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Y P Gupta*, Chairman, ICI UP Allahabad Centre Technical Advisor, New Yamuna Bridge Information Centre Professor (Rtd.) Civil Engineering, MNNIT, Allahabad, India
34th Conference on OUR WORLD IN CONCRETE & STRUCTURES: 16 - 18 August 2009, Singapore

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34th Conference on OUR WORLD IN CONCRETE & STRUCTURES: 16 18 August 2009, Singapore


Y P Gupta*, Chairman, ICI UP Allahabad Centre Technical Advisor, New Yamuna Bridge Information Centre Professor (Rtd.) Civil Engineering, MNNIT, Allahabad, India

Abstract In INDIA and world over, huge amount of demolished waste is generated by construction Industry which is not put to re-use, except it is disposed off it as land fill for low lying areas. Dumping of wastes on land is not only causing shortage of space, but also environmental problems near cities. Further, due to urbanization growth, distance between demolition waste generation area and disposal land area has also become longer and therefore, transportation cost for disposal has increased and thus the excessive use of energy. Recycling of demolished waste can offer not only the solution of growing waste disposal problem, but will also help to conserve natural resources for meeting increasing demand of aggregates for long time to come for construction industry and give sustainable environment. This paper describes the outcome of tests carried out about the use of Recycled Aggregate in Construction. A process to get aggregate from demolition waste is developed and its basic properties are determined. These properties are compared with conventional and local aggregate. Such recycled aggregate is tried to produce concrete of grades equivalent to M25 or similar other uses. It is found that Recycled Aggregate from demolition Waste can be gainfully used in making fresh Concrete for general construction purposes, Concrete Blocks / Bricks and for rigid pavements in under layers like DLC etc. The most useful item is making Conventional Bricks similar to burnt clay bricks. INTRODUCTION
For sustainable environment, development of green and environment friendly infrastructure is necessary. It is also necessary for the better growth of any Countrys Economy. In India, the industrial growth is reaching nearing 9% of GDP. Therefore, rapid development of Buildings, Highways, Bridges, Power Plants, etc is needed in a big way. Generally, Construction has a major share in developing infrastructure in any Country. Accordingly, in the next five years, infrastructure in India will need an expenditure of more than $ 20,000 billion. Rapid infra-structural development requires huge construction materials, in which Concrete is preferred as it has longer life, low maintenance and better performance. Concrete is also the largest construction material used all over the world, as this can be used in any shape, grade or strength and any where on land or sea.

Presently, the construction industry is using more and more natural resources for producing aggregate required to make Concrete which come from breaking of stones in hills. Waste material generated from Building demolition etc is not put back to use. Huge quantity of demolition waste generated can be collected and put to use in construction. Recycling of demolished waste can offer not only the solution of growing waste disposal problem, but will also help to conserve natural resources like stones from hills, crude oil/energy which is required in Operation and Transportation at hillocks and throwing the Construction Waste (Called MALWA in India) as land fill. This will also Percentage of concrete ingradients help in meeting increasing demand of aggregates; Water 6% protect environment and maintain ecological Cement 13% balance in hilly areas

Concrete is a heterogeneous material which is made with Cement, Aggregate (Stone Chips), Sand & Water. A typical distribution of constituent materials in concrete is given in figure 1. Out of the total ingredients in mix, about 50% is Coarse Aggregate. As all these materials are not available in plenty and some of them are energy intensive, so their use should be economized.
Aggregate 49%

Sand 32%


Sand Cement Water

Figure 1- A Typical distribution of ingredient materials in Concrete Mix

Presently, the construction industry world wide is using natural resources to make aggregate or collect them from river bed as pebbles. Environmentally such rocks / material should not be disturbed as far as possible. If we break more & more hillocks, then there will be indirect effect on environment like deforestation, floods etc. Further, the cost of construction is continuously increasing due to increasing cost of materials and energy. In many places, supply of good quality aggregate is depleting, and is to be brought from longer distances which greatly increase the hauling cost and hence Fuel Energy required, which increases the construction cost. Presently, due to huge developmental work being carried out and construction to go on for ever, stone aggregates are required for the many Centuries to come and there may be a shortage of natural aggregates after few centuries. Therefore, for conservation of natural resources and protection of environment, it is necessary that alternate sources of aggregates be searched which is necessary for any developing/developed country. Figure 2 Dump of Demolition/Solid Waste On the other hand, huge amount of demolished waste is generated everyday. Central Pollution Control Board has estimated current quantum of solid waste generation in India to the tune of 50 million tons; out of this, waste from construction industry accounts for more than 35%. A typical demolition waste dump is shown in figure 2. Disposal of such high quantum of waste puts enormous pressure on solid waste management system and energy required for processing. The basic composition of Solid waste or Garbage varies in composition from place to place and from time to

time, but a typical distribution of basic constituents in solid waste is shown in figure 3. Though, the organic waste can be put to use for making Bio-gas & Manure and Metal pieces & Polyurethane for recycling, but demolition waste or MALWA is not put to use anywhere. However, to do all these ORGANIC processes, it is necessary to sort the Solid MATTER 10% METAL waste in different categories. This is also the 2% need of hour and is being done in most SOIL / DUST PLASTICS 1% advance Countries. In general, demolition 25% waste (MALWA) gets mixed up with organic WOOD 2% waste or garbage, so it becomes difficult to OTHERS 10% process the garbage even for organic manure or biogas or for any other proposes. MALWA However, by observing little precaution 50% during demolition or renovation of Buildings, the sorting process or recycling can be easier. It is also desirable to recycle demolition waste (MALWA) on the spot itself to save energy in transportation and product produced in the form of Recycled Aggregate can be economically used in nearby places of Construction itself. Figure 3- Typical composition of Solid waste or Garbage


Coarse Aggregate: Normally coarse Aggregate is the fractured stone obtained from rocks in hills or pebbles from river bed, and because of depletion of good conventional aggregate in certain regions, the need for development of Recycled Aggregate technology should be taken up commercially. It is similar to fly ash, which is available from electrostatic precipitators of various super thermal power stations which is an industrial waste material. It is chemically reactive when, mixed with cement for use in concrete. This is also useful as partial replacement of cement, as it gives concrete having better impermeability. Thus, it has a wider use in Construction Industry. Similarly, large scale recycling of demolished waste will offer, not only the solution of growing waste disposal problem and energy requirement, but will also help construction Industry in getting aggregates locally. Such demolition waste can be crushed to required size, depending upon the place of its application and crushed material is screened in order to produce recycled aggregate of appropriate sizes. An aggregate produced by demolished buildings will be called Recycled Aggregates.

Materials and Material Properties: Experimental investigations are carried out by the author, so as to develop the methodology for conversion of demolition waste to recycled aggregate. In the present investigation, conventional and local aggregate are also taken on parallel basis. Thus, following three materials are tried. 1. Conventional Aggregate; (Dolomite stone from DALA Quarry in UP). 2. Local Aggregate; (Sand stone from MEZA Quarry in UP). 3. Recycled Aggregate; (Broken Building Part MALWA). Typical photographs of these aggregates are shown in Figure 4. All these materials have been tested for their physical properties like aggregate impact value, specific gravity, water absorption, bulk density etc. These are given in table 1. It is seen that specific gravity of Recycled aggregate is about 73% of DALA aggregate and 90% of local aggregate. These values of recycled aggregates will very from place to place and from time to time.





Figure 4- Typical Shape & Color of Three Different Source of Aggregate Demolition Waste was collected from buildings being broken for renovation. The foreign matter was sorted out from solid waste (MALWA) and broken into the pieces of approximately 20 & 10 mm size with the help of hammer. On large scale this can be done by light Crusher. Then such aggregate was mechanically sieved through IS sieve of 26.5 mm and 4.75 mm to remove higher & finer particles. The higher size can be broken again and finer particles separated out can go back to river bed in the same trucks which bring sand from river. Table 1 Physical Properties Of MALWA And Other Aggregate Used In Concrete Mix Description of Material Conventional Aggregate Local Aggregate Recycled Aggregate Sand Material Source DALA Quarry MEJA Quarry Dismantl ed House JAMUNA River Specific Gravity 2.78 2.50 2.01 2.55 Water Absorption (%) 0.31 1.53 5.26 1.13 AIV (%) 10.5 31.36 25.97 Average FM 20 mm 10 mm 7.20 7.42 7.28 6.37 6.08 6.28 Bulk Density (gm/cc) 1.66 1.45 1.25 1.65

2.75 (Zone II)


Recycled aggregate has been tried for the following three uses. In each case Concrete mix was prepared with OPC 53 grade cement, river sand and bore well water. No chemical admixture was used in any of the concrete mix. a. Recycled aggregate for making conventional Bricks b. Recycled aggregate in general concrete Construction c. Recycled Aggregate in Construction of Highway Pavement. All these options are discussed here.


The MALWA concrete was tried for making conventional Bricks. A typical concrete mix was designed in Recycled aggregate at different cement contents. Finally cement content of 160 Kg/cum of Concrete was chosen. The details of mix are given in table 2. Table 2 - Concrete Mix Design for Casting Bricks in Recycled Aggregate Cement Aggregate Aggregate Sand Aggregate Cement (Kg) 20 mm (Kg) 10 mm (Kg) (Kg) Ratio (%) 160 502 502 867 11.70

Description MALWA

W/C 0.6

Figure 5 - Typical Shape of Bricks made with MALWA Concrete

All these material were taken for a smaller batch of concrete and weighed as per design requirement. Materials were mixed in laboratory mixture. Bricks were cast as per the conventional brick making. Bricks were cured in open with water spray a few times in the day. Shape of typical bricks is shown in figure 5. The Bricks were tested after 7 days. Each Brick was also weighed and concrete density calculated. Then these bricks were used in layers for wall making as shown in figure 6. The wall is performing well.

Discussion of Results:
For the comparison of efficiency of MALWA concrete bricks, the conventional burnt clay bricks in Ist quality were also taken and tested. The details of investigation are discussed in the following heads. 1. Compressive Strength 2. Density of Bricks 3. Failure Pattern / Fracture Mechanism Figure 6 - Typical Shape of Bricks put in layers as brick work i) Compressive Strength: After curing, the bricks were tested in compression in CTM. Few Conventional Clay bricks were also tested in the same procedure. Compressive strength in each case is summarized in Table 3. It is seen that Bricks made with Recycled aggregate, attains good strength and it is comparable with good quality clay bricks. Such strength of Brick is good for normal Construction of Buildings. Table 3: Comparative Strength of MALWA Concrete Bricks and Conventional Bricks Description Av. Strength (MPa) Density of Brick (g/cc) MALWA Concrete Bricks 15.27 2.218 Conventional Bricks 14.65 1.503 ii) Density of Bricks: Each Brick was weighed and its density was calculated. The density in both cases is also given in Table 3. It is seen that density is more when recycled aggregate is used. Such value is advantageous in the case of its use in load bearing wall, lining or on road Shoulders etc. iii) Failure Pattern / Fracture Mechanism: 1. The shape of crushed Recycled aggregate bricks is shown in figure 7. It is seen that the failure pattern of Recycled Aggregate Bricks is similar as for typical Concrete. 2. It is generally seen that the failure occurs at the interface of aggregate & mortar and plaster lump pieces are broken Figure 7 - Failure Pattern of Crushed Bricks

B) Use of Recycled Aggregate in General Concrete Construction

A concrete mix with Conventional, Local and Recycled aggregate was designed in the grade of M 20 and M 25 with cement content of 250 & 300 Kg/cum. The quantities of ingredients are given in table 4 for M 25. All these materials were taken for a smaller batch and weighed as per design requirement. Materials were mixed in laboratory mixture. Cubes (150 x 150 x 150 mm size) were cast. They were cured and tested after 7 & 28 days. Each cube was also weighed and concrete density calculated. Table 4 - Design of general Concrete mix in different Aggregates (M 25) Description Cement Aggregate Aggregate River Sand W/C of Aggregate (Kg) 20mm (Kg) 10mm (Kg) (Kg) Conventional 300 645 545 841 0.5 Local 300 600 500 821 0.5 Recycled 300 558 498 802 0.5 Discussion of Results: The details of investigation are given in following heads. 1. Compressive Strength 2. Density of Concrete 3. Failure Pattern 4. Permeability of concrete i) Compressive Strength: Compressive strength in each case is summarized in Table 5. It is seen that all concrete mixes attain more than design strength (including recycled aggregate) ie more than 25 MPa in 28 days. The compressive strength further increases with time as seen in the table. It is found that such concrete with recycled aggregate can be used conveniently upto 25 MPa (equivalent to 1:1-1/2:3 concrete Mix) in general building construction. Table 5 - Compressive Strength of Concrete mix in different materials Average Compressive Strength (MPa) at Avg. Density Impermeability Material

7 day

28 day

60 day

90 day

Conventional 30.08 41.88 46.09 49.82 Local 26.75 30.85 36.47 39.09 Recycled 24.59 32.12 37.76 39.56 ii) Density of Concrete: Each cube was weighed and density of concrete calculated. The variation of density in each case is also given in Table 5. It is seen that density is maximum when conventional (DALA) aggregate is used and it is minimum when recycled aggregate is used. The maximum density is 2.51 g/cc and minimum is 2.25 g/cc. which is about 90% of fresh aggregate. iii) Failure Pattern: It is similar to what is given under bricks. iv) Permeability of concrete: Permeability of concrete is determined using method described in Specifications for Road & Bridge Works of Indian Road Congress. For this 3 cylinders, of 150mm diameter & 160mm height were cast and cured. They were fixed in permeability apparatus as shown in figure 8. Water pressure of 7 Kg/cm2 was applied for 96 hours in the Permeability Apparatus. Figure 8 - Permeability Apparatus After 96 hours cylinders were taken out and split under line load in Compression Testing Machine. A typical split cylinder is shown in figure 9. In this figure, the effect of water penetration is shown at top and marked by black line. The depth of penetration of water in cylinder was observed & measured as well as volume of water lost from original level in the intake tube is recorded. The results are calculated as:

Weight of cubes 8.467 7.776 7.61

of concrete 2.509 2.304 2.255

Coeff. (10-04) (as defined) 5.09 3.28 1.71


Measure the depth of penetration of water in permeability cylinder. 2. Coefficient of impermeability is calculated as Impermeability coefficient = vol. of water lost in tube / (Average depth of water penetration in concrete x X-area of cylinder) The impermeability of concrete, as defined above, is shown in table 5. It is observed that impermeability coefficient is comparatively low and this is comparable with other type of aggregates. Figure 9 - A typical shape of split cylinder Use in Some Utility Items: Such concrete can be used in general residential buildings and similar other places. Few utility items like Shallow tubs, Flower pots etc were cast with such Recycled Aggregate Concrete. They are shown in figure 9 and used at site.

Figure 10 A typical Shallow Tub and Flower Pot made with such Concrete

C) Use of Recycled Highways Construction:



Highways are the biggest user of aggregate, so to see the possibility of its use in Highway construction, investigations are carried out for use in the following components. 1. DLC (Dry Lean Concrete). 2. Embankment Drainage Components. a) DLC (Dry Lean Concrete): The Concrete mix parameters of Recycled aggregate along with conventional and local materials were determined for DLC mix as given in table 6. The effectiveness of concrete mix of conventional aggregate is compared with Local and Recycled aggregate and its usefulness is seen from strength and compacted density consideration. Using these aggregates as in table 6, concrete mix was prepared in the smaller batch in laboratory requiring a minimum compressive strength of 10 MPa at 7 days (as required in Highway Construction) as per method described for DLC mix. Cubes were also caste and cured as usual. Table 6 - Design of Concrete mix for DLC in different materials Cement Aggregate Aggregate River Sand Aggregate (Kg) 20mm (Kg) 10mm (Kg) (Kg) Cement Ratio 150 720 585 945 15:1 150 720 585 945 15:1 150 1310 945 15:1

Description of Aggregate Conventional Local Recycled

Discussion of Results: The investigations are discussed in the following heads. 1. MDD & OMC of Mix 2. Compressive Strength and concrete density. i) MDD & OMC of DLC Mix: The DLC Mix was filled in the cubes with the help of vibratory hammer at different moisture contents. The weight of cubes was taken. The values of Maximum Dry Density and moisture content were calculated as per conventional procedure. Several trials were made at different moisture contents. All these values compare very well as given in table 7.So the aggregates can be effectively used in highways. Table 7 - OMC, MDD and Compressive Strength of DLC Cubes Observation / Aggregate Average 7 day Strength Avg. Weight of cubes Density of concrete OMC Maximum Dry Density (MDD) Units MPa Kg g/cc % g/cc Conventional 17.03 8.51 2.52 4.30 2.44 Local 12.53 8.28 2.45 5.50 2.20 Recycled 13.37 8.07 2.39 5.52 2.21

ii) Compressive Strength: Cubes were tested after 7 days. It is seen that all the mix attain more than required Cube strength of 10MPa. It is seen that even the Recycled aggregate mix attains more than the design strength. Each cube was also weighed and concrete density calculated as given in Table 7. b) Use of Recycled Aggregate In Embankment Drainage Components: With the success of its use in DLC, the MALWA concrete as per design (Table 8) was tried for casting chute drain, median drain & side drain components. Few Chute drain Components were precast in laboratory with M25 mix and is shown in figure 11. This has also been used at site as shown in figure and is performing very well. Table-8 - Design of Concrete mix in different materials (M 25) Description Cement (Kg) Aggregate (Kg) Sand (Kg) Conventional 300 1210 749 Recycled Aggregate 300 1056 802

W/C 0.55 0.55

Figure 11 - A typical shape of Drainage Component made with Recycled Aggregate in single and assembled form


Based on the present investigations on Recycled Aggregates, the following conclusions can be drawn. Some advantages of using Recycled aggregate in Concrete Construction are also given. 1. Disposal of Demolition Waste / GARBAGE becomes easier. 2. We can make concrete blocks, like burnt clay bricks out of this type of concrete. By making bricks, the manufacture of conventional clay bricks can be reduced & hence top Soil, which is suitable for Agriculture, can be conserved. This will automatically preserve green environment and save energy. 3. Recycled aggregate can be used in reinforced concrete or Plain Concrete in foundation, Retaining walls, Panel walls etc. 4. Highways are the biggest user of aggregates where it can be used for dry lean concrete (DLC), Shoulder, and paving blocks and in side drains etc. 5. Finer material after crushing of demolition waste and sieving through 4.75 mm IS sieve; can go back to river beds in the same trucks which bring sand from river. 6. It will save the natural resources like Hillocks, River Pebbles etc from extinction. 7. Stone queries or Hillocks will not be affected and hence environment can be preserved. Resulting floods and droughts will be minimized & thus less Deforestation of hilly areas. 8. It can keep the roads and streets clean by not dumping Demolition Waste on the road side as in India. This will also minimize Road accidents because of fewer obstructions. 9. It can generate work for unemployed people like collecting MALWA by Rag pickers and deposit it at Ready Mixed Concrete Plants (shown in Fig 12) who will get some Aggregate. 10. For enforcing the use of Recycled Aggregate in Construction, studies on long term properties of the Recycled Aggregate should be done for their properties. 11. Based on such studies, Formulation of Specifications and Codal provisions be done.

1. Marek, C. R. Gallaway, B. M. and Long, R. E., Look at Processed Rubble It is a Valuable Source for Aggregates, Roads and Streets, Vol. 114, No. 9, Sept. 1971, p 82-85. 2. Barra, M and Vazquez, E, Properties of Concrete with Recycled Aggregates : Influence of the Properties of the Aggregates and Their Interpretation, Proceedings of the International Symposium organized by the Concrete Technology Unit, London, 1998 3. Ghosh, S. N., Progress in Cement and Concrete, Science & Technology, Thomas Telford, Pt. I, Vol. I, 1992 4. Rao, Akash; K.N Jha, and Sudhir Misra; A framework for use of construction and demolition waste as recycled aggregate in India, The Indian Concrete Journal, January, 2006.

The work has been carried out in the site laboratory of M/s HCC, Allahabad Bypass project.