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Montalbo, Claudine Jhean C.

2012 Legal Maxims



Stare decisis et non quieta movere. One should follow past precedents and should not disturd what has been settled. 2. Dura lex sed lex. The law may be harsh, but it is still the law 3. Contemporanea expositio est optima et fortissima in lege. The contemporary construction is strongest in law. 4. Ratihabitio mandato aequiparatur. Legislative ratification is equivalent to a mandate. 5. Interest reipublicae ut sit finis litium. The interest of the State demands that there be an end to litigation. 6. Verba legis non est recedendum. From the words of a statute there should be no departure. 7. Absoluta sententia expositore non indiget. When the language of the law is clear, no explanation of it is required. 8. Hoc quidem perquam durum est, sed ita lex scripta est. It is exceedingly hard but so tha law is written. 9. Aequitas nunquam contravenit legis. Equity never acts in contravention of the law. 10.Interpretatio fienda est ut res magis valeat quam pereat. A law should be interpreted with a view to upholding rather than destroying it. 11.Verba intentioni, non e contra, debent inservire. Words ought to be more subservient to the intent and not the intent to the words. 12.Cessante ratione legis, cessat et ipsa lex. When the reason of the law ceases, the law itself ceases. 13.Interpretatio talis in ambiguis semper fienda est ut evitetur inconveniens et absurdum. Where there is ambiguity, such interpretation as will avoid inconvenience and absurdity is to be adopted. 14.Ea est accipienda interpretation quae vitio caret. That interpretation is to be adopted which is free from evil or injustice.

15.Fiat justicia, ruat coelum. Let right be done, though the heavens fall. 16.Jure naturae aequum est neminem cum alterius detrimento et injuria fieri locupletiorem. The fact that a statuteis silent, obscure or insufficient with respect to a question before the court will not justify the latter from declining to render judgment thereon. 17.Ninguno non deue enriquencerse tortizeramente con dao de otro. When the statute is silent or ambiguous, this is one of those fundamental solutions that would respond to the vehement urge of conscience. 18.Surplusagium no nocet. Surplusage does not vitiate a statute. 19.Utile per inutile non vitiatur. Useful vitiated by the non-useful. 20.Ibi quid generaliter conceditur; inest haec exceptio, si non aliquid sit contras jus basque. Where anything is granted generally, this exception is implied; that nothing shall be contrary to law and right. 21.Falsa demonstration non nocet, cum de corpore constrat. False description preclude construction nor vitiate the meaning of the statute which is otherwise clear. 22.Summum jus, summa injuria. The rigor of the law would become the highest injustice. 23.Nemo tenetur ad impossibile. The law obliges no one to perform an impossibility. 24.Impossibilium nulla obligation est. In other words, there is no obligation to do an impossible thing. 25.In eo quod plus sit, simper inest et minus. The greater includes the lesser 26.Expresio unius est exclusio alterius. The expression of one thing is the exclusion of another. 27.Ubi jus, ibi remedium. Where there is right, there is a remedy for violation thereof. 28.Ex dolo malo non oritur action. No man can be allowed to found a claim upon his own wrongdoing or inequity. 29.Nullus commodum capere potest de injuria sua propria. No man should be allowed to take advantage of his own wrong. 30.In pari delicto potior est conditio defendentis.

In equal fault, better is the condition of the defendant, than that of the plaintiff. 31.Quando aliquid prohibetur ex directo, prohibetur et per obliquum. What cannot, by law, be done directly cannot be done indirectly. 32.Ubi lex non distinguit nec nos distinguere debemus. Where the law does not distinguish, we ought not to distinguish. 33.Generalia verba sunt generaliter intelligenda. What is generally spoken shall be generally understood or general words should be understood in a general sense. 34.Generale dictum generaliter est interpretandum. A general statement is understood in a general sense. 35.Verba accipienda sunt secundum materiam. A word is to be understood in the context in which. 36.Ubi lex non distinguit, nec nos distinguere debemus. Where the law does not distinguish, we should not distinguish. 37.Dissimilum dissimilis est ratio. Of things dissimilar, the rule is dissimilar. 38.Noscitur a sociis. Where a particular word or phrase is ambiguous in itself or is equally susceptible of various meanings, its correct construction may be made clear and specific by considering the company of words in which it is found or with which it is associated. 39.Expressio unius est exclusio alterius. The expression of one thing is the exclusion of another. 40.Expressum facit cessare tacitum. What is expressed puts an end to that which is implied. 41.Exceptio firmat regulam in casibus non exceptis. A maxim of recognized utility is the rule that the express exception, exemption or saving excludes others. 42. Argumentum a contrario. What is expressed puts an end to that which is implied or negative-opposite doctrine 43.Casus omissus pro omisso habendus est. A person, object or thing omitted from an enumeration must be held to have been omitted intentionally. 44.Ad proximum antecedens fiat relatio nisi impediatur sentential. Relative words refer to the nearest antecedents, unless the context otherwise requires. 45.Reddendo singula singulis.

Referring each to each; referring each phrase or expression to its appropriate object, or let each be put in its proper place, that is, the words should be taken distributively. 46.Optima statuti interpretatrix est ipsum statutum. The best interpreter of a statute is the statute itself. 47.Ut res magis valeat quam pereat. That construction is to be sought which gives effect to the whole of the statute its every word. 48.Interpretatio fienda est ut res magis valeat quam pereat. A law should be interpreted with a view to upholding rather than destroying it. 49.Interpretare et concordare leges legibus est optimus interpretandi modus. Every statute must be so construed and harmonized with other statutes as to form a uniform system of jurisprudence. 50.Distingue tempora et concordabis jura. Distinguish times and you will harmonize laws 51.Interpretare et concordare legibus est optimus interpotandi modus. Every statute must be so construed and harmonized with other statutes as to form uniform system of law. 52.Salus populi est suprema lex. The safety of the people is the supreme law. 53.Statuta pro publico commodo late interpretantur. Statutes enacted for the public good are to be construed liberally. 54.Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea. The act itself does not make a man guilty unless his intention were so. 55.Actus me invito factus non est meus actus. An act done by me against my will is not my act. 56.Privilegia reciprint largam interpretationem voluntati consonam concedentis. Privileges are to be interpreted in accordance with the will of him who grants them. 57.Nullum tempus occurrit regi. No time runs against the king- it means that the crown can proceed with actions that would be barred if brought by an individual due to the passage of time. 58.Vigilantibus et non dormientibus jura subveniunt. The laws aid the vigilant, not those who slumber on their rights. 59.Interst reinpublicae ut sit finis litium.

Public interest requires that by the very nature of things there must be an end to a legal controversy. 60.Potior est in tempoe, potior est in jure. He who is first in time preferred in right. 61.Lex prospicit, non respicit. The law looks forward, not backward. 62.Lex de future, judex de praeterito. The law provides for the future, the judge for the past. 63.Nova constitutio futuris forman imponere debet non praeteritis. A new statute should affect the future, not the past. 64.Nullum crimen sine poena, nulla poena sine legi. There is no crime without a penalty, and there is no penalty with-out a law. 65.Favorabilia sunt amplianda, adiosa res. Conscience and good law justify this exception, which is contained in the well-known aphorism. 66.Leges posteriors priores contraria ab. Later statute repeals prior ones which are repugnant thereto 67.Generalia specialibus non derogant. A general law does not nullify a specific or special law. 68.Favores ampliandi sunt; odia restringenda. Penal laws which are favorable to the accused are given retroactive effect. 69.Index animi sermo est. Speech is the index of intention. 70.Leges posteriors priores contrarias abrogant. A later law repeals a prior law on the same subject which is repugnant thereto. 71.Maledicta est exposition quae corrumpit textum. It is dangerous construction which is against the text. 72.Optimus interpres rerum usus. The best interpreter of the law is usage. 73.Sine qua non Indespensable; without which, nothing 74.Verba Legis Plain meaning rule. 75.Ratio legis Interpretation according to the spirit or reason of the law. 76.Ratio legis est anima The reason of the law is its soul. 77.Obiter dictum

An observation made by the judge with regards to matters that is secondary to the issue before the court. 78.Sub silentio Under silence, without any notice being taken. 79.Malum prohibitum Penalized for reasons of public policy. 80.Ex necessitate legis From the necessity of the law. 81.Ipso facto By the fact itself. 82.Pari delicto In equal fault. 83.Mala in se Acts which are wrong in themselves. 84.Mala prohibita Prohibited acts 85.Ejusdem generis The same kind or specie 86.Quo warranto by what warrant- is a prerogative writ requiring the person to whom it is directed to show what authority they have for exercising some right or power they claim to hold. 87.Pari materia Statutes relate to the same person or thing, or have the same specific or particular subject matter. Relating to same matter. 88.Strictissimi juris The most strict right or law. 89.Motu proprio On his own impulse- is a document issued by the Pope (or by a monarch) on his own initiative and personally signed by him. 90.In futuro In the future- it shall take effect upon its approval and not retroactive. 91.Ex post facto Made afterwards, especially when having retroactive effect. 92.Habeas corpus Any of the various writs ordering a person to be brought before a court; specifically, a writ requiring that a detained person be brought before a court to decide the legality of the detention or imprisonment in full. 93.A quo In the absence of a saving clause.

94.Ex proprio vigore. Such being the case, the presumption against implied repeal and the rule on strict construction regarding implied repeal apply. 95.Certiorari Writ of error, as the law or rules of Court may provide, final judgments of inferior courts in all criminal cases in which the penalty imposed is death of life imprisonment. 96.Amicus curiae "friend of the court". The name for a brief filed with the court by someone who is not a party to the case. 97.Ubi jus ibi remidium Where there is right, there is remedy. 98.Praeter intentionen The injurious result is greater that intended. 99.Ignorantia legis non excusat. Ignorance of the law excuses no one from compliance therewith. 100.Ignorantia facti excusat Ignorance or mistake of fact relieves the accused from criminal liability. 101.Aberration ictus There is a mistake in the blow.