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Types of Instruments There are a very large number of musical instruments, each with its own unique sound

and quality. These musical instruments can be divided into 4 basic categories: String Instruments Wind Instruments Brass Instruments Percussion Instruments

These categories are based on the mechanism by which the instrument makes its sound. Common string instruments include the guitar, violin and piano. Wind instruments include the flute, oboe, clarinet and saxophone. Brass instruments include the trumpet, french horn, trombone and tuba. Drums and cymbals are percussion instruments. String instruments need to be plucked, struck or bowed The string instruments are used to produce sound with the help of vibration. The strings are to be pulled or plucked. The mode of use to create the vibration makes the difference in different string instruments. The striking of the strings can be done with the use of something like a hammer. The string instruments that are to be striked to produce sound are the piano or the clavichord. The bowed strings are the ones from a violin. The plucking of the instruments is done with the help of a plectrum and some instruments are plucked with the use of fingers only. The guitar, lute, sitar, banjo and mandolin are instruments that are played with the fingers plucking he chords. Wind instruments that can be blowed with air for vibration The instrument that uses air to bring out musical sound has got a pipe or a tube to blow in the air. The mouthpiece is there to blow in wind or air and then the music comes out from the other end. You need to position your mouth and lips properly on the mouthpiece to produce proper sound. Sounds pitch can be changed by the position and blowing in of air at different volume. Air chamber in the instruments is related to the size of the instrument and this again gives the base of the music produced by the instruments. Wind instruments that are played with the blowing in of breath The larger will be the size of the chamber the lower will be the pitch of the instrument. There are holes cut into the tubes of the instruments to change the pitch of the sound produced. The wind instruments are again of two types and they are the wood wind instruments and the brass wind instruments. The woodwinds are often played with the blowing in of breathe and keys pressed to change the flow of the air in the chamber to change pitch. The flute, clarinet, oboe, bassoon are such instruments and uses reed that vibrates to produce sound. Wind instruments that are played with the valves to control air There are instruments that use wind to produce and you will have to blow wind into the instrument. These types of instruments are created on the principle of valves that covers the holes of the instrument instead of your fingers. They have cone shaped tubes and a bell that is flared. The tube is easy to hold for it being in a shape of a coil. The brass instruments give out sound through a metal tube and they vary in size in different instruments. Some of the instruments are the French Horns, trumpets, bugles and trombones. Keyboards are instruments that produce sound by striking or plucking the strings

The other type of instrument that gives music is the keyboard instrument. The keyboards are available in different types and one is the percussive like the piano. There is another type that can be plucked and played. The strings are plucked or striked to give you the sound. The Organs that are more like the wind instruments can use the keys and are often called the keyboard instruments. The musicians find the vibration that is controlled with different key press and then when they can control the instruments, they are able to produce the desired sound. Keys that can give out sound for concerts ad symphonies There are different ways in which the sound is produced. The Harpsichords and spinets can be played by plucking the strings by using a bird quill. The Clavichords are used by hitting the strings from underneath with a small metal piece. This is called a tangent. The Pianofortes are played by the hammers which are sealed in leather or felt. There are various types of instrumental music that one can learn using these instruments and you will see these instruments are mostly being used in symphonies, concerts and orchestras. The instruments can be learned by any one from different age and then continue with it if he or she loves it.

String Instruments String instruments may be played with or without a bow. These instruments produce sound when strummed, plucked, struck or slapped. Under the Sachs-Hornbostel system, these instruments are classified as chordophones. String instruments are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings. In the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification, used in organology, they are called chordophones. Some common instruments in the string family are guitar, sitar, rabab, electric bass, violin, viola, cello, double bass, banjo, mandolin, ukulele, bouzouki, and harp. String instruments can be divided in three groups.

Lutes - instruments in which the strings are supported by a neck and a bout ("gourd"), for instance a guitar, a violin, a saz. Harps - instruments in which the strings are contained within a frame. Zithers - instruments with the strings mounted on a body, such as a guqin, a cimbalom, an autoharp, or a piano.

It is also possible to divide the instruments in groups focused on how the instrument is played. Types of playing techniques All string instruments produce sound from one or more vibrating strings, transferred to the air by the body of the instrument (or by a pickup in the case of electronically amplified instruments). They are usually categorized by the technique used to make the strings vibrate (or by the primary technique, in the case of instruments where more than one may apply.) The three most common techniques are plucking, bowing and striking. Plucking Plucking is used as a method of playing on instruments such as the banjo, ukulele, guitar, harp, lute, mandolin, oud, sitar, and either by a finger or thumbther quills (now plastic plectra) to pluck the strings. Bowing Bowing (Italian: Arco) is a method used in some string instruments, including the violin, viola, cello, and the double bass (of the violin family) and the old viol family. The bow consists of a stick with many hairs stretched between its ends. Bowing the instrument's string causes a stickslip phenomenon to occur, which makes the string vibrate. Striking The third common method of sound production in stringed instruments is to strike the string. The piano uses this method of sound production. Violin family string instrument players are occasionally instructed to strike the string with the side of the bow, a technique called col legno. This yields a percussive sound along with the pitch of the note.

String Instruments Violin

The violin is the highest pitched of the string instruments. Violins and violas look very much alike, and both instruments sit on your shoulder while you play them. Like all string instruments, violins are very versatile, but they are maybe most commonly seen in classical music, fiddling, and mariachi music. More kids choose to play the violin than any other instrument in String Project. It can be nice to have many friends who also play your instrument, but sometimes it can be hard to be in such a big crowd. Viola

The viola looks a lot like the violin, and like the violin, it sits on your shoulder. However, a viola has a deeper, lower sound. This instrument has a long history and a beautiful sound. Many composers have chosen to play viola when playing their own pieces. The American Viola Society and many groups like it sponsor competitions, publish magazines, and commission new compositions all centered on violas.

Because not many people know about the viola, violists are constantly in demand, not only in the String Project, but also in other educational groups and in the professional world. Just listen to the sample and hear how great a viola sounds! Bass

The bass is the lowest of the string instruments, and the root of the orchestra. A full-sized bass is so large that not many adults play them; most play a three-quarters sized instrument instead, including many professional symphony members. The bass is unique among the orchestral strings in that it is a member of the viol, not violin, family of instruments. A bass is also sometimes called a string bass, upright bass, or double bass. Bass players are not only in demand in the world of classical music. Many styles of music include a bass at the root of their ensembles, including jazz, salsa, country, folk, and pop music among others. Unlike the other string instruments, bass players choose between two styles of bows. A French bow is a shorter, thicker version of the bow used by the other string instruments; a German bow has a different style of frog, and the player uses this frog to hold the bow differently. Guitar

Most Classical Guitars have six strings. One of the neatest things about classical guitar, and something that sets it apart form other string instruments, is that you can play both melody and accompaniment at the same time! The instrument is plucked with the fingers of the right hand professionals and advanced students even use their fingernails. Music for the classical guitar ranges from hundreds of years ago all the way to the the present day and even though many people think of the guitar as being a Spanish instrument, music for the guitar comes from all over the world. Guitarists play solo (all by themselves) but also with other instruments and voices and, sometimes, even with symphony orchestras. Bows for String Instruments

Top to bottom: A violin bow, viola bow, cello bow, and two bass bows (French style and German style). Almost everyone who has seen a string instrument has seen a bow, too, but not as many people have heard of them. The bow is the stick players rub on the instrument's strings to produce sound. Some string instruments, like guitars and harps, make sound when the player plucks strings without a bow. The orchestral string instruments can do this, too, but they were designed to be played with a bow and most of the time they use one, although the bass employs thepizzicato style, or plucking, more than the other strings. A bow is a carefully crafted piece of wood with the tail hair of a horse stretched between the ends. (Some bows designed for beginning students use synthetic materials instead.) Because the bow is what makes an orchestral string instrument produce sound, learning to use your bow is at least as important as learning what to do with the instrument itself. Other Kinds of String Instruments Banjo A banjo is a stringed instrument that is played using different techniques such as the Scruggsstyle or the "clawhammer". It also comes in different types and some manufacturers even experimented on other forms by blending the banjo with another instrument. Cello The cello is essentially a large violin but its body is thicker. It is played the same way as the violin, by rubbing the bow across the strings. But if you can play the violin standing up, the cello is played sitting down while holding it between your legs. Double Bass This instrument is like a huge cello and is played the same way, by rubbing the bow across the strings. Another way of playing it is by plucking or striking the strings. The double bass may be played while standing up or sitting down.

Harp The harp is one of the oldest musical instruments; archaeologists discovered a wall painting in Ancient Egyptian tombs which resembled that of a harp and dates back to 3000 BC. Lute The lute is another musical instrument popularly used during the Medieval Period and still very much enjoyed to this day. The lute is quite a beautiful instrument, both aesthetically and tonally. Composers such as Bach and Dowland used this instrument in their compositions. Mandolin The mandolin is a plucked string instrument believed to have evolved from the lute and emerged during the 18th century. It has a pear-shaped body and 4 pairs of strings. The mandolin is another musical instrument that belongs to the string family. One of the most popular brand of mandolins is the Gibson, named after the luthier Orville Gibson. Ukulele The ukulele is one of Hawaii's most popular musical instruments. It became more widely used during the 20th century and popularized by musicians such as Eddie Karnae and Jake Shimabukuro. The ukulele is like a small guitar but its tone is much lighter. Zither These instruments can be bowed, plucked or struck with wooden mallets. The earliest types of zithers were called "ground zithers" before it evolved into "board zithers." Zithers have no necks; its strings are stretched from one end of the board to the other.

Musical Instruments
String Instrument

Submitted by:

Justin Piel F. Falculan