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Making Connections Chapter 4 Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to: List the

four components of all interface standards Discuss the basic operations of the EIA-232F and USB interface standards Recognize the difference between half-duplex and full-duplex connections Cite the advantages of FireWire, Universal Serial Bus, SCSI, iSCSI, InfiniBand, and Fibre Channel interface standards Outline the characteristics of asynchronous, synchronous, and isochronous data l ink interfaces Identify the operating characteristics of terminal to mainframe connections and why they are unique from other types of computer connections Chapter Outline 1. 2. a. b. Introduction Interfacing a Computer to Peripheral Devices Data terminal equipment and data circuit-terminating equipment Two important interface standards

RS-232 and EIA-232E Universal Serial Bus (USB) c. Other interface standards 3. Data Link Connections a. Asynchronous connections b. Synchronous connections c. Isochronous connections 4. Terminal-to-Mainframe Computer Connections 5. Making Computer Connections In Action 6. Summary

Lecture Notes Introduction To better understand the interconnection between a computer and a device such as a modem requires you to understand the concept of interfacing. Interfacing a device to a computer is considered a physical layer activity since it deals directly with analog signals , digital signals, and hardware components. We will examine the four basic components of an interface.e lectrical, mechanical, functional, and procedural.and then introduce several of the more co mmon interface standards. Interfacing a Computer to Peripheral Devices Interfacing is a complex area of study. It is a relatively technical process and varies greatly depending upon the type of device, the computer, and the desired connection betw een the device and computer. Various organizations set about creating a standard interface betw een devices such as computers and modems. An interface standard consists of four parts or co mponents: the electrical component, the mechanical component, the functional component, and th e procedural component. EIA-232 and USB Interface standards such as EIA-232E, X.21, and Hayes have existed for many year s and, by current standards, are relatively complex to create and difficult to support. Th ey were designed primarily to support modems. Computer designers have been working for many years trying to create a new interface that is flexible and fast and supports not only modems bu t the growing array of peripheral devices such as document scanners and video cameras. Several new interface standards that have great potential are FireWire, Universal Serial Bus, SCSI, iS CSI, InfiniBand, and Fibre Channel. Data Link Connections Assuming that the physical layer connections are already defined by some protoco l such as EIA232F, what is the basic form of the data that is passed between sender and receiver? I s the data transmitted in single-byte blocks, or does the connection create a larger, multi ple-byte block? The former connection is an example of an asynchronous connection, while the lat ter is a synchronous connection. Isochronous connections are connections that require a c onstant or typically real-time flow of data, such as between a video camera and a computer.

Terminal-to-Mainframe Computer Connections One of the common connections introduced in the first chapter was the terminal-t o-mainframe computer connection. Since terminals possess little processing power compared to a microcomputer workstation, the mainframe computer has to take control and perfor m all the data

transfer operations. The operations performed by the mainframe computer depend u pon the type of physical connection between a terminal and mainframe. Making Computer Connections In Action This In Action example examines the rear panel of a personal computer and discus ses the definition and operation of each connector. Quick Quiz 1. Cite the advantages and disadvantages of EIA-232F and USB. Not sure there are any advantages of EIA-232F; USB is simpler for the user, fast er, and provides its own source of power. 2. Why do we need interface standards? To allow multiple devices to interconnect; this avoids mayhem in the industry. 3. How do synchronous transmission and asynchronous transmission maintain synchronization? Asynchronous: small package and start bit; Synchronous: uses a separate clock si gnal or a selfclocking code Discussion Topics 1. Will something eventually displace USB? 2. Why is it so difficult to design a good interface standard? 3. Are there any advantages to using asynchronous transmission? Teaching Tips 1. Don t forget to emphasize that interface standards occur at the physical layer, while asynchronous and synchronous transmission techniques occur at the data link laye r. 2. Use some of the Internet services, such as www.telcoexchange.com to see if yo u have access to some of the more advanced telecommunication services.

Solutions to Review Questions 1. What is a DTE, and what is a DCE? Data terminal equipment and data circuit-terminating equipment 2. What are the four components of an interface? Mechanical, electrical, functional, procedural 3. What are the advantages of USB over EIA-232F and the other types of interface standards? USB is fast, easy to use, robust, and provides its own power source. 4. FireWire and USB are standards to interconnect what to what? Computers to different peripheral devices 5. What are the advantages of FireWire? Advanced, fast, modern, can daisy-chain, can auto-configure (with aid from OS) 6. When might one use SCSI to interconnect a peripheral? High-speed applications, such as network servers 7. What is the difference between SCSI and iSCSI? iSCSI is when you perform SCSI operations over the Internet. 8. Are InfiniBand and Fibre Channel likely to be used on your home computer? No, these are high-speed interfaces for connecting multiple, large-volume disk d rives to processors. 9. What are the primary differences between asynchronous connections, synchronou s, and isochronous connections? Async sends one character at a time with stop, start, and optional parity bits. Sync sends multiple characters at one time with beginning and ending flags, control, address info, a nd cyclic checksum. Isochronous sends a steady-rate stream, often in real-time.

10. In asynchronous connections, what additional bits are added to a character t o prepare it for transfer? Start, stop, parity (optional) 11. In asynchronous connections, how many characters are placed into one frame? One 12. What are the advantages and disadvantages of asynchronous communication? Advantage: simple; Disadvantage: slow, inefficient, poor error checking 13. What is the basic block diagram of a synchronous frame? Answer should look like Figure 4-5 on page 128. 14. What are the advantages and disadvantages of synchronous communication? Advantage: fast, efficient, good error checking; Disadvantage: a little more com plex 15. What is the difference between half-duplex and full-duplex communications? Half-duplex: both sides can talk, but only one at a time; full-duplex: both side s can talk and at the same time. 16. What is the difference between a point-to-point connection and a multipoint connection? Point-to-point: each terminal has its own connection to the mainframe; multipoin t: terminals share a connection. 17. How does a mainframe computer ask a terminal to send it data? Poll Suggested Solutions to Exercises 1. List which of the EIA-232F interface signals are used only between a DTE and its DCE, and list which signals travel over the phone line to the remote side. Essentially all signals are only between a DTE and its DCE.

2. Who issues the Request to Send signal (local DTE or local DCE)? For whom is t he signal intended? Local DTE issues, intended for local DCE; local DCE responds with Clear to Send. 3. Which EIA-232F signals must be active before actual data transfer can take pl ace? It depends upon the type of connection, but it is usually RTS, CTS, DCE Ready, D TE Ready, and Received Line Signal Detectors. 4. What function does the Receive Line Signal Detector perform? It indicates to the DCE/DTE that a carrier signal has been received from the oth er side. 5. What is the major advantage of the FireWire interface over the Universal Seri al Bus 1.1 interface? FireWire is faster. 6. If I have a device that has a Universal Serial Bus 2.0 interface, but my comp uter only has a Universal Serial Bus 1.1 connector, is my device going to work? Explain. Yes, but the 2.0 interface will drop back to the slower 1.1 interface speed. 7. Create a table that compares the advantages and disadvantages of the Universa l Serial Bus to those of the RS-232/EIA-232F interface. USB is faster, simpler, and easier to install. 8. Show the sequence of start, data, and stop bits that are generated during asy nchronous transmission of the character string LUNCH. Start, L, stop, start, U, stop, start, N, stop, start, C, stop, start, H, stop 9. List two examples each of simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex connections n ot mentioned in the book. Simplex: broadcast TV, cable TV, radio, most pagers, telegraph Half-duplex: walkie-talkies, CB radio, ham radio, local area networks Full-duplex: telephone system, cable modems 10. Terminals A, B, and C are connected to a mainframe computer. Only terminal C has data to transmit. Show the sequence of messages sent between the mainframe and t he three terminals using roll call polling.

Mainframe polls A. A responds NO. Mainframe polls B. B responds NO. Mainframe polls C. C responds with data. Mainframe acknowledges data. 11. Using the same scenario as the previous problem, show the sequence of messag es exchanged using hub polling. Mainframe polls A. A passes poll onto B. B passes poll onto C. C responds with data. Mainframe acknowledges data. 12. Suppose you want to send 1000 characters of data. How many check bits will y ou need using asynchronous transmission? How many check bits will you need using synchro nous transmission? Assume that all 1000 characters will fit within one synchronous tr ansmission frame. Asynchronous: 1000 characters * 3 check bits per character (start, stop, parity) = 3000 check bits Synchronous: Start flag (8 bits) + Address (8 bits) + Control (8 bits) + CRC (16 bits) + End flag (8 bits) = 48 check bits 13. List two features of the asynchronous connection that allow the receiver to stay in sync with the incoming data stream. The start bit and a short frame 14. How does the receiver in a synchronous connection stay in sync with the inco ming data stream? A separate clock signal, use of a Manchester type code, or some form of internal analog signaling with a built-in sync pattern 15. What types of devices are best served with an isochronous connection? Real-time devices such as video cameras 16. In what type of situation might hub polling be preferable to roll-call polli ng? If there is a long distance between mainframe and terminals

17. A company has a very powerful computer and it wants to connect the computer to a large number of high-speed disk storage devices. Which protocol(s) introduced in this chapter would provide a good interface for this scenario? Fibre channel or InfiniBand Thinking Outside the Box 1. 500 bytes every 0.5 seconds = 1000 bytes / second (or 8000 bps). With async, you would add 3 bits (start, stop, and parity) to each byte, giving you 11,000 bps. With a syn c connection, you would simply add 6 bytes (flag, address, control, FCS, and flag) to the 1000 byt es. Thus, you would have 1006 bytes, or 8048 bps. The sync line would be much more efficient. 2. You are probably comparing apples and oranges here. If you replace polling with async connections, how does the mainframe get the data from the terminals? You will st ill need some form of dialog between the mainframe and terminals. Chances are it may still tak e the form of an async connection, unless you want to make it appear as a sync connection. As we saw from the previous problem, there is a big difference there. 3. Isochronous connections are considered steady stream connections, whereas syn chronous and asynchronous connections are generally considered bursty. Thus, applications lik e video or voice, which are generally considered steady stream, would work better with an i sochronous connection. 4. It is possible to create a workstation with only USB connectors, but that mig ht limit your choice of printer, modem, and other peripherals. For the time, you probably shou ld still include the other types of connectors. 5. If you install unshielded twisted pair, you will probably be using RJ-45 conn ectors into a LAN connection. If you use wireless, once again you will be installing wireless devi ces that will connect to the RJ-45 LAN ports. If you use the house wiring as the medium, you m ay install the signal converter device into a USB port or a serial port at your laptop and then plug the other end into the electrical outlet on the wall.