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This chaptq de,ls w$ d€ revi.w of rht€d lilehlw. TIE G@her hd

reviewed ihe considerable r€latcd lileralue slailablc. The esdcher h6 dndeavor€d ro

study lhc b@ks wino on t lcning ncrhodologid. nodeh of laching, insrif,iioml

iheones. irotructioml desigl in his:rorical F6pativc &d Lay.rcd Inslructional Srlre8y based on $e Elabodtion In.ory gilen bt Chdles. M. R€ig.luth s w.ll s on the

inpon!@ and sr!t6 ol English Lingug. ed m.tho& ofieachins Enghh in Palisia,

Whilc witing lhis clu4.r n hs bc.n @ed lo cull ail the Elevmt infomalion ro

build this chapld syslcnatiolly on lheourlin€ alsdy dmM for$ecompcirion otthis

2.1 Education atrd T


Edmation b ihe non po$qtul atditng agcnt which is €xFd.d lo pull fie

social life fomd. Hu$ain (19?6) ti.Is lhdl all lhe socia.l jth and evils cs be up rooled

if th. cdu@tion syslem of! @hFy is wisly @Etirlred. Edrcation is rhe principal mms for the di$.minarion of krowledge, acquisirion of skill md tr&mision of $e

cuttur.l haitage lo the new gd.rdion.

Educalion h r process in which hum6 capabitities @ mdimized and optinal

nial @np.tdica ae developed lo net lhe plt$r ed tutuE chaldg6. lqbal( l9S | )

stat* dtst cd@tion in a way, could nee the bnnging our sd rh. delrlolnem ofall $e

inhecnt pot€nrialili.s ol& individual.



EdMrion N1 only dwd u about whal is hrppeniq @ud u bur ale pepd.s

s ho* to deal, Euc€$fully, wifi tnop de!.lop6ents raline placc o. going to happen @und c 0qb1. l98l ). h is a @eioN .tron by rhe se cld6 of a siely ro prodEe

tuUer hmm fo@ wi$in d cohtext of deir philosophy of lif. md envitumenral

Mlirid e that they @uld build a $und sieiy wrth liviog.

EdMlional poduct nsr b€ in eordde wilh the @Uetiv. *isdom of a @iion if n is to prcgcss in the @smos. Midal ( I 978) Efss b R€d.h s d.Unirion ds a batec.d

dcfirnion rhal cduc€lion is the ed syskmalic influfte cxcned by rhe nrurc

pdson upon rhe mna|uq rhbugh insl,acrion, discipline and lhe hgmohious

dedopmar of all de po\@ of hue bcins; physicaj, sid, inrll€ctut, acsthetic ed s?intul, rc@rding !o !h.h seolial hi.mhy, by dd for fieir indiyidut &d social

Ug, and dneri towards the uior of ih. cdEdd wilh his Cror s the fimt cnd.

Ed@don ndidia

hutm potdjat. Sch@k wiati& rne yobg. ll

@n*'ously @fircIs thc cduGlion ofchitdM io inpoE llrcir b€havioc s per si.kl:


Sch@ls should nor only ddetop individud r.tors bur ate d.Etop civility in lhe

young. tlnlech (1998) 3lr.s6 upon ehools that rhey nul piolide such .dudon ro

lhe yous dE1 @'nd eciati2c ed dmeBlia $m atong vilh then emorim,t dd

@dehic grcsrn. Yulf (197?) opio6 thar $hools e

Ftunaiitie of childcn s Fr d.n bveb, for wholesoDe

&lMrion ad t &hing go had jn nard. TncF my b€ lming *i!ho!r c&hing

hn eflecdve l@ing is inm@ivable in ab*hcc of leehi.g. The 6a of tachins

ol€nviremc.ts wirhio whicb srldors ce ijle@l dd iudy

pN.s is thc .fugd.

howlo lem (D.wey, 1916), Joyce sd d€notcd lhat lcachins is desriprion


of lwinS dviomc.l. It @g.s from plming cuniculDm ro desiSlin8 l6ens fot

inslrrctiond purros.s. In mod.m eE, l.&hing meds |o lppo&h $ldcrts liod ftei! view poin &d Fd lc&hing rElcs a diffcmce md hrve ir calia o l.mc6. This is lhe

lten terchins hd ben d€6ncd frcm diflcMt &gles, Seedhd et al (2005) opin rlur

rlc[iag b e eotirt per of.ducado! md irs sF.i.i ftDction is ro inp6n knowledse,

dev.lop undeatanding md slills. Tlft is widely sway lhn Einsteiht vicws who thinl

th8t lhe supEne turction of rtuhir8 is to .sor.n joy in crealile cxpE$ion dd


They h6ve nDd. a galdy of definidotr of rebi.8 by Ctob.lly

&tnotledged renowned p.Nns, Thes se s uder:

Buion (1961) bol& the view ibal lechihg is the srinutaion. guid&ce.

dirccl'on ad of l@ing.

Cldk (1970) Ef€B t*hing ro activni.s rhar @ dGisned ard perfon d b

prodnce chlds€ insiudob behlviou.

Brubachd (1939) drells upon rhd r.ehing is d and

hdipularion of a sirarioh in which d individual witl se( @ oveEo&. do

ftom which h. will l.d

in rhc @w of doins e.

Flmd6 (1970) de$ribes l€&nins 6 itrL@ion witn snldds lo &hieve

Sinpetr deribe $al re&hing is s n€es whecb, siery lsiB the young

in a slect d envnomefl a quickly as possible b adjusl rhchsetvB ro the

wtrld in which they liv-

E4lish dd Enslbh (1958) dcline rea.hins 6 $. an ot Gtudns orh.B io

lem. lt includes lbe pbviding ofinfomation (inslruction) ed ofapprcpriar

sirulroB. @ndiuoN oraa\

dsisn.d ro ir'lt

r. tm'ng.


skimer (1968) srat6 le&hing is $c of conringercies or

tinfot!4.nt undd vhich nudcnts leh and dcsird beh.vio6 6pF,

$tich nighr oth€Mi3c nmr @c!i

OGn ( 1964) dcFdb.s lhd rmhi.e is ! la l for the dryctoDnnl of a child s e

cmoliomlly slale b.ins. s@ially beneficid being. noralty modest beins 6d ienlolly


proersiv€ beins to corqM rll thc poLntialni6 bcsto*d rpon ne by lh€ Atnigl y

Sl)mine up, it cu be concluded Ural l@hing is . pro€es in which hmonioug

pqsodlitid G ploduc.d ed stud.ns boft pntlicdty srong, h. ![y d.( siatly

€fiiciot, €notioMUy sllble, ead€nic.lly dy@ic, spiritu.lly enliehned, cdt@Uy

Ffn d, cit liolly boldnn dd nor.lly upighr s rb|r Oey @uld qEibuL i! llE

socicty posili!.ly md .dju.t in their ovircmft,

T€aching is no horc a simplc adirity. it is highly a complex .ndeavour. Holl &d

Kysi&! (2006) giE.3ynbotic Epllgtiriotr of O. @opt.x activity otrahins. It h$

bd d.p'ctcd in Fisft 2.1 .

Figure2.1: Conpl€! Activiry ofTeaching(rrott Md Kyritkl, 1006)



FoncdorrotEfi.crireT ctitrg

Sr€€dhr er ,1 (2005) lin th. following id tuncrjos of cffcrivc












Cr€alin8 l€mihe situatio.s.

Morivsli.S rhe child lo lem.

Andgi.g for conditiom which ssisl in ths gb$'ib of child\ ni.d and

UlilizinS the inniadve ed play ug6 of $e childEn ro f&ili&rc teming.

Tlmjng lh. childcn into cEtive b.ings.

Inspiriig childrEn wnh lh.

.obiliiy ofrhoughrs. f*lings Md &do.s.

Oiviag infomtion ed explaidns it.

Diasnosing teding pmbt.m.

Maling cmiculs nalriol

Evaluri4. Imdins 0d Eponins.

2.r.2 Ar Etretiv. To.h.r

OmDd (198) .lohoErcs rhe nncdo$ of & cfre.rir rach.r. Ac@rding to b*











PlmoG sc6s in aed.nic, si.t dd phFicsl hsks 6 a say of fosrcrins moe

posnivc elf{onccprs.

Suppon youg childEn in rhen eftons b ple ad cs.ryour rhen oM activities.

Tale spccial p.ins to e.nance s0&nG selfcohcepb durins eany adol.scence.

Fsbbhsh r l@ gu6elinec Esarding cts,ooh beh.\ ioLr

MiniDia bdrieE ro soci.t inter&rion.

Enouage od fscilible parricipalio! i. @aunicDtd acr!trEs.$rharsM€nrsFsp€crlhefeliDeinghlsed prop.rlyof orh6.

Help sruden$ idendi/ alt dpeds of a dilem, jncluding de nedj ed

penpe$v6 ofth. vtuious involvd.

Not Mke pEdiclions a,bour indilidul stld€nls on rhc basis of gbup diff.foc6.

Rmqber dEt difl@ sludenG mt be inl€ltie.n in difrdent wys.




















Snow $udob lha1 h€ valE @rivily

CMr€ & .nvircnne in which srudcnts l€l corfonrble tding risks.

Eslablkh dd haintain oFn lin€s of commuicarion wnh penls ed jointly

ide i$' ways in which bome dd *hool 6 wort toS.rher

Civ. equal anc.ion lo nales tud f6Mlcs but occasiomlty fom s0.- s

ercups for c@perati!. clssmh .ctivirics.

Previd. morioml suppon fd $uddls ud.r strEs dd f&itir.rc p6.

ldaiiry ari;k studens s tuly s po$ibl€ &d i on $.n benrlt

Focus oo shoa-Gm specific goals but help slud.nls sel hish y€t @alisric goals

Civ. sod.nls Eas@ for wrinS ro led .rd rconbq thsr ditrercnr studcnrs

will led difeGnr dings fron rhe lme siruEiion.

lt€*nt iifom.lioi in e o.Sdiud fashioo e rltsl lh.y could tqm Ming tuIy

md ma]<. eN. oll ofncw mreriat,

Prcot idc6 in r visul D.der .rxt N ndimm A.V. a,os

Gve studeon n.moiies they 6

u* when new informalion is difiicutt ro lean

Prcvide Eiri.val cres whd appopriar dd nb thcn ro devlop thn

Povid. opponuiid fd indjvidualiz.d iGrrution md pmvid spd.t

e3floldids to d!. nedy sntdals.

Know that dll lh. $udeots ft uable to udestand qhat is pE*nr€d, rheEfoft,

Evis all the inportsd poinLs.

En@wa8. sudc s ro cxchege $n virys rhrough fEquenl ctass@n ad our

rn@rDorate classr@n slbjet mu.r into "Eat yortd" &riviries.

Prolid. n@ingful leeing Bpeialty whcn nw mate.idl conrldicrs existi.S

Moniior studeDk un le6i.nding thrughoul ! Iesen.

Ask stu.Lors 0o atply wh.r rhey haE led!.
























Ask stud€rls ro gcncdt their own dmtles ofth. concepis

P.omole n@ingfll l.dine, 6thcr the ror€ l@ing

Rclate topi6 in one e.dmic dieiplinc to ofier.caddic di$iplirc and lo rhe

JudS. oppli€lion skills while s*ssing md help slldenrs derelop useful ways lo

atply then howledg

En@ues€ sfid.nb 1o orgdize classfuft nwdial dd om

elabohtion qu6rions.

Giv. stld@a p@ice h s@izing inro@don

E@unsc std.r s ro tbmslv.s &d pomr. *lf

N$ncnf .

C@tc 6 pl@r, up beal ddstuoo climar€.

ReinfoM desnabb behaviou &d pbvide opponuniris ro preie desi8ble

T.U sludents exarly -hr d.y bav. don reU od how rhey cd inpmv€

Givc ahdents 6@ion l !6bdl cu6 ro Enind th.m ofwnat ftey e


Relom a studenr who disb€har.s $roud hisrs rcchniq@s

Use dllemtiv€ approachs ad do.s not Ne puishhe.r

U* srch mnd foms of puishmar s eritrwrd: GpoN cosq rine{ut. logicd @$€q@@i od if l@sery, in , s.l@l suFm'on.

Sl.y away Aon physical or Fychological punishnent dd out of *hoot

Show gauie inl.rn h rhe srudqls @ll being

Renain peBist or ed pali€m on dd b.naviomlly dierdeE.

Believe in gladual imFovenent F$er thd olemight p€rf4tioh

Puish hmoely &d judiciouly.

Ierilc fie @d. for moE ltuii8

T.&h elf egulatory slraregies ro srud.nts wirh sp@i.l needs.

R.lac &liviries tc' sludenfs Prcpnr needs od looS-m g@ts.

















En@M8e slf-reiifo@rcrt, sclf


&d self{onirol.

CEat€ a @muity of lemeu in which he od his slud€nls activcly dd

c@peraively wort ro belp one &olher

UF elhoic adiviries lo pFmoi. n@iogful @mdrios b€rween cl6s@m

subj@i nand md @l world t&sls

CME a *M ofsh.rcd goals, inlcQ.enal r€sp6r dd mutul Espet.

U.deMd rne & ed €hotionr of dE studcnts speiauy when ln.y e

Eldy to do smernine.

Rmain sable whil. dalinS wilh ucoFEtnq mconuollcd oi

defiet pupils and sFil witb studeft aboul chrcnic nis-b.naviour.

Inrolve pamts about chmnic prcblcms,

Believe thar he c& be efIdclile,

K€ep abreasl of culMt re$ach rcsults. th@!€lical d€velopn€nls md educalional


Renain in-louch silh prcnb ahoul.ll the developn€nls of rhen of-spnngs

Pfp@ l6ts @tully ed &ll th. $odcnls vcll in advae about ihe gdding

Ev.lua his pupih pofessioially od f@iliria studenb wirh estunr

.,udse the r€liabiliry, sr&dardiation validity ad pEcricalny of lh. rca6 fo.

Renain 100% ubiaed, alen dd fair while NFssing rh€ willeh tesh of ibe

F@ tne bw gmdes in spite ofall nis .nd.avo6 and €fforrs and Fmain opiimislic,

s4d cr al (2000) idmlifi€d rhe followinS ch@lerislics of e €frslive lmbei Th. gisl

of th.h is 6 urdd: Tne rdh€!]




AdoFs t@hing ptuf€$ion by choie.

k self-nolivarcd &d

Kep6 in nind fi. ains ed obj.clivs,












Plms ad pEpdes his l.sso.s.

Mat€s the re5.hi.8 l@ing pDc6s .njoyable. Utrd€Brqds rhe devclopncnbl si.e6 of childrcn

s6 bsks ,@lding !o rhc & nrg6.

Co s thirss fron child! e8l?_

Is atnD€d to the v.lbal dd non wrbd comhic.rion of rhe cnilid.

R6po.d5 ro lh€s sigDls od in ine.

Mrkes his exp€claliotr abou child! beh.vior cled

Gets chitlr€n ro a*epr conrrclwillinglt by *nirg rhe mood forco.rrcl.

Anmses the pbysical dd int.A.iional .nvibmehr ofrh€ clds in such away

thal he spends ninimm iDe in disciplining md ndinm tine io rcaching.






CRI€S pl@l clinare in clss for lcming.

B€haves.frtrrio@t ly dd

R€mi6 supponivc dd cnouhging insid. ed oulside de cl6s.

H€lps tba to Ninilare &d e@nmodaL n.w drings.

Abid6 by rhe laws ofrh. *h@l-

Reid (2006) 6ehd6 iitu f&ro6 dd inflwnce leding Th6e & d udq:


T€ehing Style


Leming Slyle


Tak Expe.tadon

2.2 Model B



R*@h6 otr rahing dcmonstr6!. viSoou chans€s duing th.

(Siddiqui, l99l). wilh lhe pdsg. ofrim., na hs raveled lmn €ache.{dtcrd to


leaftr+ eEd tc&hing. Sihitdly dilI*nl nodcls wE u.dl for dilledl subjets

and lor dilfeEnt cles. Thc odsin of m.lhodology 6

be mced fren RoMu sho

niNr sa innrcne<l by John Jock . Pcsnbzn p inlo pEdia rhe ida of Rol|sgu. Ihm Hdb.n lwgnizql rh. ncd for &lopdne itulrulion to 6l rhe cagaitiB ofthe child, his chief@ned wa wilhlh. hedod dd pith th€ *ork ofthe tq.hq. In

the begimine of 20d @niury Hcrb.nidisn u

cnticiz.d md lhe empnsis upon the

lmhd ss oppo&d. Consqucntly diffcFnt models of

leehing w€r€ developed md

pmlisd lo achieve the instructioml g@b c.t Sori@d into three domains basd oh

Nov n ha b€@ne e op€n ssd rhat teachins is called the co insencies or Einfo@menl und€i wnich lems e carcd about or pbvision of sucb envioment thd

feililales l€min8. Stud.nts cm l.m cv.n wnbout t ehing b(aus me h$ b€en giv€n

imte iLdiftls lo l€d b .lmging fomal anlingencies exp€dir€ ledins. Models of

l@.hing rF ofteprEliad by th€ s.

pr&titioftB 6 @ll s ene 8* disvtrd

anr exleBiw snrdi6 ro qr.dirc l6ing ad bcn r rcr.nrlon. All bav. Ezlie<t no*

thar b asellajn dE dcsiEd lding ourcm6 .ficrivcly dd efficiotly, a potent nodel

Wiftmk ( 1986) b.lis6 0'.r mod.h of t


e designed lo helpiq stude.ts

to inc@ their @pacily o thint cl@ly ed wi*ly s well s to d€velop civic sN sd

comitnal. He is of the view th.t of t mhing provide suppon not only lo

€nnse lemins bul slso app.tire $. d.sic for noe leming. Mo<tels of &&hing

prcvide a tluid inl€elay of eve s wbich mate lhc cducational pio@s enjoy able dd

2.2.1 Chrnc&€ of Mod.l-Brr.d r


Model basd leehins hs sme ceflain qualiti.s o. ch&acldisrics which n te it

dif€Mt from tzditional t.dninS. Thc ght of hodel based teaching is a under:

. Ir is sysrenatic dd $icn fic p@.<lue to modi8 the b€havioB of









It is s &t il.d 3paificarion of leming oucon6 ro be ehiev€d.

lt is sp*ilicarion of cneienm€fl ud.r which studcn6' Espon*s d€

h h . lixarion of rh. ciirdion of bl. p.rfo|l@e which is

cxp€icd noh dE

CooDo!@b of Mod.l Br.d T.rchng of r@hing coNist of tli follo{in8 @nporcnrs:



This @npon.nt &$rib.s th. ph{es ed tuidios ofih. nodcl.

b. Seitl Sy.l.E. It &$ribB thc t!l.s.nd EladoBhiF oft*h.B dd 9u&nl'

c Prin iph of Eeriotr- It &!k eirh $. @rioB of th€ lrudcnrs dld how isrru.lion

should Ftrlcc.d.

d. slPpon Sy!r@. lr dals with rle rahing lids od dei cffeive e.

q Nodrn.r Elt .l'

a. Pptdtiotr ll d

lt .l&tod16 diFt cff@lr ofi6lEtior


with th. nflhd@Ulitrof fic nodcl forditrffir ceiola


(Siddiqui l9l).

2.23 Mod.Lcor.r.d lnrrrdio!.!.| D6q. rry.nry

A er of prircipl6 glidc iBrMrion ! d*ign6 !o afllin dr d6ftd objelivcs. Il

dE* pdrcipl6 e

ddi!.d foh I specifi. no<Ll. n @mftu6 dod€l4ntced

i$trEti@. Oibbon @001) vis it.$ inn'ktiodl th@ry b.tuc n favo6 lhc pircipl6

$,hich mainlain lh. Fiority of t p.nicule rDdcl. h is closly ticd ro thc b6ie of al

mod.l. Ev€ry nod.l h& iLs lms ard cm A nMb6 of studi6 h!v. foud stllnglhs dd

o6knc.s of d6ost 3ll hodcls. GibboE (200l) clllft dr,l the eAcn$cny of r mod€l d.Fdcd upd hos rh. Nc{t, lrd how ir w6 ndipuht d in r given

.nvioMcDl. Followitrg by6 wcE rsmcndcd by him io hav.1h. Eal.lletivd$



nr @nrqr layec


The stalegt layrj


ft.onhl layer


nrc ness€ 1.y.,;


nr rcprcsdbrio. laycr


-nE nedialoSic laydr and


Irte ndaeenenr lay


Instuctional designers structu@s vithin e&h layer. They also align these

slroctm wilb olhef layers. Tbi! Mgcnmt crates a lenical noduldily. It aho

ennuces ed imFoves the following olcmcnis of selated smcoiei







Gibbod (2001) finds rbar wid rhe t&ssg. ol tine, ach layer be6ms Miared virh

speializd slills. H€ claim thal insulc$onal th@rics povide pnnciple whicn guid€s ro

d6ign on one layd bur th€r e rc iBnudioEl rh@ris vhicb ofle. slideliG for all

Iats. Model-Cdn€rd l.siDclion. s d, d6ign th6ry, @ h. ddrib.d in tems of rne

pMiptive p.incipb n expws for .eh ol tha 1.y6.

Co e

Lry.n Th€ @ntdt laytr of insrrulion should be conepnuliad in

lms of modek of rh@ typ€s: (l) modds oi envircnmenq (21 models of uerfTecr

syshs and (3) models of huhd pc omdc

Al ln€e cohstiture the coftDonen$

necessrr for Frfoll@ce &d ther€foG for leaming. Conte layer shonld be expressed

reladve to tbe full nodel structurc rather thao simply 6 facls, topics, or lisls oftasks.

Slnleg/ Lry€r: The of instMtion sholld be pecived in rem of

problms. A prcblen is defin d a ey self-posd or i.s1ruc1o./desisneFposed tasks or

€r oflasks fom.d into suucl@s callcd .ed( nod.l" (Cibbons. ei ar., 1995). Thee d

.Mlialy sFd p


wilhin tlF .nrioDm@t, &iing on sysrqs, €xlibning

€xperl oI pcrfotme. Prebl.m should b. pn*nr.d 6 d.siEd behavios tnd m io b.


€xnibit€d by le.|!16, Duing thir laya, istnrctionol auen6rauo6 of evdd lyFs

should b. olT@d. Pogresiv€ ed dFuitic ,mgmenrs e

lery needed for stnt Sic

Control Liy.r: Control l.yer ddb with the momentum of lhe lcmcr, hh

engatenc.l, self-evaluation ed self di@!ion. lt should .llow lme^ lo mdiniarheir

.biliti.s to ioterd with the p@iiced nodel ed inslrrctio.ol almgndi

Ep6.nts a balee betwq studcna dd rehe6.

Ii atso

M.{g. L.y.E This is a @h.Ent orgdiz.d syncnmdzed which rcquic $m. ldnl of h.iege, It mt b€ fion l@b and insrumcnrs\ fiom conrrol mMgddns fion

ex!.nal Esu.6 or iiom insfirctioml $6!.gis. This layr coveu th. philosphical

priorities ofa mod€I. Tlis is cslled lhc hcan ofihe in$rrction 6 wetl s $. guiding sra6

which keep tne whole proces on psrh,

R.pBctrorio! L.y€.: Ibis larci rcpes. s rhe menory studmrs alsdy bave. Ir

nal6 no limiling amptio6. Ii dricipalcs vcry wide spetlm of pdsibihies

6pc.idly wilh rcsAe.lro nodel EpEst don, ModelsteEd insNctio,L in $is laycr,

.xlctn lia tll tbe srnbolic p&$otllions thst call up l.atM's Mory.

M.di.Lrrgic l{yc

Modckdt ftd iisr'ucrion (Mct) m.k s no sshptions

Egarding th. u* ofnedia. Il is ftnnal ro &hi.v.lhe d€signed coctrucB which 6sisl ro

ralia thc liven goals or task.

M.!.g.Dot Lryci Model<.nl.Ed insrlciion i5 alw.ys syst mati. md

o.8eizs, MeEg€mml lays aligns wirh lhe cnoen uits to iGtiutional $nk8t. Il is

alwys ii uord,re wiih nte mod.l s.xp!.sion. Sine model mler.d in$Mrion b6

no asmpri@ about tlE data reordcd, d.GfoG deriv€s d arpopnarc i.suldional

slElcgy, Th€ mmag€mot lay€r do6 tul dlow lo deviar. f& away frcn lhc

philosphical prioriti€s of lne nod.l n.irhr it rsrricrs lhe pEclnionu ro *tile lhe i.slruclional i$ues within th€ givcn rcm.di$, All the lay€s de !€rr meeinefll s

sus86r.d by cibboG (2001) if rhese e pracriced.


CibboB (2001) slggsle tt t s,t n thc d6isDcr ciI6 &sisD lion thc nodcl

/dl6t laycr, dE pddily of coneN follos thi! ordq:

(t) wlar

a l


should inr@r wnh €e cf[@t mo<Ll?


whar should bG th. apprcFia& ldcl of d@twi.g of Mod.l for l.'mr?


what lhould bc dF sGqEM of poblcm for lqmrs?


Wh.r tyF of @u|e should bc avlil.bL?


whr kind ofrdltirio.d 3uppon dbuld b. previ&d?

Insflrcdon.t d6igrm dsy! folloq th. Fincipl6 that l4d inFnd i6i8l6 into

rhc otda of insrsrionrl &ri!iti6. nEy dynoicdly 8.imtc ad oda all tlF

prt*€sg Thcy o

dld ey &si!n .t sy l.yd. Howr, lh.y kap h vi.w lh.

*Bitiviti6 of dl ods 1.y6. Duhg tL anlFb of iEuatioMl sPeificlrior thcy

iddri&.llrk clatunts of nodcl *hich G diEtly Ehr.d {ith ftc poblcN. Such

tyF of .m€cfBt! aotomatic.lly un. U. sp.cifiotion of l@in8i


Ldning cnvirmcnt3


I.5ltudiod tundion liti6


Sude deati.s dd


t sicrl rr'uct'G

A nbddantald inltruction is.lwy! a subtl. srd i.6nivc choie li it slwqs

6i6 ro eld a !Dd.l ro .dopl bur ir b tuE difficuh to follow dl thc Prircipl6 er by

lhc qpqr5, Thc rnldi6 lEv. FoEn lh{ ! nDdcl ed.ed idctrtion, in l.rld dd sllinl

b d

frlq|tntly adoFcd. Thc Do.ririo6 follo* difcrcnt ItTcs or.Pp@h6 &d

sE r.8i6 in th. 6cld !o F!d@ cGnctic NIB sidlltar@usly. Modclccn|ftd l6r.Nrior @NrilLar signifior .fions of .ducetionisrs !o .dEr. hws beings.

B$ic.lly $es. @ tc&hd b.luviou 116| irclud. ituuutional &vies r@ d 8.t a ndbd of b.mnts ftom dis @ncrd. ond prcgttmmblc insltution |o n.kc

virion *id.r ed wi*. Howv.r, n hs bc.n E@mmcndcd by tn€ pbpoMts of modcl

airftd iBtluction th.t whiL uiry sy ho<lcl of i.nrudion, l@l EquiErentt ncds

rd olhd cdn$t $citividB sl bc kcal i! nind.


Th. principles of nodef@nl€Ed iErrucrion s suggesred by Cibbohs (2OOt) e


l. Erp.rid

L@eB siould b. giv€n l|uinm opponuniry ro i

.nd with

lcmina mldial. instdcrional devices, envircmen€l *ninss md

i.slructional inslrunehts, As ndy pracritione^ betiele $ar temihg @cu6 when hairied wirh doirgs by rh€ studenti. Experiences may be conp er

b4ed md non conpuler-bMd foms.

2. PnbLr elvhg: tid.c

sholld be lib€ry €noud s rhar lhcy could be

!bl. lh€ givcn pmbl.@. Howv.r, poblems rul be stcr.d moc qEtullr''.



If l.meG swcestully elv€ th.y .E noE likely ro suceed in tne c.t tr

wh.e they e to live ullimatcly.


D.mtlnrg: Models should be dcnalued fton the Eal oy me nedrm

which they re deerih€d. D.signeb hut sl€ct a levcl of dnaturing

e@dm. wirn the tdg.l cxislins tnopl.dge &d soats.

&q!.ft.: Problo should b€ mged in a defutly co.srrucEd squence

lo! nodeled solulion or lor driv€ lemei sotuljon. Sequenri.t apprcach is centdl in model centered in$ruction.

5. Co.l ori€ rrioDi PrcblcN $la&d shouid be apprcpriatc for lhe araihnenr

of sFific intuliorul tene^ mus b ei!.n d +prcFide

on. dtion ofgorrs dEy e Soing to atrain.

6. R6ourcirg: The ledd should b. sivn problem solling information

rceurces, Merials, and t@b within a slution Tt

iNirucrionel goalsddexisring l.vch ofknowl€dg€ must bc atigned cmfu|y


7. l@rndioo.l.cgn. raio!. Dynmic ed sFcialiad in$ruclion l $ppon

should b. given lo lem6. Insruclioml augnenraion is Ecolmqded by

ney psychologisls dd wo*in! reacheb for gFarr rerntion.

Inl.Estingly. And€Eon ( 1969) clasined rhe reemh* on terching theories imo

lwo brcadq caEgo.i* dd nme thcn




lenperel with hummistic valu6 @d


bent upon imploling rh kmwledgc

of obeles.l foms d Bhslssrle (1989) crilisUy eys Joycc dd Weil (200j) halc

@ntribd.d a @mcndable srk by pu ng art rhe nodelsj rhen


$qsths md

dd th.n iNEuctiond prircipl.s alons vith rh. b.ct sDund fren whea

those v€!€ .volvcd or mneivcd. They hav. pur all rhe te&hin8 modet3 under ditrmnt

mbeUs keepinS i. vi.s lhe sub$drial fqrures dd philosophical asslnpdons ofthos.

nodls oI t@hi.g. Dunldn (1987) ed Ae.ds (2000) havc als cl6sified diflerent models of L&hing. \ve @ @.cludc ihar li. hysleri€s ed complcxiriG of t@ning

cmol b. ufold.d udl ed ur s the i.sishts of diFemr.urho6 acrcs rhe gtobe e

nol udNrood by puning rhed into on plec. So sll rhe pBcritioneis mun .dopt ra|he,

jut Ealiz a pani.uld mod€l of r*ning keeping in view ib srrengths in accorduc.

with i.slructiooal obj ectiv.s.

Joyce &!d Veil (2003) luv€ clssifi.d models oa r@hi.s into tour fanilid *iih

be achievd by pulting dillcFnt modcts

ie view dEl difl.Mr insfirrionat gods q

inlo p@ri@. Thesc e d udei:

Th. Bebdionl Sy3t D FrDily



D. Th. Inaomrrio! Proca F.oib.


2.3.1 TheB.h.vtord Syst o Frnily

Th. mj! pcychological bos of hod€ls of tnis fmily e sdmdB @!aol &d

Einfocml- By bFaldns doM thc ledinS lask ir o eri.s of 3nalt scquoc6 e rhc

como. chd.tnsdc. ofrh€F mod.b. Th. pnme gool of th.$ nodels is modilicarion

of th visible o. ovfit benaviou of lh. l.mer. Beh.lior deorisk beliele rhal inr.n l

Elpones d€ chdg. sblc, h the b.halior system fmily, rh. piine ide is ih.1hm&

tlbu8hr is oriEly udq @itul of exmt veialls. Tb.y claim rhat cbdg. in $e

.nvioman @Bs ch.nge in lhe b€havioB of lem6. R.inforcenenr is elled hcan of

lh.* Reinfoemot is of rwo rtpesj posnive Einforcemenl md ncgadve

r€inforcemed. Th€ts models sive ftnen{ious inport&@ ro terchG ad rbei! stytes.

Itulructionol pMed@ wi*, ln* nod.h hav€ b.en nrnhd divided inb nro hod.h i.e op.tul @ndilionine bd @ml(jr @ndidonins, Sone mojor Dodcls of6is fdilv @ 6

Colliog€.cy Mms€DGrt Mod.l of B.F. Skirn.r

Il pbposF 1o t@h f&t$ @mepts and skilb. Tn.