department of Mathematics, Goalpara College, Goalpara 783101, Assam, INDIA,

Abdul Batin

Department of Mathematics, Abhaypuri College, Abhayapuri 783384, Assam, INDIA,

Abstract

The objective of this investigation is to study the influence of thermal radiation and magnetic Prandtl number on the steady MHD heat and mass transfer by mixed convection flow of a viscous, incompressible, electrically-conducting, Newtonian fluid which is an optically thin gray gas over a vertical porous plate taking into account the induced magnetic field. The similarity solutions of the transformed dimensionless governing equations are obtained by series solution. It is found that, velocity is reduced considerably with a rise in conduction-radiation parameter (R) or Hartmann number (M) whereas the rate of heat transfer is found to be markedly boosted with an increase in Hartmann number (M) or radiation (R) or Eckert number ( ). An increase in is found to escalate induced magnetic field whereas an increase in R is shown to exert the opposite effect. Applications of the study include laminar magneto-aerodynamics, materials processing and MHD propulsion thermo-fluid dynamics.

Keywords: Radiating fluid; viscous dissipative heat; electrically-conducting; magnetic Prandtl number.

2000 Mathematics Subject classification: 76D, 76W05, 80A32 and 76M45.

Nomenclature

Induced

Uniform magnetic field [-],

magnetic field along x-direction [-],

Specific heat at constant pressure [J. kg . K 1 ],

Acceleration due to gravity [m.s ], Thermal Grashof number [-], Hartmann number/Magnetic parameter [-], Absorption coefficient [-], Magnetic Prandtl number [ ], Prandtl number [ ],

Stefan-Boltzmann constant [W. m 2 . K4], Temperature [K], Fluid temperature at the surface [K], Fluid temperature in the free stream [K], Velocity component in x-direction [m. s ], Dimensionless free stream velocity [m. s ], Suction velocity [m. s ], Current density [m 2 . s. A], Radiative heat flux [-]

Greek symbols

Coefficient of volume expansion for heat transfer [K ],

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Subscripts

w Conditions on the wall

Free stream conditions

Magnetic diffusivity [H. m 1 ], Dimensionless fluid temperature, Thermal conductivity [W. m . K ], Kinematic viscosity [m 2 .s ], Density [kg. m ], Electrical conductivity [S. m 1 ], Shearing stress [N. m ]

1. Introduction

Free and forced convective flow of an electrically conducting fluid past a porous vertical surface under the influence of magnetic field occurs in many industrial and technical applications which include plasma studies, the boundary layer control in aerodynamics, petroleum industries, MHD power generators, cooling of nuclear reactors, and crystal growth (1973, 1997 and 2005). Merkin (1969) investigated the mixed convection boundary layer flow on a semi- infinite vertical flat plate when the buoyancy forces aid and oppose the development of boundary layer. The effects of free convection currents on the flow field of an incompressible viscous fluid past an impulsively started infinite vertical porous limiting surface when the fluid is subjected to suction with uniform velocity has been considered by Kafoussias et al. (1979). Recently, the study of heat and mass transfer on the free convective flow of a viscous

incompressible fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate in presence of transverse sinusoidal suction velocity and a

constant free stream velocity was presented by Ahmed (2009). Also, Ahmed and Liu (2010) analyzed the effects of

mixed convection and mass transfer of three-dimensional oscillatory flow of a viscous incompressible fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate in presence of transverse sinusoidal suction velocity oscillating with time and a

constant free stream velocity.

In all the above-mentioned studies, the magnetic Reynolds numbers are assumed to be very small; therefore the magnetic induction effects are neglected. To accurately predict the flow behaviour, such effects must be considered for larger values of magnetic Reynolds number. The effects of magnetic induction on the boundary layer flow and heat transfer is investigated b many authors such as Glauert (1992), Bég et al (2009), Alom et al. (2008), Zueco et al. (2009).

The radiative flows of an electrically conducting fluid with high temperature in the presence of a magnetic field are encountered in electrical power generation, astrophysical flows, solar power technology, space vehicle re-entry, nuclear engineering applications and other industrial areas. England and Emery (1969) have studied the radiation effects of an optically thin gray gas bounded by a stationary plate. The hydromagnetic free convective flow of an

optically thin gray gas in the presence of radiation has been investigated by Bestman and Adiepong (1988), Naroua

et al. (1998), when the induced magnetic field is negligible. Raptis and Massalas (1998) investigated the effects of radiation on the oscillatory flow of a gray gas, absorbing-emitting in presence induced magnetic field. The hydrodynamic free convective flow of an optically thin gray gas in the presence of radiation, when the induced magnetic field is taken into account was studied by Raptis et al. (2003). Hossain et al. (1998) determined the effect of radiation on natural convection flow of an optically thick viscous incompressible flow past a heated vertical porous plate. Shateyi et al. (2007) studied the magnetohydrodynamic flow past a vertical plate with radiative heat transfer. Chamkha (2000) considered the problem of steady, hydromagnetic boundary layer flow over an accelerating semi-infinite porous surface in the presence of natural radiation, buoyancy and heat generation or absorption. As the importance of radiation in the fields of aerodynamics as well as space science technology, the present study is motivated towards this direction. The main objective of the present investigation is to study the effects of radiation and viscous dissipation on a steady mixed convective heat transfer flow over an infinite vertical porous plate with constant suction taking into account the induced magnetic field. The analytical results for some particular cases are matched with Raptis et al. (2003) and Raptis and Massalas (1998) and found them in excellent agreement.

2. Mathematical Model

The two-dimensional steady magnetohydrodynamic mixed convective heat transfer flow of a Newtonian, electrically-conducting, viscous incompressible and radiating fluid over a porous vertical infinite plate with induced magnetic field has been considered in Figure 1. The -axis is taken vertically upwards along the plate, -axis normal

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to the plate into the fluid region. It is assumed that the plate is electrically non-conducting and the applied magnetic field is of uniform strength and perpendicular to the plate. The magnetic Reynolds number of the flow is not taken to be small enough so that the induced magnetic field is not negligible. Let the plate be long enough in - direction for the flow to be parallel. Let , , be the fluid velocity and , , be the magnetic induction vector at a point , , in the fluid. Since the plate is infinite in length in -direction, therefore all the physical quantities except possibly the pressure are assumed to be independent of . The wall is maintained at constant

temperature higher than the ambient temperature . The fluid is an optically thin gray gas. All the gas properties are considered constant except that the influence of density variation with temperature has been considered only in the body force term. The plate is subjected to a constant suction velocity. The equation of conservation of electric charge is . , where , , . The direction of propagation is considered only

along the y-axis and does not have any variation along the y-axis and so , which gives .

Since the plate is electrically non-conducting, this constant is zero and hence everywhere in the flow, following Sutton and Sherman (1965). Within the frame of such assumptions and under the Oberbeck-Boussinesq’s approximation and in consistency with boundary layer theory, the governing equations relevant to the problem are:

theory, the governing equations relevant to the problem are: 0 ̂ ̂ Physical configuration and coordinate

0

̂

the governing equations relevant to the problem are: 0 ̂ ̂ Physical configuration and coordinate system

̂

Physical configuration and coordinate system

Conservation of Mass:

0 which is satisfied with a constant.

Gauss’s law of magnetism:

0 which holds for a constant strength from applied magnetic field

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Conservation of Momentum:

Vol. 2(9), 2010, 4902-4911 Conservation of Momentum: Conservation of Energy: 1 Conservation of Magnetic

Conservation of Energy:

1

Conservation of Magnetic Induction:

1

The boundary conditions are:

0:

0 ,

,

,

0

∞:

,

,

0

The non-dimensional quantities are:

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

64

,

For the case of an optically thin gray gas, the local radiant absorption is expressed as (2003):

4

1

2

3

4

5

6

where is the mean absorption coefficient and is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. It is assumed that the

temperature differences within the flow are sufficiently small such that may be expressed as linear function of the

temperature . This is accomplished by expanding in Taylor’s series about and neglecting higher-order terms (2003, 2000), thus

4 3

7

Using the transformations (5) and with help of (6) and (7), the non-dimensional forms of (1) – (3) are

0

4

0

0

The corresponding boundary conditions are:

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8

9

10

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0:

∞:

0 ,

1 ,

1 ,

0 ,

0

0

11

3. Method of Solution

In order to solve the equations (8) to (10) under the boundary condition (11), we note that 1 for all the incompressible fluids and it is assumed the solutions of the equations to be of the form

,

12

In which denotes a general dependent variable i.e. , or , and is the Eckert number. Substituting (12) into the equations (8) to (10) and equating the coefficients of the same degree terms and neglecting terms of , the following ordinary differential equations are obtained, in which designates / :

0

0

0

0

1

4 0

1

4 0

The boundary conditions (11) reduce to

0:

0 ,

0

,

0 ,

0

∞:

1 ,

0 ,

0 ,

0

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

The solutions of the velocity and induced magnetic field subject to the boundary conditions (23) are:

1

20

21

22

23 24

25

4. Skin-Friction

The boundary layer produces a drag on the plate due to the viscous stresses which are developed at the wall. The viscous stress at the surface of the plate is given by

A A 2 2

23

5. Rate of heat transfer

The coefficient of heat transfer can be calculated in non-dimensional form at the plate, which is generally known as Nusselt number as follows:

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2 2

31

6. Results and discussion

To assess the effects of the dimensionless thermophysical parameters on the regime, we have carried out the calculations for the velocity field, temperature field, induced magnetic field and electric current density at the plate. The results are presented graphically in figures 1 to 6. All data is provided in each figure. Figure 1 illustrate the velocity response for magnetic field and Prandtl number due to cooling of the plate 0 i.e. free convection currents convey heat away from the plate in to the boundary layer. With an increase in M from 0.25 through 0.50 to 0.75, there is a strong deceleration in the flow is achieved. The presence of a magnetic field in an electrically-conducting fluid introduces a force called Lorentz force which acts against the flow if the magnetic field is applied in the normal direction as considered in the present problem. This type of resistive force tends to slow down the flow field. Since the magnetic field has a stabilizing effect, the maximum velocity overshoot is observed for the conducting air, while minimum overshoot takes place for the water. Moreover, a rise in value from 0.1 through 0.5 to 0.6 (in all these cases magnetic diffusion rate exceeds the viscous diffusion rate) causes a noticeable decreasing in the flow velocity, in particular at short distance from the wall. Figure 2 depicts the spatial velocity distribution with various radiation parameters . The trend is similar to that for the velocity response to different values i.e. a peak arise close to the wall and then all profiles decay smoothly to unity as prescribed by the free stream boundary condition. The radiation parameter arises only in the energy equation in the thermal diffusion term, and via coupling of the temperature field with the buoyancy terms in the momentum equation, the velocity is indirectly influenced by thermal radiation effects. An increase in clearly reduces substantially the velocity in the boundary layer i.e. decelerates the flow. Figure 3 shows the influence of the radiation parameter and viscous dissipative heat on the temperature field in presence of conducting air 0.71 and weak magnetohydrodynamic flow 0.25 . Increasing radiation parameter from 0.0 (non-radiating) through 0.5 (thermal conduction is dominant over radiation) to 1.0 (thermal and radiation are equal) clearly depressed the fluid temperature. Similar behaviour is also observed for the viscous dissipative heat on the fluid temperature i.e. exponentially decreases. The effects of radiation parameter and viscous dissipative heat on the induced magnetic field are presented in Figures 4. A rise in from 0.0 through 0.5 to 1.0 depresses the induced magnetic field magnitudes throughout the regime. Also, when increases from 0.0 (without viscous heat) through 0.005 to 0.009, the induced magnetic field is found to increase absolutely in the boundary layer. For all combinations of and , values of are remains negative i.e. induced magnetic flux reversal arises for all distances into the boundary layer, transverse to the plate. Greater flux reversal arises in the boundary layer region for 0.1 and 0.009. The effects of radiation parameter and viscous dissipative heat on the skin friction, has been presented in Figure 5 in presence of diffusing air, 0.71). Investigation shows that, the skin friction decreases in magnitude with the increase of radiation parameter . On the other hand, it is seen that the skin friction increases in magnitude in the boundary layer 1, 3 , but this trend is reversed for the region 3, 4 . No effect has been observed on the skin friction for the physical parameters and in the region 4. In Figure 6 the response of rate of heat transfer to the radiation parameter (R) and viscous dissipative heat have been plotted for conducting air 0.71 and 1 (magnetic diffusion rate exceeds the viscous diffusion rate). Increasing radiation parameter from 0.0 (non-radiating) through 0.3 to 0.5 clearly elevated the rate of heat transfer in the region 1, 3 , but this behaviour is reversed in the boundary layer 3. However, the rate of heat transfer is found to increase throughout the boundary layer, when Ec increases from 0.05 through 0.07 to 0.09. has less significance for the parameters and far away from the wall.

7. Conclusion

This study presents a theoretical treatment of steady magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow and heat transfer of an incompressible, electrically-conducting and radiating fluid over an infinite vertical permeable plate, taking into account the magnetic Prandtl number. The observations are:

An increase in radiation parameter/Hartmann number leads to decelerate the flow velocity, while increasing magnetic Prandtl number depress the Induced magnetic field.

Increasing conduction-radiation acts to depress skin friction and induced magnetic field.

Temperature is reduced by the increase of radiation/ Eckert number.

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Skin friction is strongly elevated/ depressed by the increase of Eckert number.

The rate of heat transfer is substantially elevated by the increase of Hartmann number/ conduction- radiation/ Eckert number.

Appendix

2

,

1 1 4

2

,

1 ,

,

,

1 ,

1

,

4 2 /4 2

,

4 2 /4 ,

4 2

/4 ,

,

1 ,

8 4 1 2

8 4 1 2 1 ,

1

1

,

1 1 ,

2

2 2 1

1 ,

,

2

2 2 1

,

1

,

.

,

2

1

,

Biographical notes

Dr. Sahin Ahmed is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Mathematics, Goalpara College, Goalpara-783101, Assam, INDIA. He has been doing his research work in the field of Thermofluid Magneto Hydrodynamics since 1999. More than 37 research papers have been published in internationally reputed journals to his credit. Thirteen (13) research scholars have obtained M. Phil degree under his supervision. He is the Principal Investigator of a UGC Research project of No. F.5-292/2009/5866.

3 M Pm 0.25 0.5 2.5 0.50 0.5 0.75 0.5 2 0.25 0.6 0.25 0.7
3
M
Pm
0.25
0.5
2.5
0.50
0.5
0.75
0.5
2
0.25
0.6
0.25
0.7
u 1.5
1
Gr = 5, R = 0.1,
0.5
Pr = 0.71, Ec = 0.001
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
y
Fig. 2: Velocity distributions for M and Pm

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1 Ec R 0.000 0.1 0.8 0.009 0.1 0.050 0.1 0.001 0.0 0.6 0.001 0.5
1
Ec
R
0.000
0.1
0.8
0.009
0.1
0.050
0.1
0.001
0.0
0.6
0.001
0.5
0.001
1.0
0.4
Gr = 5, M = 0.25,
Pm = 0.5, Pr = 0.71,
0.2
0
0
2
4
8
10
y 6
Fig. 3: Temperature distributions for R and Ec

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Sahin Ahmed et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(9), 2010, 4902-4911

3 R = 0.0 2.5 R = 0.3 R = 0.5 2 R = 1
3
R
= 0.0
2.5
R
= 0.3
R
= 0.5
2
R
= 1
u 1.5
1
Gr = 5, Pm = 0.5,
0.5
Pr = 0.71, Ec = 0.001
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
y
Fig. 2: Velocity distributions for R 0 123456 -5 R Ec 0.0 0.001  0.5
Fig. 2: Velocity distributions for R
0
123456
-5
R
Ec
0.0
0.001
0.5
0.001
1.0
0.001
0.1
0.009
-10
0.1
0.020
0.1
0.030
Gr = 5, Pm = 0.1,
Pr = 0.71,
-15
M

Fig. 5: Skin friction for R and Ec versus M

References

0 0 2 4 6 8 10 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 Gr = 5, Pm =
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
-0.05
-0.1
-0.15
Gr = 5,
Pm = 0.5,
M = 0.25,
Pr = 0.71,
H -0.2
R
Ec
-0.25
0.0
0.001
0.5
0.001
-0.3
1.0
0.001
0.1
0.000
0.1
0.005
-0.35
0.1
0.009
y
-0.4
Fig. 4: Induced magnetic field for R and Ec 3 R Ec 0.1 0.05 0.1
Fig. 4: Induced magnetic field for R and Ec
3
R
Ec
0.1
0.05
0.1
0.07
2.5
0.1
0.09
0.0
0.05
2
0.3
0.05
0.5
0.05
1.5
Nu
Gr = 5, Pm = 0.1,
Pr = 0.71,
1
0.5
0
123456
M

Fig. 6: Nusselt number for R and Ec versus M

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[2]

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107-109.

[16] Raptis, A. A.; Perdikis, C.; Leontitsis, A. (2003): Effects of radiation in an optically thin gray gas flowing past a vertical infinite plate in the presence of a magnetic field, Heat and mass Transfer, 39, pp. 771-773. [17] Shateyi, S.; Sibanda, P.; Motsa, S. S. (2007): Magnetohydrodynamic flow past a vertical plate with radiative heat transfer, J. Heat Transfer, 129, No. 12, pp. 1708-1713.

[18] Sutton, G. W.; Sherman, A. (1965): Engineering Magnetohydrodynamics, MacGraw-Hill, New York. [19] Wunderlich, R. K.; Fecht, H. J. (2005): Modulated electromagnetic induction calorimetry of reactive metallic liquids, Measurement Science and Technology, 16, pp. 402-410. [20] Zueco, J., O.; Anwar Bég; Takhar, H. S.; Prasad, V.R. (2009): Thermophoretic hydromagnetic dissipative heat and mass transfer with lateral mass flux, heat source, Ohmic heating and thermal conductivity effects: network simulation numerical study, Applied Thermal Engineering, 29, pp. 2808-2815.

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