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Oral Pathology & Microbiology lecture (3)

Prepared by: Dr. Enas Hawari.

Immune system
Immune system: Is responsible for providing resistance to communicable diseases.
Communicable disease: Is caused by an infection that can be spread from person to person or through contact with body fluids.

Immunity allows the body to resist disease and prevents foreign bodies from causing infection.

Immunity is classified into: Naturally acquired immunity. Artificially acquired immunity.

Naturally acquired immunity

Occurs when a person has previously contracted a disease and recovered.
Two types of naturally acquired immunity: Active immunity. Passive immunity.

Active immunity:
Occurs when the body was fighting the invading pathogen, it formed antibodies that provide future resistance against that particular pathogen. It is called active because the body of the host is actively involved in the process.

Passive immunity:

Occurs during pregnancy when the fetus receives antibodies from the mother placenta.
Also occurs when the mother breastfeeds the infant. It is called passive cause the antibodies are acquired from an outside source.

Artificially acquired immunity

When the human body has not been exposed to a disease, it has not developed antibodies and is completely defenseless against the disease.
Antibodies can be introduced into the body artificially by immunization or vaccination.

A vaccine that contains a weakened disease-causing organisms is injected into the body.
Harmful characteristic of the disease are eliminated from the vaccine to make them less likely to cause disease. The body then forms antibodies in response to the vaccine, resulting in artificially acquired immunity.


Oral pathology
Is the study of disease in the oral cavity.
Only a dentist or a physician may diagnose disease conditions. It is important for the dental assistant to be able to recognize the difference between normal and abnormal conditions that appear in the mouth.

Before you can recognize abnormal conditions in the mouth, you must have a solid understanding of the appearance of the normal tissue. A dental assistant should understand the terms used to describe pathologic conditions, so that you can communicate effectively with other professionals.

Making a diagnosis
Making a diagnosis is much like putting a puzzle together many pieces are necessary.
To make an accurate diagnosis, the dentist must rely on a variety of types of information. One piece of information alone is not enough to make a diagnosis.

Eight sources of information can be used to make a final diagnosis. These includes: Historical. Clinical. Radiographic. Microscopic. Laboratory. Therapeutic. Surgical. Differential findings.

Historical diagnosis
Personal history Family history. Medical history. Dental history. History of a lesion.

Family history is important because of the genetic disorders. Medical history can provide information about medication the patient may be taking that could have an effect on the oral tissue.

Clinical diagnosis
Is based on the clinical appearance of the lesion, including the:
Color. Size. Shape. Location.

Radiographic diagnosis
Radiographs are excellent in providing information about:
Periapical pathology. Internal resorption. Impacted teeth.

Microscopic diagnosis
When a suspicious lesion is present, tissue is removed from the lesion and is sent to a pathology laboratory, this is called (biopsy).
This procedure is very often used to make the final diagnosis.

Laboratory diagnosis
Blood chemistries and other laboratory tests, including urinalysis, can provide information that leads to a diagnosis.
Cultures done in the laboratory can be used to diagnose types of oral infection.

Therapeutic diagnosis
Is made by providing a treatment and seeing how the condition responds.

Surgical diagnosis
A diagnosis made on the basis of findings from a surgical procedure.
Surgically open the area and inspect it if it needs a further treatment.

Differential diagnosis
When two or more possible causes of a condition are identified, a differential diagnosis must be made.
The dentist will determine which tests or procedures should be done to rule out the incorrect cause and make a final diagnosis.

Thank you