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Hollow Section Joints in Trusses

Intro Joints & Behaviour
Intro Joints & Behaviour

Wardenier

RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Hollow Section Joints in Trusses Intro Joints & Behaviour Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Trusses

Trusses Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009
Trusses Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Trusses Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Most common Combinations of sections for trusses

Brace

Chord

 

Joint

CC
CC
CC
CC
RR
RR
RR
RR
CR
CR
CR
CR
RI
RI
RI
RI
  CI
  CI
 

CI

Wardenier

RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Brace Chord   Joint CC RR CR RI   CI Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course

Hollow Section Trusses

a. Warren truss b. Pratt truss c. Vierendeel truss d. truss with cross braces
a. Warren truss
b. Pratt truss
c. Vierendeel truss
d. truss with cross braces

Warren Type

:

K-joints

Pratt Type

:

N-joints

Vierendeel Type

:

T-joints

Cross brace Type

:

KT - joints X - joints

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Type : T-joints Cross brace Type : KT - joints X - joints Wardenier RHS Joints

Basic Types of Joints

Basic Types of Joints Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Basic Types of Joints Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Definition of eccentricity (joint design)

Definition of eccentricity (joint design) Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Wardenier

RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Definition of eccentricity (joint design) Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Definition of Gap and Overlap

Definition of Gap and Overlap Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Definition of Gap and Overlap Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Definition of Load capacity ultimate load)

Definition of Load capacity ultimate load) Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009 Maximum or load

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Maximum or load at a

3%d 0 or 3%b 0 deformation

capacity ultimate load) Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009 Maximum or load at a 3%d

Further: Service ability criteria

DeformationDeformation << 1%1% chordchord widthwidth oror chordchord diameterdiameter

crackcrack initiationinitiation

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

or chord chord diameter diameter • • crack crack initiation initiation Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo
Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009 Failure Modes e .g. for RHS K gap

Wardenier

RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Failure Modes

e.g. for RHS K gap joints

A : chord face plastification

B : chord punching shear

C : brace effective width

D : chord shear failure

E : local buckling brace

F : local buckling chord

punching shear C : brace effective width D : chord shear failure E : local buckling

Wardenier

d

b

h

t

Symbols used (e.g. for K-Joints)

N 1 N 2 e b b 2 1 d 1 d 2 g t1
N 1
N 2
e
b
b 2
1
d
1
d 2
g
t1
t
2
h1
1
2
h
2
0
g
b
0
1
θ
t
1
θ
0
2
2
0
N
0
h
0
+e
β γ θ τ

RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

t 2 h1 1 2 h 2 0 g b 0 1 θ t 1 θ
N 1 N 2 b b 2 1 d 1 d 2 t1 t 2
N 1
N 2
b
b 2
1
d 1
d 2
t1
t 2
1
h 1
2
h 2
g
b 0
θ 1
θ 2
t 0
0
N 0
h 0
+e

Joint parameters

For Square Hollow Sections:

b

b

1

0

b 1

T and X-joints:

β =

β

=

β =

b

1

+

b

2

K gap joints:

2 b

0

+ b

2

+ b

3

KT joints:

For Rectangular Hollow Sections, include rectangularity, e.g. for K gap joints:

3b

0

β =

b

1

+ h

1

+ b

2

+ h

2

4b

0

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

K gap joints: 3 b 0 β = b 1 + h 1 + b 2
N 1 N 2 b 1 b 2 d 1 d 2 1 t1 t
N 1
N 2
b
1
b 2
d
1
d 2
1 t1
t 2
h 1
2
h 2
g
b 0
θ 1
θ 2
t 0
0
N 0
h 0
+e

Joint parameters

d b 0 0 2γ = or t t 0 0 h i η =
d
b
0
0
2γ =
or
t
t
0
0
h i
η =
b
0
N
0
n =
t i
τ =
A
⋅ f
0
y 0
t
0

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

= or t t 0 0 h i η = b 0 N 0 n =

Truss Behaviour

• Assume pin ended Joints but only if : - the governing elements (joints or

Assume pin ended Joints but only if :

- the governing elements (joints or members) have sufficient deformation/rotation capacity

If loads between the joints: assume continuous chords

Wardenier

RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

capacity If loads between the joints: assume continuous chords Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Truss Behaviour

For Vierendeel trusses : use moment joints (stiffness is important)

For Vierendeel trusses: use moment joints (stiffness is important)

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Behaviour For Vierendeel trusses : use moment joints (stiffness is important) Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo

General Design Aspects for Trusses

• Depth h 1/10 to 1/16 L; generally 1/15 L

• pin jointed members if critical parts (members or joints) have sufficient rotation capacity secondary moments can be neglected for static design

• if possible: center lines noding

• gap joints preferred above overlap joints (tolerances)

• optimize chords, however considering joint strength

• consider the joint strength always in the conceptual design

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

joint strength • consider the joint strength always in the conceptual design Wardenier RHS Joints -

Gap joints vs Overlap joints

g gap - end preparation - fitting (tolerances) - welding overlap
g gap - end preparation - fitting (tolerances) - welding overlap

g

gap

g gap - end preparation - fitting (tolerances) - welding overlap
g gap - end preparation - fitting (tolerances) - welding overlap

- end preparation

- fitting (tolerances)

- welding

g gap - end preparation - fitting (tolerances) - welding overlap

overlap

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

joints g gap - end preparation - fitting (tolerances) - welding overlap Wardenier RHS Joints -

Multiplanar trusses

Multiplanar trusses Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009
Multiplanar trusses Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009
Multiplanar trusses Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Multiplanar trusses Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Multiplanar Truss Behaviour

Joint strength related to that for uniplanar joints but additional: - - Geometrical effect Loading

Joint strength related to that for uniplanar joints

but additional:

Joint strength related to that for uniplanar joints but additional: - - Geometrical effect Loading effect
Joint strength related to that for uniplanar joints but additional: - - Geometrical effect Loading effect
Joint strength related to that for uniplanar joints but additional: - - Geometrical effect Loading effect
- -
-
-

Geometrical effect

Loading effect (see left)

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

joints but additional: - - Geometrical effect Loading effect (see left) Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo

Hollow Section Joints in Frames

Types of Joints
Types of Joints

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Hollow Section Joints in Frames Types of Joints Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Bolted joint to a fin plate

Bolted joint to a fin plate Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Bolted joint to a fin plate Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Bolted joint to a T stub

Bolted joint to a T stub Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Bolted joint to a T stub Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Bolted joint to a welded I section stub

Bolted joint to a welded I section stub Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Bolted joint to a welded I section stub Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Single sided bolted joint

Single sided bolted joint Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Single sided bolted joint Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Welded RHS beam to column joints

Welded RHS beam to column joints Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Welded RHS beam to column joints Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Stiffened beam to column joints

Stiffened beam to column joints Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Stiffened beam to column joints Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009
Basic behaviour of Hollow Section Joints Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009
Basic behaviour of Hollow Section Joints
Basic behaviour of Hollow Section Joints
Basic behaviour of Hollow Section Joints Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Basic behaviour of Hollow Section Joints Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

General approach

• follow the forces

• identify potential failure locations

• deform the structure under the acting loads

• consider the local stiffness and the material behaviour

• identify the possible failure modes

Wardenier

RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

stiffness and the material behaviour • identify the possible failure modes Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo

Example: Plate to RHS joint

Example: Plate to RHS joint Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Example: Plate to RHS joint Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Example

Possible failure locations

• plate

 

• weld

• chord (lamellar tearing)

• chord (face plastification)

• chord (punching shear)

• chord (side wall failure)

(yielding, crippling)

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

chord (punching shear) • chord (side wall failure) (yielding, crippling) Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course

Example

Plate to RHS chord joint - plate failure

Example Plate to RHS chord joint - plate failure Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Example Plate to RHS chord joint - plate failure Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009
Example Plate to RHS chord joint - plate failure Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Example

Plate to RHS chord joint - weld failure

Example Plate to RHS chord joint - weld failure Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

- weld failure Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009 Weld failure should be avoided (yielding

Weld failure should be avoided (yielding only possible over a small distance)

Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009 Weld failure should be avoided (yielding only possible over

Example

Plate to RHS chord joint - chord lamellar tearing

No photo for this failure mode

Wardenier

RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Plate to RHS chord joint - chord lamellar tearing No photo for this failure mode Wardenier
Plate to RHS chord joint - chord lamellar tearing No photo for this failure mode Wardenier

Example

Plate to RHS chord joint - other chord failure modes

Plate to RHS chord joint - other chord failure modes chord punching shear side wall yielding

chord punching shear

side wall yielding

chord failure modes chord punching shear side wall yielding chord face plastification Wardenier RHS Joints -

chord face plastification

Wardenier

RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

failure modes chord punching shear side wall yielding chord face plastification Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo

Plate to RHS joint (plate failure)

Plate to RHS joint (plate failure) Different stiffness for q 1 and q 2 Wardenier RHS

Different stiffness for q 1 and q 2

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Plate to RHS joint (plate failure) Different stiffness for q 1 and q 2 Wardenier RHS
Plate to RHS joint (plate failure) Different stiffness for q 1 and q 2 Wardenier RHS

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Wardenier Stress and resulting deformation RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009 Plate to RHS joint (plate
Wardenier Stress and resulting deformation RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009 Plate to RHS joint (plate

Stress and resulting deformation

RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Plate to RHS joint

(plate failure)

1. Method:

Consider the deformations under a uniform stress

Joints - Oslo Course 2009 Plate to RHS joint (plate failure) 1. Method: Consider the deformations
Plate to RHS joint (plate failure) Resulting stress pattern in plate Compatibility Wardenier RHS Joints

Plate to RHS joint

(plate failure)

Plate to RHS joint (plate failure) Resulting stress pattern in plate Compatibility Wardenier RHS Joints -

Resulting stress pattern in plate

Compatibility

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Plate to RHS joint (plate failure) Resulting stress pattern in plate Compatibility Wardenier RHS Joints -
Plate to RHS joint (plate failure) 2. Method: Plate stiffness >> stiffness RHS face Stress
Plate to RHS joint (plate failure) 2. Method: Plate stiffness >> stiffness RHS face Stress

Plate to RHS joint

(plate failure)

2. Method:

Plate stiffness >> stiffness RHS face

Stress and resulting deformation for a rigid plate

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

>> stiffness RHS face Stress and resulting deformation for a rigid plate Wardenier RHS Joints -

Effect of material

Effect of material Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009 a: ductile → redistribution of stresses

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

a: ductile redistribution of stresses

b: brittle failure at reaching in one point the ultimate stress

2009 a: ductile → redistribution of stresses b: brittle → failure at reaching in one point

Stress pattern at failure

(material a)

Stress pattern at failure (material a) Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009
Stress pattern at failure (material a) Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Stress pattern at failure (material a) Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Other failure modes e.g. side wall failure

Other failure modes e.g. side wall failure Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009 Chord side

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

Chord side wall failure

Other failure modes e.g. side wall failure Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009 Chord side
The end of the lectures on: introduction into the joint behaviour Wardenier RHS Joints -

The end of the lectures on:

introduction into the joint behaviour

Wardenier

RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

The end of the lectures on: introduction into the joint behaviour Wardenier RHS Joints - Oslo

IIW (2008) Relation to the Basic Types of Joints

0.5N sinθ 0.5N sinθ 0.5N N = θ N cosθ θ 0.5N cosθ
0.5N sinθ
0.5N sinθ
0.5N
N
=
θ
N cosθ
θ
0.5N cosθ

0.5N sinθ

+

0.5N sinθ 0.5N sinθ 0.5N N = θ N cosθ θ 0.5N cosθ 0.5N sin θ

0.5N

θ
θ
θ
θ
θ

θ

θ
θ
0.5N sinθ 0.5N sinθ 0.5N N = θ N cosθ θ 0.5N cosθ 0.5N sin θ
0.5N sinθ 0.5N sinθ 0.5N N = θ N cosθ θ 0.5N cosθ 0.5N sin θ

0.5N cosθ

0.5N sinθ

Example: Checking of a K joint with imbalanced brace loads

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RHS Joints - Oslo Course 2009

cos θ 0.5N sin θ Example: Checking of a K joint with imbalanced brace loads Wardenier