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Cellular Respiration V.

Photosynthesis (Chapter 9 & 10) Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy (ATP) Glycolysis (substrate level phosphorylation) 1.) Splits glucose into two molecules of G3P . + 2.) NAD reduces with the addition of electrons and along with an H+ molecule and turns into NADH . 3.) The energy released from NAD+ combining with electrons is used to attach two phosphates to two ADP with substrate phosphorylation. 4.) 2 H2O leaves the G3P and two phosphates from G3P attach to two ADP making pyruvate Location: Cytosol What it needs Products -2 ATP -Glucose -2 net ATP -2 NADH -2 H2O -2 Pyruvate Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) (Substrate Level Phosphorylation) Before pyruvate can go through the Krebs cycle, it must change. 2 more NADH are made from the loss of CO2 of the pyruvate (which results in Acetyl coA1) 1.) Acetyl coA enters the matrix 2.) Acetyl coA gives up two CO2 3.) H combines with electrons to NAD+ and FAD 4.) ADP + P=ATP It turns twice per glucose

1 Electron Transport Chain/ Oxidative Phosphorylation. 1.) The products of Glycolysis and Krebs cycle donate their electrons that go towards oxygen. 2.) The H+ left from the products (after electrons leave-anabolic part) transfer into the inner membrane space from the matrix against their concentration gradient. This creates potential energy. [NAD+ and FAD return to cycle] 3.) H+ diffuses through the protein ATP synthase. (called chemiosmosis) 4.) As step three happens, ADP and organic P are phosphorylate into ATP Every NADH makes 3 ATP Every FADH2 makes 2 ATP Location: Mitochondria Inner Membrane(cristae) What it needs Products

It produces 38 ATP in total It is a catabolic reaction; exergonic, decrease in free energy

Location: Mitochondria matrix What it Products needs -2 pyruvate -6 NADH (2 Acetyl -2 FADH2 coA) -2 ATP -6 CO2

Photosynthesis

Light dependent Cycle 1.) Electrons ripped off of H2O to replace electrons lost in

-10 NADH 34 ATP -2 from glycolysis 4 H2O -2 from oxidation of Acetyl coA -6 from Krebs -2 FADH2 from Krebs -O2 (to attract products) Calvins Cycle CO2 bonds to RuBP (starter molecule) with the help of the

3 carbon sugar H+ and two electrons together reduce the electron carriers 1 Acetyl coA is a lipid

Cellular Respiration V. Photosynthesis (Chapter 9 & 10) Photosystem II (step 2) 2.) Electrons from photosystem II get excited and move down to photosystem I to replace electrons lost in step 3. 3.) Electrons from photosystem I passes through Electron Transport Chain and add to NADP+ along with an H+ molecule goes against its concentration gradient to form NADPH with the help of an enzyme (chemiosmosis) 4.) As step two happens, the energy of electrons moving to PS I cause H+ molecules to move from stroma to Thylakoid compartment building potential energy. 5.) H+ molecules diffuse through ATP synthase 6.) The movement of H+ builds enough energy to combine ADP and P to make ATP. What it needs Products -H2O -NADPH -Light -ATP -O2 Location: thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast

2 enzyme Rubisco to form G3P. 1.) ATP molecules from Light dependent cycle attach to G3P molecules. (creates ADP) 2.) NADPH molecules donate electrons (creates NADP+, also loses P) creating high energy G3P molecules The energy of electrons makes G3P Some G3P is recycled in the cycle, but the rest is converted into organic molecules -It takes 2 G3P to make glucose

6 CO2 + 12 H2O+ light energy C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O Anabolic Reactionconsumes energy, endergonic, increases energy Creates glucose for cellular respiration

What it needs Products -NADPH from earlier -Glucose reaction (depending on what the cell -ATP from earlier reaction needs) -CO2 -Proteins -Starches -RuBP -Lipids -Sugars Location: stroma of the chloroplast.

Photosystems are pigments , primarily chlorophyll (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and antenna/accessory pigments) molecules that absorb, reflect, or transmit light 5-carbon intermediate that attaches to CO2