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Stephen Blake Ch. 14 Outline I. Macroevolution and the Diversity of Life A.

Darwin observed a high diversity of life on the Galapagos Islands, which led him to develop an explanation for macroevolution. B. Macroevolution - the major changes in the history of life, evident in the fossil record C. Speciation - the formation of new species as a result of macroevolution 1. Speciation helps increase the diversity of life 2. Through this, all of the species on Earth today evolved from one common ancestor II. The Origin of Species A. Species - a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another to produce fertile offspring 1. Can be classified based on measurable physical traits 2. Can be identified in terms of ecological niches 3. Can also be defined as the smallest group of individuals sharing a common ancestor and forming one branch on the tree of life B. Reproductive Barrier - anything that prevents individuals of closely related species from interbreeding 1. Prezygotic Barriers - prevent mating or fertilization between species a. Temporal Isolation - mating or fertilization occurs at different seasons or times of day b. Habitat Isolation - Populations live in different habitats and do not meet c. Behavioral Isolation - Little or no sexual attraction exists between populations d. Mechanical Isolation - Structural differences prevent fertilization e. Gametic Isolation - Female and male gametes fail to unite in fertilization 2. Postzygotic Barriers - operate if interspecies mating actually occurs and results in hybrid zygotes a. Reduced Hybrid Viability- Hybrid zygotes fail to develop or fail to reach sexual maturity b. Reduced Hybrid Fertility - Hybrids fail to produce functional gametes c. Hybrid Breakdown - Hybrids are feeble or sterile C. Mechanisms of Speciation 1. Allopatric Speciation - The initial block to gene flow is a geographic barrier that physically isolates the splinter population a. caused by mountains

A structure can sometimes become adapted to alternative functions it was not originally designed for 2. caused by choosing of mates based on color c. alters the structure of an organism. Fossils are most commonly seen in sedimentary rocks .evolutionary developmental biology 1.b.exaptations 1.species that are descended from a common ancestor diverge gradually in form as they acquire unique adaptations III. genetic alterations d. Geologic Time and the Fossil Record 1. caused by accidents during cell division. and special pattern of changes in an organism’s form as it develops from a zygote into an adult 4. studies the evolution of developmental processes in multicellular organisms 2. Adaption of Old Structures for New Functions.The origin of a new species without geographic isolation a. common for small. as adulthood features are mixed with childhood features b. isolated populations 2. caused by cross-breeding by humans D. Some structures can serve multiple functions in organisms over time 3. Punctuated Equilibria . 2. Sympatric Speciation . caused by the development of adaptations b. which determine the location of structures on the body. the sequence in which fossils appear in rock strata. Evo-Devo . The fossil record. Graduated Model . duplications or alterations of homeotic genes. punctuated by abrupt episodes of speciation 2. B. developmental genes cover the rate. The Evolution of Biological Novelty A. caused by separation of land c. causes uneven bone growth in humans 5. is an archive of macroevolution. or equilibrium. Earth History and Macroevolution A. Tempo of speciation 1. An animal has to evolve over time in order to give a structure an alternative function.long periods of little change. probably facilitated the origin of new body shapes in animals IV. timing. paedomorphosis . just a few genetic changes can become magnified into major structural differences between organisms 3.the retention into adulthood of features that were solely juvenile in ancestral species a.

all of the biodiversity of Earth came together on one land mass and competed. Classifying the Diversity of Life A. Classification and Phylogeny . The continents all drift on Earth’s surface floating on top of the hotter mantle 2. species b.a method of determining the age of rocks and fossils based on the decay of radioactive isotopes B. Species are named using a two-part latinized name. Naming Species a.3. Mass extinction is usually followed by explosive diversification of survivors. eight levels. kingdom. or binomial. B. Precambrian (earlier than 542 mya) b. C. Cenozoic (65 mya to present) 4. b. Radiometric Dating . Geological Time Scale . the isolation caused by this resulted in some species in different areas of the world evolving differently. Basics of Taxonomy 1. A supercontinent made up of all of the landmasses was formed about 250 mya 3. each level of classification is made up of many subgroups that share similar traits. genus. Hierarchical Classification a. 2. class. The boundaries between eras are marked by mass extinctions 5. order. the first part of the latin name is the species’ genus and the second part is a unique name for each species within the genus. phylum. Some species became extinct at this time. 4. 2. Mass Extinctions and Explosive Diversifications of Life 1. Mesozoic (251-65 mya) d. Five mass extinctions have occurred in the past 500 million years. When Pangea split apart. V. in order from general to specific: domain. Paleozoic (542-251 mya) c. As a result of this.a constant sequence of geological periods in the Earth’s history a. Plate Tectonics and Macroevolution 1. family.

In the Eukarya domain. 4. Fungi. you can only use homologous structures. d. b.when species from different evolutionary branches have certain structures that are superficially similar if natural selection has shaped analogous adaptations c. phylogenetic trees are constantly being revised. 2. Three-Domain System . Animalia. archaea. Classification: A Work in Progress 1.1. a. and eukarya. there are four kingdoms: Plantae. and the Protists. Complex structures that are similar are more likely to be homologous than simple structures. Convergent Evolution . Cladistics .the scientific research for clades. 3. Biologists use phylogenetic trees to depict hypotheses about the evolutionary history of species 2.a classification system created in the late 1900s which puts all life into three domains: bacteria. C. Molecular biology can be used to search for homology in similar structures. The protist kingdom is believed to contain multiple kingdoms. Homologous Structures . To classify organisms based on evolutionary history. by comparing the genomes of the species which have these structures. a distinct branch on the tree of life. Homology and Analogy a. Like all hypotheses. These studies are used to shape classification. however scientists haven’t found any yet. which are an ancestral species and all of its descendants. .structures found in different species which may vary in form and function but exhibit fundamental similarities because they evolved from the same structure in a common ancestor b.