You are on page 1of 12

MODEM (Modulator Demodulator)

For assignment: Data Communication Lecture: Endah Sudarmilah, S.T, M.Eng

Created by: Sofyan Rinandi Fadillah Galuh Ayu Arumsari (L200090097) (L200090092)

IT INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT COMMUNICATE & INFORMATIK FACULTY MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA


I. WHAT IS MODEM

A modem (modulator-demodulator) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. Modems can be used over any means of transmitting analog signals, from driven diodes to radio. The most familiar example is a voice band modem that turns the digital 1s and 0s of a personal computer into sounds that can be transmitted over the telephone lines of plain old telephone services (POTS), and once received on the other side, converts those 1s and 0s back into a form used by a USB, Ethernet, serial, or network connection. II. BANDWITH Modems are generally classified by the amount of data they can send in a given time, normally measured in bits per second (bit/s, or bps). They can also be classified by Baud, the number of times the modem changes its signal state per second. For example, the ITU V.21 standard used audio frequency-shift keying, aka tones, to carry 300 bit/s using 300 baud, whereas the original ITU V.22 standard allowed 1,200 bit/s with 600 baud using phase-shift keying. Faster modems are used by Internet users every day, notably cable modems and ADSL modems. In telecommunications, wideband radio modems transmit repeating frames of data at very high data rates over microwave radio links. Narrow-band radio modem is used for low data rate up to 19.2k mainly for private radio networks. Some microwave modems transmit more than a hundred million bits per second. Optical modems transmit data over optical fibers. Most intercontinental data links now use optical modems transmitting over undersea optical fibers. Optical modems routinely have data rates in excess of a billion (1x109) bits per second. One kilobit per second (kbit/s, kb/s, or kbps) as used in this article means 1,000 bits per second and not 1,024 bits per second. For example, a 56k modem can transfer data at up to 56,000 bit/s (7 kB/s) over the phone line. Passband modulation techniques Analog modulation: AM, SSB, QAM, FM, PM, SM Digital Modulation: FSK, ASK, OOK, PSK, QAM, MSK, CPM, PPM, TCM, OFDM, SC-FDE Spread spectrum: CSS, DSSS, FHSS, THSS Picture:

III.THE KIND OF MODEM a) Cable Modem b) ADSL/DSL Modem c) Wireless modem a) Cable Modem A cable modem is a type of network bridge and modem that provides bi-directional data communication via radio frequency channels on a cable television (CATV) infrastructure. Cable modems are primarily used to deliver broadband Internet access in the form of cable Internet, taking advantage of the high bandwidth of a cable television network. They are commonly deployed in Australia, Europe, and North and South America. In the USA alone there were 22.5 million cable modem users during the first quarter of 2005, up from 17.4 million in the first quarter of 2004. Network architectural functions In network topology, a cable modem is a network bridge that conforms to IEEE 802.1D for Ethernet networking (with some modifications). The cable modem bridges Ethernet frames between a customer LAN and the coax cable network. Technically, it is a modem because it must modulate data to transmit it over the cable network, and it must demodulate data from the cable network to receive it. With respect to the OSI model of network design, a cable modem is both Physical Layer (Layer 1) device and a Data Link Layer (Layer 2) forwarder. As an IP addressable network node, cable modems support functionalities at other layers. Layer 1 is implemented in the Ethernet PHY on its LAN interface, and a DOCSIS defined cable-specific PHY on its HFC cable interface. The term cable modem refers to this cable-specific

PHY. The Network Layer (Layer 3) is implemented as a IP host in that it has its own IP address used by the network operator to maintain the device. In the Transport Layer (Layer 4) the cable modem supports UDP in association with its own IP address, and it supports filtering based on TCP and UDP port numbers to, for example, block forwarding of NetBIOS traffic out of the customer's LAN. In the Application Layer (Layer 7), the cable modem supports certain protocols that are used for management and maintenance, notably DHCP, SNMP, and TFTP. Some cable modems may incorporate a router and a DHCP server to provide the LAN with IP network addressing. From a data forwarding and network topology perspective, this router functionality is typically kept distinct from the cable modem functionality (at least logically) even though the two may share a single enclosure and appear as one unit, sometimes called a residential gateway. So, the cable modem function will have its own IP address and MAC address as will the router.
b) ADSL/DSL Modem

A Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modem is a device used to connect a computer or router to a telephone circuit that has Digital Subscriber Line service configured. Like other modems, it is a type of transceiver. It is also called a DSL Transceiver or ATU-R (for ADSL Transceiver Unit-Remote). The acronym NTBBA, which stands for network termination broad band adapter) is also common in some countries. Some DSL modems also manage the connection and sharing of the DSL service in a network, in this case, the unit is termed a DSL router or residential gateway. DSL routers have a component that performs framing, while other components perform Asynchronous Transfer Mode Segmentation and Reassembly, IEEE 802.1D bridging and/or IP routing. Typical user interfaces are Ethernet and Universal Serial Bus (USB). Although an DSL modem working as a bridge does not need an IP address, it may have one assigned for management purposes. Compared to voiceband modem A DSL modem modulates high-frequency tones for transmission to a Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM), and receives and demodulates them from the DSLAM. It serves fundamentally the same purpose as the voiceband

modem that was a mainstay in the late 20th century, but differs from it in important ways. Most DSL modems are external to the computer and wired to the computer's Ethernet port, or occasionally its USB port. Internal DSL modems with PCI interface are rare but available. Microsoft Windows and other operating systems do not recognize external DSL modems connected by Ethernet, and hence have no Property Sheet or other internal method to configure them. This is because the transceiver and computer are considered separate nodes in the LAN, rather than the transceiver being a device controlled by the computer (such as webcams, mice, keyboards etc.). Routers can be configured manually, using a Web page provided by the modem via the Ethernet that the router connects to. DSL modems rarely need to be configured, because they are part of the physical layer of computer networks, simply forwarding data from one medium (CAT5) to another one (telephone line). For external DSL modems connected by USB, Microsoft Windows and other operating systems generally recognize these as a Network interface controller. For internal DSL modems, Microsoft Windows and other operating systems provide interfaces similar to those provided for voiceband modems. This is based on the assumption that in the future, as CPU speeds increase, internal DSL modems may become more mainstream. DSL modems use frequencies from 25 kHz to above 1MHz (see Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), in order not to interfere with voice service which is primarily 0-4 kHz. Voiceband modems use the same frequency spectrum as ordinary telephones, and will interfere with voice service it is usually impossible to make a telephone call on a line which is being used by a voiceband modem. DSL modems vary in data speed from hundreds of kilobits per second to many megabits, while voiceband modems are nominally 56K modems and actually limited to approximately 50 kbit/s. DSL modems exchange data with only the DSLAM to which they are wired, which in turn connects them to the Internet, while most voiceband modems can dial directly anywhere in the world. DSL modems are intended for particular protocols and sometimes won't work on another line even from the same company, while most voiceband modems use international standards and can "fall back" to find a standard that will work.

Most of these differences are of little interest to consumers, except the greater speed of DSL and the ability to use the telephone even when the computer is online. Because a single phone line commonly carries DSL and voice, DSL filters are used to separate the two uses. c) Wireless Modem A wireless modem is a type of modem which connects to a wireless network instead of to the telephone system. When you connect with a wireless modem, you are attached directly to your wireless ISP (Internet Service Provider) and you can then access the Internet Types of devices used: Mobile phones, smartphones, and PDAs can be employed as data modems to form a wireless access point connecting a personal computer to the Internet (or some proprietary network). In this use the mobile phone is providing a gateway between the cellular service provider's data network technology and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) spoken by PCs. Almost all current mobile phone models support the Hayes command set, a standard method of controlling modems. To the PC, the phone appears like an external modem when connected via serial cable, USB, IrDA infrared or Bluetooth wireless. Wireless FireWire, USB and Serial modems are also used in the Wi-Fi and WiMAX standards, operating at microwave frequencies, to give a laptop, PDA or desktop computer an access point to a network. The modems may be as large as a regular cable modem to as small as a WiFi dongle/USB-stick. If combined with VoIP technology, these computing devices can achieve telephone-like capability to make and receive telephone calls. PCMCIA, ExpressCard and Compact Flash modems are also used. These card-modems can also have GPS included

History: While some analogue mobile phones provided a standard RJ11 telephone socket into which a normal landline modem could be plugged, this only provided slow dial-up connections, usually 2.4 kilobit per second (kbit/s) or less. The next generation of phones, known as 2G (for 'second generation'), were digital, and offered faster dial-up speeds of 9.6kbit/s or 14.4kbit/s without the need for a separate modem. A further evolution called HSCSD used multiple GSM channels (two or three in each direction) to support up to 43.2kbit/s. All of these technologies still required their users to have a dial-up ISP to connect to and provide the Internet access - it was not provided by the mobile phone network itself. The release of 2.5G phones with support for packet data changed this. The 2.5G networks break both digital voice and data into small chunks, and mix both onto the network simultaneously in a process called packet switching. This allows the phone to have a voice connection and a data connection at the same time, rather than a single channel that has to be used for one or the other. The network can link the data connection into a company network, but for most users the connection is to the Internet. This allows web browsing on the phone, but a PC can also tap in to this service if it connects to the phone. The PC needs to send a special telephone number to the phone to get access to the packet data connection. From the PC's viewpoint, the connection still looks like a normal PPP dial-up link, but it is all terminating on the phone, which then handles the exchange of data with the network. Speeds on 2.5G networks are usually in the 3050kbit/s range. 3G networks have taken this approach to a higher level, using different underlying technology but the same principles. They routinely provide speeds over 300kbit/s. Due to the now increased internet speed, internet connection sharing via WLAN has become a workable reality. Devices which allow internet connection sharing or other types of routing on cellular networks are called cellular routers instead of modems which only allow a single serial data connection. A further evolution is the 3.5G technology HSDPA, which has the capacity to provide speeds of multiple Megabits per second.

WiMax has now also been announced, which will allow internet connection sharing over WANs (being region-wide, as opposed to local with WiFi), effectively perhaps eliminating the need of wireless modems. This, of course, only in areas where WiMax is to be introduced (eg cities). Mobile Broadband Mobile broadband (strictly speaking Mobile Internet as the QOS doesn't meet international Broadband definitions) is the name used to describe various types of wireless high-speed internet access through a portable modem, telephone or other device. Various network standards may be used, such as GPRS, 3G, WiMAX, LTE, Flash-OFDMA, IPW, iBurst UMTS/HSPA, EV-DO and some portable satellite-based systems. However mostly the term refers to EVDO (sister system to CDMA-1), EDGE on GSM and HSPDA/HSUPA/HSPA on UMTS/3G/Foma. In these cases it's piggyback on a Mobile phone Infrastructure (EDGE, HSPA etc actually share spectrum with voice calls, which have priority). Thus the phrase "Mobile Broadband" is largely a Mobile Phone Company Marketing tool. The actual "non-Mobile Phone" Mobile networks are very small subscriber base (Mobile WiMax, iBurst, Flash-OFDMA, IPW and portable Satellite terminals) compared to Fixed Wireless Broadband. The most misleading tactic is to quote the peak Mast speed as the user speed. This is like quoting Exchange total speed for DSL or total cable bandwidth for Cable users. It has little resemblance to real world performance see Devices that provide mobile broadband include: PC data cards, USB modems, USB sticks, phones with data modems and portable devices with built-in support for Mobile Broadband (like notebooks, netbooks and Mobile Internet Devices (MIDs)). Notebooks with built-in Mobile Broadband Modules are offered by all leading laptop manufacturers in Europe and Asia including: Dell, Lenovo (previously IBM), HP, Fujitsu, Toshiba and Acer. A group of telecommunication manufacturers, mobile phone producers, chipset manufacturers and notebook manufacturers have joined forces to push built-in support for Mobile Broadband technology on notebook computers. The players have established a service mark to identify devices that deliver Mobile Broadband.

a)

b)

c)

a) Telecommunications System PC card Modem b) A mobile Broadband modem in the Express Card form factor c) USB wireless modem IV) MODEM WORK Cable Modem How it Works Cable Modem: device that provides high-speed Internet access via cable television networks. Cable modem service allows you to access the Internet without having to dial your ISP first. This is what you need to know about cable modem: Data transmission rate is very fast Connection is always on Service cheap enough for a broadband connection solution Usually ISP choice is not too different Only available in certain places Internet access via cable television networks have downstream speeds up to 38 megabits per second (Mbps), but the actual speed is usually much slower. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) or DSL How it Work DSL modems manage the connection and sharing of the DSL service in a network, in this case, the unit is termed a DSL router or residential gateway. DSL routers have a component that performs framing, while other components perform Asynchronous Transfer Mode Segmentation and Reassembly, IEEE 802.1D bridging or IP routing. Typical user interfaces are Ethernet and Universal Serial Bus (USB). Although an DSL modem working as a bridge does not

need an IP address, it may have one assigned for management purposes. Most DSL modems are external to the computer and wired to the computer's Ethernet port, or occasionally its USB port. Internal DSL modems with PCI interface are rare but available. For external DSL modems connected by USB, Microsoft Windows and other operating systems generally recognize these as a Network interface controller For internal DSL modems, Operating systems provide interfaces similar to those provided for voiceband modems. This is based on the assumption that in the future, as CPU speeds increase, internal DSL modems may become more mainstream. DSL modems use frequencies from 25 kHz to above 1MHz (see Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), in order not to interfere with voice service which is primarily 0-4 kHz. Voiceband modems use the same frequency spectrum as ordinary telephones, and will interfere with voice service it is usually impossible to make a telephone call on a line which is being used by a voiceband modem. DSL modems vary in data speed from hundreds of kilobits per second to many megabits, while voiceband modems are nominally 56K modems and actually limited to approximately 50 kbit/s. DSL modems exchange data with only the DSLAM to which they are wired, which in turn connects them to the Internet, while most voiceband modems can dial directly anywhere in the world. DSL modems are intended for particular protocols and sometimes won't work on another line even from the same company, while most voiceband modems use international standards and can "fall back" to find a standard that will work Wireless Modem Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) it is one of the 3G mobile telecommunications technologies, which is also being developed into a 4G technology. The specific frequency bands originally defined by the UMTS standard are 18852025 MHz for the mobile-to-base (uplink) and 21102200 MHz for the base-to-mobile (downlink). UMTS is an evolution of the GSM mobile phone standard. o Global System For Mobile Communication(GSM) o General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) o Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)

o ETSI General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service available to users of the 2G cellular communication systems global system for mobile communications (GSM), as well as in the 3G systems. In 2G systems, GPRS provides data rates of 56-114 kbit/s GPRS connection is a wireless modem, user must specify an access point name (APN), optionally a user name and password, and very rarely an IP address, all provided by the network operator. Devices supporting GPRS are divided into three classes: Class A Can be connected to GPRS service and GSM service (voice, SMS), using both at the same time. Such devices are known to be available today. Class B Can be connected to GPRS service and GSM service (voice, SMS), but using only one or the other at a given time. During GSM service (voice call or SMS), GPRS service is suspended, and then resumed automatically after the GSM service (voice call or SMS) has concluded. Most GPRS mobile devices are Class B. Class C Are connected to either GPRS service or GSM service (voice, SMS). Must be switched manually between one or the other service. High Speed Downlink Packet Acces (HSDPA) is UMTS that using W-CDMA supports maximum theoretical data transfer rates of 21 Mbit/s or its meaning that HSDPA develope of UMTS . although at the moment users in deployed networks can expect a transfer rate of up to 384 kbit/s for R99 handsets, and 7.2 Mbit/s for HSDPA handsets in the downlink connection. W-CDMA: the primary air interface standard used by UMTS. HSDPA, HSUPA: updates to the W-CDMA air interface. HSDPA make new chanel with W-CDMA, it is high-speed downlink shared channel (HSDSC).

V. REFERENSION en.wikipedia.com at Saturday 13 March 2010