You are on page 1of 56



Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering
By Vade Abhay R. Iyer Anand B. Yadav Dinesh R. Khan Sahir Z. Under the guidance of 200356 200316 200361 200321

Prof.Nilaj Deshmukh


Department of Mechanical Engineering Fr. C. Rodrigues Institute of Technology Sector 9A, Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400 703

May, 2007

Certificate of Approval

Submitted by: Vade Abhay R. Iyer Anand B. Yadav Dinesh R. Khan Sahir Z. 200356 200316 200361 200321

In partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering is approved.




1. Internal: _________________

2. External: _________________

We take this opportunity to express our sincere gratitude towards Prof. Nilaj Deshmukh, of Mechanical Department, Fr. C. Rodrigues Institute of Technology for his valuable guidance, encouragement and help during the course of this project. His remarks and suggestions gave us direction and made us understand the subject better. We are thankful to K.P. Rajesh, Workshop in charge and Moreshwar Kor, Machine tool Instructor, work shop, Fr. C. Rodrigues Institute of Technology who was the constant source of inspiration and guidance to us. His valuable knowledge and experience helped us get through all the difficulties in our project. We would like to thank concerned authority of central library of Fr. C. Rodrigues Institute of Technology for providing us with the various literature material required for our project work. We would also like to thank the staff of Mechanical Dept. of Fr. C. Rodrigues Institute of Technology for their assistance. Finally, before ending, we would like to express our true gratitude to all those involved directly or indirectly in our project.

Vade Abhay R. Iyer Anand B. Yadav Dinesh R. Khan Sahir Z.

200356 200316 200361 200321


Through the next several decades, renewable energy technologies, thanks to their continually improving performance and cost, and growing recognition of their Environmental, economic and social values, will grow increasingly competitive with Traditional energy technologies, so that by the middle of the 21st century, renewable Energy, in its various forms, should be supplying half of the worlds energy needs." We has selected this as our final year project so as to begin thinking towards power generation through clean sources such as wind. Power generation in our country is very low at present. Industrially developed states like, Maharashtra is suffering through major power shortages, and this is a signal of major crises. Even in cities like Mumbai peoples are suffering from power cuts. We knew that this project does not reflect any new discovery; but our intention is that residential societies should install such wind mills on the terrace to tackle with the power cuts and become independent unto certain amount. So we have begun it with our college. As our college is near a creek thus good location for a wind mill. In this project wind turbine charges a 12 volt battery and runs various 12 volt appliances. We have fabricated the small scale wind turbine on the basis of design calculations and made changes in design to track it with manufacturing constraints.

Chapter 1 Introduction
Through the next several decades, renewable energy technologies, thanks to their continually improving performance and cost, and growing recognition of their Environmental, economic and social values, will grow increasingly competitive with Traditional energy technologies, so that by the middle of the 21st century, renewable Energy, in its various forms, should be supplying half of the worlds energy needs." The cost of wind-generated electric power has dropped substantially. Since 2004, according to some sources, the price in the United States is now lower than the cost of fuel-generated electric power, even without taking externalities into account. In 2005, wind energy cost one-fifth as much as it did in the late 1990s, and that downward trend is expected to continue as larger multi-megawatt turbines are mass-produced. Wind power is growing quickly, at about 38%, up from 25% growth in 2002. Wind power is the fastest growing form of electricity generation on a percentage basis. Wind energy conversion systems convert the power in the wind to rotational shaft power and to electricity by coupling a generator to the unit. Wind turbines is wind electric power units, and are used throughout the world. Commercial wind turbines range from a few hundred watts to about 20 kilowatts for rural applications. Units designed for grid connection are available in the range of 20 kilowatts to over one megawatt. Where annual average wind speeds exceed about 5 meters per second, residential and village-scale wind turbines can provide electricity at costs competitive with or below those of diesel generators, and can be used in stand-alone applications not requiring a local power distribution system. [3].


Aim of the project

Our aim was to build wind turbine which charges a 12 volt battery and runs various 12 volt appliances. By building this project we want drive the attention of peoples towards power generation through renewable sources so as to tackle problem of power in our country which is suffering from power shortages. With the help of such project various sections like residential, industrial, commercial etc. can become independent from supply of power from electricity board unto certain extent.


Problem description

In this project the main aspect is how the wind energy is utilized in effective way for power development by running generator. For this a system is to be made which will convert the wind force in rotational motion of generator. The system usually contains rotor blades on which wind strikes and which converts this force of the wind into rotational motion of the shaft which is connected to the shaft of the generator. Also for holding this system a rigid structure is to be building which not only hold this system but also save it from damage. For holding this rigid structure a very strong base is to be developed which should be able to hold this complete system under various wind conditions. Developed wind mill can effectively work in areas of low wind speed.

Chapter 2 Literature survey

The knowledge of availability of required components and their working is essential for implementation of the project. This chapter provides information about the wind mill theory and types which is important for designing of wind mill.

Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT) are a type of wind turbine where the main rotor shaft runs vertically. VAWTs work somewhat like a classical water wheel in which water arrives at a right angle (perpendicular) to the rotational axis (shaft) of the water wheel. Vertical-axis wind turbines fall into two major categories: Darrieus turbines and Savonius turbines. Savonius Turbine invented in Finland, the Savonius turbine is S-shaped if viewed from above. This drag-type VAWT turns relatively slowly, but can produce a high torque. It is useful for grinding grain, pumping water and other works that

need high torque, but if this kind of turbine connected with electric generator, it only can produce a little electricity

Turbine The commonest VAWT is a Savonius VAWT which is an

extended version of an anemometer (wind speed measuring tool). VAWTs can offer up to 15% efficiency and they work equally well no matter which direction the wind is coming from.

2.1 Introduction We all know about non conventional energy resources these are the sources of energy which are abundant on our earth but we have a doubt why we call this as nonconventional energy sources because they are also going to be depleted at the end of our planet therefore why not to call them as omnivore sources of energy but left it we will call as people calls so there are many non conventional energy sources like solar energy, wind energy, air energy etc.

Wind power is a renewable resource, which means using it will not deplete the earth's supply of fossil fuels. It also is a clean energy source, and operation does not produce carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, mercury, particulates, or any other type of air pollution, as do conventional fossil fuel power sources. The development of wind turbines has made a significant contribution to human achievement and technological advancement throughout history. With an ever-increasing demand for limited energy resources, and global concern about pollution and environmental damage arising from fossil fuels, wind turbines may begin to assert an ever-increasing role during the next century and beyond. [1]



Air current turbines work, in principle, much like windmills, but driven by flowing air rather than air. They can be installed in the hilly places with high air current velocities, or in a few places with fast enough continuous ocean currents, to take out energy from these huge volumes of flowing air. These flows have the major advantage of being an energy resource, which is mostly as predictable as the tides that cause them, unlike wind or wave energy, which respond to the more random quirks of the weather system. It is also beneficial to reduce the costly power cables, which carry current to coastal areas as they can be benefited directly by supplying power. Wind energy is abundant, renewable, widely distributed, cleans, and mitigates the greenhouse effect if it is used to replace fossil fuel derived electricity. Now a day most of the country used Thermal energy and Fossil energy for generating electricity but raw material used for such energy is limited hence in future and in present scenario also Windmill have its own importance. [1] Working of wind mill

Fig, 2.1 working of wind mill [2]

The working of wind mill is very simple as the air comes in the structure the working blades rotates which is connected to main rotor shaft by the supporting arms the main rotor is coupled to a generator from where we can get the output.

The power in the wind can be extracted by allowing it to blow past moving wings that exert torque on a rotor. The amount of power transferred is directly proportional to the density of the air, the area swept out by the rotor, and the cube of the wind speed. The mass flow of air that travels through the swept area of a wind turbine varies with the wind speed and air density. As an example, on a cool 15C (59F) day at sea level, air density is about 1.22 kilograms per cubic meter (it gets less dense with higher humidity). An 8 m/s breeze blowing through a 100 meter diameter rotor would move about 76,000 kilograms of air per second through the swept area. The kinetic energy of a given mass varies with the square of its velocity. Because the mass flow increases linearly with the wind speed, the wind energy available to a wind turbine increases as the cube of the wind speed. The power of the example breeze above through the example rotor would be about 2.5 megawatts. As the wind turbine extracts energy from the air flow, the air is slowed down, which causes it to spread out and diverts it around the wind turbine to some extent. [2].

Advantages and disadvantages of wind mill It has many advantages they can be categorizing as: Economical advantages Earns tradable emission credits Scalable power cost No fuel costs Inexpensive Local transmission Competitive capital costs Green pricing

Ecological advantages

Global climate change has become a catalyst for the social and political demand for sustainable energy sources. This combined with the high cost of extending electricity grids to rural areas and the decreasing price of stand-alone power systems is a significant incentive to the rise of locally generated energy. The windmill communities large and small, to generate electricity without emitting greenhouse gases of any kind or impacting the local marine environment. Unlike conventional barrage systems, the windmill relies on ocean currents rather than air amplitude to generate electricity. The array of slow moving turbines allows air and fish to flow freely and safely through the structure. Larger marine mammals will be prevented from contact with the rotary foils by a protective fence, and further protected by a backup auto-breaking system controlled by sonar sensors. [2].

Disadvantages of wind mill There are less disadvantages as compared to advantages one of the disadvantage is that for its installation high current zone is required then its initial cost is high about 3 to 3.5 crore. There are chances of breaking of mill during severe weather conditions like in case of tsunami. [2].

2.3 Types Windmills can be classified same like windmills they can be classified on the basis of axis of rotation they are: Horizontal axis wind mill Vertical axis wind mill Horizontal axis wind mill

Fig.2.2 Horizontal axis wind mill [1].

Its design consist of a main rotor shaft which is driven by hydrofoil blades which rotate due to incoming air in turbine duct then this rotor shaft is coupled to generator in an coupling chamber .the generator is kept above air level in an machinery enclosure from there we can get the output the & utilize it for various purpose.

All existing HAWTs (or Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine) have the main rotor shaft and generator at the top of a tower, and must be pointed into the wind by some means. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane, while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servomotor. Most have a gearbox too, which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable for generating electricity. Since a tower produces turbulence behind it, the turbine is usually pointed upwind of the tower. Turbine blades are made stiff to prevent the blades from being pushed into the tower by high winds. Additionally, the blades are placed a considerable distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted up a small amount. Downwind machines have been built, despite the problem of turbulence, because they don't need an additional mechanism for keeping them in line with the wind, and because in high winds, the blades can be allowed to bend which reduces their swept area and thus their wind resistance. Because turbulence leads to fatigue failures and reliability is so important, most HAWTs are upwind machines.

Vertical axis wind mill

Fig 2.3 Darrieus-design vawt [1].

The vertical axis windmill consists of twin axial flow rotors of 15m to 20m in diameter, each driving a generator via a gearbox much like a hydroelectric turbine or a wind turbine. The twin power units of each system are mounted on wing-like extensions either side of a tubular steel monopile some 3m in diameter, which is set into a hole, drilled into the seabed. Vertical axis turbines (or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft running vertically. The main advantages of this arrangement are that the generator and/or gearbox can be placed at the bottom, on or near the ground, so the tower doesn't need to support it, and the fact that the turbine doesn't need to be pointed into the wind. Drawbacks are usually the pulsating torque produced during each revolution, and the difficulty of mounting vertical axis turbines on towers. This means they must operate in the slower, more turbulent air flow near the ground, with lower energy extraction efficiency. [1].

In vertical axis windmills the turbine is positioned so that it rotates along a vertical axis. Changes in wind direction don't tend to effect such a windmill because unlike horizontal axis windmills they don't have to point into the wind for maximum efficiency. If the wind turns round (as it does sometimes when it is blustery) a normal windmill will slowly come to a stop and then turn the other way, with subsequent loss of power during this period. A vertical axis windmill wont really notice any difference and will continue to produce power without stopping.

We will take the following steps... 1. Build as big a frame as possible. Since the swept area of the blades is the most important factor for generating power, I want to start with a big frame for the blades. 2. Find high quality bearings / shaft and mount them to the frame. This is important because the bearings can be one source of inefficeincy and reduce the power output. 3. Make the blade as big and efficient as possible because this determines how much power we can steal from the wind. Also, choose a blade style that fits your needs; fast and scary
4. Then we put it all together and let it spin without an dynamo attached.

Analyze the characteristics of the wind turbine in action. We need to know how many revolutions per minute (RPMs) the turbine will spin at for a given wind speed. The RPM value at an average wind speed gives us an idea of how to build the dynamo to fit the turbine. Figure out what the tip speed ratio (TSR) is so we can calculate the revolution per minute RPMs at any wind speed. Build an dynamo that matches the RPM and TSR rating of the turbine. Make sure the cut-in speed is low enough that it will generate electricity at the right voltage. And, make sure the dynamo generates the most power at the RPM range that the wind in your area will spin it at.

Chapter 3 Objectives and Benefits of project

3.1 Objectives

Our main objective is the build a wind mill in such a way that cost of the wind mill is easily affordable by common people. So that common people get attracted towards such a clean source of energy which will give a source of business to the industries which works as the needs of common people. Due to this many companies will move towards manufacturing of such wind mill which will reduce cost of wind mill. Thus it will reduce cost of the power produced by the wind mill. 3.2 Benefits

Following are the benefits of the wind mill Clean source of energy. No fuel costs Inexpensive Local transmission Green pricing Using of small wind turbine will make residential societies independent from other sources of power. Running cost is low. [2].



Wind units can be divided into two major types, horizontal axis and vertical axis machines. Horizontal machines some times known as HAWT (Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines) are the traditional conventional design, they consist of a rotor with one to twenty blades driving a generator or a pump either directly or through a gearbox, chain or belt system. A tail vane or fantail is required to direct the machine into the wind. They are usually more efficient than vertical axis units known as VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbines). Savonius and Darius are two designs of vertical axis machines. This type of unit is often not situated on a tower and does not have to be directed into the wind. Materials and construction are usually cheaper than horizontal axis machines. A simple unit can be made by attaching two halves of vertically split oil barrel to a vertical axis this produces a low speed high torque unit that can be used for pumping water and through a gearing mechanism, generating electricity. This design also has the advantage of an aerodynamic effect called the "magnus principal, suction is formed by the air moving over the convex face of the rotor. This means that there is force acting on the face of the rotor pulling it into the wind. The most ubiquitous application of the Savonius wind turbine is the Flettner Ventilator which is commonly seen on the roofs of vans and buses and is used as a cooling device.

Chapter 4 Design calculations

Designing of wind mill Before going to actual designing we must consider following points Suitable site Types of wind mill Aerodynamics design Overall design of wind mill Suitable site While selection of suitable site we must keep a note that it must be placed where plenty of air flows without obstructions i.e. at a certain elevated height. Types of wind mill From different types of wind mill the multiback flow is selected. As we have sufficient speedy air and also losses for this type of wind mill is minimum.

Aerodynamics design While studying on the design of wind mill we come to conclusion that blade should be kept in a certain angle to still away the momentum from the approaching wind. Thus the wind come horizontally hits the blade which is kept at fixed angle. Overall design of wind mill Designs of the components as follows,


Power capacity

Calculation of Wind Energy and Power Force = mass x acceleration F = ma (Typical Unit -Newtons) Energy = Work (W) = Force (F) x Distance (d) (Typical unit Joules) Power = P = W / time (t) (Typical unit Watts) Power = Torque (Q) x Rotational Speed () Kinetic Energy in the Wind Kinetic Energy = Work = MV2 Where: M= mass of moving object V = velocity of moving object Mass of moving air M = density () x volume (Area x distance) =xAxd = (kg/m3) (m2) (m) = kg = 1 x 0.2826x 0.585 = 0.165 kg 585mm

Dia 600mm

Power in the Wind Power = Work / t = Kinetic Energy / t = MV2 / t = ( x A x d) V2/t = AV2 (d/t) = AV3 Power in the Wind = AV3 V = 2 meters (m) per second (s) m/s = 1.0 kg/m3 Selecting Rotor diameter, D = 0.6 m. Rotor radius (Length of blade), R = 0.3 m A = (/4) x D2 = (/4) x (0.6)2 = 0.283m2 Power in the Wind = AV3 Units = (kg/m3) x (m2) x (m3/s3) = (kg-m)/s2 x m/s = x1 x 0.283 x 22 N-m/s = 0.566Watt Wind Turbine actual Power available considering losses and efficiency: Power in the Wind = 0.5 x x A x V3 x Cp x Ng x Nb [1]. (d/t = Distance/time = velocity)

Where: P = power in watts = air density A = rotor swept area, exposed to the wind (0.351 m2) Cp = Coefficient of performance (Cp is the percentage of power in the wind that is converted into mechanical energy, 0.59 {Betz limit} is the maximum theoretically, 0.35 practically) V = wind speed in meters/sec (2 m/s) Ng = generator efficiency (practically 75%) Nb = gearbox & bearings efficiency (Assuming 75%). Hence, P = 0.5 x 1 x 0.35 x (2)3 x 0.35 x 0.75 = 0.367 Watts POWER CAPACITY = 0.37 Watts

SAE 1040


10 =Plain carbon steel 40 = 0.4 % of carbon Following stresses are normally adopted in shaft design Maxm shear stress = 70 N/mm2 Maxm bending stress = 100 N/mm2 Power = 2 N T/ 60 0.367 = 2 x 180 T/ 60

T= 0.0194 N-m T= 19.42 N-mm T = 3.14/16 x fs x Ds3 19.42 = 3.14/16 x fs x 203 Fs induced = 0.012 N/ mm2
Fs allowable = 70 N/ mm2

As induced stress is less than allowable the design of shaft dia is safe

The horizontal channel is subjected to bending stress Stress given by => M/I = fb / y

In above equation first we will find the moment of inertia about x and y Axis and take the minimum moment of

inertia considering the channel of ISLC 75 x 40 size.

l = 40


B = 75

b = 65

We know the channel is subject to axial compressive load From Rankines formula Wc = ( fc x A )

1+ a (L/k xx )

Wc =

( 100 x 775 ) 1+ 1/7500 (685/1.78 x 5 )

Wc = 61676 N


The horizontal channel is subjected to bending stress Stress given by => M/I = fb / y In above equation first we will find the moment of inertia about x and y Axis and take the minimum moment of

inertia considering the channel of ISLC 75 x 40 size.

l = 40


B = 75

b = 65

We know the channel is subject to axial

compressive load In column section the maximum bending moment occurs at channel of section M = W x L/4 simply supported beam

685 mm



M = 490 x 685/4 M = 83912.5 N-mm We know

fb = M/Z Z = t (l x b + (b2/6)) Z = 5 (40 x 65 + (652/6)) Z = 3304 mm3 Now check bending stress induced in C section fb induced = M/Z fb induced = 83912.5 /3304 = 25.39 N / mm2 As induced stress value is less than allowable stress value design is safe. fb = Permissble bending stress = 170 N / mm

fb induced < fb allowable Hence our design is safe.


The welded joint is subjected to pure bending moment . so it should be design for bending stress. We know minimum area of weld or throat area A = 0.707 x s x l Where s = size of weld l = length of weld

A = 0.707 x 5 x ( 75 + 40 + 35 + 58 +35 ) A = 0.707 x 5 x 243 A = 859 mm2 Bending strength of parallel fillet weld P = A x fb M =83912.5 fb = 80 N / mm2

we know fb = M /Z

Z = BH3 bh3

6H 40 x 753 35 x 583 Z=

6 x 75 Z = 209824 Calculating induce stress developed in welded joint fb induced = 83912.5 / 209824 = 0.39 N /mm 2 As induce stress is less then allowable stress the design is safe.


Here the bolt will be double sheared as shown below in the figure --Arm guide way arm

Shear arm Resisting area = ( / 4 x d ) x 2 . fs P = --------------2 x / 4 x d2


. fs

490 = --------------2 x / 4 x 102

fs = 3.12 N/ mm2 As induce stress is less then allowable stress the design is safe

As we know N pulley = N dynamo 180 = 3000 x = x 15 x 3000 180 = 250 mm X 15 D pulley D dynamo

Dia of shaft pulley = 250 mm As out put rpm of system is sufficient to develop electricity from dynamo so our transmission design is safe & efficient.


The following are the various manufacturing process used in mechanical engineering. 1) Primary Shaping Process : The process used for the preliminary shaping of the machine component is known as primary shaping process. 2) Machine Process : The process used for giving final shape to the machine component, according to planned dimensions is known as machining process. The common operation drilling, boring etc. 3) Surface Finishing Process : The process used to provide a good shape surface finish for the machine components are known as surface finishing processes. The

common operation used for the process are polishing, buffing, lapping etc. 4) Joining Process : The process used for joining machine components are known as joining process. The common operation used for this process are soldering, brazing, welding etc. 5) Process Affecting Change In Properties : These are intended to import specific properties to material e.g. heat treatment, hot working, cold rolling etc.


Definition : A welded joint is a permanent joint, which is obtained by the

fusion of the edges of the two parts, to be joined together, with or without the application of pressure and a filler material. Welding is intensively used in fabrication as an alternative method for casting or forging and as a replacement for bolted and reverted joints. It is also used as a repair medium.

Advantages :

1) The welded structures are usually lighter than riveted structures. 2) The welded joints provide maximum efficiency which to impossible innervated joints. 3) Alteration and addition can be easily made. 4) As the welded structure is smooth in appearance, it is good looking. 5) In welded structures, tension members are not weakened. 6) In a welded joint has high strength often more than parent metal.

Disadvantages :

1) Since there is uneven heating and cooling during fabrication therefore the members may get distorted as additional stresses may develop. 2) It requires a highly skilled labour and supervision. 3) No provision for expansion and contraction in the frame, therefore there is possibility of cracks. 4) The inspection of welding work is difficult than riveting work.


V - belt is mostly used in factories and workshops where a great amount of power is to be transmitted from one pulley to another then the two pulleys are very near to each other. The V - belt are made of fabric and cords moulded in rubber and covered in fabric and rubber. The power is transmitted by the wedging action between the belt and the v - groove in the pulley as sheave.

Advantages :

1) The drive is positive. 2) Since the v - belts are made endless and there is no joint cable, therefore the drive is smooth. 3) It provides larger life, 3 to 5 years. 4) It can be easily installed and removed. 5) The operation of the belt and pulley is quiet. 6) The belt have the ability to cushion the shack when the machines are started.

7) The wedging action gives high value of limiting friction therefore power transmitted by v - belts is more than flat belts for the same coefficient of friction, are of contact and allowable tension.

Disadvantages :

1) The v - belt drive connect be used with large centre distances because of larger weight, for unit length. 2) The v - belt are not so durable as flat. 3) The construction of pulleys for v - belts is more complicated than pulleys of flat belt. 4) Since the v - belts are subjected to certain amount of creep, therefore not suitable for constant speed applications. 5) The belt life is greatly influenced with temperature changes, improper belt tension and mismatching of belt lengths.

COMPONENT: FRAME CHANNEL MATERIAL:- M.S. CHANNEL MATERIAL SPECIFICATION:-I.S.L.C. 40X.75X5 SR. DESCRIPTION MACHINE CUTTING MEASUREMENT TIME NO OF USED OPERATION 1 Cutting the Gas cutting Gas cutter Steel rule 15min. channel in to machine length as per dwg 2 Cutting the Gas cutting Gas cutter Steel rule 15min. channel in to machine length as per dwg 3 Filing operation

can be performed on cutting side and bring it in perpendicular C.S. Weld the channels to the required size as per the drawing Drilling the frame at required points as per the drawing.

Bench vice File

Try square

15 min.

Electric arc ------welding machine

Try square

20 min

Radial drill Twist drill Vernier calliper machine

10 min.



SR.NO. 1.






Marking on shaft Cutting as per dwg Facing both side of shaft


2. 3.

Power hack saw Lathe machine

Hock saw blade Single point

Jig & fixtures Chuck

Scale Vernier caliper


Turning as per dwg size Filling on both end

cutting tool -


Flat file









Cut M.S. Sheet of 3mm Hand lever Steel rule thickness of required cutting machine dimensions. It is bent at its edges to fit another bent edge. Weld all blade as per dwg Hand press Arc welding mc Bending dies Chisel and hammer

2. 3.

0.30 0.45

4. 5.

All the panels are tested for proper welding It is coated with red oxide and then after painted

----------Air compressor

Soft hammer Red oxide and green paint

0.45 0.45









Take standard -----pulley as per design Face both side Lathe of hub portion machine




Single point cutting tool

Vernier caliper

15 min.

Hold it in three jaw chuck & bore inner dia as per shaft size Drilling the hub at required points as per the drawing Tap the hub at drill area.

Lathe machine

Radial drill machine Hand tap set

Single point cutting tool Twist drill

Vernier caliper

20 min.

Vernier calliper

10 min.


Vernier calliper

10 min.

Chapter 7 Testing and Results

Readings: Using 12 Volts generator and rated power. SR no. 1 2 3 4 5 Wind speed m/s 1 to 1.5 1.5 to 2.5 2.5 to 3.5 3.5 to 4.5 4.5 to 5.5 Speed of shaft rpm 82 to 90 109 to 121 189 to 201 271 to 320 328 to 353 Voltage V 3.2 3.9 4.8 6.2 8.8

6 7

5.5 to 6.5 6.5 to 7

390 to 396 400 to 409

9.2 12

Power curve:

Fig.7.1 Power curve

We have taken 12 readings in an interval of 5 minutes each so the readings taken during the 1hour span are as follow; Intervals of 5 minutes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Wind speed m/s 4.1 4.6 4.9 5.3 5.9 6.8 6.2 7.2 6.9 7.3 7.1 Voltage volts 6.3 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 10.9 9.1 11.8 11.3 11.8 11.7 Current Ampere 2.1 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9 Power watts 13.3 24.5 23.9 25.1 26.4 31.6 23.7 34.3 31.7 34.3 33.9

12 Average

6.8 6.1

11.3 10.1

2.9 2.8

32.8 28.3

Average Power obtained = 28.3 watts = (28.3/1000) Kw = 0.02828 Kw Annual power obtainable = 0.02828 x (365 x 24) = 247.8 Kw-hr No. of units in 24 hours = (power in kilowatts) x 24 =0.02828 x 24 =0.68 Kw in 24 hours. Cost of one unit = 4 Rs. [9] [9].

Therefore, Cost of 0.68 units = 2.72 Rs. Thus in a day 0.68 Kwhr of power is produced.

If the complete capacity of the wind mill is utilized with Generator rating of 200Watts then, Consider 30% losses, Power = 200 x 0.7 =140 Watts = 0.14 Kw Annual power obtainable = 0.14 x (365 x 24) = 1226.4 Kwhr No. of units in 24 hours = (power in kilowatts) x 24 = 0.14 x 24 = 3.36 Kw in 24hours. Cost of 3.36 units = 13.44 Rs. Thus in a day 3.36 Kwhr of power is produced. [9]. [9].


Parameters Power obtained Annual power obtainable No. of units in 24 hours Cost of obtained units

36 Watts rated Generator 0.02828 Kw 247.8 Kw-hr 0.68 Kwhr 2.72 Rs

200 Watts rated Generator 0.14 Kw 1226.4 Kwhr 3.36 Kwhr 13.44 Rs

From the readings and observations it is clear that the power increases with wind speed and Rotor diameter. For testing we had used the generator of rated power 36 watts but the generator unto rated power 200watts can be installed for utilizing the complete power capacity of the wind mill. This power can be used for running the various 12volts household appliances like mixer, juicer Tube lights of rated power up to 36watts, small fans, charging of cell phones etc.

Chapter 8 Specification of wind mill

Operating data Rotor diameter & height Power capacity Cut in wind speed Rated wind speed Cut out wind speed Rotor Blade 3 layer, vertical axis 585 mm x 600 mm 225w 1m/s 5m/s 7m/s

Swept area Rotational speed Rotor material Generator Type Rated output Rotational speed transmission system Type Ratio Type of cooling Tower Type

1.33m2 82rpm /480rpm mild steel

12 volts, D.C. motor 36watts 50rpm/500rpm

1 stage (2 pulley) 25:1 air cooled

c section, mild steel

Chapter 9 Cost estimation

Material cost:

Material Turbine blade shaft Pedestal bearing frame pulley dynamo blower

Specification 600 mm dia 20 mm dia P204 75 x 40 x 4 mm C section 250 mm 6 watt 1/8 hp

Quantity 3 1 2 1 1 1 1

Cost (Rs.) 3500 390 600 4000 350 300 2200

Total Material cost = 11040 Rs.

Machining cost:

Machine used

Total operation time


Total cost

welding Drilling Sheet searing

3 Hrs 1 Hrs. 4 hrs

(Rs.) 150 100 50

(Rs.) 450 100 200 750

Total Machining cost = 750 Rs.

Miscellaneous cost = 500 Rs. Total cost = Total Material cost + Total Machining cost + Miscellaneous cost Total cost = 11040 + 750 + 500 = 12290

Chapter 10 Conclusion


Summary During working on this project we came to know about the various renewable sources of energy and there importance in power production in the world. We came to know that importance of the power through wind mills. In future, further development in the direction of wind energy will make the power cheaper. India stands fifth in rank of power produced by wind energy. The building of this project has helped us to develop good amount of confidence as we were able to tackle very interesting problems like, 1. Transmission system for converting the wind force in to rotational speed of shaft. 2. Mechanism to rotate the head assembly so as to access the use of wind from any direction, which increases the efficiency of the system. It also gave us opportunity to realize ourselves as we were subjected to different problems and were compelled to take self decisions which really develops our problem tackling skills.


Payback period For 0.37 watts rated Generator

In a day 8.88 units of power is obtained Cost of 1 units = 2.72 Rs. In one years, Amount obtained in 1 years = (365) x 2.72 x 8.88 = 8816 Rs. Pre year Considering 4% of total manufacturing as annual maintenance cost, Annual Maintenance Cost = 0.04 x 88160 = 352 Rs.

Amount obtained in 5 years after deduction of maintenance, = 8816- 352 = 8464 Rs. Pre year Cost of set up = 12290 Rs Payback period = 12290 / 8464 = 1.45 years 10.3 Future works The project can be continued further for improvement in it working. Future developments can be done are as follows, 1. The power producing capacity can be increased by installing higher rated generator. Maximum rated power of 200 watts generator can be used and will cost approximately 1500 Rs. 2. The capacity can be increased by increasing the rotor diameter. For various rotor diameters following are the power capacities at maximum wind speed of 12 m/s, a. Rotor diameter = 2 m Power capacity = 534 watts Approximate total cost = 4500 Rs.

b. Rotor diameter = 3 m Power capacity = 1201 watts Approximate total cost = 6000 Rs. c. . Rotor diameter = 4 m, Power capacity = 2136 watts Approximate total cost = 8000 Rs. This is the maximum size of the rotor which is suitable for our college terrace wind conditions. Above rotor diameter of 4 m requires higher average velocity for efficient working. 3. The power capacity can be increased by increasing the number of wind mills. Our college terrace is suitable for installing up to 5 numbers of same types of wind mills. For this higher capacity of storage system has to be installed. Power capacity of 5 wind mills = 225 x 5 1125 watts. Considering 30% losses, Power = 1125 x 0.7 =787.5 Watts = 0.7875 Kw Annual power obtainable = 0.7875 x (365 x 24) = 6898.5 Kwhr No. of units in 24 hours = (power in kilowatts) x 24 = 0.7875 x 24 = 18.9 Kw in 24hours. Cost of 18.9 units = 75.6 Rs. Thus in a day 18.9 Kwhr of power is produced an 75.6 Rs can saved. This will also reduce the payback period. 4. The control of speed of the rotor shaft through Micro-controller 5. Braking systems for avoiding damage to system due to higher wind velocity 6. Storage system can be installed like 12 volt battery. A storage system of capacity up to 40 watts or 40 KVA can be used for storing the power in our fabricated system. The storage capacity can be used for increasing the standby reserve capacity. 7. Stabilizer for avoiding the damage to storage system.


[1] Website: [2] Website: [3] Website: . [4] Dr. Eric Eggleston, Sources of Energy, 2nd Edition, 2001. [5] R.S Khurmi, J.K Gupta, Machine Design [6] K.L.Kumar, Fluid Mechanics, 8th Edition, 2005. [7] S.Ramamrutham, R.Narayanan, Strength of Materials, 6th Edition, 2002. [8] P.S.G, Design data Book, 2nd compiled Edition, 2006. [9] Domkundwar, Power plant engineering, 5th Edition, 2003. HOW IS ELECTRICITY MEASURED? Electricity is measured in units of power called watts. It was named to honor James Watt, the inventor of the steam engine. One watt is a very small amount of power. It would require nearly 750 watts to equal one horsepower. A kilowatt represents 1,000 watts. A kilowatt-hour (kWh) is equal to the energy of 1,000 watts working for one hour. The amount of electricity a power plant generates or a customer uses over a period of time is measured in kilowatthours (kWh). Kilowatthours are determined by multiplying the number of kW's required by the number of hours of use. For example, if you use a 40watt light bulb 5 hours a day, you have used 200 watts of power, or .2 kilowatthours of electrical energy..