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# HOW TO STUDY-HISTORY

ENGLISH
BY: Mrs. Rajani.vakil

Always try to follow a regular time table of your day to day life. This helps to quickly switch over from one activity to another. Read and understand the text thoroughly. Underline difficult words. Learn spellings and find out their meanings. Make sentences, other than the text, from these words. While reading see how punctuation marks are used, how sentences are differently formed. Make yourself familiar with old English words. Poems should be read thoroughly. Find meaning and understand the different

HOW TO STUDY-SCIENCE
By : Lt.Col.(retd) A.K.Bodas.(B.Sc.,B.E.)

1. This year onwards, in standard 10th, you will be studying science from one textbook and will

be answering one question paper which covers both parts of science viz. science A and science B. 2. Section A contains seven chapters covering topics of Physics and Chemistry whereas section B contains 6 chapters covering topics of Biology and Chemistry. This is against 12 chapters each of science 1 and science 2 of the previous syllabus. This is quite a relief ! Some boring

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************************************************************************ 1.As the elements were being discovered scientists felt the necessity to classify them to facilitate their study. 2. Dobereiners Triads :-German scientist Dobereiner found some groups of 3 elements having similar properties. When arranged in increasing order of atomic masses, atomic Mass of the middle element was found to be approx = mean of atomic masses of other two elements. He called them triads. e.g.Li (6.9) - Na(23) - K (39) / Ca(40.1) - Sr (87.6) - Ba(137,3) This method was abandoned because except a few, other triads did not obey this rule. 3.Newlands octaves :- British chemist Newland studied the 56 known elements and observed that when the elements are arranged in an increasing order of their atomic Masses the properties of the eighth element were similar to those of the first. This was known as his law of octaves' .But this law also failed because:1. All known elements as well as newly found elements could not be grouped as octaves. 2. In order to fit the existing elements, he had to place two elements in the same position even though they had different properties.

3. Inert gases were not included as they were not known at that time 4. 4. Mendeleevs periodic table:- By examining the chemical reactions of elements with oxygen and hydrogen , he concluded that atomic mass was the most fundamental property. So he arranged the known 63 elements in the increasing order of their atomic masses in rows and columns forming a table in such a way that the elements having similar properties were placed in the same column. His periodic law states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements are a periodic function of their atomic masses. This means that the properties of the elements showed repetition after certain intervals. 5. Main features of his table:- a. horizontal rows called periods are 7 in number.(1to 7) b. Vertical columns, called groups, were 8 in number (I to VII ) c. Properties of the elements in a group are similar but change gradually from left to right in a period. 6. Merits of his table:- a. He left some blank places for elements yet to be discovered. He called them Eka-boron, Eka-aluminium, and Eka Silikon. But he predicted their properties according to their positions. These properties were found to correct when these elements were later discovered and came to be known as Scandium, Gallium, and Germanium resp. b. Noble gasses when discovered later could be placed in the table easily . 7. Demerits :- a..Hydrogen resembles alkali metals as well as halogens, so no fixed position could be given to it. b. Isotopes have similar chemical properties so were to be placed in same position but they have different atomic Masses, so were to be placed at different positions! c. An element like Cobalt (58.93) having higher atomic mass was placed before Nickel ( 58.71) having lower atomic Mass, which was wrong. d. Elements like Mn and halogens were placed together in same group but they have totally different properties. ************************************************************************ 5. In the third reading, try to recall the matter just after reading every article. In most cases you will find that you can state almost 50% contents, which is well done!

1. Now is the time for keeping in touch. Simply read science notes for 20 minutes every day;

## science 1 chapters today, science 2 chapters tomorrow.

1. For the enthusiasts here is another suggestion. Imagine that you after completing are an examiner! Now, after completing a chapter set a question paper, having about fifteen objective questions (FIB, true/false etc.), two for matching group A and B, five for answering in one word or in one sentence and three to five give reasons. Number can change according to the size of the chapter. Dont think it is easy. Because you will first find the answer and then will construct the question! Such self-made question paper is your study material ! 10. There are numerical questions in chapters on electricity and light. Practice the solved numericals and also those at the end of the chapter. It helps if you write the given data and the equation relevant to that property. Pay attention to units of the data. Ensure that they are compatible. Numericals, in science, involve simple calculations. Read the solved question No 3 on page 39. Notice that length and breadth are in cm and mm respectively. In the formula of resistivity these parameters are required to be in SI units i. e. Metre so that the area works out in sqm and length in metres. . In problems on light give proper signs to the distances as per sign convention. Objects are always placed to left of lens or mirror, so object distance is always negative . All distances measured to right of lens or mirror are positive. In the mirror there is positive sign but in lens formula there is negative sign. Remember this difference. 12. Diagrams :- Draw large diagrams , at least half of page size. Draw it exactly as per book diagram using compass instruments. Draw light lines first so that use of eraser does not spoil the paper. Then make lines using dark pencil. With practice you can draw it with dark pencil directly. Do not use pencils having point- leads. Use normal HB or 2B pencil. If necessary you can practice on graph paper, but in examination there will not be any graph paper ! Draw arrows using scale for labeling. Labeling letters should be legible. Labeling is as important as the diagram. Later, practice drawing two diagrams at least twice a week. The new text book has excellent diagrams. Diagrams in chapters on light require proper understanding of the theory. In other chapters, diagrams help in understanding the theory.

13. Chapters on metals-nonmetals, carbon compounds, life processes and genetics need thorough understanding. So, pay full attention when the subjects are taught in the class. Guidance of the

teacher will be necessary. There are no formulae or derivationsin Biology. There is not much scope for application questions. The finer points have to be understood and memorised. 14. After every chapter write the answers to the questions given at the end of each chapter with reference to your notes or text book. Best Wishes and Happy Studying !

## How to Study Science

By :Ajit.v.waranshiwar.(M.Sc.,Bed,M.P.M,M.M.M)

New syllabus of 10th is based on principle of constructivism. Constructivism means not to depend only on teacher for learning science but our own experience teaches a lot. In science there are many short experiments given in text. Some of these experiments you can perform at your home. Some should be done in groups. Some experiments must be done under the expert guidance in laboratory. Personal, Group, Observation are the types of experiments given in the text. Learning science through experiments is the concept of new science. Match the following, find odd man out, fill in the blanks, true and false kind of objective questions can be solved if you have performed the experiments at your home. For practical examination also that will be useful. Thorough reading will be the key for success. While reading, you have to develop the habit for marking objective type, give reasons and long answer questions. There is a need of proper practicing of diagrams because now you have coloured diagrams in your book. That will help to know and understand the exact structure of particular parts. For long answer questions you have to read lesson, understand the lesson and then considering the central idea of the chapter you can attain the long answer questions. Though the number of chapters have been reduced knowledge wise, application wise, the syllabus has got great qualitative value. New ideas and concepts are really interesting in case of Physics, Biology and Chemistry.

Those things should not be considered or viewed only from point of view of studies but scientific, creative attitude must be developed. This is the central idea of science syllabus. Chapter wise Study : Chapter:1 1) Modern periodic table and Mendeleevs periodic table comparative studies. 2) Position of elements in periodic table. 3) Comparative positioning of elements. Only these three, if you remember from this chapter you can remember the whole chapter. Chapter:2 1) Way of writing chemical equation and their balancing. 2) Comparison of various types of reactions. Chapter:3 1) Acids bases examples and distinguishing points. 2) Concept of efflorescence and study of some compounds in form of property and use. Chapter:4 1) Q = It equation, symbols, units, uses table. 2) Ohms law,Resistances in series and paralleltheir diagrams and problems based on that 3) Heating effect application and problems based on that must be studied properly. Chapter:5 1) Thorough reading of this chapter is essential this is containing many new ideas and concepts based on imaginary ideas. 2) Right hand and Left hand rule read by heart. 3) Diagram, uses, working of Dynamo and electric generator must be remembered.

4) Care to be taken while handling electrical appliances must be understood. 5) Concept of overloading, short circuit must be remembered. Chapter:6 1) Preparation of spherical mirror and understanding of various concepts is must. 2) By using various lenses understanding of various images is necessary. 3) Lens formula, magnification based on these concepts and problems must be solved. 4) Cartesian sign convention its application, power of lens problems are necessary to be solved. 5) Eye structure its diseases, application of lenses long answer questions must be solved on these topics. 6) Careful reading of this chapter is important. Chapter:7 1) Refraction, refractive index, laws of refraction and problems based on this must be solved. 2) Glowing of stars, dispersion of light these concepts must be studied. 3) Reading deeply is required. Chapter:8 1) Concept of rusting/corrosion must be studied. 2) Sources of metals, their chemical properties, their balancing equation must be studied. 3) Effect of air and preparation methods of salt formation by combination of metal and non metal. Chapter: 9 The following point must be studied.

1) Classification of hydrocarbon, molecular formulae, structure practice for that must be done. 2) Homologous series, study of carbon compounds. 3) Soaps and detergents difference and properties. Chapter:10 1) Types of nutrition must be verified. 2) Digestive system, various glands their diagrams and information must be studied. 3) Importance of photosyntesis. and working with diagrammatic representation of the process

4) Respiratory system, functioning of lung cellular respiration, blood pressure, circulation of blood must be studied and read carefully. 5) Excretory system, functioning of kidney, dialysis method and excretion in plan on this chapter long answer questions and short notes like questions are asked. Chapter:11 1) Chemical co-ordination concepts. 2) Functioning of brain, structure, voluntary and involuntary movements their control based on this long answer questions and diagrams with notes. Chapter:12 1) Sexual and Asexual methods of reproduction, vegetative reproduction with diagram. 2) Sexual parts of flower with diagram. 3) Male and female reproductive systems, similarities and differences in growth of male and female must be studied. 4) Importance of family planning long answer questions on this HOT Question may be asked.

Chapter:13 very interesting questions may be asked on this chapter. 1) Laws of Mendel. 2) Effect of genes of parents on next generation must be studied. 3) Structural nature of DNA and sexual decision by genes. 4) Study of Darwins theory is must in this chapter. 5) Study of different structural genes must be studies. If we want to classify this book as Physics, Chemistry and Biology wise for studying,we can classify it as Chemistry Properties, uses, equation, short notes, balancing Physics Diagrams, construction, Laws, difference between, problems. Biology Long answer question, system study, diagrams, notes, short answers, HOT questions.

For Physics and Biology go for objective type questions. True or false, multiple choice questions, odd man out these types of questions must be studied.

MATHS

## How to study mathematics?(std 10)

BY: Lt.Col.(Retd.)A.K.Bodas.(B.Sc.,B.E.)

Dear students, 1.MATHEMATICS! That dreadful subject for some! At the outset let me assure you that it is a challenging, interesting and scoring subject which gives you lot of confidence even in the study of other subjects. Expertise in this subject makes it easy to understand the topics of all branches of science as well as other disciplines. Your new syllabus has been

painstakingly prepared according to the National Curriculum Framework 2005, which aims at developing your skills of analytical thinking, logical approach and accuracy in calculations. It calls upon your originality, initiative and ingenuity. Mugging has no place in the dictionary of maths! 2. So let us see how we can use this subject to shape your future. Not only mathematics but any subject for that matter is like the technique of swimming. If you stand at the edge and keep wondering if swimming is really your cup of tea, then you tend to postpone jumping in water to tomorrow. And then tomorrow never comes! Take a dip and start moving your limbs! The very fact that you have successfully completed first nine years of schooling is enough to feel assured that you are ready for standard x and today is the best day to take that dip. So, let us get into the subject and see what it really involves. Study of maths has three phases:1. 2. 3. 4. Learning the subject. Practicing acquired knowledge. Applying acquired knowledge. Keeping in touch.

3. As against 11 chapters in algebra and 8 in geometry in the outgoing syllabus, you have only 6 chapters in each of algebra and geometry. It is a great relief! 4. Learning the topic. (Phase 1) Pay full attention when the topic is being taught at your place of learning school or extra school. Seek clarifications if you have not understood some part. There are many small aspects, properties, axioms, rules, laws which lie behind the steps which need to be understood. Dont feel shy of asking doubts because when you ask a question many others will thank you for asking it! Remember only those having inquisitive mind and are capable of thinking come across doubts. Others let things pass by! This step also involves studying the solved questions, assimilating every step written there in. If the teacher has moved over to the next item, ask your clarifications after the period is over. It is very necessary that you are completely satisfied with what you have learnt. 5. Practicing. (Phase 2) In this phase, solve all of the questions in the exercises at the end of each unit in the text book. You will find that most of the questions in the exercises resemble the solved questions. This should be done with proper numbering of questions, justifying steps, writing the formulae you are using and writing statements where necessary as shown in the solved questions. Do not jump the steps. Remember you are preparing your own `guide. Display your knowledge to the examiner. In this phase do not take the questions from the problem set unless your teacher is doing so because there are a large no of questions there and while solving them you will lag behind the class, which should not happen.

7. Geometry. Students are not generally quite comfortable with this subject. Geometry has its own style of writing which must be practiced. Geometry has a great advantage over algebra and that is, you already know the end result. You only have to find your way to reach it using the tools of axioms, theorems and geometrical properties. Obviously these tools need to be sharpened. Geometry is a deceptive subject! You read a solution and you feel happy that you have understood it. Solve the question independently and you will realise the truth! Draw your own large figures. Mark all given data in it. Enter calculated data in the figure and encircle it. By looking at such a figure you will find that, quite often the figure suggests the solution. 8. Many students find the `word problems in algebra rather difficult, but these are quite intriguing. While tackling them, write a statement for every small data, condition and phrase and convert it into a logical mathematical statement. Statements bring clarity in

your thinking process and lead you to an equation. Once an equation is formed, then rest is easy! 9. From November onwards start tackling so called `hot problems of the question bank. There is nothing hot about them if you remain cool! These are riddles requiring more logical thinking. You will need a hint here and some guidance there. Do take help. After taking such help you will wonder, Why didnt I think like this before? Dont shy away from these questions as they mature your thinking ability and prepare you for solving the three outside questions, of five marks each, which you will now have to face, in the last question of the new pattern of the Boards paper. Enjoy this fascinating subject! I wish you all the very best.

## HOW TO STUDY GEOGRAPHY

BY: Mrs.Rajani.vakil

Supplement your long answers with maps drawn with a stencil and diagrams. Form habit of making notes. This helps in remembering. Do not use readymade notes or guides. In Economics use standard text and economics terminology to write answers. All points written in bold letters are to be learnt properly. While writing answers all these points should be written. Give examples. Underline important points and words while reading. Whatever learning you have done write at least some questions of it after three days. This helps to recollect and remember. Best Wishes and Happy Studying!

English
Science Weightage No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 School of Elements The Magic of Chemical Reactions The Acid Base Chemistry The Electric Spark All about Electromagnetism Wonders of Light Part - I Wonders of Light Part II Understanding Metals and Non-metals Amazing World of Carbon Compounds Lifes Internal Secrets The regulators of Life The Life Cycle Mapping our Genes

## Marks Marks with options

3 4 3 6 4 6 4 5 5 6 4 5 5 60 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 6 6 8 5 6 7 76

Algebra - Weightage
No. 1 Arithmetic Progression and Geometry Marks 12 Marks with options 15

2 3 4 5 6

Progression Quadratic equations Linear equations in two variables Probability Statistics - I Statistics - II

13 14 8 7 6 60

16 18 10 8 8 76

Geometry - Weightage
No. 1
2

3 4
5