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Summary: International Organization LONG KimKhorn, PUC, MA.

IRs, ID: 61283 Date: Feb 15th, 2013 Conflict situations can be resolved in two basic ways, contrasting options that peace researcher Kenneth Boulding called associative and disassociative and second rely on military strength and political separations which means that good fences make good neighbors. So who is going to do this, well, the League of Nations aiming to transcend the problems of state sovereignty and produce a war-free world which initiated by President Woodrow Wilson urgently urged the establishment of a League of Nations, which all states would join, and responsible for the collective security to prevent states from forming competing group, each arming and plotting against others. Formally inaugurated in 1920, the Leagues charter, article 16, stated that should any Member of the League resort to war it shall ipso facto [by this fact] be deemed to have committed an act of war against all other Member of the League which states retained their sovereignty in domestic affairs and in virtually all foreign dealing as well. Even though President Wilson was the intellectual father of the League of Nations, the United States never joined, because the U.S. senate refused to ratify league membership as like as Germany did not join until 1926 and withdrew in 1933 due to restriction of the Versailles Treaty and the Soviet Union did not join until 1934. The first decade, the League functioned reasonably well because there were no worldshaking crises. It successfully ended fighting, for example, between Bulgaria and Greece in 1925 and between Lithuania and Poland in 1927 and then Bolivia and Paraguay went to war over a disputed border region known as the Gran Chaco. Furthermore, in 1920s, Manchuria had been nominally under Chinese political control, but in fact it was economically exploited by Japan, which also controlled by Korea. However, Japan had not formally declared war which means Japan did not break the provision of the League of Nations and later Japan withdrew from the League. Likewise, the crises that led most directly to the collapse of league authority and ultimately, the organization itself, was the Italian invasion of Abyssinia, now known as Ethiopia, and even though Ethiopian king Haile Selassie appealed to the League of Nations for assistance but no actions was taken because no aggression had yet taken

place under the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini in the dream of reestablishing the glory that had been Rome beginning with colonial conquests in Africa. At that time, the League of Nations immediately condemned Italy as an aggressor and voted to apply a full range of economic sanctions but the resolution did not succeed because Japan, Germany and the United States did not comply due to trading tie with Italy. There are series of factors related to the failure of the League of Nations. First, nonsupport from major states there was no clear-cut international peacekeeping force and no reliable mechanism for recruiting it if need be so the league depended on the support of the major states. For example, when Manchuria fails under the China - the Soviet Union didnt involve because convulsed with Stalins purge, the United States was not a league member and never joined, Britain has sufficient force but more concerned with protecting itself from a growing German threat. Second, U.S. refusal to join even though U.S. can serve as strikebreaker and support for military intervention against an aggressor but the United States never joined the League of Nations. Third, lack of interest in remote conflicts collective security only success when all significant participants must agree that peace is indivisible, that a threat to the peace of any nation no matter how small or seemingly. For example, former British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was roundly criticized for having urged Great Britain not to assist Czechoslovakia in its 1938 crisis with Germany. The USSR evidently figured in 1956 that its peace required a notably unpeaceful intervention in Hungary. The U.S. in 1962 stayed out of hostilities between India and China, but almost went to unclear war over Soviet missile in Cuba. Furthermore, selfish collusion plays as the fourth factor to the failure of the League of Nations. Once states begin acting in what they consider to be their own selfish national interest, systems of collective security begin breaking down. For example, in case of Italys invasion of Ethiopia, at that time, Britain and France hoped to obtain an alliance with Mussolini to keep Italy from joining force with Germany. Fifth, confusion over the nature of aggression there has long been problems in defining aggression. One definition always employed is violation of territorial integrity and political independence. For example, Japan did not violate the leagues covenant in 1931 since it did not technically declare war. When Israel attacked its Arab neighbors in the SixDay War in 1967 but just prior to the Israeli attack, Egypts president Nasser had closed

an international waterway, the Straits of Titran, to Israeli shipping and such blockade has itself traditionally been considered an act of war. The World War II drew to close, the United Nations established as an international body that would work toward the abolition of war. The idea developed in part from the Atlantic Charter signed by 1941 by Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt to build world with economic cooperation and eventual disarmament. That why the preamble of the UN charter reads as follows we the people of the United Nations determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war [] and General Assembly is the top decision making place but the primary enforcement power would lie in a Security Council, with the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China being permanent member. There are several major differences between the United Nations and League of Nations. For example, the U.N., unlike the League of Nations, was constituted to have many other important functions beyond those dealing strictly with the avoidance of wars. A branch of the UN, the Economic and Social Council was established with many specialized agencies concerning with economic, educational, health, scientific, and social issues such as Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF), UNICEF and UNESCO etc. Furthermore, its organs such as Security Council issues of war and peace, General Assembly decision making organ as the main parliamentary and for budget approval, Economic and Social Council quality of life worldwide, International Court of Justice adjudication of international legal disputes, Secretariat the executive organ of the UN. To understand the United Nations and the State System, we have to understand what its potential in peace building process and what is not. It is not a solution to problems of personal aggressiveness, poor decision making, nationalism, oppression, or ethnic strife. However, UN membership expanded rapidly from 55 members in 1946 to 99 in 1960 and then 157 by 1982. Meanwhile, the UN does good work in bettering the social, economic, educational, medical, scientific, environmental, and cultural condition of humanity. The Security Council was empowered to identify an aggressor and then to request various states to provide military force as necessary to enforce the peace.

In peacemaking efforts, the UN has done many things. Shortly after its founding, an UN-sponsored commission arranged a cease-fire between Indonesian independence fighters and their Dutch colonial occupier. In the 1960s, the UN arranged for Indonesian sovereignty over West New Guinea. In 1999, the UN supervised elections in East Timor. Mid-1999, an armed contingent led by Australia had secured an apparent peace. Late 1940s and mid-1960s, the UN arranged for several cease-fire during wars between India and Pakistan over Kashmir. The UN has also been involved as an armed intermediary, supervising cease-fire on Cyprus, Angola, Namibia, and Mozambique, and monitoring some democratic elections in El Salvador and Cambodia. June 1950, North Korean forces invaded the South; meanwhile, the Security Council identified the North as the aggressor and voted for UN members to send troops to assist the South. After Belgium left the Congo, in 1960, the Congo failed into chaos likewise the UN went to assist the Congo. Over Arab opposition, the General Assembly approved a British plan in 1947 dividing Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state to avoid religious tragedy. The UNs ability to serve as an active peacemaker and peacekeeper has been severely limited. For one thing, member states have never been able to agree on maintaining an independent UN force with sufficient military strength and political independence to deter would-be adversaries. For example, the UN briefly discussed but stayed out of the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia in 1978, which overthrew the murderous, proChinese government of Pol Pot as Chinese punishment of Vietnam in 1979. Although the UN has not been a panacea, it has achieved remarkable successes; as of the year 2000, it has negotiated 172 peaceful settlements, helping bring about an end to the IranIraq War, the civil wars in El Salvador and Namibia, and withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, for example. So far the UN serve as the very distinguished inter-governmental organization due to many reasons: first, the United Nations is desired as a mere debating society to bring the head of states and governments to exchange view on various national, regional and global matter. For example, in 1956, whether US should intervene militarily when Soviet invaded Hungary. Second, the UN operation founded to act opposite regarding to enhance peace excluding the major powers from crises, and recruiting peacekeepers from smaller, neutral states. For example, in 1961, former SG Dag Mammarskjold admitted that the UN could not serve to overcome superpower rivalry, such as disputes

over Berlin, or regarding unclear weapons. In theory, the UN has the authority to raise military forces and interject them into a conflict without the permission of the conflicting parties but [] only comply to the existence of any threat to the place, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations on what kind of measure should be taken. The United Nations attempts to be sensitive to issue of national sovereignty, trying not to force choices between allegiances to the state, on the one hand, and to the world body, on the other. For example, since the Korean War and the controversial Congo interventions, prospective of host countries have had the option of forbidding any UN peacekeeping presence but the UN observation instead. The UN also functions well in the name of agencies such as the WHO, the FAO, and IPU. For example, a 13-year effort by the WHO eradicated smallpox worldwide in 1980. The WHO also helped wipe out polio from the Western Hemisphere. In 1974, only 5% of children in developing countries had been immunized against these preventable plague: polio, tetanus, measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, and tuberculosis. Even though, the UN has so far largely failed as an organ of collective security, it have been more successful on a smaller then regional level and it help to de-emphasize the role of states by reducing human misery, strengthen governmental institute to provide their citizen need, and providing opportunities for interactions across political border, mutual understanding, tolerance, and respect one another. Finally, the UN helps facilitate international cooperation by forming Inter-Governmental Organizations (IGOs), such as Organization of Exporting Petroleum Countries (OPEC) and other NGOs such as CARE, the International Olympic Committee, and Amnesty International. And one of the most important transnational phenomena of the late 20th century is the emergence of powerful multinational corporations (MNCs) such as General Motors, Microsoft, Exxon, General Electric, Shell Oil, CIBA/GEIGY, and McDonalds etc.