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# 1

This Chapter
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## Define and use Faraday’s Law and

Lenz’s Law to determine the effect
of changing magnetic fluxes.

Compute
p for Inductances and learn
ways on how to store magnetic
energies

Compute
C t for
f the
th circuital
i it l
parameters of RL Circuits
Outline
3
Overview
4

(England) and Joseph Henry (USA)
independently discovered that
changing magnetic field induces
a current in the wire.

## The emfs and currents caused by

changing magnetic fields are
called
ll d induced
i d d emfsf and d induced
i d d
currents.

## The process itself, is referred to as

magnetic induction.

## When you pull the plug of an

electric cord from its socket, you
sometimes observed a small spark.
This phenomenon is explained by
magnetic induction!
1 Magnetic Flux
1.
5

## The flux of a magnetic field through

a surface is defined similarly to the
flux of an electric field.
field
The magnetic flux Φm is defined as

## The unit of flux is that of a magnetic

field times area
area, tesla
tesla-meter
meter
squared, which is called a weber
(Wb)

1 Wb = 1 T•m2

## Exercise: Show that a weber per

second is a volt.
1 Magnetic Flux through many loops
1.
6

## We are often interested

g a coil
in the flux through
containing several turns of
wire.
If the coil contains N turns,
the flux through the coil is
N times
ti the
th flux
fl through
th h
each turn.
7

Consider
C id a b bar magnett iin proximity
i it to
t a
loop attached to an ammeter.
8

##  Moving the bar magnet towards the

loop induces a current through the loop,
loop even
without a battery. Such induced current
arises from
f the
h induced
d d emf. f
9

## How to change the magnetic flux?

From what we have
Move the Move the loop
earlier,
earlier a changing permanent towards the
magnet towards permanent
magnetic flux results to the loop magnet
an induced emf.
Current that
This is known as produces B can Area of the loop
can be changed
p
be changed

Loops/B sources
can be rotated
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EXAMPLES:

## 1. A uniform magnetic field makes an angle of 30o with the axis of a

circular coil of 300 turns and a radius of 4 cm. The field changes
at a rate of 85T/s
85T/s. Find the magnitude of the induced emf in the
coil.

## 2. An 80-turn coil has a radius of 5.0cm and a resistance of 30Ω. At

what rate must a perpendicular magnetic field to produce a
current of 4
4.0A
0A in the coil?

## 3. A solenoid of length 25 cm and radius 0.8cm with 400 turns is in

an external magnetic field of 600 G that makes an angle of 50o
with the axis of the solenoid. (a) Find the magnitude flux through
the solenoid.
solenoid (b) Find the magnitude of the emf induced in the
solenoid if the external magnetic field is reduced to zero in 1.4s.
3 Lenz
3. Lenz’ss Law
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## Developed by Heinrich Lenz

Lenz’s Law gives us the direction of
th
the iinduced
d d current.t

“The ind
induced
ced emf and
induced current are in such
pp
a direction so as to oppose
the change the produces
them.”

## Note: We didn’t specify just what

g causes the induced
kind of change
emf and current. The statement
was left vague to cover a variety
of conditions we will now illustrate.
3 Lenz
3. Lenz’ss Law: Illustrations
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3 Lenz
3. Lenz’ss Law: Illustrations
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3 Lenz
3. Lenz’ss Law: Illustrations
14
3 Lenz
3. Lenz’ss Law: Illustrations
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3 Lenz
3. Lenz’ss Law: Illustrations
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A rectangular coil of 80
turns, 20 cm wide and 30
cm long,
l is llocated
d in a
magnetic field B = 0.8T
directed into the page
page, with
only a portion of the coil in
the region of the magnetic
f ld The
field. h resistance off the
h
coil is 30Ω.
Fi d th
Find the magnitude
it d and d
direction of the induced
current if the coil is moved
with a speed of 2m/s (a) to
the right, (b) up, and (c)
down.
4 Inductance
4.
17

## An airport metal detector

contains a large coil in its frame.

inductance.
inductance

## When a metal passes through

the frame, the inductance of the
frame changes.

## The change in the inductance is

converted to an alarm sound!
The Unit of Inductance
18

## The Unit of Inductance

is the henry(H).
henr (H)
4 1 Self-Inductance
4.1 Self Inductance
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## When the switch is closed,

current rises until it reaches
its max value.
l

## During the current rise, the

magnetic field it produces
changes thus a changing
changes,
magnetic flux

## Thus there should be an

induced emf caused byy the
changing magnetic flux

## Therefore, there is self-

induction in the circuit!
4 1 Self-Inductance
4.1 Self Inductance
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## The general relation of

the self
self-induced
induced emf to
the changing current is:
 The pproportionality
p y constant is the
self-inductance (L) of the circuit!

Law in reverse, we derive:

Self-Inductance
Self Inductance is a
constant but depends on
the geometry of the
circuit/loop!
4 1 Self-Inductance:
4.1 Self Inductance: Example
21

## 1. Calculate the self-inductance of an air-core

solenoid containing 300 turns
t rns if the length of the
solenoid is 25.0 cm and its cross-sectional area is
4.00 cm2.

## 2. Find the self-inductance of a solenoid of length 10

cm, area 5 cm2, and 100 turns. At what rate must
g to induce an emf
the current in the solenoid change
of 20V?
4 2 Mutual-Inductance
4.2 Mutual Inductance
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Circuit 1

## As we change the resistance in

circuit 1, the current also
changes Thus the magnetic field
changes.
it produces also changes.

## The changing magnetic flux

induces an emf on circuit 1 and
on circuit 2!

emf.

## This phenomenon is called,

mutual induction!
Circuit 1 Circuit 2

4 2 Mutual-Inductance
4.2 Mutual Inductance
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## The net induced emf on

circuit two is related to
the changing current by:
Mutual Inductance
like Self-Inductance
Self Inductance
depends on the
geometry of the two
Mutually circuits and
d the
h
Self-induced distance between
by 2 induced by
1 on 2 them!

## Mutual Inductance of the

two circuits are equal and
can be found using the
transformable formula:
4 2 Mutual Inductance: Example
4.2
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## An electric toothbrush has a base

designed to hold the toothbrush
handle when not in use. As shown in
the Figure, the handle has a
cylindrical hole that fits loosely over a
matching cylinder on the base. When
the handle is placed on the base,
base a
changing current in a solenoid inside
the base cylinder induces a current in
a coil inside the handle. This induced x
current charges the battery in the
handle.

## We can model the base as a solenoid

of length x with Nbase turns (Fig.
32.15b), carrying a current I, and
having a cross sectional area A. The
handle coil contains Nhandle turns and
completely surrounds the base coil.
Find the mutual inductance of the
system.
5. The Storage of
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Magnetic Energy
An inductor stores magnetic
energy through the current
b ld up in it, just as a
building
capacitor stores electrical
energy.
energy
Consider, the circuit at the right.
The energy stored in an inductor
carrying a current I is given by:

## The magnetic energy density, uB

is given by:
This is the energy that is stored in a
magnetic field, regardless of the
configuration!
6 RL Circuits
6.
26

RL Circuits contain a
resistor and an
inductor.
I flows in a single
direction
 But changes its value, it
either grows or decays
6. The Growth of
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I in RL Circuits
We assume that the inductor
has 0 emf initially.
initially
After the switch is closed, the
emff off the
th battery
b tt equates
t
to the back emf of the
i d
inductor, andd current builds
b ild
according to:

## Imax is the maximum current in the circuit

As current builds up, the equivalent to ξ0/R.
i d t ’ b
inductor’s backk emff is
i
τ is the time constant equilvalent to L/R
reduced to zero!
6. The Decay of
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I in RL Circuits
As the switches are
reconfig red the Imax
reconfigured, Ima
current is drained by the
resistor R according to:
This happens because the
inductor acts like a battery,
with
ith a llessening
i currentt
pump abilities!
Io is the initial current in the circuit equivalent to ξ0/R.

## τ is the time constant equilvalent to L/R

6 RL Circuits: Examples
6.
29

## 1. A basic RL circuits consists of the following: a

battery (ξ(ξ= 12 V),
V) an inductor (L = 30 mH),mH) and a
resistor (R = 6 Ω). Find the time constant, and if the
switch is closed at t =0,
=0 when will the current reach
half its maximum value.

2. If the battery
y in the example
p above is carefullyy
removed after the current reaches its maximum
value,, when will the current decay
y to 10% of the
original maximum value?
Chapter Six is
pretty much a
straight forward
chapter.

1. Sources of AC
2. R in AC
3. L in
i AC
4. C in AC
5
5. LC in AC
6. The Series RLC
in AC
7. Resonance in
AC
8. T
Transformers
f

1
IN THIS FINAL CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE
TO…

## Understand the sources

of alternating currents

Analyze
A l the
th behaviors
b h i
Understand the
of R, L, and C if
operating principles of
alternating currents
transformers
flow through them

## Define phasors and

Analyze the behavior of 2
discover its importance
specific
f R, L, C
when analyzing for the
combinations
behaviors of R, L, and C
TIME-VARYING VALUES

| To identify time
varying values, we use
lower case letters!!

| To identify fixed
values we shall use
values,
upper case letters

3
WHY STUDY ALTERNATING CURRENTS?
| More than 99% of the
electrical energy used today
is produced by electrical
generators in the form of
alternating current (ac).

## | AC’s advantage over DC

because electrical energy
can be transported over
long distances at very high
voltage and low currents to
reduce energy losses due to
Joule heat!

| AC can then be
transformed, with almost
no energy loss
loss, to lower and
safer voltages and
correspondingly higher
currents for everyday use! 4
ALTERNATING CURRENTS
| Alternating Currents –
are currents whose value
vary periodically over
time!

| Alternating Currents, in
general are sinusoidal in
nature and generally
supply alternating
voltages of the form:

## | Because voltage changes, In our country most

it is positive ½ the period, AC’s have frequencies
and negative ½ the of 60 Hz or angular
q
period!
i d!
1. AC SOURCES
| There are many kinds
off AC sources!!

## | The most common

probably are the AC
outlets in our homes!

| But how do we
actually
actua ypproduce
oduce
alternating currents?

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2. RESISTORS IN AC
| Consider the circuit to the
right.
i ht
| The instantaneous voltage
and current through the
resistor are given by:

## | Notice that vR and iR are

in phase
“in phase” with one
another!
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2. RESISTORS IN AC
| There is still power loss
i resistors
in i t when
h
current passes through
th
them because
b off the
th
voltage drop!

## | This power has 3

forms:
y Instantaneous

y Average

y Maximum 8
ROOT MEAN SQ
QUARED ((RMS)) VALUES
| Most AC ammeters and
voltmeters are designed to
measure rms values of
off the
h maximum
i values.
l

| So there
S h is
i a necessity
i to
interconvert between rms and
maximum values!

## | Simple Rule: the rms value is

the maximum value over the
square root of 2!

| Example: 9
EXERCISES
| 1. Find Pav in terms of Irms and R

3.

| 4 Find
4. Fi d Irms in
i terms
t off ξrms and
dR

## | 5. A 12-Ω resistor is connected across a sinusoidal

emf that has a peak value of 48V. Find (a) the
rms current, (b) the average power, (c) the
maximum power. 10
3. INDUCTORS IN AC
| Consider the circuit to the
right.
i ht
| The instantaneous voltage
and current are given by:

## | Notice that vL and iL are

out of phase,
phase iL lagging vL
χL is
i called
ll d inductive
i d i reactance, it
i
has the unit of ohms!
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This means that
Thi th t inductors
i d t reactt
differently to current by offering
resistance!
4. CAPACITORS IN AC
| Consider the figure to the
right.
i ht
| The instantaneous voltage
and current are given by:

## | Notice that vC and iC are

out of phase
χC is
i called
ll d capacitive
i i reactance, it
i
has the unit of ohms!
12
This means that
Thi th t capacitors
it reactt
differently to current by offering
resistance!
L,, C IN AC: EXAMPLES
| 1. A 40mH inductor is placed across an ac generator that
has a maximum emf of 120V. Find the inductive reactance
and the maximum current when the frequency is
(a) 60 Hz
(b) 2000 Hz
H

What can you conclude about the relation of inductive reactance and
current?

## | 2. A 20-μF capacitor is placed across a generator that has a

maximum emf of 100V. Find the capacitive reactance and
the maximum current when the frequency is
(a) 60 Hz
(b) 5000 Hz

What can you conclude about the relation of capacitive reactance and
current? 13
THE BEHAVIORS OF L AND C IN AC CIRCUITS
| Alternating current behaves differently than
p
direct current in inductors and capacitors.

## | When a capacitor becomes fully charged in a dc

circuit,
i i it
i stops the
h current, that
h is,
i it
i acts like
lik an
open circuit.
| But if the current alternates,
alternates charge continually
flows onto or off the plates of the capacitor and at
higher frequencies, the capacitor, will hardly impede
current at all
all, which means
means, it acts like a short
circuit!

## | Conversely, an inductor coil usually has a very small

resistance and is essentially a short circuit for dc.
| But when the current is alternating,
alternating a back emf is
generated in an inductor, and at higher frequencies,
the back emf is so large, the inductor acts like an 14
open circuit!
i it!
5. LC IN AC
| Consider the circuit to the
right.

## | When the switch is closed, the

initially charged capacitor
discharges producing a back
emf on the inductor, which in
turn counters the discharging Natural Frequency of
current, recharging the Oscillation of i
capacitor.

## | Thus once the capacitor

completely discharges, it is
once again
i charged
h d by
b the
th C
Current
t iin an LC circuit
i it
inductor.

## | Conversely, once the inductor

reaches zero current, current
g
will again flow through
g it from 15
the capacitor!
5. LC IN AC EXAMPLE
| A 2-μF capacitor is charged to 20V and is then
connected
t d across a 66-μH
H iinductor.
d t ((a)) Wh
Whatt iis the
th
frequency of oscillation? (b) What is the
maximum
i value
l off the
th current?
t?

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6. RLC IN AC ((SERIES)
| Consider the figure to
th right.
the i ht

## | The circuit has a

current given by:

| Where Z is impedance
(overall resistance)

| d δ is
And
A i the
h phase
h
angle
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6. RLC IN AC ((SERIES)
| The Average Power for RLC in AC, series
connection
ti can bbe represented
t dbby:

## | Where cos δ is called the p

power factor.

18
7. RESONANCE IN SERIES RLC IN AC
| Resonance is the
condition in which we
have the smallest
possible impedance that
maximum current.
y Zmin can only happen
when the reactances is
zero.
y Reactances can only be
zero if the ac source
zero,
frequency equates to the
natural frequency of the
circuit!

| At resonance, we have
maximum
i current and
d
power and the power
factor is one! 19
7. SERIES RLC IN AC: EXAMPLES
1. A series RLC Circuit with L = 2H, C = 2μF,
andd R = 20Ω is i driven
d i by
b a generator
t with
ith a
maximum emf of 100 V and a variable
f
frequency. Find
Fi d ((a)) th
the resonance frequency
f
(f0), (b) the maximum current at resonance, (c)
the phase angle δ, δ (d) the power factor,
factor and (e)
the average power delivered.

## 2. A series RLC Circuit with L = 2H, C = 2μF,

andd R = 20Ω
Ω isi driven
d i by
b a generator with
i ha
maximum emf of 100 V and a variable
f
frequency. Find
Fi d th
the maximum
i voltage
lt across
the resistor, the inductor and the capacitor.
20
8. TRANSFORMERS
| A transformer is a device used
to raise or lower the voltage in a
circuit without an appreciable
loss of power

## y A simple transformer consisting

of two wire coils around a
common iron core.
y The coil carrying the input
power is called the primary.
y The coil carrying the output
power iis called
ll d the
th secondary.
d

## | The transformer operates on the

principle of mutual induction

| The iron
Th i core increases
i the
th
magnetic field for a given
current and guides it so that
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nearly all the magnetic flux
through one coil goes through
the other coil.
6. TRANSFORMERS
| For a transformer with
N1 turns in the primary
and N2 turns in the
secondary the voltage
secondary,
across the secondary coil
is related to the
generator emf across the
primary coil by:

## | If there are no losses,

due to Joule Heating
(which is due to
negligible
li ibl resistance
i t iin
the coils), RMS Power
relations are given by: 22
6. TRANSFORMERS: EXAMPLES
| 1. A doorbell requires 0.4A at 6V. It is connected
t a ttransformer
to f whose
h primary
i containing
t i i
2000turns, is connected to a 120-V ac line. (a)
H
How many tturns should
h ld there
th be
b in
i the
th
secondary? (b) What is the current in the
primary?

## | 2. A transmission line has a resistance of

0.02Ω/km. Calculate the I2R power loss if 200kW
off power is
i transmitted
i d from
f a power generator
to a city 10km away at (a) 240 V and (b) 4.4 kV

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