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"He Come Out with us this time As a Volunteer ...

":
Soldiers Serving without Pay in the Continental and British Armies; including Aaron Burr,
Matthias Ogden, Eleazer Oswald, and Richard St. George Mansergh St George
(Based Around a Case Study of the Second New Jersey Regiment, 1777-1780)

John U. Rees

Contents
1. “James Paul a Volunteer & wounded at sho[r]t hills was promised … Commis[sio]n.”
Second New Jersey Regiment Volunteers, 1777-1780
2. “Major Ogden who came out with me a volunteer …”
Volunteer Officers’ Fortunes under Generals Montgomery and Arnold, 1775 and After.
3. “A fine, high-spirited, gentleman-like young man, but uncommonly passionate.”
British Volunteers and the Vicissitudes of War, 1775-1783

Appendices
A. British Officers who began as Volunteers during their Service in the American War
B. Related Books and Articles

A nineteenth century rendering of the late afternoon action in and around the Parsonage Farm, scene
of Lt. Col. Aaron Burr’s culminating combat experience. Very far, in time and space, from Quebec,
where he first experienced military violence as a volunteer with Col. Benedict Arnold. (Painting by
Alonzo Chappel.)

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During the War for American Independence numbers of men served in unpaid positions with
various Continental and British regiments. These men were volunteers, often acting as officers
"with reputation, without pay," though some also served as non-commissioned officers or private
soldiers in hope of obtaining an officer's commission.1

“James Paul a Volunteer & wounded at sho[r]t hills was promised … Commis[sio]n.”
Second New Jersey Regiment Volunteers, 1777-1780

The Second New Jersey Regiment benefited from the services of at least three volunteers, all
who eventually received commissions. The regiment was first organized in the winter of 1775-76,
serving in the closing stages of the Canadian campaign and with the garrison at Fort Ticonderoga. It
was not until early summer the year following that the unit’s first volunteer was recorded.
In June 1777 James Paul was entered on the muster list as a sergeant in Capt. James Maxwell's
company "By Order of His Excellency Colo [Israel] Shreve," the regiment's commanding officer.
Prior to this it seems Paul had been serving in a voluntary position with no connection to any
specific regiment. On 2 April 1777 Shreve had written New Jersey governor William Livingston, "I
understand Lt. Jeremiah Smith has Resigned ... If so It is the Desire of most of the officers here that
Mr. James Paul should be Appointed an Ensign ... Mr. Paul was the first Sergt. in Capt. Faulkners
Company in our Regt. Last Year, and always Behaved well / he Come Out with us this time As a
Volunteer [and] has been Imployed by the Gen. [probably George Washington or Israel Putnam,
commander at Princeton where Shreve’s regiment was posted] to Go with a flag to Brunswick
which … he Executed to the Generals satisfaction ..." Three days later Livingston noted that "The
Arrangement [of officers] having already been already completed the subject matter of the above
Letter is now properly [addressed] by his Excellency General Washington to whom application
might accordingly be made." While disappointment at not receiving a commission in April 1777
must have been great, James Paul had less than a month to serve in his unpaid position before his
opportunity for advancement arrived.2
On 26 June 1777 Brig. Gen. William Maxwell's four regiment New Jersey brigade, including the
Second Regiment, took part in the Battle of Short Hills. During this action, fought against a larger
and better-trained force of British and German troops, Colonel Shreve's regiment suffered
numerous losses. Shreve himself noting among the casualties, "Ensign James Paul [wounded] in the
thigh but [he] Got of[f] and [is] Like to Do well ..." Paul was appointed an ensign in Capt. James
Maxwell's company immediately after the battle. His commission was not officially awarded until
12 October 1777, perhaps shortly after he recovered and rejoined the army. On that date General
Maxwell issued a list of promotions, including "James Paul a Volunteer & wounded at sho[r]t hills
[who] was promised by his Excellency a Commisn. Dated 1st July 1777." In January 1778, James
Paul was promoted to second lieutenant in the same company, then commanded by Capt. William
Helms.3 (For details on the Short Hills battle see, "’We ... wheeled to the Right to form the Line of Battle’: Colonel
Israel Shreve's Journal, 23 November 1776 to 14 August 1777 (Including Accounts of the Action at the Short Hills)”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/153790118/%E2%80%99We-wheeled-to-the-Right-to-form-the-Line-of-
Battle%E2%80%99-Colonel-Israel-Shreve-s-Journal-23-November-1776-to-14-August-1777-Including-
Accounts-of )
Before proceeding, it must be recalled that in order for a volunteer to gain a commission, a space
had to open. In wartime this could be due to retirement, illness and other less sanguinary causes, but

2
more often officer battle casualties produced a vacancy. Here then is the full transcript of the
October 1777 promotion list, quoted in part above:

Promotions to be made in the 2d. New Jersey Regt. Commandd By Coll. Shrieve - James Paul
a Volunteer & wounded at sho[r]t hills was promised by his Excellency a Commisn. Dated 1st
July 1777.
Lieut. Saml. Reading to be a pointed Capt. in the room of Capt. Lawry Deceasd 10th. July in
New York shortly after the battle of Short Hills. [“Laurie taken prisoner, died in Provost at
New York soon after”]
Aaron Lane to be a first Lieut. on Capt. Lawry's Dec[ease].
John Shrieve to be 2d. Lieut. at Capt. Lawry's Deceas
Nathaniel Boman to be Capt. in the room of Capt. Stout Deceased the 11th Sept. 1777.
George Reynolds to be a first Lieut. at Capt. Stouts Deceas
Samuel Shute to be 2d. Lieut. at Capt. Stouts Deceas
Given in Camp at Towaminsing Township the 12th Day of Oct. 1777
Wm. Maxwell B.G.4

While Paul owed promotion to battlefield exploits and officer casualties, it seems his impetuous
nature led to his downfall. Almost two years after James Paul received his ensign’s commission he
was captured in New Jersey. Early in April 1779 Brig. Gen. Maxwell wrote the commander in
chief, "Coll. D' Hart informs me that Lieut. Paul of the 2d Regt. at New Ark who had the watter
guard of twelve Men, very imprudently landed on the Bergan shore where the enemy had laid [in]
wait for them, and made them all prisoners; I am hartily sorry for this accident. I had cautioned
them agains[t] sending partys on Bergan." Maxwell stated in a second letter that Lieutenant Paul
"bears a good carracter ..." Paul was not exchanged out of captivity until January 1780; he retired in
January 1781.5
As seen in James Paul’s case, the quickest way for a volunteer to obtain a commission was to
show (and survive) valor in battle and, perhaps just as important, to be wounded in the process.
Two other volunteers served with the Second New Jersey Regiment, both initiating their services
without pay during 1778. The first of these, George Walker, is the one about whom the least is
known. At some point in the first half of 1778, prior to the June campaign and battle of Monmouth
Courthouse, Walker was attached to Colonel Shreve's regiment acting as an officer "with
reputation, without pay." One secondary source states he was wounded in the side during the action
at Monmouth. Possibly, that incident led to his receiving a commission, though that is unproven. In
any case, George Walker was appointed ensign in Capt. Samuel Reading's company on 12
September 1778. Walker served as a subaltern until November 1783.6
Our last volunteer, Francis Luse, had served with the Second Jersey regiment in 1777 as a private
in Capt. Henry Luse’s company. Francis probably served as volunteer prior to George Walker. He
was also likely a relative of Captain Luse, a situation not at all unusual in the New Jersey brigade or
the Continental Army in general. General Maxwell's nephew had served as a lieutenant, then
captain in the Second New Jersey in 1776 and 1777, while John Shreve, son of the regiment’s
colonel, was a subaltern officer in the unit from 1776 to 1781.7
Francis Luse was first listed as a volunteer in Captain Luse's Company in January 1778. He
continued as such for the next two years, nominally serving under Capt. William Helms after Henry

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Luse retired in 1779. In actuality, Francis was not present with his company after September 1778,
when he received a leave of absence. In January 1780 he was stricken from the rolls of Helms'
company having been on leave for over a year. On 17 June 1780, Francis Luse finally received an
ensign’s commission in Lt. Col. William DeHart's Company. While he remained on furlough until
at least December 1780, Ensign Luse was present with the Jersey troops at the Yorktown siege and
served in the army until 3 November 1783.8

“Major Ogden who came out with me a volunteer …”


Volunteer Officers’ Fortunes under Generals Montgomery and Arnold, 1775 and After.

There were various kinds of military volunteers, most looking to gain a commission, some
already commissioned officers offering their service for special duty. The force that marched
under Col. Benedict Arnold through Maine in autumn 1775, as well as those already besieging
Quebec, contained both types. Capt. John Lamb’s artillery company had on its rolls Samuel
Lockwood, a Greenwich, Connecticut sea-captain. Lockwood had also been appointed second
lieutenant in May 1775 (at 75 years of age, if the records are correct) in Col. David Waterbury’s
Connecticut regiment. That November he received a commission as captain and assistant
engineer. It was in that capacity he volunteered with Lamb’s company, being captured at the end-
of-year assault on Quebec City. In January 1777 he became a captain in the Second Continental
Artillery Regiment, serving until February 1779.9
John Joseph Henry served with Capt. Matthew Smith’s rifle company, under Colonel Arnold.
Specifically listed as a volunteer, he seems to have hoped for a commission as a result. Upon his
return from Canada, he was offered a lieutenancy in a Pennsylvania regiment, but Col. Daniel
Morgan had already procured him a captain’s commission in the Virginia line. Henry was unable
to accept either offer; he soon after fell ill from the effects of his captivity and was barred from
any further military service. “Mr. Mathew Duncan” of Philadelphia was wounded and captured in
the Quebec attack. Besides being listed among the staff officers as a captain, nothing else is
known.10
Three volunteers with Arnold went on to gain both commissions and solid military reputations.
The least well-known is Eleazer Oswald, serving as Colonel Arnold’s military secretary, with the
brevet (i.e., temporary) rank of captain. The colonel wrote his sister Hannah from “Camp Before
Quebeck, January 6, 1776. … Captain Oswald is among the prisoners; he was with me in a
selected party of about twenty-five, who attacked the first battery; behaved gallantly, and gained
much honour; …” A few days later he informed Congress, “I think myself, in justice, bound to
acknowledge the good conduct and intrepidity, of both officers and men, of my detachment, who
undauntedly marched up, in the face of the enemy’s cannon; in particular, the volunteers of
Captain Oswald, who signalized himself in the attack on their battery, and is now a prisoner.”
Oswald, who had been a private during the April 1775 Lexington alarm, in January 1777 was
awarded a commission as lieutenant colonel of the Second Continental Artillery Regiment.
Lieutenant Colonel Oswald proved himself extremely adept in maneuvering artillery tactically
during the 28 June 1778 Battle of Monmouth Courthouse, covering Maj. Gen. Charles Lee’s
withdrawal with a series of masterful stands, often without supporting troops. One of Lee’s most
ardent defenders, Eleazer Oswald resigned his commission in autumn 1778. He moved to Britain
post-war, and then to Revolutionary France, where he fought as a colonel in the French army.

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One unconfirmed account has him serving with Gen. Jean Humbert’s French invasion force in
Ireland in 1798, facing once again Charles, Lord Cornwallis, then Lord Lieutenant of that
country.11
Shortly after the Battle of Bunker Hill two students left the College of New Jersey at Princeton
to join the New England army then besieging Boston. Twenty-one-year-old Matthias Ogden was
uncle to twenty-year-old Aaron Burr, but, having grown up in the same household, were also
close friends. It is perhaps not surprising they set off on this adventure together. Matthias Ogden
was described by Benedict Arnold as “a young gentleman of good and opulent family from
Jersey, and a volunteer in the army.” Ogden is first referred to as “Capt.” but his temporary rank
was eventually raised to that of brigade-major. A January 1776 missive from Arnold to Congress
noted, “Major Ogden, the bearer of this to Montreal, who came out with me a volunteer,
proposes going down to Philadelphia. I beg leave to recommend him as a gentleman who has
acted with great spirit and activity through our fatiguing march, and at the attack on Quebeck, in
which he was wounded.” Ogden went on to receive a commission as lieutenant colonel of the
First New Jersey Battalion in March 1776, returning to Canada that year with his new unit. When
the First Battalion was reenlisted and reformed in early 1777, their commander William Maxwell
was promoted to brigadier general and Matthias Ogden became senior New Jersey field officer, a
position he held till war’s end. Colonel Ogden fought in all the major actions in the middle states
and campaigned from Quebec to the Yorktown siege. Matthias Ogden commanded the New
Jersey brigade from 1780 until their final furlough in 1783.12
Aaron Burr’s name is far more memorable for his post-Revolutionary career, but we will focus
on his wartime service. John Joseph Henry was the first member of Arnold’s march through the
Maine wilderness to mention Burr, recalling that at Dead River, November 3, 1775, “Here it was
that for the first time, Aaron Burr, a most amiable youth of twenty, came to my view. He was
then a cadet. It will require a most cogent evidence to convince my mind that he ever intended
any ill to his country in after years, by his various speculations.” At month’s end Colonel Arnold
sent a message to Gen. Richard Montgomery at Quebec, along with a note, “This will be handed
to you by Mr. Burr, a volunteer in the army and son to the former president of New Jersey
college. He is a young gentleman of much life and activity and has acted with great spirit and
resolution on our fatiguing march.” Arnold again mentioned Burr following the Quebec debacle
in a letter to Gen. David Wooster, then commanding at Montreal: “The loss of my detachment,
before I left it, was about two hundred men, killed and wounded. Among the latter is Major
Ogden, who, with Captain Oswald, Captain Burr, and the other volunteers, behaved extremely
well.” Burr and the other volunteers in the vanguard braved and survived the grapeshot discharge
that killed General Montgomery, and captains John Macpherson and Jacob Cheesman. Aaron
Burr went on that spring to receive a major’s commission and served a stint as aide to Gen.
George Washington, evidently cut short by a soon-discerned mutual dislike. (Of course, the
restrained nature of service with the commander-in-chief, too, would not have agreed with him.)
In June 1776 Gen. Israel Putnam received Burr on his staff, where by all accounts he performed
admirably, particularly during the Battle of Long Island, and the ensuing withdrawal across the
East River. All those services led to his gaining the post of lieutenant-colonel at age twenty-one
in Col. William Malcolm’s Additional Regiment in January 1777.13

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(Left) Aaron Burr, circa 1790 (artist unknown)
(Right) “Volunteer Aaron Burr on the Arnold Expedition. This illustration is based on a letter
Burr wrote to his sister from Fort Western at the start of the campaign. In his letter, 19-year-old
Burr described his clothing, weapons, and accoutrements.” Artwork by George C. Woodbridge.
Arthur S. Lefkowitz, Benedict Arnold’s Army: The 1775 Invasion of Canada during the
Revolutionary War (New York: Savas Beatie, 2008)

The 1777 Additional regiments were the Continental Army’s poor stepchildren; being attached
to no specific state’s contingent, they relied solely on the Continent for clothing and supplies and
seem to have come off second-best in recruiting. Malcolm’s Regiment was still coalescing in
July, but elements served on the lines between the armies, with occasional skirmishes. Lt.
Alexander Dow recalled his lieutenant-colonel in action that summer:

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During the sumar was Exercising and hunting toreys till Septr whine the Enemy Cam over to
Hakensack / we then marched towards that place and halted in the woods near Paramas, Lieut
Coll [Aaron] Burr [of Malcolm’s Regiment] next morning with Chosen Officers and men the
party Consisted of 22 men and 5 Officers in order to Intercept the Enemys plundring parteys but
found non[e], Towards Evening and being Quit[e] bewildred we saw a fire on an Eminence but
far off / we tuck our Coors Towards it which was our Only [Direction?] whine we was near it we
Consealed our Selves, the Coll reconitred the Ground being on fut and found it to be the Enemys
picket nearly [?] at But a Small Distance from Hackensack New-bridge / on the other side six
thousand wer Incamped in full Vew, we weated till [?] Our [i.e., hour] whine the moon was
down, and by full consent of Officers maid seekret and sudant atack / Emagining them to be one
hundred strong Coll Burr proportenad our difrent atacks in platuns, he pitched [mine?] to
Enter first without aney alarm and Chalange the whole to serender which I dide that moment
finding them both Brave and Obestinat, as they flew to ther arms I droped three of them with my
Baynet on the musel of my fusee by this time one stout felow atackted me in the same manor But
I parried him off and in his Indevering to disarm me he Bit sevral holes in the Baral of my fusee,
whilst my worthey [Serjt.?] Williams Cam[e] to my releff and stabed him Dead, I then turned on
another full armed who beged for mercy I bid him serender his arms to me which he did into my
hand, by this time the rest of our partey had dun ther part and taken one moar prisner, with which
we finding no moar Live men we Cam[e] of[f] living sixten on the Ground which had a still moar
Grand Efect for by ten Oclock in the morning the whole of the Enemy were Gon … 14

Malcolm’s Regiment finally joined the main army that autumn, being assigned to Brig. Gen.
Thomas Conway’s brigade, Maj. Gen. William Alexander, Lord Stirling’s division (Stirling’s
other contingent was Maxwell’s four regiment brigade, comprising the 1st, 2d, 3d, and 4th New
Jersey regiments). Having missed the actions at Brandywine and Germantown, Malcolm’s men
participated in a large-scale expedition to Darby in late October, the encampment and operations
at Whitemarsh, and entered the Valley Forge cantonment on December 19th. Following a late-
December movement against British forces foraging southwest of Philadelphia, Stirling’s
division returned to Valley Forge to complete their winter huts.15
Burr’s culminating combat experience happened in June 1778, at the Battle of Monmouth
Courthouse. During that sweltering day-long action, on one of the longest days of the year, the 3d
Pennsylvania (late Conway’s) brigade was ordered forward in late afternoon to attack the 1st
Battalion, British Grenadiers. One source claims that Lieutenant Colonel Burr commanded the
brigade that day, but that was not the case, there being other more senior officers present. In any
case, Burr was in the thick of it, losing a horse during the action.16 Lieutenant Dow does not
mention Aaron Burr, but does recount the intensity of the fight:

I was afterwards at Munmoth Battel in a sharp Incanter ageanst British Graniders Whilst Lt Coll
[Rudolph] Bunner [3rd Pennsylvania Regiment, killed 28 June 1778] fell near me [and] Coll
[Francis] Barber [3rd New Jersey Regiment] much wounded / four subalterns of our Regt [were]
wounded one of which [was] Adjintant Talman [Peter Taulman, Malcolm's Regiment, shot in the
throat] Closs by my side / I Commanded the platun on the left of our partey and being Closs prest
by the right of the Enemy in frunt Lost three of my men the English Comanding Officer on the
right of the Enemy holoring Com on my brave boyes for the honour of Great briton, I ordred my
men to Lavel at him and the Cluster of men near him as I dreaded the next momant he would ride
me down / he droped [and] his men slackened ther pase whin Coll [Oliver] Spencer [Spencer’s

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Additional Regiment] ordred me to fall back the rest of ours wer in flight / so sune as we gave
way Lo[r]d Starlings [American Major General William Alexander, Lord Stirling] Artillery
Played on the Enemy so well That they Run Back and we Imeditly rallied and returned to our
own Ground wher we remained under arms till next morning / I sune found that the Officer who
fell By my Directions provd to be Coll [Henry] Munkton [commander 2nd Grenadier Battalion]17

As with many first-hand battle accounts some details are not quite correct. In this case the
inaccuracy concerns Lieutenant Dow’s claim to have been responsible for Colonel Monckton’s
death. Garry Stone places Dow’s Monmouth narrative in its proper context:
The Parsonage fight was between three [actually five, the 3d, 6th, and 12th Pennsylvania, and
Malcom’s and Spencer’s] small regiments commanded by Brig.-Gen. Anthony Wayne and the 1st
Battalion of British Grenadiers. The 3rd Pennsylvania Regiment was on the Continental right, and
as implied by Dow, Malcolm’s and Spencer’s Additional Regiments were to the left. Malcolm’s
Regiment may have been on the extreme left, at the Parsonage barn and dwelling, as an account
of Adjutant Peter Taulman’s wounding states that he “crawled behind the barn.”
As none of the battalion officers of the 1st Grenadiers was killed or wounded apparently Dow’s
men killed only an officer’s horse. Lt.-Col. Monckton, commander, 2nd Battalion of British
Grenadiers, had been killed hours earlier during the Grenadiers’ attempt to cross the bridge
between the Parsonage Farm and the Continental positions on the Perrine Farm.18

As the war progressed, manpower became an increasing problem and Continental regiments
were dissolved, with their personnel transferred to senior organizations. This happened to
Malcolm’s Regiment in April 1779, when it was incorporated with Col. Oliver Spencer’s
Additional Regiment. Claiming ill health, and perhaps anticipating the end of his unit, Aaron
Burr had resigned his commission a month and a half earlier. He resumed his legal studies later
that year, and was admitted to the New York bar in 1782, where he soon vied with Alexander
Hamilton. The rest of his varied career is quite well-known and well beyond the scope of this
work.19

8
Garry Stone’s map for the action at the Hedgerow and Parsonage between late Conway’s
Brigade (comprising six small regiments, the 3d, 6th, 9th, and 12th Pennsylvania
Regiments, and Malcolm's and Spencer’s Additional Regiments) and the 1st Battalion,
Grenadiers and 33d Regiment. (On display at the Visitors Center, Monmouth Battlefield
State Park.)
_____________

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“A fine, high-spirited, gentleman-like young man, but uncommonly passionate.”
British Volunteers and the Vicissitudes of War, 1775-1783
_______________

A Caveat: This appended chapter is but an intimation of the role and number of volunteers
in British regiments during the American War. As historian Don N. Hagist notes, it is not,
possible to develop a comprehensive list of British volunteers … Several times during the
war, commanders in chief ordered lists of volunteers with the army to be made. A few such
lists survive, and from them we know that some volunteers ultimately received
commissions and others did not. They also show us that some volunteers appear among the
private soldiers on regimental muster rolls, while others do not … The second problem is in
the terminology used in commissioning notices. Sometimes the notices say, for example,
‘John Smith, volunteer, to be ensign vice ..." while other times they say "William Jones,
gent., to be ensign vice ...’

Mr. Hagist tells of further difficulties in enumerating volunteers:


In the Clinton Papers is a summer 1781 list of volunteers with the army, which includes
three volunteers in the 54th Regiment. Two of them obtained commissions after the battle
of Fort Griswold that September. The promotion notice for one of them uses one term, the
notice for the other uses the other term [i.e., the terms “volunteer” and “gentleman”]; one
or two of the three appear on the muster rolls, the other does not. [See, Don N. Hagist,
British Soldiers, American War: Voices of the American Revolution (Yardley, Pa.:
Westholme Publishing, 2012), chapter 9] … From the few lists that we have, we see that a
given regiment was liable to have one to five volunteers at any given time - so there might
be 50 or more in the army at any given time. We have no idea of the turnover rate - some
got commissions, some packed it in and went home, some enlisted as private soldiers (I
have a first-hand account of a man in the 52nd Regiment doing this, because he ran out of
money - he quickly was appointed sergeant, but then served in that capacity for about a
decade).
___________________________________

To round out this study, and by way of comparison, we look at volunteers in British regiments.
Steven M. Baule’s and Stephen Gilbert’s seminal work British Army Officers Who Served in the
American Revolution, 1775–1783 was the basis for this examination. My copy, gifted me by
Steve Gilbert, was hand-corrected and updated by him, and those amendments (completed 5
August 2005), have been taken into account. (See complete list of British volunteers in the
Appendices to this work.) By my count a total of 3,451 officers are listed in British Army
Officers Who Served; of those, 99 men (2.9 percent of the whole) are listed as volunteers, most
connected to a specific unit during their period of unpaid service.20
In gleaning the volunteers’ names and service records several cohorts came my attention. First,
were those gentlemen volunteers who received commissions as a result of the June 17, 1775
Battle of Bunker (Breed’s) Hill on the Charlestown peninsula across from the city of Boston.
That action was a victory disastrous to the British officer corps. Maj. Gen. Sir William Howe’s
assault force at it strongest consisted of 2,300 men: two composite flank battalions (one light

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infantry, the other of grenadiers), six unassigned flank companies, five Foot regiments (the 5th,
38th, 43d, 47th, and 52d, all comprising eight companies), plus the ten-company 1st Marine
Battalion and an artillery contingent.21 The official tally of officer casualties is as follows:

“Return of the Officers, Non-commission Officers, and Privates killed and wounded of His
Majesty’s Troops, at the Attack of the Redoubts and Intrenchments on the Heights of
Charlestown, June 17, 1775.22
[Note: Flank company personnel]
4th Foot. — Capt. Balfour, Capt. West, Lieut. Barron, Lieut. Brown, wounded …
5th. — Capt. Harris, Capt. Jackson, Capt. Downes, Capt. Marsden, Lieut. M'Clintock, Lieut.
Croker, Ensign Charleton, Ensign Balaguire, wounded [“N. B. — Capt. Downes, of the 5th
regiment, and Lieut. Higgins, of the 52d, died of their wounds on the 24th instant.”] …
10th. — Capt. Parsons, Capt. Fitzgerald, Lieut. Pettigrew, Lieut. Verner, Lieut. Hamilton, Lieut.
Kelly, wounded …
18th. — Lieut. Richardson, wounded …
22d. —Lieut.-col. Abercrombie, wounded, and since dead.
23d. — Capt. Blakeney, Lieut. Beckwith, Lieut. Cochrane, Lieut. Lenthall, wounded …”
35th. — Lieut. Baird, killed; Captain Drew, Capt. Lyon, Lieut. Massay, Lieut. Campbell,
wounded …
38th. — Lieut. Dutton, killed; Capt. Coker, Capt. Boyd, Lieut. Christie, Lieut. House, Lieut.
Myres …
43d. — Major Spendlove, Capt. M'Kenzie, Lieut. Robinson, Lieut. Dal- rymple, wounded …
47th.—Major Small, Capt. Craig, Capt. England, Capt. Alcock, Lieut. England, wounded; Lieut.
Hilliard, Lieut. Gould, wounded, since dead …
52d. — Major Williams, wounded, since dead; Capt. Addison, Capt. Smith, Capt. Davidson,
killed; Capt. Nelson, Lieut. Higgins, Lieut. Thompson, Lieut. Crawford, Ensign Chetwynd,
Ensign Graeme, wounded [“N. B. — Capt. Downes, of the 5th regiment, and Lieut. Higgins, of
the 52d, died of their wounds on the 24th instant.”] …
59th— Lieut. Haynes, wounded …
63d. — Lieut. Dalrymple, killed; Capt. Folliot, Capt. Stopford, wounded …
65th. —Capt. Hudson, killed; Major Butler, Capt. Sinclair, Lieut. Paxton, Lieut. Hales, Lieut.
Smith, wounded …
1st battalion marines. — Major Pitcairn, wounded, since dead; Capt. Ellis, Lieut. Shea, Lieut.
Finnic, killed; Capt. Averne, Capt. Chudleigh, Capt. Johnson, Lieut. Ragg, wounded …
2d battalion marines. — Capt. Campbell, Lieut. Gardiner, killed; Capt. Logan, Lieut. Dyer,
Lieut. Brisbane, wounded …
OFFICERS ATTENDING ON GENERAL HOWE.
67th. —Capt. Sherwin, aid-de-camp, killed. 14th. — Lieut. Bruce, killed; Ensign Hesketh,
wounded. Royal Navy. — Lieut. Jorden, wounded. Engineer Lieut. Page, wounded.
Volunteers, late Barre's [Col. Isaac Barré’s 106th regiment, 1761-1763], Lieut. Alex.
Campbell, on half-pay, wounded.
[Alexander Campbell, 2d Bn./84th Foot, captain, 14 June 1775; from half-pay 106th Foot]
Royal Artillery. — Mr. Uance [David Vans], wounded.
4th Foot. — Mr. [James] Dorcus, wounded.
35th. — Mr. [John] Maden [Madden], wounded. [Died 16 October 1775 of wounds incurred
17 June 1775.]

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52d. — Mr. [Robert John] Harrison, wounded.
59th. —Mr. [John Montagu] Clarke, wounded.
2d Battalion Marines. —Mr. Bowman [unknown], wounded.
Total. — 1 lieutenant-colonel, 2 majors, 7 captains, 9 lieutenants, 15 sergeants, 1 drummer,
191 rank and file, killed; 3 majors, 27 captains, 32 lieutenants, 8 ensigns, 40 sergeants, 12
drummers, 706 rank and file, wounded.
N. B. — Capt. Downes, of the 5th regiment, and Lieut. Higgins, of the 52d, died of their wounds
on the 24th instant.

Breed’s Hill was a killing-zone for British officers leading their troops, as well several
volunteers trying to prove their worth. As noted above, besides the nineteen officers killed and
seventy wounded, seven volunteers were also casualties. Of those identified, Alexander
Campbell (then on half-pay after the 106th Foot was disbanded in 1763), James Dorcus/Darcus,
John Montague Clarke, Robert John Harrison, John Madden/Maden, and David Vans received
commissions for their service. There is some question concerning Campbell and Madden and the
commission dates given in British Army Officers Who Served. Given the several week travel lag
for ships crossing the Atlantic, those commissions, one dated 29 April 1775, the other 14 June
1775, may have been awarded in London. That news may not have reached volunteers Campbell
and Madden until some time after the Breed’s Hill action. In any case, and for all intents and
purposes, they were listed and served as volunteers on June 17, 1775.23

“Plan of the action which happen'd 17th. June 1775, at Charles Town, N. America.” "N.B.
The ground plan is from an actual survey of Captn. Montresor." (Battle of Breed’s
[Bunker] Hill), by Sir Thomas Hyde (1746-1821). Library of Congress Geography and Map
Division Washington, D.C., https://lccn.loc.gov/gm71000613

12
Here then is my amended list of volunteers advanced because of the Breed’s Hill action:

Commissions Received as a Result of Service at Breed’s Hill and/or Officer Casualties24

Arthur Brooke/Brooks, volunteer, wounded at Bunker Hill, 18 June 1775; commissioned


ensign, 52d Foot,18 June 1775.
Alexander Campbell, half-pay 106th Foot (Col. Isaac Barré’s 106th regiment, 1761-
1763), wounded 17 June 1775; 2d Bn./84th Foot, captain, 14 June 1775 (commission
backdated after Breed’s Hill wounding?); [“Volunteers, late Barre's [Col. Isaac
Barré’s 106th regiment, 1761-1763], Lieut. Alex. Campbell, on half-pay, wounded” 17 June
1775.
Richard Frothingham, Jr., History Siege of Boston, and of the Battles of Lexington,
Concord, Bunker Hill (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1851), 386-389.]
James Darcus, volunteer with 4th Foot; commissioned ensign, 38th Foot, 18 June 1775.
James Dowling, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 47th Foot, 18 June 1775. Went on the serve
as a volunteer with the 20th Foot during the Saratoga campaign
James Drury, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 63d Foot, 18 June 1775.
James Drury, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 63d Foot, 18 June 1775.
John Montague Clarke, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 43d Foot, 10 July 1775.
Joseph Harding, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 65th Foot, 18 June 1775.
Robert John Harrison, volunteer, wounded in action 17 June 1775; commissioned ensign,
52d Foot, 18 June 1775. (There is another initial commission date given, 22 September 1772, but
the June 1775 commission makes more sense as it coincides with the mass officer casualty at
Bunker Hill that resulted in the promotion of so many volunteers and junior officers.)
Aeneas MacKay, volunteer, adjutant, 52d Foot; commissioned ensign, 52d Foot, 18 June
1775. Received his ensigncy for “remarkably good and spirted behavior” at Bunker Hill,” 17
June 1775. He retired after less than one year’s service.
John Madden/Maden/Sladden, volunteer with 35th Foot, Light Infantry company;
commissioned ensign, 35th Foot, 29 April 1775. (Died 16 October 1775 of wounds incurred 17
June 1775.)
Ed. Coraw Moncrieffe, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 38th Foot, 18 June 1775.
Daniel Shaw, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 35th Foot, 18 June 1775 (ensigncy also
noted.as dating 25 June 1775).
David Vans, volunteer with Royal Artillery; commissioned ensign, 52d Foot, 18 June 1775.
Richard Porter, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 22d Foot, 24 June 1775.
Patrick England, volunteer, serving as quartermaster for the light infantry battalion, 9 June
1775 to 25 June 1775; commissioned ensign, 5th Foot, 25 June 1775.
Samuel Fitzgerald, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 35th Foot, 28 June 1775.

An odd incident not long after the March 1776 Crown forces’ evacuation of Boston eventually
resulted in a number of other British volunteers gaining their commissions. In April 1776 a fleet
of seven vessels transporting the 71st Regiment of Foot set sail from Scotland to reinforce Maj.
Gen. Sir William Howe’s army at Boston, Massachusetts. Unbeknownst to Lt. Col. Archibald
Campbell commanding the regiment, or anyone else on board, Howe’s forces had evacuated
Boston on March 17th, taking ship for Halifax, Nova Scotia to prepare for the next move into the
rebelling provinces. Campbell’s transports became separated, and not far out of Boston harbor

13
were attacked by provincial privateers. Colonel Campbell, thinking that safety lay at Boston, and
as “my orders were for the port … I thought it my duty, at this happy crisis, to push forward into
the harbour, not doubting I should receive protection either from a fort or some ship of force
stationed there for the security of our fleet.” Once inside the harbor, the Crown vessels, running
into shoal water, were attacked by greater odds and eventually forced to surrender.25 Archibald
Campbell provided General Howe with an account of his losses:

In case a cartel is established, the following return is, as near as I can effect, the number of
officers, non-commissioned officers and private men of the seventy-first regiment, who are
prisoners of war at and in the neighbour hood of Boston.
The George transport. Lieut. Col. Archibald Campbell; Lieut. and Adjutant Archibald
Campbell; Lieut. Archibald Baldneaves; Lieut. Hugh Campbell; Quarter-Master William Ogilvie,
Surgeon's-Mate David Burns; Patrick M’Dougal, volunteer and acting Serjeant Major;
James Flint, volunteer; Dugald Campbell, ditto; Donald M'Bane; John Wilson, three
Serjeants, four Corporals, two Drummers, ninety private men.
The Annabella transport. Captain George M'Kinzie; Lieut. Colin M’Kinzie; Ensign Peter
Fraser; Mr. M'Kinzie and Alexander M'Tavish, volunteers; four Serjeants, four Corporals,
two Drummers eighty-one private men.
Lord Howe transport. Captain Lawrence Campbell; Lieut. Robert Duncanson; Lieut. Archibald
M'Lean; Lieut. Lewis Colhoun; Duncan Campbell, volunteer; four Serjeants, four Corporals,
two drummers, ninety six private men,
Ann transport. Captain Hamilton Maxwell; Lieut. Charles Campbell; Lieut. Fraser; Lieut.-----;
four Serjeants, four Corporals, two Drummers, ninety-six private men. 26

As with the Breed’s Hill casualty return, Colonel Campbell includes volunteers in his
recounting. Several interesting tidbits come from this and another source. Here we see that
volunteer Patrick McDougal was serving as a Sergeant-Major, an important post within any
regiment. And, while in captivity, the colonel noted his “List of Servants,” including “Clerk –
John Wilson – volunteer.”27

Volunteers with the 71st Regiment Captured in Boston Harbor, June 1776 28

Duncan Campbell, volunteer, probably prisoner of war, Boston, 17 June 1776; commissioned
ensign, 1st Bn./71st Foot, 14 October 1778.
Duncan Campbell, volunteer, probably prisoner of war, Boston, 17 June 1776; commissioned
ensign, 26th Foot, 19 October 1778.
George Campbell, volunteer, probably prisoner of war, Boston, 17 June 1776; commissioned
ensign, 1st Bn./42d Foot, 6 November 1780.
James Flint, volunteer, prisoner of war, Boston, 19 June 1776; commissioned ensign, 1st
Bn./71st Foot, 3 August 1778.
Roderick MacKenzie, 1st Bn./71st Foot, 21 September 1779 (possibly volunteer, prisoner of
war Boston, June 1776)
Donald McBean, volunteer, prisoner of war, Boston, 16 June 1776; commissioned ensign, 2d
Bn,/71st Foot, 1 November 1778.
Patrick McDougal, volunteer from prisoner of war, Boston, 19 June 1776; commissioned
ensign, 2d Bn./71st Foot, 14 October 1778.

14
Alexander McTavish, volunteer with 2d Bn./71st Foot, prisoner of war, Boston, 19 June
1776; commissioned ensign, 1st Bn./71st Foot, 11 November 1778.
John Wilson, volunteer, prisoner of war, Boston, 19 June 1776; commissioned ensign, 1st
Bn./71st Foot, 3 August 1778.

The next events connected with the advancement of a sizeable cohort of British volunteers are
the late summer/autumn 1777 battles of Brandywine and Germantown. These two hard-fought
actions are the last noticeable catalysts that effected the awarding of officers’ commissions,
though someone with a more astute eye may find differently. In any case, there were six
volunteers who received commissions not long after the 11 September 1777 Brandywine action;
three of those were wounded serving with the army’s light infantry battalions.
Commissioned After Service or Wounding at Brandywine, September 11, 177729

John Evans, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 38th Foot, 12 September 1777.


( - ) Jones, volunteer with 1st Bn. Light Infantry; commissioned ensign, 20th Foot, 20
September 1777.
George MacKenzie, volunteer with 42d Foot, Light Infantry company, wounded in action 11
September 1777; commissioned ensign, 27th Foot, 21 September 1777.
Thomas A. Moultrie, volunteer with 2d Bn. Light Infantry, wounded 11 September 1777;
commissioned ensign, 52d Foot, 12 September 1777.
Jonathan Tone, volunteer with Light Company, 64th Foot, 2d Bn. Light Infantry, wounded
11 September 1777; commissioned ensign, 22d Foot, 6 December 1778.
George Williams, volunteer with a flank battalion; commissioned ensign, 62d Foot, 20
September 1777.

Nine volunteers were advanced via their participation in the Battle of Germantown. Of those,
four were wounded in action, three serving with the light infantry.
Commissioned After Service or Wounding at Germantown, October 4, 177730

Hunter Currey, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 5th Foot, 7 October 1777.


Abraham Cyrus Gordon, volunteer (formerly ensign 24th Foot), with 2d Bn. Light Infantry,
wounded 4 October 1777; commissioned 2d lieutenant, 21st Foot, 8 October 1777.
Rowland Hazelton, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 17th Foot, 5 October 1777.
James Forest/Forrest, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 38th Foot, date unknown, but
wounded in action 4 October 1777, commission awarded between 10 October 1778 and 6
February 1779.
Angus MacDonald, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 1st Bn./71st Foot, 7 October 1777.
William McIntosh, volunteer with 42d Foot, Light Infantry company, wounded 4 October
1777; commissioned ensign, 1st Bn./71st Foot, 3 November 1777.
William Rankine, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 45th Foot, 30 October 1777.
John Rhiad/Rynd, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 53d Foot, 8 October 1777.
Walter Smithson, volunteer with 2d Bn. Light Infantry, wounded 4 October 1777;
commissioned ensign, 4th Foot, 2 December 1777.

15
Several British officers who began as volunteers wrote accounts of their war experiences.
Thomas Anburey, captured with Lt. Gen. John Burgoyne’s army at Saratoga, never received a
commission, but did write a series of letters detailing his wartime service as well as his
observations of the country while on parole after captivity. (See, Travels Through the Interior
Parts of America, 2 volumes (Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1923), Library of
Congress digital copy, https://lccn.loc.gov/24000987 .) George Inman’s literary contribution
was a diary/memoir, plus a small book listing British officer casualties during the war. (“George
Inman's Narrative of the American Revolution,” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and
Biography, vol. 7 (1883), 237-248, https://archive.org/details/jstor-20084609 ; see also an
addendum in The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 44 (1920), 92-93,
https://tinyurl.com/Inman-extras . The casualty lists are available online,
https://cambridgehistory.org/Cambridge-Revolution/Inman%20House.html, erroneously
titled “The Inman Diaries: George Inman's account of the Revolutionary War,” on the Ralph
Inman House website.) Henry Stirke also wrote a diary, published in the 20th century as “A
British Officer's Revolutionary War Journal, 1776-1778,” Maryland Historical Magazine, vol.
56, no. 2 (June 1961), 150-175 (digital version,
https://msa.maryland.gov/megafile/msa/speccol/sc5800/sc5881/000001/000000/000222/pdf/
msa_sc_5881_1_222.pdf ) .
While hardly a household word, one of the better-known Crown forces volunteers was
Richard St George Mansergh St George. According to historian John Houlding, St. George first
purchased an open commission as cornet in the 8th Light Dragoon Regiment on December 24,
1775, and abruptly gave up that commission in March 1776. (Perhaps, given his well-known
impetuous nature, his first regiment offered little promise of action in the North American
conflict, prompting St. George to exit.) He then entered the 4th Regiment of Foot as a volunteer,
and, at age 19, in April 1776 was able to purchase a vacant ensign’s commission in the same
regiment.31
The 4th (King’s Own) Regiment was in Maj. Gen. Robert Pigot’s brigade, the second in Lt.
Gen. Henry Clinton’s flanking column at the 27 August Battle of Long Island. At White Plains
the 4th Foot, as part of the British First Brigade, was in Lt. Gen. Leopold Philipp, Freiherr von
Heister’s left-hand column, seeing little action. After the capture of Fort Washington, on upper
Manhattan Island, and soon afterwards Fort Lee, on the Jersey side of the Hudson River, St.
George’s regiment participated in chasing Washington’s army on its long retreat across New
Jersey.32

16
Ens. Richard St. George Mansergh St. George, 4th Regiment of Foot, 1776, by Thomas
Gainsborough. (National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia)

17
By year’s end Richard St. George, taking advantage of advantage of a brother officer’s
retirement, purchased a lieutenancy in the 52d Regiment. Assigned to the light company, he
faced a year of detached duty with the Second Battalion of Light Infantry commanded by Marine
major John Maitland. It was a year he would not soon forget.33
Lieutenant St. George’s good friend Capt. Martin Hunter, also with the 52d light company, left
this description:

St. George and I were great friends. He was a fine, high-spirited, gentleman-like young man, but
uncommonly passionate. He had a little Irish servant, the most extraordinary creature that ever
was. He had been a servant in the family a long time, and was the ugliest little fellow I ever
beheld. He was very much marked with the smallpox, had a broad white face, little blue eyes,
and lank long hair. St. George always called him the Irish priest. This little man was to the full as
passionate as his master, and frequently provoked him to such a degree that I often expected he
would have killed him. St. George was quite military mad, and the man copied the master in
everything. When the man was fully equipped for action, he was a most laughable figure as was
ever seen. He wore one of his master’s old regimental jackets, a set of American accoutrements,
a long rifle and sword, with a brace of horse pistols, and was attended by two runaway Negroes
equipped in the same way. On a shot being fired at any of the advanced posts, master and man set
off immediately – the master attended by a man of the Company named Peacock, who had been a
great deal with the Indians in Canada, and a famous good soldier. I have often been surprised that
they were not killed … I often thought that St George wished to be wounded, as he frequently
said, ‘It is very extraordinary that I don't get a clink, for I am certain I go as much in the way of it
as anybody.’34

As Hunter noted, “poor St. George had not to complain of not being wounded before the war
was over. He received a shot through the heel at the battle of Brandywine, and got a shocking
wound in the head at the battle of [Germantown] … It was in the first volley that poor St. George
was so badly wounded …”35 Of Germantown, St. George, himself, wrote,

My Dear Friend [Capt. John] West [grenadier company, 4th Regiment] met me in ye Cart as he
was marching with the Grenadiers to support us and took me by the Hand – and wept as I have
been since told – The figure I intended for West is execrable I endeavoured to blot out his face
but coud not the paper being too thin – General Washington attacked our Lines with a body of
about Twelve to fourteen Thousand Men with all his field artillery at German Town the 4th of
October at four in the morning 1777 He attacked in five six Columns – one on the Left where the
Hessian Yagers supported by some Battns were posted which made no Impression, Two on the
Right of the village where one Column penetrated and obliged the 1st Battn Light Infantry And
the 4th or Kings Own to give way after considerable Loss – The 4th Regt lost upwards of 80 men
out of something less than 200 and had the greater part of their officers wounded – The other
Column on that side fortunately lost their way by reason of a great Fog that prevailed – Mr.
Washington in Person at the head of Five Thousand Men attacked our Battn. the 2nd of Light
Infantry commanded by Major Maitland consisting of 300 Men and after an obstanate Defense
without support for an hour and half obliged us after a considerable [sic] to retire having fired
away all our ammunition and a vigorous charge which saved our Cannon [illegible] we were
obliged to abandon our wounded – Had Their Light Horse charged us in that situation we must
have been cut to Pieces – our Battn. affected its retreat by the gallant & judicious Conduct of Lt

18
Col: Musgrave who threw himself into [a] House (Chews house) with 4 Companies of the 40th
Regt – The Rebels lost time & a great number of Men in attempting to carry the house – which
gave time to the Grenadiers and several other Battns & the 16 Light Dragoons to come up – Mr
Washington made a fine retreat in the utmost order and carried off all his Guns - They retreated
in several columns slowly forming on every hill The rear retreating through the Interval, forming
in their Turn, on the next heights - It was almost a surprize had it not been for the good conduct
of the Picquets The Enemy woud have been in our Camp before we coud have formed on going
out of my Tent at the first alarm I saw the balls striking at the door of it – one of our officers
[likely] had been killed in his tent as he was pulling [on] his boots had he not been on his back –
We lost a General officer Two Lt. Cols. and a great number of men … 36

Martin Hunter completes the story, relating that after being wounded Lieutenant St. George,

was carried off the field by Peacock, who behaved like himself, otherwise St. George must
certainly have been taken prisoner. When [St. George] was trepanned, I was the only person he
knew, and he desired me to remain with him while the operation was performed. This was the
first person I ever saw trepanned, and I am certain it will be the last. He bore the whole operation
without saying one word. Two days after he desired me to take care of Peacock, and gave him
fifty guineas. He recovered of the wound to the astonishment of everybody, but had always very
bad health afterwards, and was obliged to go to the south of France every winter. He wore a little
silver plate over the place where he was trepanned.37

In 2009 a series of drawings, from the collection of Arthur E. Bye, Bucks County,
Pennsylvania, purportedly executed during the War for American Independence came up for
auction. After being misattributed to another British officer mentioned in associated papers, the
artist was recognized as Richard St. George, due in part to this passage from Hunter:

St. George drew caricatures uncommonly well, and I prevailed on him one day to draw himself and
man in a violent passion, which he did so well, and so like, that everybody knew it immediately.
Bernard, his servant, was lying on his back, and St. George, with one foot on his breast, flourishing a
sabre over his head, telling him to say a short prayer, for that he had not more than a minute to live.38

One of the drawings, on the reverse of which St. George’s above narrative is written, bears the
caption “My Triumphant entry into Philadelphia.” It portrays an officer in a cart with what looks
to be a head wound. He is held by an enlisted man, while another soldier, likely Captain West,
reaches up to comfort him. (See below.)

19
“My Triumphant entry into Philadelphia,” Richard St. George Mansergh St. George
Collection, Harlan Crow Library, Dallas, Texas.

Interestingly, Richard St. George was likely responsible for two paintings depicting the battles
of Paoli and Germantown, executed in 1782 by Italian artist Xavier della Gatta. The Germantown
painting alone portrays details known only to a British participant, and shows a wounded officer
(St. George) being carried off by an enlisted soldier (Corporal Peacock).39

20
Detail from Xavier della Gatta’s painting, “The Battle of Germantown,” painted in 1782. The
Museum of the American Revolution, Philadelphia, Pa.) See, “The Battle of Germantown”
Stephen R. Gilbert, “An Analysis of the Xavier della Gatta Paintings of the Battles of Paoli and
Germantown, 1777: Part II,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. XLVII, no. 4 (Winter 1995), 146-
162. https://preview.tinyurl.com/German-Gilbert

21
Still recovering, St. George was purchased a captain’s post in the 44th Regiment in January
1778. When Philadelphia was evacuated by Crown forces that June he returned to New York by
ship. Richard St. George remained with the 44th Foot until 1785, when he posted into the 100th
Regiment of Foot with the same rank. He retired from service on May 18, 1785.40
Returning to Ireland, he married and had two sons. His wife died in 1791 and, despite a
reputation as an enlightened landlord, aware of the plight of his Irish tenants and concerned for
their welfare, he was targeted and brutally killed by Irish rebels during the 1798 uprising.41

Appendices

British Officers who began as Volunteers during their Service in the American War
Gleaned from, Steven M. Baule with Stephen Gilbert, British Army Officers Who Served in
the American Revolution, 1775–1783 (Westminster, Md.: Heritage Books, 2004) (author’s
copy manually updated by Stephen Gilbert, 5 August 2005)
3,451 officers listed (including 99 volunteers, 2.9 percent of the whole).
Thomas Anburey, lieutenant-volunteer, 24th Foot, captured at Saratoga.
( -- ) Blair, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 3d Foot, 8 November 1781.
Daniel Bliss, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 8th Foot, 13 September 1783.
Samuel Bliss, volunteer; commissioned lieutenant, 2 Bn./84th Foot, 14 June 1775.
Alexander Brodie, volunteer with 42d Foot; commissioned ensign, 10th Foot, 13 September
1776.
Arthur Brooke/Brooks, volunteer, wounded at Bunker Hill, 18 June 1775; commissioned
ensign, 52d Foot,18 June 1775.
Kenneth Callender, volunteer with 1st Bn,/42d Foot; commissioned ensign, same unit, 3
August 1778.
( -- ) Cameron, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 1st Bn./71st Foot, 25 April 1780.
Alexander Campbell, half-pay 106th Foot (Col. Isaac Barré’s 106th regiment, 1761-
1763), wounded 17 June 1775; 2d Bn./84th Foot, captain, 14 June 1775 (commission
backdated after Breed’s Hill wounding?); [“Volunteers, late Barre's [Col. Isaac
Barré’s 106th regiment, 1761-1763], Lieut. Alex. Campbell, on half-pay, wounded” 17 June
1775. [Richard Frothingham, Jr., History Siege of Boston, and of the Battles of Lexington,
Concord, Bunker Hill (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1851), 386-389.]
(10)
Archibald Campbell, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 2d Bn./84th Foot, 11 December 1779.
Duncan Campbell, volunteer, probably prisoner of war, Boston, 17 June 1776; commissioned
ensign, 1st Bn./71st Foot, 14 October 1778.
Duncan Campbell, volunteer, probably prisoner of war, Boston, 17 June 1776; commissioned
ensign, 26th Foot, 19 October 1778.
Duncan Campbell, volunteer, commissioned ensign, 2d Bn./84th Foot, 6 November 1780.
George Campbell, volunteer, probably prisoner of war, Boston, 17 June 1776; commissioned
ensign, 1st Bn./42d Foot, 6 November 1780.
John Carden, volunteer; commissioned lieutenant, 19th Foot, 20 March 1779.

22
Hon. Charles Allan Cathcart, volunteer; commissioned 2d lieutenant, 23d Foot, 10 March
1777.
John Montague Clarke, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 43d Foot, 10 July 1775.
Walter Cliffe, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 28th Foot, 22 December 1776.
William Cockburne, volunteer from the age of 10; commissioned lieutenant, 35th Foot, 12
April 1780.
(20)
James Cumins/Cummings, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 33d Foot, 1 October 1777.
John Cunninghame, volunteer; commissioned lieutenant, 80th Foot, 31 January 1778.
Hunter Currey, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 5th Foot, 7 October 1777.
James Darcus, volunteer with 4th Foot; commissioned ensign, 38th Foot, 18 June 1775.
Thomas Daunt, volunteer with 2d Grenadier Bn; commissioned ensign, 54th Foot, 6 October
1776.
Thomas Dean, volunteer with flank battalion; commissioned ensign, 9th Foot, 14 July 1777.
James Dowling, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 47th Foot, 18 June 1775. Went on the serve
as a volunteer with the 20th Foot during the Saratoga campaign
James Drury, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 63d Foot, 18 June 1775.
Patrick England, volunteer, serving as quartermaster for the light infantry battalion, 9 June
1775 to 25 June 1775; commissioned ensign, 5th Foot, 25 June 1775.
John Evans, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 38th Foot, 12 September 1777.
(30)
Thomas Eyres, volunteer; commissioned 2d lieutenant ensign, 23d Foot, 11 March 1777.
Samuel Fitzgerald, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 35th Foot, 28 June 1775.
James Flint, volunteer, prisoner of war, Boston, 19 June 1776; commissioned ensign, 1st
Bn./71st Foot, 3 August 1778.
James Forest/Forrest, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 38th Foot, date unknown, but
wounded in action 4 October 1777, commission awarded between 10 October 1778 and 6
February 1779.
Charles Fraser, volunteer, (formerly ensign. Queen’s Rangers); commissioned 2d lieutenant,
23d Foot, 3 August 1778.
William Fraser, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 1st Bn./42d Foot, 3 August 1778 (ensigncy
also noted as dating from 13 September 1778; with 1st Bn. Light Infantry as ensign, 17 August
1778).
Abraham Cyrus Gordon, volunteer (formerly ensign 24th Foot), with 2d Bn. Light Infantry,
wounded 4 October 1777; commissioned 2d lieutenant, 21st Foot, 8 October 1777.
James Drury, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 63d Foot, 18 June 1775.
( - ) Hand, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 38th Foot, 10 October 1778.
Joseph Harding, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 65th Foot, 18 June 1775.
(40)
Robert John Harrison, volunteer, wounded in action 17 June 1775; commissioned ensign,
52d Foot, 18 June 1775. (There is another initial commission date given, 22 September 1772, but
the June 1775 commission makes more sense as it coincides with the mass officer casualty at
Bunker Hill that resulted in the promotion of so many volunteers and junior officers.)

23
Rowland Hazelton, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 17th Foot, 5 October 1777.
Robert Hickson, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 5th Foot, 8 November 1777.
George Inman, volunteer with 4th Foot, Light Infantry company; commissioned ensign, 17th
Foot, 28 August 1776.
( - ) Jones, volunteer with 1st Bn. Light Infantry; commissioned ensign, 20th Foot, 20
September 1777.
Archibald Kennedy, volunteer with 44th Foot, Light Infantry company; commissioned
ensign, 43d Foot, 7 August 1775.
John Lane, volunteer; appointed quartermaster, Foot Guards, 11 April 1779.
Warren Lisle, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 52d Foot, 4 July 1775.
Angus MacDonald, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 1st Bn./71st Foot, 7 October 1777.
John MacDonald, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 2d Bn./84th Foot, 7 October 1776.
(50)
Aeneas MacKay, volunteer, adjutant, 52d Foot; commissioned ensign, 52d Foot, 18 June
1775. Received his ensigncy for “remarkably good and spirted behavior” at Bunker Hill,” 17
June 1775. He retired after less than one year’s service.
George MacKenzie, volunteer with 42d Foot, Light Infantry company, wounded in action 11
September 1777; commissioned ensign, 27th Foot, 21 September 1777.
Roderick MacKenzie, 1st Bn./71st Foot, 21 September 1779 (possibly volunteer, prisoner of
war Boston, June 1776)
John Madden/Sladden, volunteer with 35th Foot, Light Infantry company; commissioned
ensign, 35th Foot, 29 April 1775. (Died 16 October 1775 of wounds incurred 17 June 1775.)
Donald McBean, volunteer, prisoner of war, Boston, 16 June 1776; commissioned ensign, 2d
Bn,/71st Foot, 1 November 1778.
Andrew McGrath, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 53d Foot, 6 April 1778.
Charles McDonald, volunteer with Lord Percy; commissioned lieutenant, 2d Bn./84th Foot,
18 May 1776.
Patrick McDougal, volunteer from prisoner of war, Boston, 19 June 1776; commissioned
ensign, 2d Bn./71st Foot, 14 October 1778.
James McDougall, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 1st Bn./84th Foot, 25 June 1782.
John McGrath, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 1st Bn./84th Foot, 10 May 1777.
(60)
Allan McIntosh, volunteer; commissioned lieutenant, 1st Bn./71st Foot, 14 October 1778.
William McIntosh, volunteer with 42d Foot, Light Infantry company, wounded 4 October
1777; commissioned ensign, 1st Bn./71st Foot, 3 November 1777.
Donald McKinnon, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 2d Bn./84th Foot, 10 March 1781.
Alexander McLean, volunteer with the 71st; commissioned lieutenant, 80th Foot, 9 March
1781.
Alexander McLean, volunteer with 2d Bn. Light Infantry; commissioned ensign, 1st Bn./42d
Foot, 23 May 1776.
Hector McLean, volunteer with 45th Foot; commissioned ensign, 2d Bn./84th Foot, 14 June
1775.
Thomas McLeroth, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 64th Foot, 18 August 1778.

24
Lauchlan McQuary, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 2d Bn./84th Foot, 9 April 1777.
Alexander McTavish, volunteer with 2d Bn./71st Foot, prisoner of war, Boston, 19 June
1776; commissioned ensign, 1st Bn./71st Foot, 11 November 1778.
Ed. Coraw Moncrieffe, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 38th Foot, 18 June 1775.
(70)
Thomas A. Moultrie, volunteer with 2d Bn. Light Infantry, wounded 11 September 1777;
commissioned ensign, 52d Foot, 12 September 1777.
( - ) Murry, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 63d Foot, 22 November 1780.
Michael Newman, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 35th Foot, 4 January 1776.
( - ) Paschall/Perchall/Pascal, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 52d Foot, 5 May 1778.
Richard Porter, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 22d Foot, 24 June 1775.
William Proctor, volunteer (formerly 2d lieutenant Royal Fencible Americans);
commissioned ensign, 22d Foot, 7 August 1776.
William Rankine, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 45th Foot, 30 October 1777.
( - ) Reynett, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 64th Foot, 2 November 1778.
John Rhiad/Rynd, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 53d Foot, 8 October 1777.
Daniel Robertson, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 53d Foot, 6 April 1778.
(80)
James Robertson, volunteer with 42d Foot; commissioned ensign, 2d Bn./84th Foot, 30
October 1776.
John Robertson, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 1st Bn./42d Foot, 19 October 1778.
Leverett Saltonstall, volunteer; commissioned 2d lieutenant, 23d Foot, 30 May 1778.
Hen. Gascoyne Schoen, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 3d Foot, 9 September 1781.
Christopher Seaton/Setton, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 54th Foot, 17 August 1777.
Daniel Shaw, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 35th Foot, 18 June 1775 (ensigncy also
noted.as dating 25 June 1775).
Wol. B. Sinclair, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 17th Foot, 29 June 1778.
Walter Smithson, volunteer with 2d Bn. Light Infantry, wounded 4 October 1777;
commissioned ensign, 4th Foot, 2 December 1777.
Ambrose Soden, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 4th Foot, 18 December 1777.
Richard St George Mansergh St George, volunteer with 4th Foot; commissioned ensign, 4th
Foot, 15 April 1776.
(90)
Henry Stirke, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 10th Foot, 3 July 1775.
( - ) Sutton, volunteer, wounded at Skenesboro, 6 July 1777; commissioned ensign, 47th Foot,
14 July 1777.
Jonathan Tone, volunteer with Light Company, 64th Foot, 2d Bn. Light Infantry, wounded 11
September 1777; commissioned ensign, 22d Foot, 6 December 1778.
Timothy Tuckey, volunteer with Light Company, 28th Foot; commissioned 2d lieutenant, 23d
Foot, 8 December 1777.
David Vans, volunteer with Royal Artillery; commissioned ensign, 52d Foot, 18 June 1775.
Richard Veal, volunteer with 23d Foot at Danbury, Ct.; commissioned ensign, 26th Foot, 13
June 1778.

25
George Williams, volunteer with a flank battalion; commissioned ensign, 62d Foot, 20
September 1777.
John Wilson, volunteer, prisoner of war, Boston, 19 June 1776;; commissioned ensign, 1st
Bn./71st Foot, 3 August 1778.
Mathew Wood, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 64th Foot, 23 November 1778.
(99)
George Wynyard, volunteer; commissioned ensign, 33d Foot, 1 September 1777.

Detail from Xavier della Gatta’s painting, “The Battle of Germantown,” painted in 1782. The
Museum of the American Revolution, Philadelphia, Pa.) See, “The Battle of Germantown”
Stephen R. Gilbert, “An Analysis of the Xavier della Gatta Paintings of the Battles of Paoli and
Germantown, 1777: Part II,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. XLVII, no. 4 (Winter 1995), 146-
162. https://preview.tinyurl.com/German-Gilbert

26
Related Books and Articles

Don N. Hagist, British Soldiers, American War: Voices of the American Revolution (Yardley,
Pa.: Westholme Publishing, 2012)

Mark Edward Lender and Garry Wheeler Stone, Fatal Sunday: George Washington, the
Monmouth Campaign, and the Politics of Battle (Norman, Ok.: Oklahoma University Press,
2016)
“The Battle of Germantown”
Stephen R. Gilbert, “An Analysis of the Xavier della Gatta Paintings of the Battles of Paoli
and Germantown, 1777: Part II,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. XLVII, no. 4 (Winter
1995), 146-162.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/209914033/%E2%80%9CThe-Battle-of-Germantown%E2%80%9D-
by-Xavier-della-Gatta-Stephen-R-Gilbert-%E2%80%9CAn-Analysis-of-the-Xavier-della-Gatta-
Paintings-of-the-Battles-of-Paoli-and-Ger

"’We ... wheeled to the Right to form the Line of Battle’: Colonel Israel Shreve's Journal, 23
November 1776 to 14 August 1777 (Including Accounts of the Action at the Short Hills)”
Contents
1. “The Enemy Came out fired several Cannon At our Pickets”: Journal Entries, 23
November 1776 to 25 June 1777
2. Composition of Maj. Gen. William Alexander, Lord Stirling's Division, Summer 1777
3. “Our Canister shot Did Great Execution.”: The Battle of the Short Hills: Journal
Entries 26 to 28 June 1777
4. “There was a steady fire on us from out of the bushes …”: A German Officer’s View
of Operations in New Jersey, 24 to 28 June 1777
5. “A smart engagement ensued …”: A British Private’s View of the Short Hills Battle
6. "I propose leaving Colo. Daytons and Ogden's Regts. at Elizabeth Town … for the
present ...”: Movements of the 1st and 3d New Jersey Regiments, July and August
1777
7. “Crossed Delaware [River], halted At Doctor Enhams …”: Final Journal Entries, 29
July to 14 August 1777
Addenda
1. Listing of Field Officers, Commissioned Officers, and Staff of the 2d New Jersey
Regiment December 1776 to December 1777
2. Company Strengths and Dispositions, Colonel Israel Shreve's 2d New Jersey
Regiment December 1776 to December 1777
3. 2d New Jersey Regiment, Monthly Strength as Taken From the Muster Rolls,
December 1776 to December 1777
4. 2d New Jersey Regiment, Company Lineage, 1777 to 1779
5. “The Troops of this Army … Appear to Manoeuvre upon false principles …”: The
State of Continental Army Field Formations and Combat Maneuver, 1777
6. Composition of British Columns at the Short Hills Action, 26 June 1777; Organization
of British Light Infantry and Grenadier Battalions, Spring and Summer 1777

27
7. “I have sent down Lord Stirling's Division, to reinforce Genl. Maxwell …”:
Summer Campaign Letters, Gen. George Washington and Virginia Captain John
Chilton, plus the role of “late Ottendorff’s Corps,” 22 to 29 June 1777
8. “At sunrise the fire began …”: New Jersey Brigade Accounts of the 1777 Philadelphia
Campaign
9. "Without Covering but the H[eaven's].C[anop].y and boughs of Trees …": 4th New
Jersey Officer's Diary, 21 June 1777 to 18 February 1778 (plus Journal of Ensign George
Ewing, 3d New Jersey, 1777-1778)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/153790118/%E2%80%99We-wheeled-to-the-Right-to-form-the-Line-of-
Battle%E2%80%99-Colonel-Israel-Shreve-s-Journal-23-November-1776-to-14-August-1777-
Including-Accounts-of

John U. Rees and Bob McDonald, "`The Action was renew.d with a very warm Canonade’:
A New Jersey Officer’s Diary, June 1777 to August 1778”
Contents
1. Identity of the Diary Author
2. Composition of Maj. Gen. William Alexander, Lord Stirling's Division, 1777.
3. New Jersey Field Officers.
4. New Jersey Brigade Strength returns, November and December 1777, and June 1778
5. Diary Transcription
Appendices
A. “About an hour before day we dashed through the river again …”
The October 1777 Schuylkill Expedition
B. First-Person Accounts of Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth
C. Additional Articles on the New Jersey Brigade
and the Campaigns in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, 1777-1778
https://www.scribd.com/doc/216378254/The-Action-was-renew-d-with-a-very-warm-
Canonade-New-Jersey-Officer-s-Diary-21-June-1777-to-31-August-1778

“’A very smart cannonading ensued from both sides.’: Continental Artillery at Monmouth
Courthouse, 28 June 1778”
Appendices
1. Col. Richard Butler’s 1778 Map of the Monmouth Battle (drawn by William Gray)
2. “The Company was sent to Eastown with the pieces taken at Saratoga …”: Brig. Gen. William Maxwell’s
Jersey Brigade Artillery at Monmouth.
3. Recreations of late 18th Century Cannons, Limbers, and Ammunition Wagons
4. Period Images of English Cannon and Ammunition/Powder Wagons
5. Images of German (mostly Hessian) Artillery, Limbers, and Ammunition Wagons during the Period of the
War for American Independence
https://www.scribd.com/doc/139365107/A-very-smart-cannonading-ensued-from-both-
sides-Continental-Artillery-at-Monmouth-Courthouse-28-June-1778

28
Endnotes

1. H.A. Mayer, “Belonging to the Army: Camp followers and the Military Community during the
American Revolution,” PH.D. dissertation (College of William and Mary, 1990), 208-215, chapter
on volunteers.
2. John U. Rees, "A Brief Historical Itinerary of the 2nd New Jersey Regiment 1775 to 1783,"
appendix to John U. Rees, "'I Expect to be stationed in Jersey sometime ...': An Account of the
Services of the Second New Jersey Regiment, December 1777 to June 1779", TMs, copy in the
collections of the David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, Pa. June 1777
pay roll of Captain Maxwell's company, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, Revolutionary War Rolls,
1775-1783, National Archives Microfilm Publication M246, Record Group 93, reel 59, section 32-
2. Israel Shreve to William Livingston, 2 April 1777, Israel Shreve Papers, Buxton Collection,
Prescott Memorial Library, Louisiana Tech University.
3. Total casualties of the 2nd New Jersey Regiment at the Battle of Short Hills, 26 June 1777 were:
2 (known) wounded, 4 missing, 4 captured, 1 killed. Total known losses for the entire Monmouth
Campaign, 17 June 1778 to 6 July 1778 are as follows: 12 (possibly 13) wounded, 7 missing, 9
captured, 2 killed, 1 dead (possibly killed in action) and 1 dead of fatigue. "Losses in the New
Jersey Brigade at the Battles of: Short Hills (June 26, 1777); Brandywine (September 11, 1777);
Germantown (October 4, 1777)," and "Losses of the New Jersey Brigade in the Monmouth
Campaign June 17, 1778 to July 6, 1778," appendices to Rees, "I Expect to be stationed in Jersey
sometime ...". Israel Shreve to Dr. Bodo Otto, 29 June 1777, ISP Buxton. "’We ... wheeled to the
Right to form the Line of Battle’: Colonel Israel Shreve's Journal, 23 November 1776 to 14 August
1777 (Including Accounts of the Action at the Short Hills)”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/153790118/%E2%80%99We-wheeled-to-the-Right-to-form-the-Line-of-
Battle%E2%80%99-Colonel-Israel-Shreve-s-Journal-23-November-1776-to-14-August-1777-
Including-Accounts-of . "Promotions to be made in the 2d. New Jersey Regt. Commandd By Coll.
Shrieve ... Given in Camp at Towaminsing Township the 12th Day of Oct. 1777 Wm. Maxwell
B.G.," Revolutionary War Rolls, reel 57, section 21-3, target 14. “Be pleased to fill up the vacancy
with the eldest Captain in the line …”: Field Officers, Commissioned Officers, and Staff of the
2nd New Jersey Regiment December 1777 to May 1779
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthP.htm
4. Revolutionary War Rolls, Natl. Archives, reel 57, section 21-3, p. 14.
Colonel Israel Shreve explaining problems with his regimental accounts for the years 1777 and 1778, “I
once mentioned to you that I had Nine Companies belonging to my Regt. [in] the forepart of the
Campaign 1777. The Captains Names were, Laurie, Stout, Dillon, Anderson, Cummings, Hollinshead,
Luse, Yard and Maxwell. The 26 June 1777 Anderson was killed at short hills in Jersey. Laurie taken
prisoner, died in Provost at New York soon after. - At the Battle of Brandywine, Stout was killed, [and] I
was badly wounded so as not to be able to do duty until Jan. 1778. During my absence from the Regt.
Dillon, Maxwell, and Yard resigned and were gone so that six of the nine Captains were quite out of my
power. In November 1778 at Elizabeth Town I drew money to recruit Nine months men whose times
were nearly out. Here Hollinshead, Cummings and Luse produced their enlistments and settled up with
me to that time." Revolutionary War Rolls, Natl. Archives, reel 57, section 23.
5. William Maxwell to George Washington, 6 April 1779; Maxwell to Washington, 9 April 1779,
George Washington Papers, Presidential Papers Microfilm, (Washington, D.C.: Library of

29
Congress, 1961), series 4, reel 57. Francis B. Heitman, Historical Register of Officers of the
Continental Army During the War of the Revolution - April 1775 to December 1783 (Baltimore,
Md., 1982), 430.
6. William S. Stryker, The Battle of Monmouth, William Starr Myers, ed., (Princeton, N.J., 1927),
290. Rees, "Field Officers, Commissioned Officers and Staff of the 2nd New Jersey Regiment,
1777 to 1779." Muster and pay rolls for Captain Reading's company, 2nd New Jersey Regiment,
Revolutionary War Rolls, reel 59, sections 31-1 and 31-2. Heitman, Historical Register, 565.
7. Muster and pay rolls for the companies of Captains Luse and Helms, 2nd New Jersey Regiment,
Revolutionary War Rolls, reel 59, sections 31-1 and 31-2. Doyen Salsig, ed. and annot., Parole:
Quebec; Countersign: Ticonderoga, Second New Jersey Regiment Orderly Book of 1776
(Cranbury, NJ, 1980), 46. "Personal Narrative of the Services of Lieut. John Shreve of the New
Jersey Line of the Continental Army," Magazine of American History, vol. 3, no. 2 (1879),
564-578. Rees, "Field Officers, Commissioned Officers and Staff of the 2nd New Jersey Regiment,
1777 to 1779." Heitman, Historical Register, 360.
8. Rees, "A Listing of the Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates of the 2nd New Jersey
Regiment of 1778," Muster and pay rolls for the companies of Captains Luse and Helms and Lt.
Col. William DeHart, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, Revolutionary War Rolls, reel 59, sections 31-1,
31-2 and 32-1. William S. Stryker, The New Jersey Continental Line in the Virginia Campaign of
1781 (Saddle River, N.J., 1970), 40.
Col. Israel Shreve himself attempted to volunteer his services at Trenton, New Jersey just prior to the
Second Battle on the Assunpink, but was refused. The incident took place during the period when the
soldiers’ enlistments had run out and Shreve’s regiment had been disbanded prior to a second
establishment. On 29 December 1776, "I [Colonel Shreve] set out for the Camp / next Day came up with
the Army at trenton As they had that Day Crossd [the] Delaware, this Evening [saw] his Excelency Gen.
Washington Offering myself as a Volunteer to Go with the Army But the Gen. Ordered me back to
Recrute my Regt. which I did ..." In addition to the likely overabundance of officers as compared to rank
and file numbers, another likely reason Washington refused the colonel's help may have been his obesity.
According to son John, in 1781 "My father ... [was] very fleshy, weighing three hundred and twenty
pounds ..." The colonel himself mentioned his size in a 1780 conversation. Just before the 23 June 1780
Springfield battle Israel Shreve told Lt. Col. William Smith that, “he wish'd me to take charge of his
regiment that day, that it would probably prove a warm one and as I had youth and activity upon my side
I could continue with the regiment let their situation be what it would as for himself he was a heavy man
and should the regiment be press'd [by the enemy] he should be obliged [to] leave it.” These are late-war
accounts but a passage in one of Colonel Shreve's 1776 letters indicates that while he was quite heavy
prior to the war, he lost a great deal of weight campaigning with the army. While the colonel may not
have regained his former weight until 1779 or 1780, he still must have been quite large throughout his
military service, even during the lean years and active campaigns from 1776 through 1779. Israel
Shreve’s overly large physical appearance would have been in accordance with the image of a prosperous
Quaker farmer, his occupation prior to military service.
"’We ... wheeled to the Right to form the Line of Battle’: Colonel Israel Shreve's Journal, 23
November 1776 to 14 August 1777 (Including Accounts of the Action at the Short Hills)”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/153790118/%E2%80%99We-wheeled-to-the-Right-to-form-the-Line-of-
Battle%E2%80%99-Colonel-Israel-Shreve-s-Journal-23-November-1776-to-14-August-1777-
Including-Accounts-of . “Personal Narrative of John Shreve,” 576. "Eyewitness to Battle: The New
Jersey Brigade at Connecticut Farms and Springfield, June 1780," The Brigade Dispatch, vol.

30
XXIX, no. 4 (Winter 1999), 20-22. http://revwar75.com/library/rees/smithandshreve.htm .
Shreve to Mary Shreve, 25 May 1776, ISP Buxton, "I now Live well but have become almost a slim
man, having Lost at Least 4 or 5 Inches in thickness, and am Obliged to have my Jackets taken in
...". Rees, "Itinerary of the 2nd New Jersey Regiment." William Y. Thompson, Israel Shreve -
Revolutionary War Officer, (Ruston, La.: McGinty Trust Fund Publications, 1979), 3-5.
9. Samuel Lockwood, was born 1700 in Greenwich, Connecticut, and died 1787 in Greenwich,
Connecticut. He married Mary. She was buried in Old Sound Beach Cemetery, Greenwich,
Connecticut. (Notes for Samuel Lockwood: Burial: Old Sound Beach Cemetery, Greenwich,
Connecticut. Occ.: He was a farmer in Lower Salem and a Sea Captain. He was one of the 50
Americans, under Major Stafford, who captured more than 300 Canadians at Chambly in the
Campaign at St. John's. Nov. 4, 1775, he was appointed Assistant Engineer in Capt. Hobby's Co.
(Col. Waterbury's Reg.).He helped capture the fleet of Carlton at Sorel. He was taken prisoner at
Quebec. He served as Captain in Col. Lamb's artillery Reg. In July, he was part of the defence of
New Haven from Tryon and Garth. In November,1779, he commanded a privateer that captured a
British 8 gun Brig that ran onto rocks during his attempt to escape pursuit. He captured Col
Hatfield and a band of Tories. He lost an eye.
http://www.genealogy.com/forum/surnames/topics/lockwood/1713/
Kenneth Roberts, March to Quebec: Journals of the Members of Arnold’s Expedition (Garden
City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1946), 28, 279-281, 283. Francis B. Heitman,
Historical Register of Officers of the Continental Army During the War of the Revolution – April,
1775, to December, 1783, New, Revised, and Enlarged Edition (Washington, D.C.: The Rare
Book Publishing Company, Inc., 1914), 355.
10. Roberts, March to Quebec, 33, 154-155, 300-301, 428-429.
11. Roberts, March to Quebec, 44-44b, 109, 112. Heitman, Historical Register of Officers, 421.
“’A very smart cannonading ensued from both sides.’: Continental Artillery at Monmouth
Courthouse, 28 June 1778”
Appendices
1. Col. Richard Butler’s 1778 Map of the Monmouth Battle (drawn by William Gray)
2. “The Company was sent to Eastown with the pieces taken at Saratoga …”: Brig. Gen. William Maxwell’s Jersey
Brigade Artillery at Monmouth.
3. Recreations of late 18th Century Cannons, Limbers, and Ammunition Wagons
4. Period Images of English Cannon and Ammunition/Powder Wagons
5. Images of German (mostly Hessian) Artillery, Limbers, and Ammunition Wagons during the Period of the War for
American Independence
https://www.scribd.com/doc/139365107/A-very-smart-cannonading-ensued-from-both-
sides-Continental-Artillery-at-Monmouth-Courthouse-28-June-1778
Mark Edward Lender and Garry Wheeler Stone, Fatal Sunday: George Washington, the
Monmouth Campaign, and the Politics of Battle (Norman, Ok.: Oklahoma University Press,
2016), 401-402. “The 1798 Rebellion – a brief overview”
http://www.theirishstory.com/2017/10/28/the-1798-rebellion-a-brief-
overview/#.WwdCxkgvyM8
12. Mark M. Boatner, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History,
Harold E. Selesky, ed. (two volumes: 2d Edition, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006), vol. 2, 857.
Matthias Ogden was brother of Rhoda Ogden, wife of Aaron Burr’s uncle Timothy Edwards, and
brother of Moses Ogden, father of Frances Ogden, wife of Burr’s uncle Pierpont Edwards, Alan

31
J. Clark, Cipher/Code of Dishonor: Aaron Burr, an American Enigma (Bloomington, In.:
Authorhouse, 2005), 111. See also, Aaron Burr, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aaron_Burr,
and Matthias Ogden, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthias_Ogden. Roberts, March to
Quebec, 94, 103, 118.
13. Roberts, March to Quebec, 101, 103, 118, 343. Boatner, Encyclopedia of the American
Revolution, vol. 1, 136-137. Christopher Ward, The War of the Revolution, John Richard Alden,
ed. (New York: The Macmillan Co,, 1952), 166. Heitman, Historical Register of Officers of the
Continental Army, 135.
14. “’One stout felow atackted me … But I parried him off …’: Alexander Dow's Account of
Service, 1776 to 1781, Including a 1777 Skirmish and the 1778 Battle of Monmouth”
https://www.academia.edu/36263043/_One_stout_felow_atackted_me_But_I_parried_him_
off_Alexander_Dows_Account_of_Service_1776_to_1781_Including_a_1777_Skirmish_and
_the_1778_Battle_of_Monmouth
15. Maj. Gen. William Alexander, Lord Stirling’s, Division consisted of the following units:
Conway's Brigade (3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th Pennsylvania Regiments, and Spencer's and Malcolm's
Additional Regiments) and Maxwell's Brigade (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th New Jersey Regiments).
Colonel Malcolm's Additional Regiment was ordered to join Brig. Gen. Thomas Conway's Brigade
on 11 October 1777. On 23 December 1777 Malcolm's (formerly Conway's, he having been
promoted to major-general and army inspector general) Brigade of Stirling's Division listed four
regiments out of a total of six having 151 men "Unfitt for duty for want of shoes." Two of the six
made no return, it being "Suppose[d] the order [was] not understood." The total rank and file for the
four regiments who made returns was 415. Maxwell's Brigade listed 60 privates under Colonel
Barber, 59 under Colonel Rhea (2nd Jersey), 19 under Colonel Martin, and 28 under Colonel
Ogden "unfit for want of shoes," giving a total of 166 out 573 privates in the Jersey Brigade who
needed footwear. The 23 December field return for the 2nd New Jersey showed that Lieutenant
Colonel Rhea had under his command, six captains, thirteen subalterns, twenty-three sergeants, ten
musicians, and one hundred fifty-nine rank & file present, fit for duty. An additional fifty-nine were
noted as being unfit for duty "for want of shoes." "Field Return of the Brigade comdd by Col.
Malcom" (formerly Conway's Brigade), and "A Return of the Brigade Belonging to Lord Stirlings
Division Dec 23d 1777" (return of Maxwell's New Jersey Brigade), Revolutionary War Rolls,
National Archives Microfilm Publications, Record Group 93, M246 (Washington, 1980), reel
136, item nos. 136, 137. Regimental returns, 20 May 1777, and General orders, 11 October 1777,
John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources
1745-1799 (Washington, D.C., 1933), 8 (1933), 171; 9 (1933), 353.
“’About an hour before day we dashed through the river again …’: The October 1777 Schuylkill
Expedition,” https://www.scribd.com/document/347860978/About-an-hour-before-day-we-
dashed-through-the-river-again-The-October-1777-Schuylkill-Expedition
“’Large droves of Cattle & flocks of Sheep go dayly into [the] Enemy …’: Countering British
Foraging at Darby, Pennsylvania, 22 to 28 December 1778,”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/240762337/Large-droves-of-Cattle-flocks-of-Sheep-go-dayly-into-the-
Enemy-Countering-British-Foraging-at-Darby-Pennsylvania-22-to-28-December-1778
16. Mark Edward Lender and Garry Wheeler Stone, Fatal Sunday: George Washington, the
Monmouth Campaign, and the Politics of Battle (Norman, Ok.: Oklahoma University Press,
2016), 397.

32
17. “’One stout felow atackted me … But I parried him off …’: Alexander Dow's Account of
Service, 1776 to 1781, Including a 1777 Skirmish and the 1778 Battle of Monmouth”
https://www.academia.edu/36263043/_One_stout_felow_atackted_me_But_I_parried_him_
off_Alexander_Dows_Account_of_Service_1776_to_1781_Including_a_1777_Skirmish_and
_the_1778_Battle_of_Monmouth
18. Ibid.
19. Malcolm's Additional Regiment was dissolved and incorporated with Spencer's Regiment on
April 22, 1779. Forman's Regiment was dissolved in August of 1779 and its officers and men also
transferred to Spencer's Additional Regiment. Spencer's Regiment met a similar fate in January of
1781 when its men were spread among the Jersey Brigade. Vol. 14, Washington to George Clinton,
9 April 1779; Washington to Oliver Spencer, 9 April 1779; Washington to William Malcom, 29
April 1779; Washington to Oliver Spencer, 29 April 1779; Washington to the Board of War, 8
August 1779; General orders, 1 November 1780, Fitzpatrick, The Writings of George Washington,
vol. 14 (1936), 356, 357, 463 (see also page note), 464; vol. 16 (1937), 65; vol. 20 (1937), 277-278.
Boatner, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, vol. 1, 136-137.
20. Steven M. Baule with Stephen Gilbert, British Army Officers Who Served in the American
Revolution, 1775–1783 (Westminster, Md.: Heritage Books, 2004) (author’s copy manually
updated by Stephen Gilbert, 5 August 2005)
21. Boatner, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, vol. 1, 118-137.
22. Richard Frothingham, Jr., History Siege of Boston, and of the Battles of Lexington, Concord,
Bunker Hill (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1851), 386-389.
“I enclose your lordship a return of the killed and wounded of his majesty's troops.
This action has shown the superiority of the king's troops, who, under every disadvantage, attacked and
defeated above three times their own number, strongly posted, and covered by breastworks.
The conduct of Major-general Howe was conspicuous on this occasion, and his example spirited the
troops, in which Major-general Clinton assisted, who followed the reinforcement. And, injustice to
Brigadier-general Pigot, I am to add, that the success of the day must, in great measure, be attributed to
his firmness and gallantry.
Lieutenant-colonels Nesbit, Abercrombie, and Clarke; Majors Butler, Williams, Bruce, Spendlove,
Small, Mitchell, Pitcairn, and Short, exerted themselves remarkably; and the valor of the British officers
and soldiers in general was at no time more conspicuous than in this action.
I have the honor to be, &c., Tho. Gage.”
“Return of the Officers, Non-commission Officers, and Privates killed and wounded of His
Majesty’s Troops, at the Attack of the Redoubts and Intrenchments on the Heights of
Charlestown, June 17, 1775.
Royal Regiment Artillery. — Capt. Huddleton, Capt. Lemoin, Lieut. Shuttleworth, 1 sergeant, 8 rank
and file, wounded.
4th Foot. — Capt. Balfour, Capt. West, Lieut. Barron, Lieut. Brown, wounded; 1 sergeant, 13 rank and
file, killed; 1 sergeant, 1 drummer and fifer, 29 rank and file, wounded.
5th. — Capt. Harris, Capt. Jackson, Capt. Downes, Capt. Marsden, Lieut. M'Clintock, Lieut. Croker,
Ensign Charleton, Ensign Balaguire, wounded; 22 rank and file, killed; 10 sergeants, 2 drummers and
fifers, 110 rank and file, wounded.
10th. — Capt. Parsons, Capt. Fitzgerald, Lieut. Pettigrew, Lieut. Verner, Lieut. Hamilton, Lieut. Kelly,
wounded; 2 sergeants, 5 rank and file, killed; 1 drummer and fifer, 39 rank and file, wounded.
18th. — Lieut. Richardson, wounded; 3 rank and file, killed; 7 rank and file wounded.

33
22d. —Lieut.-col. Abercrombie, wounded, and since dead.
23d. — Capt. Blakeney, Lieut. Beckwith, Lieut. Cochrane, Lieut. Lenthall, wounded; 2 sergeants, 1
drummer, 11 rank and file, killed; 2 sergeants, 1 drummer and fifer, 35 rank and file, wounded.
35th. — Lieut. Baird, killed; Captain Drew, Capt. Lyon, Lieut. Massay, Lieut. Campbell, wounded; 18
rank and file, killed; 3 sergeants, 2 drummers, 41 rank and file, wounded.
38th. — Lieut. Dutton, killed; Capt. Coker, Capt. Boyd, Lieut. Christie, Lieut. House, Lieut. Myres,
Ensign Sergeant, Ensign Sweney, Quartermaster Mitchell, wounded; 2 sergeants, 23 rank and file, killed;
4 sergeants, 1 drummer and fifer, 69 rank and file, wounded.
43d. — Major Spendlove, Capt. M'Kenzie, Lieut. Robinson, Lieut. Dal- rymple, wounded; 2 sergeants,
20 rank and file, killed; 3 sergeants, 2 drummers and fifers, 77 rank and file, wounded.
47th.—Major Small, Capt. Craig, Capt. England, Capt. Alcock, Lieut. England, wounded; Lieut.
Hilliard, Lieut. Gould, wounded, since dead; 1 sergeant, 15 rank and file, killed; 3 sergeants, 47 rank and
file, wounded.
52d. — Major Williams, wounded, since dead; Capt. Addison, Capt. Smith, Capt. Davidson, killed; Capt.
Nelson, Lieut. Higgins, Lieut. Thompson, Lieut. Crawford, Ensign Chetwynd, Ensign Graeme, wounded;
1 sergeant, 20 rank and file, killed; 7 sergeants, 73 rank and file, wounded.
59th. — Lieut. Haynes, wounded; 6 rank and file, killed; 25 rank and file, wounded.
63d. — Lieut. Dalrymple, killed; Capt. Folliot, Capt. Stopford, wounded; 1 sergeant, 7 rank and file,
killed; 2 sergeants, 1 drummer, 25 rank and file, wounded.
65th. —Capt. Hudson, killed; Major Butler, Capt. Sinclair, Lieut. Paxton, Lieut. Hales, Lieut. Smith,
wounded; 1 sergeant, 8 rank and file, killed; 1 sergeant, 1 drummer,.25 rank and file, wounded.
1st battalion marines. — Major Pitcairn, wounded, since dead; Capt. Ellis, Lieut. Shea, Lieut. Finnic,
killed; Capt. Averne, Capt. Chudleigh, Capt. Johnson, Lieut. Ragg, wounded; 2 sergeants, 15 rank and
file, killed; 2 sergeants, 55 rank and file, wounded.
2d battalion marines. — Capt. Campbell, Lieut. Gardiner, killed; Capt. Logan, Lieut. Dyer, Lieut.
Brisbane, wounded; 5 rank and file, killed; 1 sergeant, 29 rank and file, wounded.
Officers Attending On General Howe.
67th. —Capt. Sherwin, aid-de-camp, killed. 14th. — Lieut. Bruce, killed; Ensign Hesketh, wounded.
Royal Navy. — Lieut. Jorden, wounded. Engineer Lieut. Page, wounded.
Volunteers, late Barre's, Lieut. Alex. Campbell, on half-pay, wounded.
Royal Artillery. — Mr. Uance, wounded.
4th Foot. — Mr. Dorcus, wounded.
35th. — Mr. Maden, wounded.
52d. — Mr. Harrison, wounded.
59th. —Mr. Clarke, wounded.
2d Battalion Marines. —Mr. Bowman, wounded.
Total. — 1 lieutenant-colonel, 2 majors, 7 captains, 9 lieutenants, 15 sergeants, 1 drummer, 191 rank and
file, killed; 3 majors, 27 captains, 32 lieutenants, 8 ensigns, 40 sergeants, 12 drummers, 706 rank and file,
wounded.
N. B. — Capt. Downes, of the 5th regiment, and Lieut. Higgins, of the 52d, died of their wounds on
the 24th instant.
23. 106th Regiment of Foot (Black Musqueteers), an infantry regiment of the British Army from
1761 to 1763. On 29 January 1761 Isaac Barré received a commission as lieutenant-colonel and
on 17 October of the same year was given a letter of service to raise a regiment of foot. Raised in
Ireland, the regiment was duly numbered as the 106th, and it was formed by the regimentation of
independent companies. They moved to England in the following year, where they saw service

34
quelling disturbances by tinners in the stannary districts of Devon. The regiment was at its
highest strength of over 600 men in November 1762, never reaching its establishment strength of
1034. With the ending of the Seven Years' War the size of the army was reduced, and the
regiment was disbanded on 24 April 1763. Barré, who had been elected member of
parliament for Chepping Wycombe, was compensated by being appointed Adjutant General on 8
March 1763. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/106th_Regiment_of_Foot_(Black_Musqueteers)
Isaac Barré (1726 – 20 July 1802), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Barr%C3%A9
Frothingham, History Siege of Boston, and of the Battles of Lexington, Concord, Bunker Hill,
386-389.
24. Ibid. Baule and Gilbert, British Army Officers Who Served (updated by Stephen Gilbert, 5
August 2005).
25. William James Morgan, ed., Naval Documents of the American Revolution, vol. 5 (May 9,
1776-July 31, 1776) (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970), 619-621.
26.Ibid., vol. 5, 619-621. Lt. Col. Archibald Campbell to Maj. Gen. William Howe:
“Sir, Boston, June 19, 1776. I am sorry to inform you that it has been my unfortunate lot to have fallen
into the hands of the Americans, in the middle of Boston harbour. But, when the circumstances, which
have occasioned this disaster, are understood, I flatter myself no reflexion will arise to myself or my
officers on account of it. On the 16th of June the George and Annabella transports, with two companies
of the seventy-first regiment of Highlanders, made the land off Cape Ann, after a passage of seven weeks
from Scotland, during the course of which we had not the opportunity of speaking to a single vessel that
could give us the smallest information of the British troops having evacuated Boston. On the 17th, at day
light, we found ourselves opposite to the harbour's mouth of Boston; but, from contrary winds, it was
necessary to make several tacks to reach it. Four schooners, which we took to be pilots, or armed vessels
in the service of his Majesty (but which were afterwards found to be four American privateers of eight
carriage guns, twelve swivels, and forty men each) were bearing down upon us at four o'clock in the
morning, at half an hour thereafter two of them engaged us, and about eleven o'clock the other two were
close along side. The George transport, on board of which was Major Menzies and myself, with one
hundred and eight of the second battalion, the Adjutant, the Quartermaster, two Lieutenants, and five
volunteers were passengers, having only six pieces of cannon to oppose them. And the Annabella, on
board of which was Capt. M'Kenzie, together with two subalterns, two volunteers, and eighty-two private
men of the first battalion, had only two swivels for her defence. Under such circumstances I thought it
expedient for the Annabella to keep a head of the George, that our artillery might be used with more
effect and less obstruction. Two of the privateers having stationed themselves upon our larboard quarter,
and two upon our starboard quarter, a tolerable cannonade ensued, which, with very few intermissions,
lasted till four o'clock in the evening, when the enemy bore away and anchored in Plymouth harbour. Our
loss upon this occasion was only three men mortally wounded on board the George; one killed and one
man slightly wounded on board the Annabella. As my orders were for the port of Boston, I thought it my
duty, at this happy crisis, to push forward into the harbour, not doubting I should receive protection either
from a fort or some ship of force stationed there for the security of our fleet.
Towards the close of the evening we perceived the four schooners we were engaged with us in the
morning, joined by the brig Defence, of 16 carriage guns, twenty swivels, and one hundred and seventeen
men, and a schooner of eight carriage guns, twelve swivels and forty men got under way and made
towards us. As we stood up for Nantasket road, and American battery opened upon us, which was the
first serious proof we had that there could scarcely be many friends of ours at Boston; and we were too
far embayed to retreat, especially as the wind had died away, and the tide of flood not half expended.
After each of the vessels having run twice aground, we anchored at George's island, and prepared for

35
action, but the Annabella, by some misfortune, got aground so far astern of the George, we could expect
but a feeble support from her musketry. About eleven o’clock four of the schooners anchored right upon
our bow, and one right astern of us; the armed brig took her station on our starboard side, at the distance
of two hundred yards, and hailed us to strike the British flag. Although the Mate of our ship, and every
sailor on board (the Captain only excepted) refused positively to fight any longer, I have the pleasure to
inform you that there was not an officer, non-commissioned officer, or private man of the seventy-first,
but what stood to their quarters with a ready and cheerful obedience. On our refusing to strike the British
flag, the action was renewed with a good deal of warmth on both sides, and it was our misfortune, after
the sharp combat of an hour and an half, to have expended every shot that we had for our artillery. Under
such circumstances, hemmed in as we were with six privateers, in the middle of an enemy's harbor, beset
with a dead calm, without the power of escaping, or even the most distant hope of relief, I thought it
became my duty not to sacrifice the lives of our gallant men wantonly in the arduous attempt of an
evident impossibility. In this unfortunate affair Major Menzies and seven private soldiers were killed; the
Quarter-Master and twelve private soldiers wounded. The Major was buried with the honors of war at
Boston.
Since our captivity I have the honor to acquaint you that we have experienced the utmost civility and
good treatment from Boston, insomuch, Sir, that I should do injustice to the feelings of generosity, did I
not make this particular information with pleasure and satisfaction. I have now to request of you, that so
soon as the distracted state of this unfortunate controversy will admit, you will be pleased to take an early
opportunity of settling a cartel for myself and officers. I have the honor to be, with great respect, Sir
[&c.]
Archibald Campbell
Lieut. Col. of the 2d bat. of the 71st. regiment.
General Howe.
P.S. On my arrival at Boston I found that Capt. [Hamillton] Maxwell with the light infantry of the first
battalion of the seventy-first regiment. had the misfortune of fall[ing] into the hands of some privateers,
and was carried into Marble-head the tenth inst. Capt. [Lawrence] Campbell, with the grenadiers of the
second battalion, who was ignorant as we were of the evacuation of Boston, stood into the mouth of this
harbour, and was surrounded and taken by eight privateers this forenoon.
In case a cartel is established, the following return is, as near as I can effect, the number of officers,
non-commissioned officers and private men of the seventy-first regiment, who are prisoners of war at and
in the neighbour hood of Boston.
The George transport. Lieut. Col. Archibald Campbell; Lieut. and Adjutant Archibald Campbell;
Lieut. Archibald Baldneaves; Lieut. Hugh Campbell; Quarter-Master William Ogilvie, Surgeon's-Mate
David Burns; Patrick M’Dougal, volunteer and acting Serjeant Major; James Flint, volunteer;
Dugald Campbell, ditto; Donald M'Bane; John Wilson, three Serjeants, four Corporals, two
Drummers, ninety private men.
The Annabella transport. Captain George M'Kinzie; Lieut. Colin M’Kinzie; Ensign Peter Fraser; Mr.
M'Kinzie and Alexander M'Tavish, volunteers; four Serjeants, four Corporals, two Drummers eighty-
one private men.
Lord Howe transport. Captain Lawrence Campbell; Lieut. Robert Duncanson; Lieut. Archibald
M'Lean; Lieut. Lewis Colhoun; Duncan Campbell, volunteer; four Serjeants, four Corporals, two
drummers, ninety six private men,
Ann transport. Captain Hamilton Maxwell; Lieut. Charles Campbell; Lieut. Fraser; Lieut.-----; four
Serjeants, four Corporals, two Drummers, ninety-six private men.
Archibald Campbell”

36
27. Ibid., vol. 5, 619-621. Charles H. Walcott, Sir Archibald Campbell of Inverneill, Sometime
Prisoner of War in the Jail at Concord, Massachusetts (Boston, Ma.: Beacon Press, 1899), 47.
28. Morgan, Naval Documents of the American Revolution, vol. 5, 619-621. Baule and Gilbert,
British Army Officers Who Served (updated by Stephen Gilbert, 5 August 2005).
29. Ibid.
30. Ibid.
31. Gregory J.W. Urwin, "Redcoat Images, No. 83 (Revisited) Ensign Richard St George
Mansergh St George, 4th Regiment of Foot, 1776"
https://www.academia.edu/36749134/Gregory_J.W._Urwin_Redcoat_Images_No._83_Revi
sited_Ensign_Richard_St_George_Mansergh_St_George_4th_Regiment_of_Foot_1776_
32. “Order of battle of the Battle of Long Island,”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_battle_of_the_Battle_of_Long_Island
Johann Ewald (captain), Diary of the American War: A Hessian Journal, Joseph P. Tustin, ed.
and trans. (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1979), 11-13.
33. Baule and Gilbert, British Army Officers Who Served (author’s copy manually updated by
Stephen Gilbert, 5 August 2005), 167. Stephen Gilbert, “Known Identities of Light Infantry
Officers with Howe’s Army in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York, 23 March 1777-2
November 1778” (Corrected until 17 August 2002), manuscript, author’s collection.
34. Martin Hunter, The Journal of Gen. Sir Martin Hunter (Edinburgh, The Edinburgh Press,
1894), 21-22.
35. Ibid, 22, 33.
36. Narrative on reverse of drawing, “My Triumphant entry into Philadelphia,” Richard St. George
Mansergh St. George Collection, Harlan Crow Library, Dallas, Texas.
37. Hunter, The Journal of Gen. Sir Martin Hunter, 22.
38. Ibid. See also, Stephen Gilbert and Steve Rayner, "A New Appraisal of an Old Print"
A discussion of Richard St, George Mansergh St. George's artwork on the Darley print titled "A
View of America in 1778." Published in Valley Forge Journal, Volume III Number 2 (December
1986): 92-103.
https://www.academia.edu/36747373/_A_New_Appraisal_of_an_Old_Print_by_Stephen_G
ilbert_and_Steve_Rayner
39. “The Battle of Germantown,” Stephen R. Gilbert, “An Analysis of the Xavier della Gatta
Paintings of the Battles of Paoli and Germantown, 1777: Part II,” Military Collector & Historian,
vol. XLVII, no. 4 (Winter 1995), 146-162.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/209914033/%E2%80%9CThe-Battle-of-Germantown%E2%80%9D-
by-Xavier-della-Gatta-Stephen-R-Gilbert-%E2%80%9CAn-Analysis-of-the-Xavier-della-Gatta-
Paintings-of-the-Battles-of-Paoli-and-Ger
40. Urwin, "Redcoat Images, No. 83 (Revisited) Ensign Richard St George Mansergh St George,
4th Regiment of Foot, 1776"
41. Ibid. Nicholas Matranga, Richard St George Mansergh-St George, (Wiki Entry, 24 October
2013.)https://revolutionaryrichmondnewyork.blogspot.com/2013/10/richard-st-george-
mansergh-st-george.html

37

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