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You are on page 1of 52

This Chapter

2

Lenz’s Law to determine the effect

of changing magnetic fluxes.

Compute

p for Inductances and learn

ways on how to store magnetic

energies

Compute

C t for

f the

th circuital

i it l

parameters of RL Circuits

Outline

3

Overview

4

(England) and Joseph Henry (USA)

independently discovered that

changing magnetic field induces

a current in the wire.

changing magnetic fields are

called

ll d induced

i d d emfsf and d induced

i d d

currents.

magnetic induction.

electric cord from its socket, you

sometimes observed a small spark.

This phenomenon is explained by

magnetic induction!

1 Magnetic Flux

1.

5

a surface is defined similarly to the

flux of an electric field.

field

The magnetic flux Φm is defined as

field times area

area, tesla

tesla-meter

meter

squared, which is called a weber

(Wb)

1 Wb = 1 T•m2

second is a volt.

1 Magnetic Flux through many loops

1.

6

g a coil

in the flux through

containing several turns of

wire.

If the coil contains N turns,

the flux through the coil is

N times

ti the

th flux

fl through

th h

each turn.

2 Faraday

2. Faraday’ss Law

7

Consider

C id a b bar magnett iin proximity

i it to

t a

loop attached to an ammeter.

2 Faraday

2. Faraday’ss Law

8

loop induces a current through the loop,

loop even

without a battery. Such induced current

arises from

f the

h induced

d d emf. f

2 Faraday

2. Faraday’ss Law

9

From what we have

Move the Move the loop

earlier,

earlier a changing permanent towards the

magnet towards permanent

magnetic flux results to the loop magnet

an induced emf.

Current that

This is known as produces B can Area of the loop

can be changed

p

be changed

Faraday’s Law!

Loops/B sources

can be rotated

2 Faraday

2. Faraday’ss Law: Examples

10

EXAMPLES:

circular coil of 300 turns and a radius of 4 cm. The field changes

at a rate of 85T/s

85T/s. Find the magnitude of the induced emf in the

coil.

what rate must a perpendicular magnetic field to produce a

current of 4

4.0A

0A in the coil?

an external magnetic field of 600 G that makes an angle of 50o

with the axis of the solenoid. (a) Find the magnitude flux through

the solenoid.

solenoid (b) Find the magnitude of the emf induced in the

solenoid if the external magnetic field is reduced to zero in 1.4s.

3 Lenz

3. Lenz’ss Law

11

Lenz’s Law gives us the direction of

th

the iinduced

d d current.t

“The ind

induced

ced emf and

induced current are in such

pp

a direction so as to oppose

the change the produces

them.”

g causes the induced

kind of change

emf and current. The statement

was left vague to cover a variety

of conditions we will now illustrate.

3 Lenz

3. Lenz’ss Law: Illustrations

12

3 Lenz

3. Lenz’ss Law: Illustrations

13

3 Lenz

3. Lenz’ss Law: Illustrations

14

3 Lenz

3. Lenz’ss Law: Illustrations

15

3 Lenz

3. Lenz’ss Law: Illustrations

16

A rectangular coil of 80

turns, 20 cm wide and 30

cm long,

l is llocated

d in a

magnetic field B = 0.8T

directed into the page

page, with

only a portion of the coil in

the region of the magnetic

f ld The

field. h resistance off the

h

coil is 30Ω.

Fi d th

Find the magnitude

it d and d

direction of the induced

current if the coil is moved

with a speed of 2m/s (a) to

the right, (b) up, and (c)

down.

4 Inductance

4.

17

contains a large coil in its frame.

inductance.

inductance

the frame, the inductance of the

frame changes.

converted to an alarm sound!

The Unit of Inductance

18

is the henry(H).

henr (H)

4 1 Self-Inductance

4.1 Self Inductance

19

current rises until it reaches

its max value.

l

magnetic field it produces

changes thus a changing

changes,

magnetic flux

induced emf caused byy the

changing magnetic flux

induction in the circuit!

4 1 Self-Inductance

4.1 Self Inductance

20

the self

self-induced

induced emf to

the changing current is:

The pproportionality

p y constant is the

self-inductance (L) of the circuit!

By applying Faraday’s

Law in reverse, we derive:

Self-Inductance

Self Inductance is a

constant but depends on

the geometry of the

circuit/loop!

4 1 Self-Inductance:

4.1 Self Inductance: Example

21

solenoid containing 300 turns

t rns if the length of the

solenoid is 25.0 cm and its cross-sectional area is

4.00 cm2.

cm, area 5 cm2, and 100 turns. At what rate must

g to induce an emf

the current in the solenoid change

of 20V?

4 2 Mutual-Inductance

4.2 Mutual Inductance

22

Circuit 1

circuit 1, the current also

changes Thus the magnetic field

changes.

it produces also changes.

induces an emf on circuit 1 and

on circuit 2!

emf.

mutual induction!

Circuit 1 Circuit 2

4 2 Mutual-Inductance

4.2 Mutual Inductance

23

circuit two is related to

the changing current by:

Mutual Inductance

like Self-Inductance

Self Inductance

depends on the

geometry of the two

Mutually circuits and

d the

h

Self-induced distance between

by 2 induced by

1 on 2 them!

two circuits are equal and

can be found using the

transformable formula:

4 2 Mutual Inductance: Example

4.2

24

designed to hold the toothbrush

handle when not in use. As shown in

the Figure, the handle has a

cylindrical hole that fits loosely over a

matching cylinder on the base. When

the handle is placed on the base,

base a

changing current in a solenoid inside

the base cylinder induces a current in

a coil inside the handle. This induced x

current charges the battery in the

handle.

of length x with Nbase turns (Fig.

32.15b), carrying a current I, and

having a cross sectional area A. The

handle coil contains Nhandle turns and

completely surrounds the base coil.

Find the mutual inductance of the

system.

5. The Storage of

25

Magnetic Energy

An inductor stores magnetic

energy through the current

b ld up in it, just as a

building

capacitor stores electrical

energy.

energy

Consider, the circuit at the right.

The energy stored in an inductor

carrying a current I is given by:

is given by:

This is the energy that is stored in a

magnetic field, regardless of the

configuration!

6 RL Circuits

6.

26

RL Circuits contain a

resistor and an

inductor.

I flows in a single

direction

But changes its value, it

either grows or decays

6. The Growth of

27

I in RL Circuits

We assume that the inductor

has 0 emf initially.

initially

After the switch is closed, the

emff off the

th battery

b tt equates

t

to the back emf of the

i d

inductor, andd current builds

b ild

according to:

As current builds up, the equivalent to ξ0/R.

i d t ’ b

inductor’s backk emff is

i

τ is the time constant equilvalent to L/R

reduced to zero!

6. The Decay of

28

I in RL Circuits

As the switches are

reconfig red the Imax

reconfigured, Ima

current is drained by the

resistor R according to:

This happens because the

inductor acts like a battery,

with

ith a llessening

i currentt

pump abilities!

Io is the initial current in the circuit equivalent to ξ0/R.

6 RL Circuits: Examples

6.

29

battery (ξ(ξ= 12 V),

V) an inductor (L = 30 mH),mH) and a

resistor (R = 6 Ω). Find the time constant, and if the

switch is closed at t =0,

=0 when will the current reach

half its maximum value.

2. If the battery

y in the example

p above is carefullyy

removed after the current reaches its maximum

value,, when will the current decay

y to 10% of the

original maximum value?

Chapter Six is

pretty much a

straight forward

chapter.

1. Sources of AC

2. R in AC

3. L in

i AC

4. C in AC

5

5. LC in AC

6. The Series RLC

in AC

7. Resonance in

AC

8. T

Transformers

f

1

IN THIS FINAL CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE

TO…

of alternating currents

Analyze

A l the

th behaviors

b h i

Understand the

of R, L, and C if

operating principles of

alternating currents

transformers

flow through them

Analyze the behavior of 2

discover its importance

specific

f R, L, C

when analyzing for the

combinations

behaviors of R, L, and C

TIME-VARYING VALUES

| To identify time

varying values, we use

lower case letters!!

| To identify fixed

values we shall use

values,

upper case letters

3

WHY STUDY ALTERNATING CURRENTS?

| More than 99% of the

electrical energy used today

is produced by electrical

generators in the form of

alternating current (ac).

because electrical energy

can be transported over

long distances at very high

voltage and low currents to

reduce energy losses due to

Joule heat!

| AC can then be

transformed, with almost

no energy loss

loss, to lower and

safer voltages and

correspondingly higher

currents for everyday use! 4

ALTERNATING CURRENTS

| Alternating Currents –

are currents whose value

vary periodically over

time!

| Alternating Currents, in

general are sinusoidal in

nature and generally

supply alternating

voltages of the form:

it is positive ½ the period, AC’s have frequencies

and negative ½ the of 60 Hz or angular

q

frequencyy of 377 rad/s 5

period!

i d!

1. AC SOURCES

| There are many kinds

off AC sources!!

probably are the AC

outlets in our homes!

| But how do we

actually

actua ypproduce

oduce

alternating currents?

6

2. RESISTORS IN AC

| Consider the circuit to the

right.

i ht

| The instantaneous voltage

and current through the

resistor are given by:

in phase

“in phase” with one

another!

7

2. RESISTORS IN AC

| There is still power loss

i resistors

in i t when

h

current passes through

th

them because

b off the

th

voltage drop!

forms:

y Instantaneous

y Average

y Maximum 8

ROOT MEAN SQ

QUARED ((RMS)) VALUES

| Most AC ammeters and

voltmeters are designed to

measure rms values of

currents and voltages, instead

off the

h maximum

i values.

l

| So there

S h is

i a necessity

i to

interconvert between rms and

maximum values!

the maximum value over the

square root of 2!

| Example: 9

EXERCISES

| 1. Find Pav in terms of Irms and R

3.

| 4 Find

4. Fi d Irms in

i terms

t off ξrms and

dR

emf that has a peak value of 48V. Find (a) the

rms current, (b) the average power, (c) the

maximum power. 10

3. INDUCTORS IN AC

| Consider the circuit to the

right.

i ht

| The instantaneous voltage

and current are given by:

out of phase,

phase iL lagging vL

by π/2 rads

χL is

i called

ll d inductive

i d i reactance, it

i

has the unit of ohms!

11

This means that

Thi th t inductors

i d t reactt

differently to current by offering

resistance!

4. CAPACITORS IN AC

| Consider the figure to the

right.

i ht

| The instantaneous voltage

and current are given by:

out of phase

“out phase”, iC leading

vC with π/2 radians.

χC is

i called

ll d capacitive

i i reactance, it

i

has the unit of ohms!

12

This means that

Thi th t capacitors

it reactt

differently to current by offering

resistance!

L,, C IN AC: EXAMPLES

| 1. A 40mH inductor is placed across an ac generator that

has a maximum emf of 120V. Find the inductive reactance

and the maximum current when the frequency is

(a) 60 Hz

(b) 2000 Hz

H

What can you conclude about the relation of inductive reactance and

current?

maximum emf of 100V. Find the capacitive reactance and

the maximum current when the frequency is

(a) 60 Hz

(b) 5000 Hz

What can you conclude about the relation of capacitive reactance and

current? 13

THE BEHAVIORS OF L AND C IN AC CIRCUITS

| Alternating current behaves differently than

p

direct current in inductors and capacitors.

circuit,

i i it

i stops the

h current, that

h is,

i it

i acts like

lik an

open circuit.

| But if the current alternates,

alternates charge continually

flows onto or off the plates of the capacitor and at

higher frequencies, the capacitor, will hardly impede

current at all

all, which means

means, it acts like a short

circuit!

resistance and is essentially a short circuit for dc.

| But when the current is alternating,

alternating a back emf is

generated in an inductor, and at higher frequencies,

the back emf is so large, the inductor acts like an 14

open circuit!

i it!

5. LC IN AC

| Consider the circuit to the

right.

initially charged capacitor

discharges producing a back

emf on the inductor, which in

turn counters the discharging Natural Frequency of

current, recharging the Oscillation of i

capacitor.

completely discharges, it is

once again

i charged

h d by

b the

th C

Current

t iin an LC circuit

i it

inductor.

reaches zero current, current

g

will again flow through

g it from 15

the capacitor!

5. LC IN AC EXAMPLE

| A 2-μF capacitor is charged to 20V and is then

connected

t d across a 66-μH

H iinductor.

d t ((a)) Wh

Whatt iis the

th

frequency of oscillation? (b) What is the

maximum

i value

l off the

th current?

t?

16

6. RLC IN AC ((SERIES)

| Consider the figure to

th right.

the i ht

current given by:

| Where Z is impedance

(overall resistance)

| d δ is

And

A i the

h phase

h

angle

17

6. RLC IN AC ((SERIES)

| The Average Power for RLC in AC, series

connection

ti can bbe represented

t dbby:

power factor.

18

7. RESONANCE IN SERIES RLC IN AC

| Resonance is the

condition in which we

have the smallest

possible impedance that

would lead to the

maximum current.

y Zmin can only happen

when the reactances is

zero.

y Reactances can only be

zero if the ac source

zero,

frequency equates to the

natural frequency of the

circuit!

| At resonance, we have

maximum

i current and

d

power and the power

factor is one! 19

7. SERIES RLC IN AC: EXAMPLES

1. A series RLC Circuit with L = 2H, C = 2μF,

andd R = 20Ω is i driven

d i by

b a generator

t with

ith a

maximum emf of 100 V and a variable

f

frequency. Find

Fi d ((a)) th

the resonance frequency

f

(f0), (b) the maximum current at resonance, (c)

the phase angle δ, δ (d) the power factor,

factor and (e)

the average power delivered.

andd R = 20Ω

Ω isi driven

d i by

b a generator with

i ha

maximum emf of 100 V and a variable

f

frequency. Find

Fi d th

the maximum

i voltage

lt across

the resistor, the inductor and the capacitor.

20

8. TRANSFORMERS

| A transformer is a device used

to raise or lower the voltage in a

circuit without an appreciable

loss of power

of two wire coils around a

common iron core.

y The coil carrying the input

power is called the primary.

y The coil carrying the output

power iis called

ll d the

th secondary.

d

principle of mutual induction

| The iron

Th i core increases

i the

th

magnetic field for a given

current and guides it so that

21

nearly all the magnetic flux

through one coil goes through

the other coil.

6. TRANSFORMERS

| For a transformer with

N1 turns in the primary

and N2 turns in the

secondary the voltage

secondary,

across the secondary coil

is related to the

generator emf across the

primary coil by:

due to Joule Heating

(which is due to

negligible

li ibl resistance

i t iin

the coils), RMS Power

relations are given by: 22

6. TRANSFORMERS: EXAMPLES

| 1. A doorbell requires 0.4A at 6V. It is connected

t a ttransformer

to f whose

h primary

i containing

t i i

2000turns, is connected to a 120-V ac line. (a)

H

How many tturns should

h ld there

th be

b in

i the

th

secondary? (b) What is the current in the

primary?

0.02Ω/km. Calculate the I2R power loss if 200kW

off power is

i transmitted

i d from

f a power generator

to a city 10km away at (a) 240 V and (b) 4.4 kV

23

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