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The Equation of Continuity and the Equation of Motion in Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates

CM3110 Fall 2011 Faith A. Morrison


Continuity Equation, Cartesian coordinates + vx + vy + vz t x y z Continuity Equation, cylindrical coordinates 1 (rvr ) 1 (v ) (vz ) + + + t r r r z Continuity Equation, spherical coordinates 1 (r 2 vr ) 1 (v sin ) 1 (v ) + 2 + + t r r r sin r sin = 0 = 0 + vz vx vy + + x y z = 0

Equation of Motion for an incompressible uid, 3 components in Cartesian coordinates vx vx vx vx + vx + vy + vz t x y z vy vy vy vy + vx + vy + vz t x y z vz vz vz vz + vx + vy + vz t x y z P + x P + = y P + = z = xx yx zx + + + gx x y z xy yy zy + + + gy x y z xz yz zz + + + gz x y z

Equation of Motion for an incompressible uid, 3 components in cylindrical coordinates vr vr v vr v2 vr + vr + + vz t r r r z v v v v v vr v + vr + + + vz t r r r z vz v vz vz vz + vr + + vz t r r z = = = P + r 1 P + r P + z 1 (rrr ) 1 r zr + + r r r r z + gr + g

1 (r 2 r ) 1 z r r + + + r 2 r r z r 1 (rrz ) 1 z zz + + r r r z + gz

Equation of Motion for an incompressible uid, 3 components in spherical coordinates = P + r = 1 P + r


2 2 v + v v vr vr v vr vr + vr + + t r r r sin r

1 (r 2 rr ) 1 (r sin ) 1 r + + + 2 r r r sin r sin r


2 v cot v v v v v v vr v + vr + + + t r r r sin r r

+ gr

cot 1 (r 3 r ) 1 ( sin ) 1 r r + + + 3 r r r sin r sin r r

+ g

1 P + r sin

v v v v v vr v v v cot v + vr + + + + t r r r sin r r 3 ) 1 (r r 1 ( sin ) 1 r r cot + + + + 3 r r r sin r sin r r

+ g

Equation of Motion for incompressible, Newtonian uid (Navier-Stokes equation) 3 components in Cartesian coordinates vx vx vx vx + vx + vy + vz t x y z vy vy vy vy + vx + vy + vz t x y z vz vz vz vz + vx + vy + vz t x y z = = = 2 vx 2 vx 2 vx P + + + x x2 y 2 z 2 2 vy 2 vy 2 vy P + + + y x2 y 2 z 2 2 vz 2 vz 2 vz P + + + z x2 y 2 z 2 + gx + gy + gz

Equation of Motion for incompressible, Newtonian uid (Navier-Stokes equation), 3 components in cylindrical coordinates vr vr v vr v2 vr + vr + + vz t r r r z v v v vr v v v + vr + + + vz t r r r z vz vz v vz vz + vr + + vz t r r z = = = P + r r 1 P + r r 1 (rvr ) r r + 2 v 2 vr 1 2 vr 2 + r 2 2 r z 2 + gr + g

2 v 2 vr 1 (rv ) 1 2 v + + 2 + 2 r r r 2 r z 2 + 2 vz 1 2 vz + r 2 2 z 2 + gz

1 P vz + r z r r r

Equation of Motion for incompressible, Newtonian uid (Navier-Stokes equation), 3 components in spherical coordinates
2 2 v + v vr v vr v vr vr + vr + + t r r r sin r

2 vr 1 vr 1 sin + 2 2 r 2 sin r sin 2 2 v 2 (v sin ) 2 2 r sin r sin 2 cot v v v v v v v vr v + vr + + + t r r r sin r r = P + r r 1 r 2 vr r 2 r + = 1 P + r 1 v r2 r 2 r r + 1 r 2

+ gr

v v v v + vr + t r r = 1 P r sin

2 v 1 1 (v sin ) + 2 2 sin r sin 2 2 vr 2 cot v + 2 2 + g r r sin v v vr v v v cot + + + r sin r r 2 v v 1 1 1 1 + 2 (v sin ) + 2 2 r2 + 2 r r r r sin r sin 2 2 cot v 2 vr + 2 + 2 + g r sin r sin

Note: the r-component of the Navier-Stokes equation in spherical coordinates may be simplied by adding 0 = 2 v to the component shown above. This term is zero due to the continuity equation (mass conservation). See r Bird et. al. References: 1. R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, 2nd edition, Wiley: NY, 2002. 2. R. B. Bird, R. C. Armstrong, and O. Hassager, Dynamics of Polymeric Fluids: Volume 1 Fluid Mechanics, Wiley: NY, 1987.