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Note: Damodaran uses a Market Risk premium of 5.5% and a tax rate of 40 percent 7-1 a.

We use the CAPM: The Expected Return on the stock = 0.058 + 0.95(0.0876) = 0.1412 = 14.12%. Since the investor is a short-term investor, we use the T-bill rate, and the arithmetic mean. Since the focus is short-term, we dont need to take compounding into account. b. For a long-term investor, we would use the T-bond rate, and the geometric mean: The expected return = 0.064 + 0.95(0.0561) = 0.1173 or 11.73%, where 5.61% is used as the estimate of the market risk premium, since that is the geometric average of the market premium using the long-term T-bond rate as the riskfree rate. If we use 5.5% as our estimate of the market premium, the expected return would be 0.064 + 0.95(0.055) = 0.1163 or 11.63%. c. The cost of equity for the company is more appropriately the long-term required rate of return, since most projects for the company would be long-term. 7-2 a. The levered beta of the company is given by formula: L = u (1 + (1 t )( D / E )) . Solving, we get unlevered = 0.95/(1+(1-0.36)(1.7/1.5)) = 0.55 b. The proportion of the risk of the firms equity that can be attributed to business risk is 0.55/0.95 = 58%, while the remainder is due to financial leverage risk. 7-3 a.The cost of equity equals 0.064 + 1.70(0.055) = 15.75% b. If long term bond rates rise to 7.5%, the cost of equity will rise by a like amount to 16.85%. c. Since Biogen had no debt, all of its risk is due to business risk. 7-4 a. The expected return on the stock, assuming that the marginal investor is a Malaysian with primarily domestic holdings is 0.115 + 1.15(0.0675) = 19.26%, using the risk premium based on country risk provided by ratings agencies. b. For an international investor, who has the ability to diversify globally, some of the risk might be diversifiable, and hence the true beta might be lower. To take care of this possible overstatement, it would be appropriate to compute a beta relative to a more global index, such as the Morgan Stanley Capital Index. 7-6 Its current levered beta is 1.2. Using the formula for leveraging a beta L = u (1 + (1 t )( D / E )) , we find the unlevered beta = 1.2/(1+(1-0.4)(50/100)) = 0.92. If the D/E ratio is increased to 8, we have the new levered beta equal to 0.92(1+(1-0.4)8) = 5.35. 7-8

a. Assuming that the company has no debt now, the beta for Hewlett Packard as a company can 2 2 1 3 be computed as 1.1 + 1.5 + 2.0 + 1.0 = 1.275 . (We assume that the divisional betas 8 8 8 8 are unlevered betas.) Since the divisional structure of Hewlett Packard has changed over the years, the beta obtained by regressing past returns of HP against a market index will not be the same as 1.275. b. If the T. bond rate is 7.5%, the cost of (unlevered) equity for the divisions can be computed as follows: Business Group Mainframes 0.075+1.1(0.055) = 13.55% Personal Groups 0.075+1.5(0.055) = 15.75% Software 0.075+2.0(0.055) = 18.5% Printers 0.075+1.0(0.055) = 13.00% To value the printer division (assuming no leverage), we would use a cost of equity of 13%. 2 1 3 c. After the divestiture, wed have the unlevered beta equal to 1.5 + 2.0 + 1.0 = 1.333 . 6 6 6 Using the information that HP had debt outstanding equal to $1.0 billion, the levered beta equals 1.333(1+(1-0.36)(1/5))=1.50 7-17 a. The unlevered beta equals 1.61/(1+(1-0.4)(10/10))=1.01 b. If the debt ratio goes from 1 to .9 and then to 0.8, the levered beta would become 1.01(1+(10.4)(0.9)) = 1.5554 and 1.4948 respectively. 7-18 a. The cash can be netted out of the debt. The unlevered beta of the business without the cash is estimated as 1.05/(1+(1-0.36)(5000/(355x50))) = 0.8896. b. There is no effect on the unlevered beta, because this unlevered beta is that of the business without the cash. c. The net debt ratio would be rise to 10000/355x50. The levered beta is 0.8896(1+(1-0.36) (10000/(355x50-5000))) = 1.34