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Crude Oils Their Sampling, Analysis, and Evaluation
Crude Oils
Their Sampling, Analysis, and Evaluation

Harry N. Giles and Clifford O. Mills

and Evaluation Harry N. Giles and Clifford O. Mills Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved);
and Evaluation Harry N. Giles and Clifford O. Mills Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved);
and Evaluation Harry N. Giles and Clifford O. Mills Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved);

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Sun Nov 27 16:44:45 EST 2011 Downloaded/printed by Curtin University of Technology pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.

Crude Oils: Their Sampling, Analysis, and Evaluation

Harry N. Giles and Clifford O. Mills

ASTM Stock Number: MNL68

N. Giles and Clifford O. Mills ASTM Stock Number: MNL68 Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights
N. Giles and Clifford O. Mills ASTM Stock Number: MNL68 Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Sun Nov 27 16:44:45 EST 2011 Downloaded/printed by Curtin University of Technology pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.

ii

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Giles, Harry N. Crude oils: their sampling, analysis, and evaluation/Harry N. Giles and Clifford O. Mills. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN: 978-0-8031-7014-8 1. Petroleum—Analysis. I. Mills, Clifford O. II. Title. TP691.G545 2010

665.5—dc22

2010031882

Copyright ª 2010 ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. All rights reserved. This material may not be repro- duced or copied, in whole or in part, in any printed, mechanical, electronic, film, or other distribution and storage media, without the written consent of the publisher.

Photocopy Rights Authorization to photocopy items for internal, personal, or educational classroom use of specific clients is granted by ASTM International provided that the appropriate fee is paid to ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700. West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, Tel: 610-832-9634; online: http://www.astm.org/copyright/

ASTM International is not responsible, as a body, for the statements and opinions advanced in the publication. ASTM does not endorse any products represented in this publication.

Printed in Newburyport, MA November, 2010

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Sun Nov 27 16:44:45 EST 2011 Downloaded/printed by Curtin University of Technology pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.

iii

Foreword

THIS PUBLICATION, Crude Oils: Their Sampling, Analysis, and Evaluation, was sponsored by ASTM com- mittee D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants. The authors are Harry N. Giles, Consultant, 2324 N. Dickerson Street, Arlington, Virginia 22207 and Clifford O. Mills, Consultant, 1971 E. Tower Road, Ponca City, Oklahoma 74604. This is Manual 68 in the ASTM International manual series.

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Sun Nov 27 16:44:45 EST 2011 Downloaded/printed by Curtin University of Technology pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Sun Nov 27 16:44:45 EST 2011 Downloaded/printed by Curtin University of Technology pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.

v

Acknowledgments

This manual is based on the ASTM International Technical and Professional Training Course of the same name that has been taught by the authors at several locations worldwide numerous times since 2005. This manual would not have been possible without the support and encouragement of many of our colleagues and participants in the course. We are grateful to many individuals and companies for provid- ing us some of the material included herein. We appreciate their willingness to share this information because it makes our task easier illustrating some of the topics. The following individuals and companies provided some of the material included in this course: Baker Hughes and Larry Kremer; Canadian Crude Quality Technical Association and Andre Lemieux; Chevron Energy Technology Company and Anne Sha- fizadeh; Crude Oil Quality Association; DynMcDermott Petro- leum Operating Co.; Google and the WorldWideWeb;

Intertek; KBW Process Engineers; Koehler Instruments; Arden Strycker, Northrop Grumman Mission Systems; Patrice Per- kins, PetroTech Intel; Professor G. Ali Mansoori, University of Illinois–Chicago; Professor Bahman Tohidi, Institute of Petroleum Engineering; Heriot-Watt University; Dan V illa- lanti, Triton Analytics; Anne Brackett Walker, W. L. Walker Co.; and David Fish, Welker Engineering. We apologize if we neglected to mention someone that has assisted us; this is not intentional. Dr. Arden Strycker of Northrop Grum- man Mission Systems kindly reviewed the manuscript and provided many valuable comm ents that helped us improve the contents. We also thank the staff at ASTM Interna- tional, who helped in making the course a reality, and the members of the Publications Department for their guid- ance, support, and, most of all, their patience during the preparation of this manual.

Harry N. Giles Arlington, VA

Clifford O. Mills Ponca City, OK

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Sun Nov 27 16:44:45 EST 2011 Downloaded/printed by Curtin University of Technology pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Sun Nov 27 16:44:45 EST 2011 Downloaded/printed by Curtin University of Technology pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.

vii

Contents

Glossary

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Chapter 1: Introduction

 

1

Brief History of Crude Oil Exploitation and Use

2

Strategic Importance of Crude Oil

2

Chapter 2: Sampling

 

5

Manual Sampling

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Automatic Sampling

6

Sampling for Vapor Pressure Determination

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Mixing and Handling of Samples

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Sample Chain of Custody

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Sample Archive

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Summary

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Chapter 3: Inspection Assays

Sulfur Content

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Introduction

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API Gravity and Density

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Salt Content

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Fluidity—Pour Point and Viscosity

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Vapor

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Total

Acid Number .

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. Characterization Factor.

Carbon Residue

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Trace Elements .

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Nitrogen Content

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Organic Halides

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Asphaltenes

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Boiling

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Other Tests

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Referee Test Methods

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Chapter 4: Comprehensive Assays and Fraction Evaluations

 

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True Boiling Point .

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25

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Naphtha Fractions

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Kerosine

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Distillate Fuel Oil

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27

Vacuum Gas

Oil Fractions

 

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30

Residuum .

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30

Summary

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30

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Sun Nov 27 16:44:45 EST 2011 Downloaded/printed by Curtin University of Technology pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.

viii

CONTENTS

Chapter 5: Quality Assurance

 

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32

Chapter 6: Crude Oil Compatibility and Stability

 

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Asphaltenes

 

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Waxes

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34

Chapter 7: Crude Oil as Fuel.

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37

Chapter 8: Future Needs in Crude Oil Characterization

 

38

Appendix 1: Procedures for Collection of Samples for Hydrogen Sulfide Determination

 

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40

Appendix 2: Referenced ASTM and Other Standards

 

41

Appendix 3: Excerpts from Standards Used for Sampling, Handling, and

 

44

References

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