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CHAPTER 3

COLUMN FORMULAS

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GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Columns are structural members subjected to direct compression. All columns can be grouped into the following three classes: 1. Compression blocks are so short (with a slenderness ratio that is, unsupported length divided by the least radius of gyration of the member below 30) that bending is not potentially occurring. 2. Columns so slender that bending under load is a given are termed long columns and are dened by Eulers theory. 3. Intermediate-length columns, often used in structural practice, are called short columns. Long and short columns usually fail by buckling when their critical load is reached. Long columns are analyzed using Eulers column formula, namely, Pcr n

2 EI l2

n 2EA (l/r)2

In this formula, the coefcient n accounts for end conditions. When the column is pivoted at both ends, n 1; when one end is xed and the other end is rounded, n 2; when both ends are xed, n 4; and when one end is xed and the other is free, n 0.25. The slenderness ratio separating long columns from short columns depends on the modulus of elasticity and the yield strength of the column material. When Eulers formula results in (Pcr /A) > Sy, strength instead of buckling causes failure, and the column ceases to be long. In quick estimating numbers, this critical slenderness ratio falls between 120 and 150. Table 3.1 gives additional column data based on Eulers formula.

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Lowcarbon steel

Mediumcarbon steel

Ultimate compressive strength, lb/in2 Allowable compressive stress, lb/in2 (maximum) Modulus of elasticity Factor of safety Smallest I allowable at worst section, in4 7,100 14,200,000 8 Pl 2 17,500,000 50.0 14.4 12.5 17.6 15.2 21.4 17.5 17.2 14.9 21.1 15,400 28,400,000 5 Pl 2 56,000,000 60.6 17,000 30,600,000 5 Pl 2 60,300,000 59.4

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diameter of a

Rectangle r

b1 12 , l/b

d 1 8 , l/d

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(P allowable load, lb; l length of column, in; b smallest dimension of a rectangular section, in; d circular section, in; r least radius of gyration of section.) To convert to SI units, use: 1b/in2 6.894 kPa; in4 (25.4)4 mm4.

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SHORT COLUMNS

Stress in short columns can be considered to be partly due to compression and partly due to bending. Empirical, rational expressions for column stress are, in general, based on the assumption that the permissible stress must be reduced below that which could be permitted were it due to compression only. The manner in which this reduction is made determines the type of equation and the slenderness ratio beyond which the equation does not apply. Figure 3.1 shows the curves for this situation. Typical column formulas are given in Table 3.2.

When short blocks are loaded eccentrically in compression or in tension, that is, not through the center of gravity (cg), a combination of axial and bending stress results. The maximum unit stress SM is the algebraic sum of these two unit stresses.

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TABLE 3.2 Typical Short-Column Formulas Material Carbon steels Carbon steels Carbon steels Carbon steels Alloy-steel tubing Cast iron AREA Am. Br. Co. ANC NYC Chicago l r l r 60 l AISC l r Code Slenderness ratio 120 120 150 l r 65 cr l 70 r 120

Formula

Sw

17,000

0.485

l r

Sw

16,000

70

l r

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103

Sw

15,000

50

l r

Sw

19,000

100

Scr

135,000

l r 15.9 c

l r

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Sw

9,000

40

l r

TABLE 3.2 Typical Short-Column Formulas (Continued) Code ANC ANC Johnson Secant 1 cr 1 cr Material 2017ST aluminum Spruce Steels Steels

Formula

Slenderness ratio 94 72

Scr

34,500

245

l r

Scr

5,000

0.5 c

l r

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104

Scr

Sy 1

Scr

Sy 4n 2E Sy

l r

l r l r

2n 2E Sy critical

ec sec r2

l r

P 4AE

Scr

theoretical maximum; c end xity coefcient; c 2, both ends pivoted; c 4, both ends xed; c 1 one xed, one free. is initial eccentricity at which load is applied to center of column cross section.

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105

In Fig. 3.2, a load, P, acts in a line of symmetry at the distance e from cg; r radius of gyration. The unit stresses are (1) Sc, due to P, as if it acted through cg, and (2) Sb, due to the bending moment of P acting with a leverage of e about cg. Thus, unit stress, S, at any point y is S Sc (P/A) Sc(1 Sb Pey/I ey/r 2)

y is positive for points on the same side of cg as P, and negative on the opposite side. For a rectangular cross section of

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width b, the maximum stress, SM Sc (1 6e/b). When P is outside the middle third of width b and is a compressive load, tensile stresses occur. For a circular cross section of diameter d, SM Sc(1 8e/d). The stress due to the weight of the solid modies these relations. Note that in these formulas e is measured from the gravity axis and gives tension when e is greater than one-sixth the width (measured in the same direction as e), for rectangular sections, and when greater than one-eighth the diameter, for solid circular sections.

FIGURE 3.3

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107

If, as in certain classes of masonry construction, the material cannot withstand tensile stress and, thus, no tension can occur, the center of moments (Fig. 3.3) is taken at the center of stress. For a rectangular section, P acts at distance k from the nearest edge. Length under compression 2 3P/hk. For a circular section, SM 3k, and SM [0.372 0.056(k/r)]P/k rk , where r radius and k distance of P from circumference. For a circular ring, S average compressive stress on cross section produced by P; e eccentricity of P; z length of diameter under compression (Fig. 3.4). Values of z/r and of the ratio of Smax to average S are given in Tables 3.3 and 3.4.

FIGURE 3.4

e r

0.0

0.5

e r

COLUMN FORMULAS

0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 1.98 1.84 1.71 1.93 1.81 1.90 1.78 1.62 1.45 1.25 1.05 0.85 0.61 0.42 0.24 0.12 1.89 1.74 1.58 1.40 1.20 0.99 0.77 0.55 0.32 0.12 1.66 1.50 1.32 1.13 0.93 0.72 0.52 0.36 0.24 0.12 1.56 1.39 1.21 1.02 0.82 0.64 0.48 0.35 0.24 0.12

0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 2.00 1.87 1.71 1.54 1.35 1.15 0.94 0.72 0.49 0.25 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95

108

(In determining S average, use load P divided by total area of cross section) r1 r 0.6 1.00 1.15 1.29 1.44 1.59 1.73 1.88 2.04 2.20 2.39 1.67 1.81 1.94 2.07 2.23 1.61 1.73 1.85 1.98 2.10 1.55 1.66 1.77 1.88 1.99 1.00 1.13 1.27 1.40 1.54 1.00 1.12 1.24 1.37 1.49 1.00 1.11 1.22 1.33 1.44 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90

e r

0.0

0.5

e r 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

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110

CHAPTER THREE

The kern is the area around the center of gravity of a cross section within which any load applied produces stress of only one sign throughout the entire cross section. Outside the kern, a load produces stresses of different sign. Figure 3.5 shows kerns (shaded) for various sections. For a circular ring, the radius of the kern r D[1 (d/D)2]/8. For a hollow square (H and h lengths of outer and inner sides), the kern is a square similar to Fig. 3.5a, where

FIGURE 3.5

Column characteristics.

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111

2

rmin

H 1 6 2

h H

0.1179H 1

h H

For a hollow octagon, Ra and Ri radii of circles circumscribing the outer and inner sides; thickness of wall 0.9239(Ra Ri); and the kern is an octagon similar to Fig. 3.5c, where 0.2256R becomes 0.2256Ra[1 (Ri /Ra)2].

Base plates are usually used to distribute column loads over a large enough area of supporting concrete construction that the design bearing strength of the concrete is not exceeded. The factored load, Pu, is considered to be uniformly distributed under a base plate. The nominal bearing strength fp kip/in2 or ksi (MPa) of the concrete is given by fp where

fc

0.85f c

A1 A1

and

A2 A1

specied compressive strength of concrete, ksi (MPa) area of the base plate, in2 (mm2) area of the supporting concrete that is geometrically similar to and concentric with the loaded area, in2 (mm2)

A1 A2

In most cases, the bearing strength, fp is 0.85f c , when the concrete support is slightly larger than the base plate or 1.7f c , when the support is a spread footing, pile cap, or mat

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foundation. Therefore, the required area of a base plate for a factored load Pu is A1 Pu c0.85 fc

where c is the strength reduction factor 0.6. For a wideange column, A1 should not be less than bf d, where bf is the ange width, in (mm), and d is the depth of column, in (mm). The length N, in (mm), of a rectangular base plate for a wide-ange column may be taken in the direction of d as N

A1

or

0.5(0.95d

0.80bf)

The thickness of the base plate tp, in (mm), is the largest of the values given by the equations that follow: tp m

tp

tp where m

2Pu 0.9Fy BN

projection of base plate beyond the ange and parallel to the web, in (mm) (N 0.95d)/2

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113

projection of base plate beyond the edges of the ange and perpendicular to the web, in (mm) (B 0.80bf)/2

(dbf)/4

(2X)/[1

(1

2

X)]

1.0 0.85f c

1)]

[(4 dbf)/(d

bf) ][Pu/(

The lowest columns of a structure usually are supported on a concrete foundation. The area, in square inches (square millimeters), required is found from: A P FP

where P is the load, kip (N) and Fp is the allowable bearing pressure on support, ksi (MPa). The allowable pressure depends on strength of concrete in the foundation and relative sizes of base plate and concrete support area. If the base plate occupies the full area of the support, Fp 0.35f c , where f c is the 28-day compressive strength of the concrete. If the base plate covers less than the full area, FP 0.35fc A2/A1 0.70f c , where A1 is the base-plate area (B N), and A2 is the full area of the concrete support.

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Eccentricity of loading or presence of bending moment at the column base increases the pressure on some parts of the base plate and decreases it on other parts. To compute these effects, the base plate may be assumed completely rigid so that the pressure variation on the concrete is linear. Plate thickness may be determined by treating projections m and n of the base plate beyond the column as cantilevers.

FIGURE 3.6

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115

The cantilever dimensions m and n are usually dened as shown in Fig. 3.6. (If the base plate is small, the area of the base plate inside the column profile should be treated as a beam.) Yield-line analysis shows that an equivalent can1 tilever dimension n can be defined as n 4dbf , and the required base plate thickness tp can be calculated from

tp where l fp Fy P

2l

fp Fy

yield strength of base plate, ksi (MPa) column axial load, kip (N)

For columns subjected only to direct load, the welds of column to base plate, as shown in Fig. 3.6, are required principally for withstanding erection stresses. For columns subjected to uplift, the welds must be proportioned to resist the forces.

COMPOSITE COLUMNS

The AISC load-and-resistance factor design (LRFD) specification for structural steel buildings contains provisions for design of concrete-encased compression members. It sets the following requirements for qualication as a composite column: The cross-sectional area of the steel coreshapes,

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116

CHAPTER THREE

pipe, or tubingshould be at least 4 percent of the total composite area. The concrete should be reinforced with longitudinal load-carrying bars, continuous at framed levels, and lateral ties and other longitudinal bars to restrain the concrete; all should have at least 1 1 2 in (38.1 mm) of clear concrete cover. The cross-sectional area of transverse and longitudinal reinforcement should be at least 0.007 in2 (4.5 mm2) per in (mm) of bar spacing. Spacing of ties should not exceed two-thirds of the smallest dimension of the composite section. Strength of the concrete f c should be between 3 and 8 ksi (20.7 and 55.2 MPa) for normalweight concrete and at least 4 ksi (27.6 MPa) for lightweight concrete. Specied minimum yield stress Fy of steel core and reinforcement should not exceed 60 ksi (414 MPa). Wall thickness of steel pipe or tubing lled with concrete should be at least bFy /3E or DFy /8E, where b is the width of the face of a rectangular section, D is the outside diameter of a circular section, and E is the elastic modulus of the steel. The AISC LRFD specication gives the design strength of an axially loaded composite column as Pn, where 0.85 and Pn is determined from Pn For

c

0.85As Fcr

2

For

1.5 0.877

2 c

Fcr

Fmy

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117

where

(KL/rm )Fmy /E m

KL As Fmy Em rm

effective length of column in (mm) gross area of steel core in2 (mm2)

Fy E c1Fyr(Ar /As) c3Ec(Ac /As) c2 fc (Ac /As)

radius of gyration of steel core, in 0.3 of the overall thickness of the composite cross section in the plane of buckling for steel shapes cross-sectional area of concrete in2 (mm2) area of longitudinal reinforcement in2 (mm2) elastic modulus of concrete ksi (MPa) specied minimum yield stress of longitudinal reinforcement, ksi (MPa)

Ac Ar Ec Fyr

For concrete-lled pipe and tubing, c1 1.0, c2 0.85, and c3 0.4. For concrete-encased shapes, c1 0.7, c2 0.6, and c3 0.2. When the steel core consists of two or more steel shapes, they should be tied together with lacing, tie plates, or batten plates to prevent buckling of individual shapes before the concrete attains 0.75 f c . The portion of the required strength of axially loaded encased composite columns resisted by concrete should be developed by direct bearing at connections or shear connectors can be used to transfer into the concrete the load applied directly to the steel column. For direct bearing, the design strength of the concrete is 1.7 c fc Ab, where c 0.65 and Ab loaded area, in2 (mm2). Certain restrictions apply.

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CHAPTER THREE

Elastic buckling is a state of lateral instability that occurs while the material is stressed below the yield point. It is of special importance in structures with slender members. Eulers formula for pin-ended columns (Fig. 3.7) gives valid results for the critical buckling load, kip (N). This formula is, with L/r as the slenderness ratio of the column, P where E A r EA (L/r)2

2

modulus of elasticity of the column material, psi (Mpa) column cross-sectional area, in2 (mm2) radius of gyration of the column, in (mm)

Figure 3.8 shows some ideal end conditions for slender columns and corresponding critical buckling loads. Elastic critical buckling loads may be obtained for all cases by substituting an effective length KL for the length L of the pinned column, giving P EA (KL/r)2

2

In some cases of columns with open sections, such as a cruciform section, the controlling buckling mode may be one of twisting instead of lateral deformation. If the warping rigidity of the section is negligible, torsional buckling in a pin-ended column occurs at an axial load of P GJA Ip

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119

FIGURE 3.7 (a) Buckling of a pin-ended column under axial load. (b) Internal forces hold the column in equilibrium.

where G J A Ip

shear modulus of elasticity torsional constant cross-sectional area polar moment of inertia Ix Iy

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120

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FIGURE 3.8

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121

If the section possesses a signicant amount of warping rigidity, the axial buckling load is increased to A Ip

2

GJ

ECw L2

Eulers equation is used for long aluminum columns, and depending on the material, either Johnsons parabolic or straight-line equation is used for short columns. These equations for aluminum follow: Eulers equation: Fe c 2E (L/ )2

n

The value of n, which determines whether the short column formula is the straight-line or parabolic type, is selected

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CHAPTER THREE

from Table 3.5. The transition from the long to the short column range is given by L

cr

kcE Fce

where Fe Fce L

allowable column compressive stress column yield stress and is given as a function of Fcy (compressive yield stress) length of column radius of gyration of column

E c n, K, k

modulus of elasticitynoted on nomograms column-end xity from Fig. 3.9 constants from Table 3.5

FIGURE 3.9 Values of c, column-end xity, for determining the critical L/ ratio of different loading conditions.

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TABLE 3.5 Material Constants for Common Aluminum Alloys Values Fce psi 39,800 48,000 41,100 61,300 74,200 274.4 330.9 283.4 422.7 511.6 0.385 0.385 0.385 0.250 0.250 3.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 MPa K k n 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0

Average Fcy

COLUMN FORMULAS

Material

psi

MPa

Type Johnson equation Straight line Straight line Straight line Squared parabolic Squared parabolic

123

Ref: ANC-5.

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124

CHAPTER THREE

At ultimate strength Pu, kip (N), columns should be capable of sustaining loads as given by the American Concrete Institute required strength equations in Chap. 5, Concrete Formulas at actual eccentricities. Pu , may not exceed Pn , where is the capacity reduction factor and Pn , kip (N), is the column ultimate strength. If Po, kip (N), is the column ultimate strength with zero eccentricity of load, then Po where fy fc Ag Ast 0.85 f c (Ag Ast) fy Ast

yield strength of reinforcing steel, ksi (MPa) 28-day compressive strength of concrete, ksi (MPa) gross area of column, in2 (mm2) area of steel reinforcement, in2 (mm2)

For members with spiral reinforcement then, for axial loads only, Pu 0.85 Po

For members with tie reinforcement, for axial loads only, Pu 0.80 Po

Eccentricities are measured from the plastic centroid. This is the centroid of the resistance to load computed for the assumptions that the concrete is stressed uniformly to 0.85 f c and the steel is stressed uniformly to fy. The axial-load capacity Pu kip (N), of short, rectangular members subject to axial load and bending may be determined from

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125

Pu Pue where e

(0.85 f c ba 0.85 f c ba d a 2

A s fy

As fs) As fy (d d )

eccentricity, in (mm), of axial load at end of member with respect to centroid of tensile reinforcement, calculated by conventional methods of frame analysis width of compression face, in (mm) depth of equivalent rectangular compressivestress distribution, in (mm) area of compressive reinforcement, in2 (mm2) area of tension reinforcement, in2 (mm2) distance from extreme compression surface to centroid of tensile reinforcement, in (mm) distance from extreme compression surface to centroid of compression reinforcement, in (mm) tensile stress in steel, ksi (MPa)

b a As As d d

fs

The two preceding equations assume that a does not exceed the column depth, that reinforcement is in one or two faces parallel to axis of bending, and that reinforcement in any face is located at about the same distance from the axis of bending. Whether the compression steel actually yields at ultimate strength, as assumed in these and the following equations, can be veried by strain compatibility calculations. That is, when the concrete crushes, the strain in the compression steel, 0.003 (c d )/c, must be larger than the strain when the steel starts to yield, fy /Es. In this

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CHAPTER THREE

case, c is the distance, in (mm), from the extreme compression surface to the neutral axis and Es is the modulus of elasticity of the steel, ksi (MPa). The load Pb for balanced conditions can be computed from the preceding Pu equation with fs fy and a

1cb

ab

1d

87,000 87,000

fy

The balanced moment, in. kip (k Nm), can be obtained from Mb Pbeb 0.85 fc ba b d As fy (d d d d ) ab 2 As fy d

where eb is the eccentricity, in (mm), of the axial load with respect to the plastic centroid and d is the distance, in (mm), from plastic centroid to centroid of tension reinforcement. When Pu is less than Pb or the eccentricity, e, is greater than eb, tension governs. In that case, for unequal tension and compression reinforcement, the ultimate strength is Pu 0.85 fc bd m

e d

2

1

e d

e d

m 1 d d

2 ( m

m)

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127

where

m m

fy /0.85f c m 1

As / bd As / bd

Special Cases of Reinforcement For symmetrical reinforcement in two faces, the preceding Pu equation becomes Pu 0.85 fc bd 1 e d

e d

m 1

d d

e d

Column Strength When Compression Governs For no compression reinforcement, the Pu equation becomes e d

Pu

0.85 f cbd

e d

e m d

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128

CHAPTER THREE

When Pu is greater than Pb, or e is less than eb, compression governs. In that case, the ultimate strength is approximately Pu Pu Po (Po Pb) Mu Mb

where Mu is the moment capacity under combined axial load and bending, in kip (k Nm) and Po is the axial-load capacity, kip (N), of member when concentrically loaded, as given. For symmetrical reinforcement in single layers, the ultimate strength when compression governs in a column with depth, h, may be computed from Pu As fy d 0.5 bhf c 3he/d 2 1.18

e/d

Circular Columns Ultimate strength of short, circular members with bars in a circle may be determined from the following equations: When tension controls,

Pu

0.85 f c D 2

0.85e D

0.38

0.38

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129

where D Ds

t

overall diameter of section, in (mm) diameter of circle through reinforcement, in (mm) Ast /Ag

The eccentricity for the balanced condition is given approximately by eb (0.24 0.39

t m)D

Short Columns Ultimate strength of short, square members with depth, h, and with bars in a circle may be computed from the following equations: When tension controls, Pu 0.85bhf c

0.5

e h

0.5

0.67

Ds h

tm

e h

COLUMN FORMULAS

130

CHAPTER THREE

12he/(h

1.18

Slender Columns When the slenderness of a column has to be taken into account, the eccentricity should be determined from e Mc /Pu, where Mc is the magnied moment.

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