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Fragments Auspicious Fragments and Uncertain Wisdom: The Roots of Srvidy Skta Tantrism in Roots a a rividya alcta South India South India
Douglas Renfrew Brooks Douglas Renfrew Brooks
Andr Padoux, whose e Kashmiri aivism has helped set the course for Andre Padoux, whose work on Kashmiri Saivism has helped set the course for Tantric studies, has said that the writing a history Tantrism is current Tantric studies, has said that the writing of a history of Tantrism is impossible given "impossible" given the scarcity of datable materials and the present state of scholdatable of scholon the subject.1 arship on the subject. Teun Goudriaan, G. Sundaramoorthy, and others have proceeded with similar caution, careful to emphasize the difference between facts emphasize between facts 1 T e u n ando u d r iwhen discussing the genesis of Tantric ideology and practice. speculation a ideology practice.2 G speculation when discussing the genesis While ,there is little reason to challenge Padoux or to be sanguine about the be sanguine about Wn 2 hile there is little reason to challenge Padoux a possibility of discovering new evidence, there is much to be gained by reconstructnew evidence, be gained by reconstructof G . ing and re-imagining the signicance of materials already known and by exploitand re-imagining by of materials already S u n d a ing the potential of underutilized materials that have long laid dormant. While the potential materials have r a m o to o this will lead to more specialized and localized studies, it should not prevent us lead more specialized and localized studies, r t drawing broader conclusions. h y broader conclusions. from drawing , a Indisputable evidence pertaining to authorship and the origins of Tantric evidence pertaining authorship and the of n and traditions is usually wanting; what must be inferred leads to the untexts and traditions is usually wanting; what must be leads d satisfactory conclusion that much will never be known. Rather than search for conclusion that much never be Rather search o Tantrisms historical primordium, it will be more useful to consider evidence that t be useful consider evidence Tantrism's illuminese instances h specic instances and applications of Tantric thought. Like all studies in of Tantric religion,s Hindu Tantrism becomes important when texts and traditions are treated r contextually and comparatively. and comparatively.3 h In this essay Sanskrit and Tamil materials from texts and traditions are this essay Sanskrit and Tamil materials from texts and traditions are 3 a a compared in order to revise our understanding of the development o f dkta. in order to revise our understanding development of Skta v The vernacular sources Tantrism. The comparison of Sanskrit and vernacular sources remains one of the of of the e untapped resources for Tantric studies. While scholars are aware of great untapped resources for Tantric studies. While scholars are aware of the 4 them systematically or potential of such sources, few have treated them systematically or comparatively. 4 of The Tirumantiram, a work of extraordinary breath and poetic value atTirumantiram, a work extraordinary breath and poetic value to the seventh century cittar siddha) saint is tributed to the seventh century cittar (Sanskrit: siddha) saint Tirumular, is the representation thought and practice among cittars. earliest representation of Tantric thought and practice among the Tamil cittars. Tirumantiram also establishes connections with important Sanskrit-based The Tirumantiram also establishes connections with important Sanskrit-based and textual canons. Although unambiguously committed to a distinctive cults and textual canons. Although unambiguously committed to a distinctive 57 57

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form of Tamil Saivism, the author of the Tirumantiram is knowledgeable about at Tamil author of Tirumantiram about at a least one Sanskrit-based Sakta Tantric cult, the Srividya. The Tirumantiram apleast one Sanskrit-based Skta Srvidy. a Tirumantiram ap parently understands Srividya to be compatible with its own brand of Saivism understands Srvidy a be compatible Saivism even though it has little in common with it. Why has the Tirumantiram taken though it has little common Why has the Tirumantiram note of Srividya and what can be concluded from it? Srvidy and what can be concluded a My objective in this essay is twofold. First, I will demonstrate beyond any objective essay First, any doubt that the Tirumantiram is familiar with important aspects of systematic that the Tirumantiram is familiar important aspects Srividya,, which in its Sanskritic forms appears rooted in Kashmiri traditions. Srvidy which in its Sanskritic forms appears rooted a Kashmiri traditions. References suggest that Srividya had become signicant enough in South India by suggest Srvidy a by as as a work perhapsas early as the seventh century to warrant mention in a work that expresses expresses limited interest To only limited interest in Tantric Saktism. To understand the implications of these of these references to Srividya it is necessary to contextualize them within the Tirumanto Srvidy it is necessary contextualize a Tirumantiram and to compare them in light of the historical development of Sanskrit texts tiram them of the historical development of Sanskrit texts Srvidy This discussion a Srvidys a as on Srividya.. This discussion calls into question Srividya's origins as a pan-Indian akta Tantric cult and in regard to its ideological roots. S and regard ideological roots. Sakta Tantric show that the evidence Tirumantiram Second, II will show that the evidence of the Tirumantiram compels us to reassess the relationship between Srividya and Saivism. The mature Srividya prebetween Srvidy a Srvidy prea r eassess the in the Sanskrit Tantras, which may date from the same period as the sented in the Sanskrit Tantras, which may date from the same period as the Tirumantiram, relies almost entirely on materials originating in Kashmiri Saivism. Tirumantiram, entirely materials in Kashmiri While there is much about South India between the seventh and eleventh centhere much about eleventh cen that suggests a context for Srvidys growth, the evidence implies that a turies that suggests a context for Srividya's growth, the evidence implies that Srvidy a depend environmentbe Srividya did not depend on a Kashmiri environment b e it intellectual, social, or or a geographicin advance itself as Skta geographic i n order to sustain and advance itself asan autonomous dkta. cult. Srvidy a Between the seventh and eleventh centuries, Srividya became part of a completely of a completely and may cause us different cultural and religious milieu in South India. This situation may cause us a revise to revise our understanding of Skta Tantrism's origins in light of various types of Sakta Tantrisms of various types of Saivism. evidence suggests that by the Tirumantiram The evidence suggests that by the time of the Tirumantiram (seventh to a eleventh centuries) certain segments within Skta Tantrism were quasieleventh centuries) certain segments within a.kta Tantrism were quasi a independent from any particular Saivism. The Sktas cultic autonomy independent from any particular aivism. The Saktas' cultic autonomy may be recognized becomes recognized in fragments of ideology or ritual liturgy that becomes part of the texts ideology of the culture or who do not represent themselves as and culture of non-Tantrics or of Tantrics who do not represent themselves as initiates of the cult. the larger sense, the an unusual In the larger sense, the Tirumantiram provides an unusual opportunity to examine the relationship between inuences examine the relationship between Tamil inuences on Tantrism and pan-Indian Tantras and Sanskrit Tantras and to consider relations among different Tantric cults, texts and also ideologies. This investigation also provides an opportunity to consider some of the consider some of the contents of the Tirumantiram. a Skta a Among the a.kta Tantric traditions described in the Srkula and Klkula Srikula and Kalikula Tantras, the cult of Tripura or the Srividya is arguably the most systematic and the Tripur a Srvidy arguably a systematic elaborately depicted. Srividya literature identies its subjects with uncharacteristic Srvidy a clarity and with attention to the details o f its distinctive ritual and ideology. and with attention to the details of distinctive ritual and ideology.

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Further, rividya is also among a handful o f Tantric cults that have become Srvidy is also among a handful of a cults that have become important to those who do not regard themselves initiates. to those who do not regard themselves initiates.5 We identify Srvidy by a combination of elements, ideologies, and practices rividya a of elements, practices 5 that cluster together and reect the pattern of generic characteristics that dene cluster together and reect dene a the category "akta Tantrism." The presence of only one of Srvidys features category Skta Tantrism.6 a isolated from others will not demonstrate beyond doubt that the author is aware of author is aware of 6 T h e its systematic presentation in the Sanskrit Tantras. However, if certain particular However, particular p systematic n c e r e s e Srvidy elements are present, as they were the a then orividya elements are present, as they were in the Tirumantiram, then one can f make a compelling case for its cultic presence despite the absence of a larger a o n compelling case for its cultic presence despite the absence of a larger l y a intellectual or ritual context. In the Tirumantiram, it is the presence of Srvidys of rividya's o n e context. the rvidy s a and distinctive mantra, the s'rividya mantra, and more particularly, its mode of presenof preseno f that suggest the author has more than a passing familiarity with its tation that suggest the author has more than a passing familiarity with its r i v i d y teachings. teachings. a ' Srvidy is centered on the goddess Lalit Tripur Sundar, who is worshiped rividya s a goddess Lalita Tripura Sundari, a a f iconic form, as the s'rividya mantra, and as the visually striking yantra known as e a as t rvidy s a as as in yantra u s'ricakra o r s'riyantra. Although the anthropomorphic o r physical deity s cakra e ryantra. Although the anthropomorphic or physical deity or s s the rr (sth lar pa) commonly called Lalita or Tripura may be secondary to advanced u u Lalit a Tripur may be secondary a advanced (sthularpa) she essential rividya's a forms of cultic worship, she is essential to Srvidys self-denition. The combinacultic combinaof mythic goddess with the rvidy s a and rcakra s the tion of the mythic goddess with the s'rividya mantra and s'ricakra provides the theological triad dening rividya. a critical theological triad dening Srvidy. As her name, Three Cities, implies, Tripur Sundars a advances As her name, "Three Cities," implies, Tripura Sundari's cult advances a conception of and the universe. Within the canon triadic conception of divinity and the universe. Within the canon of Sanskrit a adepts Saubhagya Sarnpradaya or Tantras, the cult of Tripur, which some adepts call the Saubhagya Sampradaya or of Tripura, Lineage Lineage of Prosperity, is a rst cousin of the Kaula traditions of Kashmiri Saivism. of of Kashmiri Virtually the entire store of Kashmir Saiva speculation and vocabulary is adopted of Kashmir aiva vocabulary is adopted adapted to suit Srvidys Skta focus. For example, speculation about the a a and adapted to suit rividya's akta focus. For example, speculation about the a triadic nature of mantras is adopted into Srvidy with little modication; precisely mantras rividya precisely mantras are considered superior and becomes means by which mantras are considered superior and most powerful becomes a means by a Sktas Saivas a which to distinguish aktas from aivas and Srvidy from other traditions.7 rividya from other traditions! As Madhu Khanna has shown, the earliest Sanskrit expositions of Srvidy has expositions of rividya a As likely Kashmiri in origin and share a common intellectual idiom.8 are likely Kashmiri in origin and share a common intellectual idiom. These Kashmiri-rooted texts, commentators, and concepts do not appear to take written appear 8 T h e s e forms until at least the ninth century. Our study suggests that the structure of until at least the ninth century. Our study suggests structure of rividya Srvidy ideology was likely to have been in place perhaps two centuries before its a perhaps before crystallization in Sanskrit texts. Literally, "auspicious (s'ri) wisdom (vidya)" or the wisdom of [the goddess] auspicious (r) s (vidy ) "the wisdom of [the a rividya embraces the pantheon Sr, Srvidy embraces the pantheon of Hindu goddesses as aspects of the great a goddesses as aspects i as the benign (saumya) (mah dev). Clearly, the cult focused a goddess (mahadevi). Clearly, the cult is focused on Sr as the benign (saumya) r vidys Sr subsumes Visrpfs consort and even identi i a Vinus s consort of Siva. Although Sr ova. Although rividya's r es as V isr s es one of her roles as Vinus Sr, she is a goddess whose identity is rooted in the her aivite traditions. Sr then is symbolic of Lalits particular character and func i then is symbolic Lalita's particular character Saivite traditions. r a func. Her embodiment as auspiciousness (r) suggests she is an intrinsically s tions. Her iembodiment as auspiciousness (iri) suggests she is an intrinsically m's s r , s h e a g o d s w h i d o e s s s

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benecent benecent deity whose dispositional power is both self-controlled and capable of power capable of controlling others. others. As As the supreme deity in the form of the Skti (paraakti), she is the autonoof the a (paras'akti), she is the autonoa.kti s mous great goddess (mahadevi), and yet she accepts the empowering and somegreat goddess (mah dev), and yet she accepts the a some times subservient role of wife to Siva. In turn, 8iva cannot even stir without her.9 iva. her. subservient Siva T 9he goddesss quasi-autonomy The goddess's quasi-autonomy and power to subsume all other deities, including power other a 8iva, should be seen in the larger context of 8aktism in which goddesses retain Siva, should be seen in the larger context Sktism goddesses indissoluble links to the male gures in the Hindu pantheon.10 to the male gures pantheon. m 8 rividas Lalit Tripur Sundar is best known as Dev extolled in the Srvidy a a Thousand Names o f Lalita (Lalitasahasranama) and as the subject o f the Names of Lalit (Lalit sahasran ma) and as the subject of the a a a y Lalitop's ana, both texts of likely South Indian origins traditionally appended to a appended Lalitapakhydna, likely d khy the Brahmawla Purekza. In the Lalitop khy na, Lalits myth is established on Brahmln a Pur na.11 a a a a L aa d patternstreminiscent of Durg and other great goddesses. She is called upon to a other goddesses.12 Durga 11 I in a t h e destroy h r demon Bakidasural andecreates out of herself the weaponry and the weaponry 12 e i a l d L a SlTthe demon Banc asura and creates out herself ithe o p s k d a t army p lesser aktis necessaryt complete the task. At the conclusion of the ordeal, a of the u y of lesser s', n s necessary to oa s kti o h d n i p Lalit once again tassumes the benecent a empowering roles Lalitaaonce again assumes the benecent and empowering roles of mother and mother and L l wife. u r i wife. a 'a s sense Lalit achieves a a In the mythic sense Lalita achieves a stature comparable to that of Durg or of Durga or mal; she y K S be feared as as adored. aspects of the Kali; she must be feared as well as adored. But unlike these horric aspects of the t u Lalita's power never goddess,hLalits power is never beyond her own control. In sum, Lalita Tripur a her Lalit Tripura a a i n Sundar is recognizable as a great goddess inasmuch as she fullls normative Sundari is recognizable as a great goddess inasmuch as she fullls normative s expectations and yet she is distinguished by her own myth and character. By the d she her expectations and e s of the Lalit sahasran macertainly not much later than the ninth t a a periodao f the Lalitasahasranamacertainly not much later than the ninth a centuryLalit becomes the most clearly articulated complement to the gures of b lr i a century L a litas gures of Durgeand Kali:: as the benecent great goddess of the Sanskritic tradition she is a goddess of she Durgai and Kl as the benecent h da then identied with regional gures. gures. o identied i While the Lalitasahasranama suggests that the goddess was well known to the Lalit sahasran ma suggests a a goddess was n s certain Sanskritized elements of society in the region by the ninth century, the Sanskritized elements society the b importance of the Lalita/Tripura cult in the larger society is hardly clear. Instead, Lalit/Tripur a a larger society hardly of Lalit becomes a Sanskritic paradigm with whom the benign local goddesses, such ae paradigm Lalita whom local goddesses, such as Kamaksi of Kanchipuram or 8ivakamasundari of Chidambaram, are identied, Kmaks of as Sivakmasundar of Chidambaram, a as identied, t usually by association with the s'ricakra. association rcakra. s k worship The worship of Lalit in any form or situational context is an issue best a situational is issue best Lalita any n distinguished from textual presentations. Sanskrit texts critical for understanding texts for understanding goddess traditions in South India form only one part of the picture. Burton Stein o goddess only one of the Stein arguedw prior to the thirteenth century separate shrines to Purnic goddesses in that a century separate shrines Purar Tamilnadu were rare, although iimages of goddesses within temples became comtemples became comn mages of goddesses . mong ao datdleaststhe e s century." Thus, before the thirteenth century the from at least s eighth century.13 before century c e i n worship of Lalit or any goddess established within temples would appearlimited a appear limited of Lalita or any goddess temples s to Brahmanical centers, such as Kanchipuram, Chidambaram, or Tiruvorriyur.14 Brahmanical centers, such as Tiruvorriyur. D While Lalit/Tripur is apparently important to Brahmins in the textual sense, her a Lalita/Tripura the textual sense, her 14 e a worship does not appear to be signicant in these places either before or in the does appear be signicant these places either before or in the v a a immediate centuries after the composition of the Lalitasahasranama. However, her of Lalit sahasran ma. her i e x t o

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imagery and worship is perpetuated within sampradayas(sects) that are not part of samprad yas a of the cult of quasi-public temple. The Lalita/Tripura cult at this time remains cult of quasi-public temple. The Lalit/Tripur cult at this time remains a a essentially private in practice and rooted in texts that make only ideological private in practice and rooted in texts that make only ideological connections to local gures. to local gures. The earliest epigraphy from South India supports this view: Durga, Jyestha, Durg, Jyeth, a s a the fearsome sister of the benign Laksmi, and the Seven Mothers (Saptamattka) fearsome benign Lakm, and s Seven (Saptamtk) ar a are the favored deities in temples." It is unclear whether any connection can be the favored deities temples.15 unclear whether any be made between the worship of these goddesses in South India and their northern between the goddesses their counterparts. A. L. Basham's observation that the GangadharInscription dated VS Bashams Gangadhar 480 (423 c.E.) is an unambiguous reference to a building constructed for the (423 ..) is an unambiguous reference a worship of the Seven Mothers conrms the suspicion that goddesses were enSeven Mothers conrms suspicion goddesses were enshrined at this time but should not be taken as evidence of comparable activity in as evidence of comparable South India. By the seventh century, Durg shrines can be identied at MaIndia.16 a habalipuram, and 16 B y and by 850 at Tanjavur. After the eleventh century, however, when toward and goddesses attentions of the t h e turn toward Amman and more benign goddesses the populartiy of the temples godesses earlier terrifying godesses is eclipsed. By the thirteenth century, most Siva temples iva s e v e at same there postin Tamil country have a goddess shrine while, at the same time, there is a postn Tamil country have a goddess shrine t h resurgence goddess worship temples.17 a Chola resurgence of folk goddess worship within temples. Srvidy appears to c e n Kanchipuram and Chidammake its presence felt in templesparticularly 17 uritsrvpresenceafelt in templesparticularly in Kanchipuram and Chidami i d y a p p e a r s t baramonly during period. baram o t , o n l y during this period. y Prior to the thirteenth century, Srvidy as a non-temple based tradition of a based rividya as of D Tantric goddess worship was likely perpetuated within the large Brahmin settlegoddess was settleu r ments that pervaded Tamilnadu and were supported by the peasantry. As Stein has As Stein has by the g argued,a support extended to these Brahmin communities over time produced a the over time a homogeneous high culture centered on the Vedic gods and Sanskrit learning.18 It s h Vedic gods Sanskrit learning." It is within this larger framework, I believe, that Srvidy becomes widely known asa a as a is r within i rividya becomes akta cult; Lalita's ubiquitous power and consuming character permit her to be S a her nakta cult; Lalits ubiquitous power and consuming character e identied with indigenous goddesses with little effect on the local gures' distincgoddesses gures distincs tive mythic characters. characters. c While Srvidys anthropomorphic goddess eventually is made a part of the a goddess eventually made a part of the rividya's a larger bhakti movement in South India, her worship as a Tantric deity centers on bhakti her as deity centers n her mantra and yantra forms. Since the mantra is not often represented visually or visually or b written explicitly, it serves as a kind o f template that distinguishes rividya's explicitly, it serves as a kind of that distinguishes Srvidys a e distinctive presence in the world o f South Indian goddesses and their cultic presence in the world of South Indian goddesses and their cultic i d worship. Unlike the yantra whose presence or description does not prove its ritual presence or does prove its ritual e n the mantra more emblematic of worship, the mantra is more emblematic of Srvidy as a personal sadhana rea a rividya as personal s dhana ret i stricted by the rules of initiated transmission. In other words, the mantra, unlike other of initiated the image of Lalit/Tripur or the rcakra, is the element least likely to be known a a s least be Lalita/Tripura s'ricakra, to noninitiates and most likely to suggest the discourse of initiates. suggest e noninitiates and d of Lalit Tripura Sundari's rvidy mantra appears in a number of variations a a s a a Lalita Tripur Sundars s'rividya appears a number of variations too numerous to detail herebut usually consisting of t numerous to detail here b u t principally two forms usually consisting of fteen syllables. The two pacadajaharis (fteen syllables) that are the subject of pa cadaakars (fteen n s s are the subject of M Kmarja textual exegeses are the Kamaraja vidya, revealed by Siva Kamaraja and known as exegeses are Kmarja vidy , revealed a a a a as iva a a -

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k di because it begins with the syllable ka, and the mantra revealed by the female kadi because begins a mantra revealed by the female sage Lopamudra, commonly called h di or beginning with ha.19 Both versions are sage Lopmudr, a a &tali or beginning with ha." a versions are then divided into three parts called a kuta or peak; each peak is named and given three a each peak its own signicance. rividya's reliance on triadic symbolism is nowhere more own signicance. Srvidys reliance on triadic symbolism nowhere a evident than in its mantra. The mantra's structure is as follows: evident than in its mantra. The mantras structure is as follows: The kadividya of Kmarja: k dividy of Kamaraja: a a a a ka e la hrm I ka e la hrim ha sa ka ha la hr12 1 ha sa ka ha la 1) '1;m s ka la hrim a ka la hrm sa The hadividya of Lopmudr: h dividy of Lopamudra: a a a a ha sa ka la hrm [v gbhavak ta] ha sa ka hrim [vagbhavakca] a u ha sa ja ha la hrm [kmarjk ta] ha sa ha hrim [kamarajakuta] a a a u sa ka la hrm [aktikCita] s ka hrim [laktikuta] a s

only is the mantras triadic structure consistent of Not only is the mantra's triadic structure consistent with the patterns of Tripur Sundars symbolism, its description a this particular way becomes Tripura Sundari's symbolism, its description in this particular way becomes a normative feature of the cult's self representation. In addition to her subtle mantra, of the cults self representation. her yantra cakra added. the yantra or cakra is added. rividya's ryantra rcakra Srvidys s'rlyantra or s'ricakra also sustains the essential triadic symbolism. a s s sustains essential Despite the important variation, the s'ricakra's basic structure of nine interlocking rcakras basic s of nine triangles surrounded by two sets of eight and sixteen lotus petals remains consissurrounded sets of petals consistent (see gure 6). The smaller triangles created out of the intersection of nine (see gure The smaller created of of triangles plus two sets of lotus petals and three outer lines of the rectangular plus two sets of petals and three outer lines rectangular perimeter are treated as nine discreet circuits. Thus, the interpretation of both the as of both the whole and its parts is seen in light of triadic structures. (The nine major triangles seen of triadic nine major triangles form forty-three smaller triangles that are taken in circuit sets of fourteen, ten, ten, smaller are circuit sets of fourteen, eight, and one. Taking the eight and sixteen lotus petals and the outer rectangles as petals outer rectangles as three separate circuits there is a total of nine circuits.) The rcakra according to the s of nine s'ricakra according so-called Kaula Srvidy is its most recognizable form. By combining the mantra, a rividya the the yantra and the anthropomorphic aspects of divinity with forms of yogic ritual aspects of divinity of yogic discipline, rivid ya.creates a model for a systematic and detailed Tantric cult. Srvidy creates a model for a systematic and detailed Tantric a To identify Srvidys presence as a Tantric cult would require conrmation a as rividya's conrmation of these theological elements in a ritual context. Texts usually give a clear indicaelements Texts usually a clear indication of these contexts by the presuming other elements of Tantric sadhana. Witha other elements of Tantric s dhana. out the supporting context, the most we can say is that elements of Srvidy the supporting context, the most we can say that elements of a rividya suggest the cult's instantiation. the cults The connections between the goddess's triadic forms are not always possible goddesss are not always to verify in a given context. We may see images withouth the s'riyantra and verify in a given context. We may see images withouth the ryantra and s ryantra with images. However, the s'rividya mantra is least frequently appropris images. However, the rvidy s a least s'riyantra ated by those who do not worship in the context of Tantric Srvidyseldhana. by those who do not worship the context of a rivid ya s dhana. Interestingly, the rst mention of Srvidys mantra in its familiar form and structhe a of i-ividya.'s structure is likely not in the Sanskrit texts in which it is clearly part of systematic is likely in the Sanskrit texts which of systematic sadhana s dhana but in the Tirumantiram. a the The Tirumantiram (or Srimantra, in Sanskrit) has yet to receive thorough Srmantra, has and systematic study. Consideration of the Tirumantiram has thus far focused systematic study.20 on of dualist a.iva of 2 portions of the text most indicative of dualist Saiva theology and the interests of C o n s i d e ra t i o n o f

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aiva Siddhntins Saiva Siddhantins who claim him as one of their own.21 In Tirum lars case, the a as one of their own. u connection betweenu m uattributed s him and his reputed behaviors remains 21 I n between words attributed to T i r words l a r ' and reputed behaviors unclear, let alone his sectarian religious identity. The connection between Tirum alone Tirumuu c a s e , t h e lar and the dualist non-Tantric Saiva traditions that followed him deserves further lar and the dualist non-Tantric aiva traditions that followed him deserves further scrutiny. Tirumular's legacy associates his ideas about yoga with the devotionalism Tirum lars legacy associates his ideas about yoga u devotionalism (bhakti) of incipient Saiva Siddhnta. There is nothing within his work to suggest of incipient aiva Siddhanta. a is within his work to suggest that he viewed himself a Tantric. Furthermore, those who claim Tirumular as a he viewed himself Furthermore, those Tirum lar as u spiritual preceptor do not regard him a Tantric. South Indian Tantrics, including rividyd's adepts, do not assign Tirum lar a place their ineages (parampar ), Srvidys adepts, do not assign Tirumular a place in their llineages (parampara), a u a give special and create connections give no special attention to his work, and create no mythological connections to as George Hart has signify his contribution to their tradition. In short, as George Hart has observed, it that sources and South appears that Tantric sources and South Indian devotionalism (bhakti) very likely separate sources. stem from separate sources.22 At the same time, there is little doubt that much in the Tirumantiram also appears as part of Tantric ideology and practice. This is ideology and practice. 22 Tirumantiram also appears as part A t t h e quite different from asserting that Tirumantiram is a Tantric text. Rather, it would s a m e shares be more accurate ,to say that Tirumantiram shares features that are characteristic of characteristic of t i m e texts. appear has Sanskrit texts. Itrwould appear that the Tirumantiram has connections with, or at or t h e e very least knowledge persons who were engaged the very least knowledge of, persons who were engaged inTantric behaviors and i beliefs. s beliefs. l i t examining the fragments t l a Before examining the fragments of Srvidy that appear in the Tirumanrividya that appear the Tirumane tiram, it is worth considering those features most characteristic of Tamil siddhas features characteristic of Tamil siddhas d suggest at uleast conceptual ties to Tantric thought and practice. Kamil o that suggest at least conceptual ties to Tantric thought and practice. Kamil b t Zvelebils has Zvelebil's groundbreaking work has contributed much to the general discussion of general of t Tamilh cittar needs the cittar movement and needs not be repeated here. The Tirumantiram is a Tirumantiram a a source for the system t Saiva Siddhnta, being a book of primary source for the system of aiva Siddhanta, being the tenth book of its a canon. The historical relationship between the Tirumantiram and Saiva Siddhnta m u Tirumantiram aiva Siddhanta should not h not detain us. Tirumular's notions of cosmic and ethical order (that is, detain us. Tirum lars notions u and order c dharma, Tamil aram) and his devotion iva are issues Sanskrit dharma, Tamil aram) and his devotion to Siva are important issues to i 23 Tirum lar is apparently the rst to distinguish and Saiva Siddhntins. a u later aiva Siddhantins. n compare the terms siddhantam (versed in siddha) and vedantam (versed in Vedas) the siddh ntam a and ved ntam a Vedas) 23 as r m l a r pati pacu as iwell as to explicate the theological importance T welluas touexplicate the theological importance of the triad pati (Lord), pacu (literally, cow, but here soul), and p cam (bondage).24 Furthermore, he details the a pawn i s thirty-six tattvas ore the their , a p p a r principles, the three conditions (avastha), and their cause, the (mala), basic elements of aiva Siddhanta. a ve tb o n d a g e )all of which are basic elements of Saiva Siddhnta. There is is / ( impurities (mata), . of which n l y about these aspects of suggest little about these particular aspects of the work to suggest a cultic Tantrism. t2 4 Tirumlar and later aiva Siddhanta share much in common with certain h F u Tirum lar e r m Saiva Siddhnta share r t u and h o r e a e of Tantrismespecially Trika Saivism and Srvidy b u t no more a a strands o f Tantrismespecially Trika aivism and rividya but no more a , r h or secte Pata jalis Yoga or Snkhya philosophy because of n a Tantric movementa than Patanjali's Yoga or Sankhya philosophy because of d e i l s Tantric tassimilations. Tantrism, we should keep in mind, is created as synkeep as synlater t assimilations. Tantrism, we ts borrow, adapt, and ideas thetic traditions borrow, adapt, and reinterpret ideas and practices often without t h e o self-conscious efforts explicit or self-conscious efforts to claim rights of ownership or originality. any systematic tradition canon d iThe sTirumantirams major interest in any systematic tradition or canon t i Tirumantiram's major interest n g u i s h a n

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involves the so-called Agamas, by which is meant the twenty-eight texts Siva the so-called Agamas, by which is meant the twenty-eight texts Siva 25 Also mentioned are the nine Agamas on revealed to the twenty-eight celestials. revealed the celestials. which arrange the nine chapters (tantiram) of the Tirumantiram.26 The Tiruman(tantiram) of the Tirumantiram. 25 A l s o tirams reference T n e u ideas seemsindisputable, especially when one considers tiram's Agamic m a n especially when one considers 26 i r d m eT nh te i oto Agamic ideas seems the fth chapter's discussion of the four paths (cdryd or observe vows, kriyd or paths (c ry or observe a a kriy or a a fth chapters discussion r e action, h yoga and jdna or knowledge) and four mechanisms for the dispensation yoga and j ana n and t e of grace (sattinipadam) which are characteristics of Agamic thought.27 a thought. n i (sattinip dam) which are n e gloss texts 27 The term Agama is often used to gloss the term Tantra in Sanskrit texts and A g a m a is sometimes used interchangeably in the titles of texts. However, the subjects and is sometimes used of texts. subjects s categories discussed in the twenty-eight Agama's are not characteristic of typical categories discussed the twenty-eight Agamas are of o n Tantra, which eschews the Agama's interest in temples and public worship. which eschews the Agamas interest temples and public worship.28 What is more important here is that the Agamas are sectarian Saiva texts; while the Agamas Saiva 28 akti, it is clearly not Tirumantirams Agamic-based Saivism includes a place for S Saivism clearly not Tirumantiram's for a.kti, a a Skta any way comparable the Skta Tantras. Sakta in any way comparable to the a.kta Tantras. The Tirumantirams references to the Agamas and use of names of Agamas as Agamas use of names of Tirumantiram's references Agamasas chapter headings is somewhat confusing when compared to texts that form the compared chapter headings somewhat confusing heart of the Saiva Siddhanta canon.29 For example, the so-called Kalottar gama Saiva Siddhnta canon. a a not r e Agamas refer does F oappear 29 not appear inxthe canon. In e , a canon. l addition, the twenty-eight Agamas refer only to m p a a the doctrines of Saiva Siddhnta although the verse cites the K mik gama t doctrines of Saiva Siddhanta although the verse cites the Kamikagama and h e s o a Karan gama, which are a l l e sculpture.30 Karanagama, whichdare primarily texts on sculpture. In short, it seems unclear c a precisely which Agamas the Tirumantiram has in mind or which texts it wishes to wishes or 3 a l o t t a Tirumantiram has K r exclude fromh o larger,canon iof Tantras and Agamas. It makes no mention of the makes exclude s m of the () I g a the ra t n t a Srkula e m s Srvidy a stands Srikula Tantras in which Srividya is a primary subject and which stands apart from from s e the canoncof SaivaeAgamas.31 Yet, unlike the staunchly sectarian and rather anticanon Saiva Agamas. u n l a r Vedic Saivagamas, the Tirumantirams is not hostile to the teachings of the Veda or Tirumantiram's is teachings of the Veda or 31 YSaivgamas, e ta , Ved l k e a as Vedanta. Rather, treats they are u n nta.iRather, it treats the Vedic traditions as distinct and implies that they are inferior toeSaiva Siddhanta. to Saiva Siddhnta. a t h Tirumantiram s t The Tirumantiram does evince interest in subjects characteristic of the a u n c h does evince interest in subjects characteristic that are central Saiva Agamas. evident Tantras that are not central to the Saiva Agamas. This is particularly evident in l y three where some esoteric and practices chapter three where some of the esoteric and individually oriented practices ins eHaha Yoga, such as tc t a r ( rdvaretasam), u volve Hatha Yoga, such as withholding the semen (rdvaretasam), the arresting of of i a and the acquisition of the eight great perfections (mahasiddhi). While n eight great perfections (mah siddhi).32 a urine and the acquisition of a W h in l constitute only a small portion of the text, they reveal much about these interests constitute they reveal of 32 e d Tirumantiram's worldview and a familiarity with traditions beyond exoteric and a beyond the Tirumantirams Saivism. r a t h Perhaps best known as the principal exponent of yoga in Tamil, Tirumular e best r as the Tirum lar u of yoga unqualied love (anpu) of Siva with knowledge (kalvi) of h im. a n equates unqualied love (anpu) o f Siva with knowledge (kalm) o f him.33 Put differently, Siva is both love and knowledge; any differences are purely supercial. any t 3 P u Siva i purely 3 t Fools say: Love and God are different Nobody Fools say: Love and God are different things. Nobody knows that God is love. When oneness of love love. When they realize that God is love, they repose in the oneness of love and God.34 God.34

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Love consummates the individual's unmediated experience of Siva in this consummates the individuals unmediated experience of iva world, thus distinguishing the sic/cilia asone who has achieved perfection through siddha as has achieved through divine light (oli), power (catti, Sanskrit s'akti), and the yogic concentration (salight ( li), power (catti, Sanskrit akti), and the o s concentration (sa madhi).35 Yoga is the method for achieving a relationship with Siva that grants madhi). immortality and provides the means for obtaining the freedom to act as Siva acts. freedom as iva 35 As part of this yoga, Tirum lar endorses the possibility of bodily perfection, asserts As o g of this Tirumular endorses u possibility of bodily perfection, asserts Y that one can attain complete control over bodily functions, and specic techniques over specic techniques a achisve the four stages of liberation preliminary to nal liberation. All of these achieve the four stages e of these i a notions are in consonance with ideologies and practices advanced in the al(ta are in consonance with ideologies and practices advanced the Skta t h although none are Tantras, although none are exclusively Tantric. e the author excellence In the fourth chapter of the Tirumantiram, the author extols the excellence of m and power of the ve-letter mantra of Siva, civayanama. Clearly, Tirumantiram is a ve-letter ova, civayanama. Tirumantiram a e about mantras as well as other t text about mantras as well as other forms of devotion directed primarily at Siva. iva. h oin the sixth and seventh chapters, Saivism is extolled as the path to immor and seventh as Later, aivism d and the worship linga as Sivas Whether Tirum lars u tality and the worship of the tilyga as iva's principal form. Whether Tirumular's f linga reects situation unclear. advocacy of tilyga worship reects the situation within temples is unclear. K. R. o suggested .. modes of worship Srinivasan hassuggested that it was not until about 800 C.E. that modes of worship at iva shrines shifted from the anthropomorphic iva images to the aniconic r Siva shrines shifted from the anthropomorphic Siva images to the aniconic linga.36 It was also during this time that female as well as male deities within tilyga. a shrines became increasingly important for emergent popular bhakti movements became popular bhakti movements 36 c both iaiva and Vainava. Tirum lars inuential position as a vernacular poet with s u V a * I t Saiva h Sanskritized focusing links to Sanskritized Brahmanical religion may have contributed to this focusing . w e the on the .Siva tilyga as the primary image and, by association, his relationship to the l a v a iva linga as a v si goddess. m l a T a n i lr u the his aivism, r s From the number and content of his remarks about yoga-oriented Saivism, s ' Tirumantirams concern for g Tirumantiram's is secondary. While we hear of then gods other than Siva iva hear of i u e o a sage Akattiyar (Sanskrit, Agastya) and special attention paid the sage Akattiyar (Sanskrit, Agastya) and special attention is paid to Murukan n t i Skanda), d r (Sanskrit, a l places them Skanda), the text places them in the larger framework of Saivism. Yet, larger framework of aivism. Yet, p osome of ithe other cittar works, the Tirumantiram seems decidedly less s of the other cittar u e the Tirumantiram seems decidedly less unlike some t n r ii l evangelism and the cause interestedoin evangelism and the cause of denominationalism. a n more interesting mana Perhaps more interesting is that the Tirumantiram is not only about mans i tras, but is itself a handbook of mantras. Some portions of the text do not t into itself a handbook of g of the not t t a the mold o f devotional poetry nor do they advance the exposition o f aiva t o mold of devotional poetry nor do they advance the exposition of Saiva 37 Many verses are little more than obscure, mystical doctrines and practices. v e and practices. r h n expressions of transcendence that appear in the form of mantras. Tirumular's Tirum lars u expressi a of transcendence that appear in the form 37 Mons n y n a c i s simple Tamil syntax belies a strong penchant which, relatively s a e Tamil syntax belies a strong penchant for esoterism, which, in v e lr simple s u s h suggests certain instances, suggests a deliberate effort to push iissues of semantic meaning to ssues of semantic a r r e t i periphery. These more obscure mantras rendered a poetical the periphery. These more obscure mantras are rendered into a cryptic, poetical li i t t l e p p Tamil evincing strong Sanskritic inuences. inuences. m o o m Whether r w u verses as mantras Whether Tirum lar deliberately intended the verses to function as mantras Tirumular deliberately e e e i in addition to whatever literal or poetical meanings they may possess is uncertain. may possess tt t a Nayanarh as Nayanar poet-saints who followed after him, such as Sundaramurti, clearly viewed after clearly n w h o i b s c a i u t r e , t v m h y s f a te i c t

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the Tirumantiram as mantra, that is, as sounds that in themselves are a source of of as mantra, that as sounds themselves power and serve as forms of divine revelation. At iissue is the relationship created and serve as ssue between discursive speech and mantras. It is in this context we should also consider also consider his references to the goddess in the form of a mantra. references the goddess of a The Tirumantiram passage cited here is the rst verse of the twelfth chapter of the chapter of the fourth book; it begins the section entitled bhuvanapati cakkaram (Sanskrit, begins bhuvan pati cakkaram a bhuvan pati cakra), that is, the cakra of Bhuvanpati. bhuvanapati a that the of Bhuvanapati. a kakar ti yoraintun kaniya ponmai a kanya kakarati akar ti yorararattame polum a pol m u akarati cakarar ti yornankun tancutta venmai a e cakararati yornankun tancutta vnmai kakarati muittai kamya muttiye 38 kakarati muittai kamiya muttiye 38 Provided this verse is not an especially late interpolationand there is this verse is not an especially late interpolationand there is nothing to suggest that it isits reference is quite extraordinary inasmuch asit has as it has is i t s extraordinary nothing to do with Tirumular's aivism. Although there is no reason to consider do Tirum lars Saivism. Although u consider this verse any more a mantra than the others that bear obscure semantic meanings, bear semantic meanings, a familiarity with Tantra mantras'astra makes clear its reference. IIt might be s a familiarity with Tantra mantraastra makes clear its reference. t might be translated: translated: The letter ka and [all the] ve letters are golden colored. ve The letter a [that is, ha] and [all] the six are red in color. ha] and the The four letters beginning with ca [that is, sa] are pure white. beginning sa] are The three vidyas [that is, &Etas or peaks] beginning with ka give desired three vidy s a k tas or u beginning ka give liberation. verse k di a fteen The verse refers to the kadi version of the fteen syllable principal mantra of principal mantra (mulamantra) of Srvidy.39 Apparent here is the tripartite structure of the ra s rividya.. vidy ,A p division of its fteen syllables into three sets of ve, six, and four letters. sets of ve, six, and four vidya, 39 a the p a r of n t e its which are called vidy s, another a are To these kcas of letters, which are called vidyas, another word for mantras, are h these k tas of e r u e a color symbolism. attached a color symbolism. i s Sanskrit sources usually encode the mantras syllables order While Sanskrit sources usually encode the mantra's syllables in order to t h e conceal ithem from the uninitiated and prevent unwanted articulation beyond the t r p a r t connes of the seems have connes of the ritual, the Tirumantiram seems not to have shared this penchant i tsecrecy; neither are all of e mantras syllables listed explicitly.40 for secrecy; neither are all o f the mantra's syllables listed explicitly. Instead, s t u mantra presumed such familiarity r the c conguration 4 with the mantra is presumed to such an extent that its conguration t relationshipeto the goddess are neither concealed nor explained. u r andI relationship to , goddess are neither concealed nor () n s t e a d the o While no further reference to the rvidy mantra is made in the Tirumans a s'rividya Tirumanf tiram, the Tamil rendering of the mantra should not mislead us. Although in the Tamil rendering mantra mislead us. Although t the second k ta h u rvidy s a begins ha rather Sanskrit the second kta of the s'rividya mantra begins with the syllable ha rather as begins, e than a, as the second line of Tamil verse begins, this is a result of the substitution in Tamil of the literary Tamil of a for ha. Ha is not part of literary Tamil. In the third line of the s ' a of literary of the verse, the iTamil ca is the common letter used for all three forms of the Sanskrit the ca the of the r sibilant and refers to the rst Sanskrit sa. and refers sa. -

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Aware of both its fteen syllable form and triadic structure, the text focuses of both fteen form and the text focuses on a pattern of color symbolism that may be related to cittar ideology. While there a cittar ideology. can be no doubt that it is rividya's most important and distinctive mantra be no doubt that it is Srvidys most important and distinctive mantra a mentioned here, the symbolic description curiously fails to reappear in other here, the symbolic description curiously fails to reappear other Tamil texts on mantras or in Sanskrit rividya. texts. Contemporary adepts with texts on mantras Srvidy a Contemporary adepts whom I have had contact are either completely unaware of the verse or are unable have either of the verse or are unable to decipher the Tirumantiram's symbolism. decipher the Tirumantirams In the rst line of the versein clear reference to the ve syllables of the the clear reference the of k di mantra's vagbhava kca t h e ve letters appear gold (pop) in color, the six kadi mantras v gbhava k tathe a a u letters appear (pon) the six k m raja kta a a u s u letters of the kamaraja k ta are red and the four of the akti k ta are pure white. four of s'akti kca are "pure white." Elsewhere in the Tirumantiram, Zvelebil tells us that Tirumular uses words for Elsewhere in the Tirumantiram, Zvelebil tells us that Tirum lar uses u (and substances) concepts colors (and substances) to refer to alchemical and theological concepts with wellsymbolic meanings these understood symbolic meanings in Tamil; these meanings are in consonance with u pan-Indian Tantric traditions.41 It is possible then that Tirum lar wants to contraditions. s a nect Ithe meanings of these technical alchemical terms to the rvidy 41 the meanings of these technical alchemical terms to the irividya mantra. t i s the a b l e u a Thus, the v gbhava kt p o s svagbhava k ta which signies in Sanskrit Srvidy texts the essence of i speech, e n u speech," is, according Tirum lar, pon cittar . h is, according to Tirumular, poly or gold; in symbolic cittar terminology, t thisw h i refers to the combination of menstrual ow and semen, that is, the color c h t ow and semen, that the a color refers to the combination t h a u does say powerfulrconuence s Skti and Siva. If Tirum lar, in fact, does mean to say that conuence of a of u akti iva. Tirumular, s i T i g n i e u m a a u a the vagbhava &Eta is symbolic of Siva and a.kti's joining, later Srvidy sources iva and Sktis joining, later rividya sources i v gbhava k ta symbolic l a nr v gbhava k ta begins a u would concur.sSince the vagbhava &Eta begins with the syllable ka, which accordSince accordS a a n w to later sources signies Siva (since it is derived according to the principles of nk ing later sources signies iva of r i ts t esoteric etymology from the Sanskrit verbal root kan, meaning to illumine, one of of r v t iva'si principali o Sivas principal qualities) and ends with hrim, the traditional seed-syllable (biqualities) and ends with hrm, the traditional seed-syllable (b d s y c kara) of a goddess Bhuvanevar o . j a s u jakora) of the goddess Bhuvanegvari, it is possible that Tirum lar understands the Tirumular understands the k t i. t line of-the s'rividya mantra as a reference to the joining of Siva and Sakti.42 e n rvidy s a as a rst of iva a x 2 antinterpretation is in general agreement with the traditions o f mantra s Such an interpretation is in general agreement with the traditions of 4 " interpretation offered by the important later-day Srvidy writer Bhskararya.43 t offered by the a a a rividya. Bhaskararaya. We shouldenote, however, that Tirumular makes no reference to the rividya. u Srvidy a h should note, however, that Tirum lar makes no reference 43 etymology. esoteric etymology. e s Srvidy a the k mar ja kta a a u underInerividya texts, the syllables of the kamaraja k ta are traditionally unders stood to c signify the essence or nature of Siva in the form of Lord (or King) of desire of 'iva of Lord (or King) of desire n a a suspect or Kamaraja. Following the line of reasoning suggested above, one would suspect reasoning e Kmarja. Following Tirum lar means signify iva u reference these as that Tirumular means to signify Siva by his reference to these syllables as red in o Perhaps Tirum lar means that because desire signied u so Sivas color. Perhaps Tirumular means that because desire is signied by red, so iva's f amar ja k ta likewise red. Red, however, k a u Tantric traditions and kamaraja &Eta is likewise red. Red, however, in both Tantric traditions and in cittar vocabulary usually refers to Sakti because it is the color of activity, blood, and cittar vocabulary akti because it is color of activity, and essence goddess; the essence of the goddess; it is usually contrasted with the colors white or silver, or semen, essence of'iv a . which signify passivity, semen, the moon, and the essence of Siva.44 In the Tiru mantirams verse h e letters of the uamar ja k ta are Saktis color, red, while the mantiram's t six the kamaraja u while the 4 4 I n verse the six T iof r k - a &Ica are akti's akti kca, s u essence of the goddess, four letters of the s'akti k ta, which represent the essence of the goddess, are Sivas iva's white. There may be inverted color, white. There may be inverted symbolic meaning herea situation that is a not without precedent in Srvidy circles.45 In other words for the sake of identifyrividya circles. 45 I n o t h e r w o r d s f o r t h e s a k e

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ing iva with Sakti and vice versa, the author has resorted to this inversion of Siva a kti and vice versa, the author has resorted this inversion of symbolic meanings. However, it seems equally plausible that he has something in However, seems he has something mind that we do not understand fully and that his references to color with respect color to the sections of the mantra may not be related to the other symbolic schemes the sections mantra be related other schemes employed in the Tirumantiram. We may never know exactly what Tirumular employed in the Tirumantiram. We may never know exactly what Tirum lar u means by assigning colors to the three k tas of the Srvidy mantra. by assigning three k t u a More important is that Tirumular has an interest in and apparently a important is that Tirum lar has an interest u and apparently . sophisticatedtknowledge of a mantra critical to the denition of a sectarian form of of a critical of a form of as o f h e akta S i Tantrism. Zvelebil has noted that Tirumantiram, unlike later works of r aktavTantrism. Zvelebil has noted that Tirumantiram, unlike later works o f i d y a any deity Saivite bhakti, texhibits no .preference for any cultic deity or temple cult.46 But cu lt. m a bhakti, exhibits no preference n r a clearly Zvelebil cannot mean that the text exhibits no knowledge of such Saiva or mean of aiva or 46 B u t akta sectarian traditions. Rather, such observations about the worship of the gods S dkta of the gods temples and whether in temples and in various forms, whether mantra and yantra or anthropomorphic or image, advance the interests of Saivite sectarianism. Tirumular's staunch Saivism Tirum lars u image, advance aivite aivism as should not be construed as a narrow chauvinism. While the overwhelming majormajor references are iva, goddess also ity of his references are to Siva, the goddess and the Tamil deity Murukan are also members pantheon. important members of his pantheon. Tirumantiram verses 1021-1050 describe the goddess Tripura and a Trigoddess Tripur and a Tirumantiram verses 10211050 describe pur a a pura cakra that is the seat of Sakt.i. The gure of Tripur described here appears of a kt 47 the e later "Alito be T familiar aspect of the goddess emerging 4 7be thehfamiliar aspect u r egoddess emerging in full form in the later Lali g top f a and the Lalit hasran ma. In other words, this appears to be the a a topakhyana o akhy na and the Lalitahasranama. In other words, this appears to be the There no made goddessiof the rividya a T r p Srvidy cult. There is no explicit connection made between the u r a image of s c a described here and the rvidy Tripur r i b s a as mentioned verse image of Tripura described here and the s'rividya mantra as mentioned in verse d e 1282; nor does he Tripur a rcakra. Instead he describes separate s e d nor does he link Tripura to the s'ricakra. Instead he describes a separate Tripur a s a Tripura cakra without a connection to the rcakra. The Tripur cakra he describes s'ricakra. Tripura cakra he describes h not part of e r Srvidy tradition nor does emerge again is a any is not part of later rividya tradition nor does it emerge again in any Tantric e in Sanskrit I am aware. Like many of specics the literature in Sanskrit of which I am aware. Like many of the specics in the a p e Tirumantiram,pthis particular Tripura cakra may have faded into obscurity by a obscurity by Tirumantiram, this particular Tripur cakra may have faded a r a s a s virtue of a more explicit identication of Tripur with the rcakra. of Tripura fricakra. can verses Tripur cakra a a We can conclude from the verses describing the Tripura cakra that Tripur Tripura her Paraakti, s in her inveterate anthropomorphic form is identied with Paras'akti, the supreme and that her worship is popularly South deity, and that her worship is popularly known in South India by the time the Tirumantiram was completed. She was associated with a Tripur cakra but not, at She was associated a Tripura cakra but a Tirumantiram was at least in the Tirumantiram, with the s'ricakra. On the basis of this evidence it is least the Tirumantiram, with the rcakra. s basis of evidence possible say between a godsimply not possible to say if there are connections between the Tripur the godTripura dess, the Tripurd cakra, and the s'rividya in the Tirumantiram. Nonetheless, Trithe Tripur cakra, and the rvidy the a s a Nonetheless, purs a as pura's status as an important deity is remarkable considering the texts overwhelmtext's overwhelm ing aiva orientation. Saiva orientation.48 a Another tentative connection between South rividya may be 48 Another tentative connection between South India and Srvidy may be made in a section of the Tirumantiram in which seven varieties of Sivas cakras are of of iva's cakras are a described. Here the refers the t a described. Here the text refers to the cultic worship of Naarja in the form of a Nataraja of a yantra has Srvidys rcakra. a s does espouse or yantra that has links to rividya's s'ricakra. The Tirumantiram does not espouse or a separate t a endorse a separate cult of Naarja; neither does it assert any explicit connection Nataraja; neither does assert any

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between the siddha and the worship of Nataraja in Chidambaram. While the the siddha and the worship Naarja t a Chidambaram. While Nataraja cult's connections with goddess worship in Tamilnadu can be conrmed Naarja cults t a goddess be conrmed only in later sources, Tirumular's reference may offer an earlier connection bein later sources, Tirum lars reference may u an earlier be tween the Srvidys and the worship in the Chidambaram temple, a contention of rividyas and a Chidambaram of certain contemporary rividya adepts. contemporary Srvidy adepts. a Verses 894-978 of the Tirumantiram make possible reference to a Naarja Verses 894 978 of Tirumantiram reference a Nataraja t a yantra in Chidambaram. In particular, contemporary adepts maintain that his yantra in Chidambaram. In particular, contemporary adepts maintain that reference is to a portion of the so-called sammelana cakra also known as the secret a sammelana also as (rahasya) of Chidambaram. The yantra, because it is a combination (sammelana) of because is a (sammelana) akti of Siva and Skti cakras, is also known as the ciddakalsarahasya (secret of conscious as cidd k rahasya (secret of conscious a aa iva a space), which is identied today inside Naarjas shrine. The present-day yantra is t a Nataraja's present-day yantra is covered with embossed golden bilva leaves and attached to the wall beside the free leaves beside the free standing image of Nataraja. Beneath these bilva lleaves, according to the priests image Naarja. Beneath these t a eaves, according to the priests and rividya adepts, resides the actual sammelana cakra. The connection beSrvidy adepts, resides the actual sammelana cakra. The connection bea tween Nataraja's sammelana cakra and rividya's s'ricakra is tenuous but curiNaarjas sammelana cakra and Srvidys rcakra tenuous but curit a a s ous when considering Tirumular's Tirumantiram and works o f a later writer, when considering Tirum lars Tirumantiram and works of later u Umpatiivcrya.49 a s a a Umapatiivacarya. are, however, several connections between i-i49 There are, however, several problems in making connections between Srvidy a Naarja t a Chidambaram u vidya and the Nataraja temple in Chidambaram and Tirum lars reference to this Tirumular's reference yantra. First, the sammelana cakra particular yantra. First, the portion of the temple in which the sammelana cakra resides u today resides almost certainly did not exist in Tirum lars day, that is the seventh Tirumular's The kanaka sabha center century. The kanaka sabha or golden roofed sanctum that today forms the center temples worship Naarja may have undergone t a of the temple's worship of Nataraja may have undergone signicant renovation during the reign of Rjakesari Kulottunga II (1130-1150), who was responsible a n was Rajakesari Kulottu ga (11301150), for expanding the importance of the goddess cult within the temple by building a of the goddess temple by building a separate shrine for the goddess ivakamasundari called the tirukkamakottam. shrine the goddess Sivakmasundar a tirukkamakotam.50 t Traditionalists assert that the portion of the temple with Nataraja's secret samassert that the portion Naarjas secret samt a 5 melana preseventh mel yantra the wall is the one ana cakra, is preseventh century and that the yantra on the wall is the one to which Tirumalar refers. This assertion is not based on any historical evidence. Tirum lar refers. This assertion u based any historical evidence. From the paintings in chamber nine of the Rajarajegvaram Temple in Tanthe chamber Rjarjevaram a a s of Tanjavur, which depict an overview of the Nataraja temple at Chidambaram, we can overview of the Naarja t a we can by a a Naarja t a already surmise that, by the time of Rjarja I (9851014), the Nataraja temple already Raj araja (985-1014), included some kind of a kanaka sabha (golden hall) as well as a cit sabha (consome kanaka sabh a as as cit sabh (cona sciousness hall).51 It is unclear whether the reference to Tirum lar refers to either sciousness hall)." unclear whether reference Tirumular refers either u a tiruvamof these structures and, thus, it is impossible to verify if the reference to a tiruvamif balam cakkaram. He may simply be referring to a Siva cakra that is associated with a cakra associated with balam iva Chidambaram. Siva yantra the describes sammelana cakra If the iva yantra that the Tirumantiram describes in sammelana cakra can linked to the rcakra, then there would be strong evidence suggesting s be linked to the s'ricakra, then there would be strong evidence suggesting the three elements a a s presence of all three critical elements of Srvidy the goddess Tripura, the rrividya t h e goddess Tripur, s'rividy mantra, and the rcakrain Tamilnadu from asearly asthe seventh century a s vidya s'ricakra i n from as early as the seventh century and no later than the twelfth. Further, such a link would suggest the presence of no Further, such suggest presence of the s'ricakra inside an established aiva temple. Unfortunately, the connection rcakra inside an established Saiva temple. Unfortunately, the connection s

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between Tirumular's tiruvambalam cakkaram and the sammelana cakra is unveribetween Tirum lars tiruvambalam cakkaram and the sammelana cakra is unveriu able. Evidence suggesting a relationship between Nataraja's sammelana cakra and Evidence suggesting a Naarjas sammelana cakra and t a the s'ricakra comes only in the thirteenth century work of Umpatiivcrya.52 rcakra comes only s the thirteenth century Umapatiivacarya. a s a a contemporary rividya. a Tirum lar describes only the u 52 According to contemporary Srvidy adepts, Tirumular describes only the iva Siva portion of the combination (sammelana) cakra. The information he offers (sammelana) cakra.53 about theh e i of theotiruvambalam cakkaram is not particularly helpful. He 53 the identity n f tiruvambalam cakkaram T r m a t i o n makes no e explicit connection between his iva cakra and the Siva portion of the iva of the h o f f e Siva cakra and r s sammelana cakra. In verse 928, he says that the author of the tiruvambalam sammelana cakra. In verse 928, he says that the author tiruvambalam cakkaram is Siva himself and, in v. 930, that the totality of creation in the form of cakkaram iva himself of creation in the form of brahm n a ad a the brahmawla is nothing other than the tiruvambalam. In verse 884, he supplies a other Siva cakra is either the tiruvambalam cakkaram description of the iva cakra that is either the tiruvambalam cakkaram or some portion of it. Draw six lines vertically and six horizontally, thus you create ve squares by squares by ve and within these are written the syllables of the iva mantra.54 these are the syllables Siva mantra." The connection between this Siva cakra and the rcakra is just as uncertain s as iva cakra s'ricakra is as the relationship between Tirum lars tiruvambalam cakkaram and the samu asthe relationship between Tirumular's tiruvambalam cakkaram and the sammelana cakra. There is no apparent connection between Tirumular's yantra and There apparent between Tirum lars yantra and u melana the so-called iva portions of the s'ricakra, that is, the four upward facing major so-called Siva rcakra, that s four major triangles that intersect with the ve downward facing Sakti triangles. This discreakti discrepancy does not prevent contemporary traditionalists from asserting that the samdoes contemporary asserting that the sammelana cakra is actually two distinct yantrasone representing Siva and one distinct yantrasone representing melana cakra actually iva and one representing Saktiwhich are overlain or connected with one another. They base one akti wh ich or They base their claim on Umapatiivatarya's description in his Kulichittighristava of the claim on Umpatiivcryas description a s a a his Ku chit nghristava of n a akti cakra as the rcakra and Tirum lars tiruvambalam cakkaram as Sakti cakra as the s'ricakra and Tirumular's tiruvambalam cakkaram as the iva s u Siva 55 Unfortunately, there is no way to verify independently either claim. Today cakra. cakra. concealed golden the sammelana cakra is concealed by golden bilva lleaves. eaves. 55 sammelana sum, can be said tiruvambalam cakkaram U n fIn sum, little can be said with certainty about the tiruvambalam cakkaram Tirumantirams other than that the Tirumantiram's interest in the use of yantras in the worship of of yantras of o rt iva was somehow linked to activities Siva was somehow linked to activities or deities related to Chidambaram. The deities related Chidambaram. The u n evidence presented here is more important the study contemporary evidence presented here is more important for the study of contemporary pera t e of Srvidys history than it is useful for the reconstructing the hisa ceptions o f rividyd's history than it is useful for the reconstructing the hisl y , events surrounding Tirum lars life and the theological milieu of u torical events surrounding Tirumular's life and the theological milieu o f the tTirumantiram. Tirumantiram. h a The rst Sanskrit Tantra to offer a detailed exposition of the Srvidy cult is offer a of the rividya is e to be the V makevara Tantra, which combines two a s texts, the thought to be the Vamakdvara Tantra, which combines two distinct texts, the r Nityao aik rnava and the Yoginhdaya.56 s d s a r Nityawlas'ikaniava and the Yoginihrdaya. It is also generally agreed that the Nity o aik rnava is the earlier of the two halves of the Tantra and that the rst e I halves Nityt4o(lakarnava the 56 as t d si a a l s o s commentary text belongs to the century i e n e r a lon this portion extant commentary onl this portion of the text belongs to the twelfth century g y Jayaratha, best e known a jayaratha, best known ford exposition of Abhinavaguptas Tantraloka. Jays his exposition of Abhinavagupta's Tantr loka.57 a g r e s aratha states-that the ninth-century hvaraiva wrote the Srirasamahodahi, which s Srrasamahodahi, 57 J states that the ninth-century Ivaraiva a y tn h a t V makevara Tantra. a s according h Dviveda was a commentary on the Vamakdvara Tantra.58 Provided to Dviveda was a to e 58 P r o v i d e d w a y t

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one accepts the ninth century as the time of hvaragiva, then surely the Vi7maaccepts the ninth century as the time svaraiva, then surely I s V maa kevara Tantra comes from an earlier period. Furthermore, the texts mature and kes'vara s comes earlier text's mature and sophisticated portrayal of Tantric ritual may indicate that the tradition underwent of Tantric underwent its incipient and formative development before the text's written composition. incipient and formative development before the texts written composition. Interestingly, rividya's earliest Sanskrit sources offer no suggestions about Srvidys a Sanskrit sources suggestions how the tradition began ideologically or ritually. Instead, the Sanskrit Tantras the tradition began ideologically ritually. Instead, the Sanskrit Tantras present the reader with a full-grown adult, as it were, one whose patterns of the reader with a full-grown adult, as were, one whose patterns of development are embedded in genealogy that was neither recorded nor considered genealogy neither nor important enough to rehearse. From the record o f Sanskrit texts, it remains enough to rehearse. From the record of texts, it remains precisely how old the V makevara Tantra might be or what sort of a s unclear precisely how old the Vamakdvara Tantra might be or what sort o f Srvidy may have preceded it. a Tirumantirams Srividya may have preceded it. This situation makes the Tirumantiram's reference the Srvidy mantra a the more to the rividya mantra all the more interesting and important. the V makevara a s any If the Vamakdvara Tantra is any indication of the regional origins of Srvidy, then it would appear that the cult of Tripur that involved the use of the a it would appear the a Tripura of fteen-syllable mantra and the s'ricakra is Kashmiri, or at least North Indian, in the rcakra s a origin. This idea supported by recent origin. This idea is supported by recent work done by Madhu Khanna on Siv59 If Khannas theory of Kashmiri origins is correct, then the nandas trilogy. nanda's trilogy. appearance of the rividya in the Tirumantiram suggests that the tradition, or of the Srvidy a the Tirumantiram suggests that the 59 I f perhaps as early as these some a n n of it, sources. K h fragment of it, had migrated south perhaps as early asthese Sanskrit sources. One can conclude certainly from the Tirumantirams reference to the mantra Tirumantiram's a ' s a piece a was thath necessary piece of Srvidy was known and was present in Tamilnadu during i-ividya t a e seventh Given texts mantraa s the seventh century. Given the text's general interest in mantras'astra, it is certainly o r y a plausible that it is aware of the mantra without knowing about the cult of Tripur of the of Tripura o Srvidy. But that the text knows enough about this mantra a describe a or rividya. But that the text knows enough about this mantra to describe a f of associated with suggests that the structure, and pattern of symbolism associated with it suggests that the form, structure, and K a of the mantra had undergone signicant interpretation. also seems meaning ofsthe mantra had undergone signicant interpretation. It also seems h m i does plausible that the Tirumantiram does indeed know more about the mantra than it know mantra it r here and that some form of systematic Srvidy was being practiced in Tami says some a says here and of rividya was Tamo r the by composition. ilnadu by the time of its composition. does suggest a i g While the Tirumantiram does not suggest that Srvidys roots are in South rividya's it India, n does advance our understanding of the intellectual and historical milieu it does advance of i emergent Tantras. in Tamilnadu at the s Tamilnadu at the time of the emergent Tantras. Our most important conclu sions about rividya a a sions about Srvidy in Tamilnadu are two. First, at least one portion of Srvidy, of i its mantra o n e of its most advanced concepts i s understood to be congenial mantraone most advanced conceptsis understood be congenial s with Tirum lars cittar Saivism. Mantras like the rcakra appear not to have been u s have been s'ricakra appear c Tirumular's cittaraivism. Mantras o restricted to those whose primary allegiance is to the great goddess or more to those whose primary allegiance is to the great goddess or more r r specically, to Lalitatipurasundari. Different forms of Saivism create environments Lalit tipurasundar. a of aivism create environments e which Srvidy can sustain itself and even ourish. Second, it appears that c in which rividya can sustain itself a even ourish. Second, appears that t rividya established itself in a cultic sense in South India as a quasi-autonomous ,a Srvidy established itself a sense as quasi-autonomous aktism that did not require a specically Kashmiri aiva context. How t specically Saiva form of S dktism h woven into the ideological fabric of Kashmiri Saivism Srvidy may be in the ever a ever Kashmiri aivism rividya may a e Skta Tantras, its as a independent of particular Sanskrit a.kta Tantras, its life as a mantra appears independent of this particular canon. n t h e

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Further suggestions about the cult of the goddess Tripura or about rcakra suggestions about goddess Tripur a s'ricakra s in the temple cult of Nataraja are far less certain. At this point, the story of the the temple Naarja are t a less certain. the of cults development, either in terms of individual elements or as a systematic form cult's development, of individual or as a systematic form of Tantric sadhana, shifts to texts in Sanskrit. If, in fact, Srvidy sources do come s dhana, a rividya sources come a from a period before or concurrent with Tirumular's seventh century datean a period before Tirum lars seventh century datean u issue still not settledthen our understanding of the chronology of the Hindu issue still not settledthen of chronology of Hindu Tantras must be revised. I f the sources of the so-called Kalikula, that is, those must be revised. If sources of so-called K lkula, a those centered on aspects of Kl rather than sri,, are composed, as Teun Goudriaan on aspects Kali rather than Sr are composed, as Teun a maintains, well before Srkula texts which include Srvidy, then these too will be Srikula rividya, a these will be affected by the evidence in the Tirumantiram. This evidence not only corroborates evidence evidence corroborates Goudriaans but suggests presence of a Goudriaan's point, but suggests the presence of a mature form of Skta Tantrism of a akta Tantrism well before references to the rst commentaries on the Sanskrit texts. rst commentaries on the Sanskrit texts. well before references to the With the evidence of the Tirumantiram, we can now conclude that portions evidence of now conclude that portions a of Skta Tantrism may have been codied and disseminated orally at least two akta Tantrism may have been codied disseminated least centuries before they are committed to written Sanskrit. While admittedly fragbefore are committed Sanskrit. While admittedly fragmentary in nature, evidence of Srvidy in the Tirumantiram provides a beginning evidence of a i-ividya Tirumantiram provides a beginning establishes for contextualizing Tantrism in the history of Indian religions and establishes the of Indian a Skta medieval India. presence of a form of pan-Indian akta Tantrism in early medieval India.60 60
NOTES 1. Andr e Padoux, "Tantrism: H i ndu Tantrism," T he Encyclopedia off Religion, ed. e 1. Andr Padoux, Tantrism: Hindu Tantrism, The Encyclopedia o Religion, ed. Eliade (New York: Macmillan, 1987), 14:274 80. Mircea Eliade (New York: Macmillan, 1987), 14:274- 80. a 2. See Teun Goudriaan and Sanjukta Gupta, Hindu Tantric and Saul Literature 2. See Teun Goudr iaan and Sanjukta Gupta, H i ndu Tantric and S kta Literature (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrosswitz, 1981) . (Hereafter H TSI.) Also see, Arunopanisat (of the Otto Harrosswitz, 1981). (Hereafter HTSL.) Also see, Arunopanisat ( of the (Wiesbaden: Srvidy Tradition), trans. Dr. G. Sundaramoorthy (Madurai: Srvidy Educational Society, a a Srividya Tradition), trans. Dr. G. Sundaramoorthy (Madurai: Srividya Educational Society, 1990). 1990). 3. Jonathan Z. Smith, Imagining Religion (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 3. Jonathan Z . Sm ith, Im agining Religion (Chicago: University o f Chicago Press, 1982), xiii. 1982), xiii. 4. Teun Goudriaan, Sanjukta Gupta, and Dirk Jan Hoens, Hindu Tantrism (Leiden: 4. T eun Goudriaan, Sanjukta Gupta, and Dirk Jan Hoens, H i ndu Tantrism (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1981), 23. Brill, 1981), 23. E.J. n 5. T hi s is the case, for example, iin the Sankara traditions. 5. This is the case, for example, n the Sa kara traditions. 6. F or discussion of polythetic classication and its application in Hindu Tantrism, For discussion of polythetic classication and its application i n H i ndu Tantrism, 6. see The Secret of the Three se Douglas Renfrew Brooks, The Secret of the Three Cities: An Introduction to Hindu S kta e An Introduction to Hindu a Sara Tantrism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). Tantrism 7. See Andre Padoux, Recherches sur la symbolique et lnergie de la parole dans certains See Andr Padoux, Recherches sur symbolique et fenergie de parole dans certains e e textes tantriques (Paris: de Boccard, 1963). tantriques (Paris: de Boccard, 1963). textes a 8. See M adhu Khanna, " T he Concept and Litur gy of the Sricakra Based on Siva8. See Madhu Khanna, The Concept and Liturgy of the Srcakra Based on Sivnandas Trilogy," Unpublished Ph.D. diss. (Oxford, Eng.: Woolfson College, Oxfor d UniTrilogy, Unpublished Ph.D. diss. (Oxford, Eng.: Woolfson College, Oxford Uninanda's verstiy, 1986). verstiy, 1986). 9. See Verse One of The Saundaryalahari, or Flood of Beauty, ed. and trans. by W. 9. See Verse One of The Saundaryalahar, or Flood of Beauty, ed. and trans. by W. Norman Brown (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Universtiy, 1958), 48. Brown (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Universtiy, 1958), 48. Norman

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10. On goddesses, see David S. Kinsley, Hindu Goddesses, Visions of the Divine Feminine 10. On see Goddesses, Visions of th Divine Feminine e in the Hindu Religious Tradition (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986). in the Religious Tradition University of California Press, 11. Although an incomplete translation, see: R. Ananthakrishna Sastry, Lalita Saa 11. Although an incomplete translation, see: R. Ananthakrishna Sastry, Lalit Sahasran man with Bhaskararaya's Commentary translated into English (Adyar: The Theoa Bh skarar yas Commentary translated into English a a Theohasranaman sophical Publishing House, 1951). 12. Lalita's myth, as it crystallizes in these appendices to the Brahm n a Pur na, follows a these ad a 12. Lalits the BrahmalAla Purar this basic pattern with a few important variations and embellishments. a few basic 13. Burtonl Stein,s"Devi Shrines and Folk Hinduism," Studies in the Language and Hinduism, Studies the Language and 13. f o l o w la, Burton Stein, Dev Shrines and Culture of South Asia, ed. Edwin Gerow and Margery D. Lang (Seattle: University of of South Asia, ed. Edwin Gerow and Lang University of Culture a Washington Press, 1973), 77. Press, 14. Ibid. 14. Ibid. 15. Ibid. 15. Ibid. 16. See A. L. Basham, "Notes on the Origins of Sktism and Tantrism, Religion and Basham, Notes 16. See of a Saktism Tantrism," Religion and Society in Ancient India; Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya Commemoration Volume, ed. PranabaSudhakar Chattopadhyaya ed. Society nanda Jash (Calcultta: Roy and Chowdhury Publishers, 1984), 14854. Jash 148-54. 17. Stein, Dev Shrines, 8183. 17. Stein, "Devi Shrines," 81-83. 18. Ibid., 85-86. 18. Ibid., 8586. 19. Kadi and h di also refer to matas or traditional lines of interpretation. The mantra is a a 19. K di and hadi also refer to matas or traditional lines of interpretation. The mantra is part of the distinction between these lines of tradition, but it is not the only factor. For a these of tradition, the For a discussion of the h di school, see Khanna, Concept and Liturgy; and for the k di line, see a see a the hit& "Concept and Liturgy"; and for the kJ& line, see Brooks, Secret of the Three Cities. Secret of the Three work refer to volume of the Tamil edition of Thiru Manthiram 20. All references to this work refer to volume 1 of the Tamil edition of Thiru Manthiram All of Tirumulan yan r, 2nd ed., ed. Thiru P Ramanatha Pillai (Tiruneveli: The South Indian a a P. of Tirumulanayanar, va Siddhnta Saiva Siddhanta Works Publishing Society, 1957). Pages in this edition are not numbered. a Pages are Sai For an important study of Tamil siddhas and of Tirum lar seethe work of Kamil V. Zvelebil, siddhas u see the work of Kamil Zvelebil, of Tamil of Tirumular in particular his work The Poets of Powers (London: Rider and Co., 1973), 7280. work The Poets ofPowers (London: Rider and Co., 1973), 72-80. 21. The only translation of the Tirumantiram focuses almost exclusively on devotional The the Tirumantiram focuses exclusively on devotional verses important to Saiva Siddhantins, see Tirum lar Tirumantiram, Holy Hymns, trans. Saiva Siddhntins; see Tirumular a u Holy Hymns, Dr. B. Natatajan (Madras: Ites Publications, 1979). Ites Dr. B. Natatajan 22. See George L. Hart's cursory remarks in his work The Poems of Ancient Tamil, Their See Harts The Poem of Ancient Tamil, Their s Milieu and Their Sanskrit Counterparts (Berkeley: Universtiy of California Press, 1978), and Their Sanskrit Counterparts of California Press, 118, 62n. 118, 23. For example the concepts of pati, pacu, and pacam. See Zvelebil, Poets, 74. For pacu, p cam. See a Poets, of 24. On Tirumular's relationship to Saiva Siddhanta, see Dr. T. B. Siddhalingaiah, On Tirum lars relationship to Saiva Siddhnta, see Dr. T. B. Siddhalingaiah, u a Origin and Development of Saiva Siddhanta Up to the 14th Century (Madurai: Nepolean a Nepolean Origin and Development of va Siddh nta Up to the 14th Century Sai Press, 1979), 50-51. In verse 159, he claims the three are eternal. On the contrast between 1979), 5051. between siddh ntam a ved ntam, see a siddhantam and vedantam, see Tirumanitiram, 2329, 233132, 2343 44, 2346, 2354 56, 2331-32, 2343-44, 2354-56, 2361, and 236265; also Siddhalingaiah, 50. On the three basic terms of Saiva Siddhnta, a 2362-65; the three basic of va Siddhanta, Sai see: Tirumantiram, 2366-67, 2369, 2371-74, and 238084. 236667, 237174, 2380-84. 25. Ibid, 51ff; and Zvelebil, Poets, 74. The number of Agamas is mentioned in verse 68 Ibid, 5Iff, of Agamas mentioned in verse 68 of Tirumantiram. For a list of the twenty-eight Agamas and their Upgamas, see also the a of the and their Upagamas, see also the introduction to the Rudrav gama, ed. N. R. Bhatt (Pondicherry: Pondicherry Press, 1961). a Rudravagama, Pondicherry Press,

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26. See Siddhalingaiah, Origin and Development, 50, 193n. See and 27. Ibid., 53. Ibid., 53. 28. This point is made clearly and in some detail by Goudriaan, HTSL, 79. This 7-9. 29. Siddhalingaiah, Origin and Development, 52. Siddhalingaiah, and 30 Ibid., 52, 193n. 30. Ibid., 52, 193n. 31. Mark C. G. Dyczkowski, The Canon of the Saiv gama and the Kubjik Tantras of the Mark a of the a Saivagama and the Kubiika Tantras of th e Western Kaula Tradition (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988), 4ff. State W estern of New 32. Zvelebil, Poets, 75-76. Zvelebil, Poets, 7576. 33. Tirumantiram, 712, 1651, 1816, 2104, and 2958. Tirumantiram, 712, 1651, 1816, 2104, 34. Quoted from Zvelebil, Poets, 75. Quoted Poets, 35. Ibid., 74. Ibid., 74. 36. As cited by Stein, "Devi Shrines," 81. As cited Dev Shrines, 81. 37. Tirumalar denes a mantra as the perfect concentration of the mind of anything. Tirum lar u a "perfect of the of anything." S e Kamil Zvelebil, Tamil Literature (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1974), 55. e See Zvelebil, Harrassowitz, 38. Ibid, verse 1282, chapter 12. Ibid, verse 1282, chapter 39. The signicance of this particular version of the mantra known as the .frividya The signicance particular version mantra as the rvidy s a mantra in the context of the cults history has been discussed in detail elsewhere; seeBrooks, see Brooks, mantra in of the cult's has been discussed in detail Three Cities, 118ff; also Khanna, "Concept and Liturgy," 96ff. Liturgy, Three Cities, 118ff; also Khanna, Concept 40. On the encoding of the .frividya mantra; see Brooks, Three Cities, 149ff. and On the encoding rvidy mantra; see Brooks, Three s a 149ff. and Khanna, "Concept and Liturgy," 96-98. Concept Liturgy, 9698. 41. See Zvelebil, Poets, 79. See Poets, 79. a 42. Douglas Renfrew Brooks, "The Srividya School of Skta Tantrism: A Study of the Douglas Renfrew The Srvidy a Sakta Study of the Texts and Contexts of the Living Traditions in South India," Unpublished Ph.D. diss. and Contexts South India, (Harvard University, 1987), 233-35. This interpretation is based on Bhaskararaya's Bhskarrayas a a (Harvard University, 1987), 23335. This interpretation is based descriptive esoteric etymology; see Varivasyarahasya by Bhaskararilya with his autoesoteric etymology; see Varivasy rahasya by Bh skarar ya with his autoa a a commentary entitled Prak sa, 3rd ed., ed. and trans. Subrahmanya Sastri (Adyar, Madras: a Subrahmanya Sastri commentary entitled Prakasa, Adyar Library, 1968), 2.121-26 and 12830. (Hereafter VVR). 2.12126 (Hereafter WI?). 128-30. 43. Ibid., 2.121ff. and the second section of Srvidynandanthas Saubh gyaratn kara Ibid., a a a a Srividyanandanatha's Saubhagyaratnakara (presently unedited). (presently 44. Cf. Zvelebil, Poets, 79. Cf. Zvelebil, Poets, 45. For example in Bhaskararaya's commentary on Tripur Upaniad, he reverses the For example Bhskararyas a a a s the Tripura Upaniad, a traditional attributes of Siva and Sakti to suggest their interchangeable identities. This attributes of Siva and Skti to suggest interchangeable identities. This point is discussed in more detail in Brooks, The Secret of the Three Cities. 100ff. discussed The Secret of the Three 100ff 46. Zvelebil, Poets, 79. Zvelebil, Poets, 79. 47. Pillai's Tirumantiram as cited above. Pillais as above. 48. Some form of the Tripura cult was apparently in place in South India during Some form Tripur cult was apparently a place South Tirum lars time. The Tirumantiram does not link its Tripura with the goddess whose u time. The Tirumantiram Tripur a goddess whose Tirumalar's triadic imagery distinguishes systematic Srividya;; however, the description of Tripur as a systematic Srvidy however, a a of Tripura as a goddess and a Tripura cakra suggest that this gure was part of a cult with Tantric ritual Tripur cakra a gure of a interests. 49. Brooks, "Srividya School," 525-26. Brooks, Srvidy School, 52526. a 50. Cf. Encyclopedia of Indian Temple Architecture, South India, Lower Dravidadea 200 Cf. Encyclopedia of Indian Temple Architecture, South India, Lower Dravidadda 200 s 50.

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B.C.-A.D. 1324, ed. Michael W. Meister (Delhi: American Institute of Indian Studies, .... 1324, ed. Michael W. Meister American Studies, Oxford Universtiy Press, 1983), 299. Universtiy Press, 1983), 299. 51. See S. R. Balasubrahmanyam, Middle Chola Temples' Rajaraja II to Kulottunga II Balasubrahmanyam, Middle Chola Temples Rajaraja to Kulottunga 51. See S. (Faridabad: (Faridabad: Thomson Press, 1975), 33. 52. Meister, Indian Temple Architecture, 299. Temple 52. Meister, 53. Tirumantiram, v. On the srcakra as a combination of va and a cakras, see Si Sakti 53. Tirumantiram,v. 884. On the jricakra as a combination of Siva and Skti cakras, see a Venkataraman, K. R., "Sakti Cult in South India, A Cultural History of India, 2nd ed., ed. Skti South India," A Cultural History of India, 2nd Haridas Bhattacharyya (Calcutta: Ramakrishna Mission, 1956), 256. Bhattacharyya Ramakrishna 54. Tirumantiram, v. 54. Tirumantiram, vo 884. 55. The references to Srvidy and the rcakra in this work will be discussed at another a 55. The Srividya and the sfrrcakra in work will be discussed at another time. Tiksitar, in particular see verses 20, 60, 101, 109, 110, and 207. Tiksitar, see verses 56. See 56. See Goudriaan, HTSL, 59ff. 57. On the date of the Vamakdvaratantra, see V. V. Dviveda's introduction to Yoga a s Dvivedas introduction to Yoga 57. On the V makevaratantra, see Tantra Granthamala, vol. 1, Nity adaikanava(tantra) with the Commentaries Rjuvimarini Granthamala, asos o (ar k a r i s l s Tantra Ni t y of Sivananda and Artharatntivali of Vidy nanda (Varanasi: Varanasesya Samskrta Visand Artharatn vali of Vidyjnanda (Varanasi: Varanasesya Samskrta Visa a of : Sivananda vavidyalaya, 1968). w i t h z av a(t ant ra) t h e Ibid., u C 58. Ibid., 8;eand Phyllisr Granoff's review of The Kulac(lamani Tantra and the o m m 8; and tPhyllis Granoff s review of The Kulac damani Tantra and the n a i e s I V makevara Tantra with the Jayaratha Commentary, ed. and trans. Louise M. Finn a s Tantra with the Jayaratha Commentary, ed. and trans. Louise M. Finn . Vamakdvara (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrossowitz, i1986)i appearing in Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 ? j u v Otto Harrossowitz, 1986) appearing n (Wiesbaden: i m a r s ' (1989),, 309-25. 30925. (1989) 59. See Khanna, "Concept and Liturgy. Concept and Liturgy." 59. See 60. Special thanks to my teacher and collaborator the late Dr. G. Sundaramoorthy of Special thanks of Madurai-Kamaraj University, Madurai-Kamarai University, Madurai, Tamilnadu for his help and insights.