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Special Relativity (a) Einsteins First Postulate: The Laws of Physics are the same in every inertial frame of reference. (b) Einsteins Second Postulate: The speed of light in a vacuum c is the same in all inertial frames of reference and is independent of the motion of the source. 1 (c) Lorentz Factor: = 1 v 2 /c2 (d) Time Dilation: t = t0 where t0 is the proper time. (e) Length Contraction: l = 1 l0 where l0 is the proper time. (f) Doppler Eect: f = f0 c+u if the source is cu moving towards the observer at the speed of u, cu and f = f0 if the source is moving away c+u from the observer.

hc where min VAC is the voltage dierence between cathode and anode h (d) Compton Scattering: = (1 cos ) me c (e) Heisenbergs Uncertainty Principle: x px h h h h , y py , z pz , t E 4 4 4 4 (c) X-ray Production: eVAC hfmax = 3. Electrons and Atoms (a) de Broglies Wavelength: = h h = p mv

(b) Electron Diraction: d sin = m =

(c) (d)

(g) Transverse Doppler Eect: f = 1 f0 when the source passes an observer at closest approach with speed u. (h) Lorentz Transformation: x = (x ut) y =y z =z t = (t ux/c2 ) (i) Lorentz Velocity Transformation: vx u vx = 1 uvx /c2 (j) Relativistic Mass: m = m0 (k) Relativistic Momentum: p = mv (l) Newtons Second Law: va F = a+v 3 2 , Fy = m c may , Fz = maz , Fx = 3 max

(e)

(f)

(g) (h) (i)

mh 2me eVba where d is the spacing of the diraction grating, m is the order of the fringe, Vab is the acceleration voltage. nh Bohrs Postulate: Ln = me vn rn = 2 Orbital speed of electrons in a hydrogen atom: 1 e2 vn = 0 2nh Orbital radius of electrons in a hydrogen atom: n 2 h2 rn = 0 me e2 Energy of an electron in a hydrogen atom: hc 1 me e4 En = 2 2 2 = 2 R where R = 1.097 n 0 8n h 107 is the Rydbergs constant. 1 1 1 Transition Wavelength: =R 2 n2 nL L m1 m2 Reduced Mass: mr = m1 + m2 Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution: ni = AeEi /kT where ni is the number of atoms with energy Ei and k is the Boltzmann constant (k = 1.381 1023 K J1 = 8.617 105 eV K1 )

(j) Stefan-Boltzmann Law for blackbody radiation: I = T 4 where = 5.67 108 W m2 K4 . (k) Wien Displacement Law: m T = 2.90 103 m K (l) Plancks Radiation 2hc2 5 (ehc/kT 1) Law: I() =

(m) Total Energy: E = mc2 (n) Kinetic Energy: K = ( 1)mc2 (o) Rest Energy: Erest = mc2 (p) E 2 = (mc2 )2 + (pc)2 2. Photons hc (b) Photoelectric Eect: eV0 = hf where e is the electron charge, V0 is the stopping potential, is the work function of a material. (a) Energy of a photon: E = hf =