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THIS THIS ISSUE: ISSUE: ELL ELL & & Technology Technology INSIDE 2 What's in a

THIS THIS ISSUE: ISSUE:

ELL ELL & &

Technology Technology

INSIDE 2 What's in a Name: ELL, LEP, ESL, ESOL, FEP? 3 Best Practices for
INSIDE
2
What's in a Name: ELL,
LEP, ESL, ESOL, FEP?
3
Best Practices for
Integrating Technology
into English Language
Instruction
7
Simple Strategies for
Effective Teaching with
English Language Learners
12
The Banner Project
15
Anchor School Project
17
Project Jericho: Training
College of Education
Faculty in TESOL
20
Designing an Online
Professional Development
Tool for ESL Teachers
24
RTEC Resources for
Educators of English
Language Learners
26
Learning Languages
Naturally in a Computer-
Based Environment
29
Practice With Phonics,
Vocabulary, and Reading

SouthEast Initiatives Regional Technology in Education Consortium

Volume Seven Number One 2005

English Language Learners and Technology

One of the most dramatic changes in education has been the increase in the number of students whose first language is not English. A sur- vey of the states’ limited English

proficient (LEP) students shows the extent of the growth in the popula- tion of English language learners (ELL). Since the 1990−1991 school year, the ELL pop- ulation has grown by 105% com- pared to a 12% growth among the general population (Kindler, 2002).

Data from the National Clearing- house for English Language Acqui- sition & Language Instruction Educational Programs demonstrate the magnitude of growth in the enrollment of ELL students in the Southeast. In the ten-year period between school years 1993−1994 and 2003−2004, South Carolina, for example, had a 521.5% increase in the enrollment of students whose first language was not English. Alabama, Georgia, and North Caro- lina had increases in ELL enroll- ment during the same ten-year period that ranged from 314.2% to 470.8%. Nationally, Florida has the fourth highest concentration of ELL. The preceding data make the increased emphasis on standards

and testing of these new students in the provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act readily apparent.

What does this burgeoning growth in the ELL population mean for teachers? How can teachers meet the learning needs of these students? This issue of News- Wire provides some suggested

students? This issue of News- Wire provides some suggested technology- based solutions from the field for

technology-

based solutions from the field for educating ELL students and preparing teachers. Christina Dukes from the National Center for Home- less Education at SERVE sug- gests ways educators can use technology to integrate four best practices within the Teaching English to Speakers of Other Lan- guages (TESOL) field into their classrooms. Bobby Hobgood from LearnNC presents simple strat- egies, including culture-based presentation and instructional techniques, for teaching ELL stu- dents. The Banner Project pro- vides a project-based learning example from a school in North Carolina, and the Anchor School Project offers an illustration from Florida of a collaborative project

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Dual Language Program References U.S. Department of Education. (2004). Office for Civil Rights, Programs for
Dual Language Program
References
U.S. Department of Education.
(2004). Office for Civil Rights,
Programs for English Language
Learners: Glossary. [Online].
Available: www.ed.gov/about/offices/
list/ocr/ell/edlite-glossary.html

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What’s in a Name:

ELL, LEP, ESL, ESOL, FEP?

as LEP, according to Title IX of the No Child Left Behind Act, he or she must be from a non-English language and cultural background (although not required to be fluent in the home lan- guage) and must be formally assessed on literacy skills (i.e., reading, writing, speaking, comprehending).

English language learners (ELLs) are national origin minority students with limited English proficiency (LEP), many of whom struggle to learn in class- rooms where English is the primary language (U.S. Department of Edu- cation, 2004). The term ELL is used in this issue of NewsWire to represent a student with LEP. For an ELL to qualify

Some Common Definitions (U.S. Department of Education, 2004)

ELL English Language Learner. A national origin minority student who is limited-English-proficient. This term is often preferred over limited-English-proficient (LEP) as it highlights accomplishments rather than deficits.

ESOL

English for Speakers of Other Languages. Generally developed as an alternative term for English as a Second Language (ESL) programs, since it may be the case that speakers of other languages already speak a second or even third language before beginning their study of English, which then becomes their third or fourth language.

LEP Limited-English-Proficient. (See ELL.)

Also known as two-way or develop- mental, the goal of these bilingual programs is for students to develop language proficiency in two languages by receiving instruction in English and another language in a class- room that is usually comprised of half native-English speakers and half native speakers of the other language.

ESL English as a Second Language. A program of techniques, methodology, and special curriculum designed to teach ELL students English language skills, which may include listening, speaking, reading, writing, study skills, content vocabulary, and cultural orientation. ESL instruction is usually in English with little use of native language.

FEP Fluent (or fully) English Proficient.

(ELL Learners and Technology, continued from previous page)

that utilizes electronic portfolios of migrant stu- dents’ academic work. Other articles explain programs designed to assist in teacher prepara- tion. These programs include Project Jericho for training college of education faculty and ESL/ CivicsLink for teacher professional development. Finally, this issue of NewsWire includes resources and software reviews to help educators locate the materials they need to engage their ELL stu- dents in the learning process.

Increasing Comprehensibility: Increasing comprehensibility in the classroom means using whatever appropriate means
Increasing Comprehensibility:
Increasing comprehensibility in the
classroom means using whatever
appropriate means necessary to ensure
that students understand the material
presented to them (Northwest Regional
Education Lab, 2003). Students do not
need to understand every word or piece
of information presented to them, but
they should have a solid overall grasp
on the material. Increasing compre-
hensibility does not necessarily mean
making sure to use words that your
ELL students already know and under-
stand. In fact, introducing new vocabu-
lary and concepts to ELL students is
essential for their advancement. Many
linguists believe that effective language
instruction depends on providing input
at one level of complexity beyond the
learner’s level of linguistic competence,
often expressed as “i+1” (Kerper-Mora,
n.d.). So, be careful not to interpret
“increasing comprehensibility” to mean
using oversimplified language or intro-
ducing only basic concepts. Rather,
incorporate new vocabulary and pres-
ent advanced topics but also use strat-
egies to provide ELL students with the
support they need to understand the
material being presented.
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Best Practices for Integrating Technology Into English Language Instruction

By Christina Dukes, National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE

Two national trends that are undoubt- edly making their mark within the field of education are the rapid growth of the English language learner (ELL) popula- tion (people whose native language is something other than English) and the increased use of technology as a tool for everyday life. We see these trends evidenced within the field of education through the growth of the sub-field of “educational technology” and the expo- nential growth of ELL students within our schools.

Many educators are considering these two trends and asking themselves, “How can we use the power of technolo- gy in teaching our ELL students?” This article focuses on this question and attempts to provide answers by looking at four best practices within the TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) field and how educators can use technology to integrate these practices into their classrooms.

TESOL Best Practices

Best practice is defined as “a technique or methodology that, through expe- rience and research, has proven to reliably lead to a desired result. A com- mitment to using the best practices in any field is a commitment to using all the knowledge and technology at one’s disposal to ensure success” (searchVB. com, 2003). Researchers agree that there are a number of techniques teach- ers can use to increase the effectiveness of their instruction of ELL students. While variation exists, some commonly accepted TESOL best practices are:

Increasing comprehensibility

Increasing interaction

Making learning authentic

Creating a positive learning environment

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◆ ◆ ◆ News ◆ 4 Wire to provide your students with frequent opportunities to express

to provide your students with frequent opportunities to express their ideas and to interact with one another. Incorporate cooperative learning activities into your classroom and allow students to work together to accomplish instructional goals. When students are communicat- ing with you or each other, consider both the form and comprehensibility of their messages. Form refers to the student’s usage of correct grammar and syntax, while comprehensibility refers to whether the message is understood, regardless of the accuracy of the form in which it was presented. While atten- tion to form is important, focusing too heavily on it can be discouraging for students and can squelch their desire to communicate if they are unable to produce completely accurate sentences. Focusing exclusively on comprehensi- bility, however, can be to the detriment of the student’s learning of important language skills. Balance your efforts between encouraging good form and comprehensibility.

Technology provides many opportuni- ties for students to interact with fel- low classmates or real-life audiences outside of their own classroom, city, or even country. Students can interact with classmates by working on technol- ogy activities together, such as working on a software program in pairs, writ- ing and revising a story with a partner, or creating an “electronic book report” using multimedia software such as PowerPoint ® . In all of these instances, students benefit from one another’s knowledge, practice their verbal skills conversing with one another (whether about how to use the technology or the

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Some strategies for increasing compre- hensibility in the classroom include:

Presenting helpful background or contextual information before exposing students to new topics; this may include introducing new vocabulary.

Providing instruction to students that draws on their personal experiences.

Using audio-visual aids such as photos, gestures, sounds, intonation cues, movement, demonstration, and real objects to convey meaning.

Technology can be a wonderful source of comprehensible input and provides students with different learning styles with additional demonstrations or concrete examples of concepts being taught in the classroom. Multimedia

CDs, digital tutorials, and the Web pro- vide a near endless source of sound, pictures, video, animation, and mul- timedia that can help situate learning within a mean-

ingful context.

In learning about Vasco da Gama's voyages from Portugal to Africa and India, for instance, a simple verbal description of the trip may suf- fice for some students, while other students, particularly visual learners, may not have a solid understanding. While you can't take your whole class to Portugal to recreate the voyage, perhaps a visit to the Euro- pean Voyages of Exploration website

(www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/

vasco.html), complete with animated maps, will help. When you can’t live the experience, use technology to experi- ence it virtually!

Increasing Interaction: Just as students need

to understand the information that is communicated to them, they need the opportunity to practice communicating themselves (Northwest Regional Educa- tion Lab, 2003). One way to do this is

instructional content itself), and prac- tice listening comprehension by listen- ing and responding to their partners. Students can interact with people out- side of the classroom using “safe” e-mail or chat room programs or by using videoconferencing to collabo- rate with students in other classrooms across the globe. One option for safe e-mail is ePALS (see www.epals.com).

Making Learning Authentic: Making learn-

with real-world communication in that much of our daily conversation is spon- taneous and is either social or task- oriented in nature. While this is true, CALP is also reality based in nature in that students need CALP to be able to learn new academic skills for their overall educational advancement and to equip them for real-life tasks like secur- ing employment.

Proficiency in both BICS and CALP is important for a student’s success, and instruction should incorporate activities that target both. While you may want to dedicate some instructional activi- ties to BICS and others to CALP, some skillful lesson planning may enable you to target both. For example, if you are teaching your students about economic concepts like supply and demand, con- sider having them demonstrate their understanding by performing a task that will interest them, like starting a mock online company that sells down- loads of music files.

The Web is an endless source of authentic English language commu- nication. Students can go to the Web to listen to sound bytes of authentic conversations on varying topics, watch video clips of current news headlines, or listen to popular American music. The Internet also provides endless opportunities for spontaneous com- munication through such Web-based tools as e-mail, chat, or videoconfer- encing technology. Visit the Voice of America’s “Special English” homepage for newscasts and other materials for

ELL (www.voanews.com/specialenglish/index.

cfm). Check out the Global School- house homepage for numerous

opportunities to videoconference with other classrooms

ing authentic has two primary benefits (Harjehausen, n.d.). First, learning that is authentic is more likely to equip students for English communication in “the real world.” Second, students are more likely to engage actively in classroom activities that they see as relevant to their own lives or the real world. The classroom vs. real world debate arose after realizing that, many times, students could produce accurate communication in the classroom (usu- ally as part of a scripted exercise) but were often unable to communicate suc- cessfully in English outside the class- room. The conclusion was that having students learn English only through scripted dialogues and fill-in-the-blank grammar exercises in the classroom was not enough. Students needed to interact in the classroom more like they would under real-life circumstances.

As with the balance between form and comprehensibility, there also needs to be balance in this area. Linguist Jim Cummins theorized that students acquire two types of English: BICS and CALP (Haynes, 2004). BICS stands for Basic Interpersonal Communication

Skills and refers to a student’s conver- sational fluency. CALP stands for Cog- nitive Academic Language Proficiency and refers to a

student’s academic proficiency. BICS are used in informal situations such as social exchanges. CALP is
student’s academic
proficiency. BICS
are used in informal
situations such as
social exchanges.
CALP is used in
more formal, aca-
demic situations,
such as the teach-
ing of a chemistry
or social studies les-
son. One may tend
to relate BICS more
around the world
(www.globalschool
house.com). You
might also give
your students
the opportunity
to publish their
own work for an
authentic Web
audience by “blog-
ging” (www.blogger.
com). Blog stands
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for “Web log” and is the online version of a journal or diary.

Creating a Positive Learning Environment:

Learning is influenced by many factors

(see Harjehausen, n.d.). Affective factors relate to a student’s emo-

tions and include issues like the student’s motivation to learn, self-esteem, and comfort level in the class- room. Educators agree that affective factors can have a significant influence on stu- dent learning. A poor self- image, low motivation, and self-consciousness are all

factors that can influence a student’s learning negatively. The most effec- tive learning environments are those that are supportive and open, allow for mistakes without ridicule, and encour- age students to try, even if they might make a mistake.

age students to try, even if they might make a mistake. The computer is an excellent

The computer is an excellent resource for giving students the chance to prac- tice English skills without worrying about the response of other class- mates or even the teacher. As Butler- Pascoe (1997) explains, “The untiring, non-judgmental nature of the comput- er makes it an ideal tool to help sec- ond language learners feel sufficiently secure to make and correct their own errors without embarrassment or anxi- ety.” Technology can also improve stu- dents’ motivation to learn. While some students enjoy traditional paper-and- pencil writing, getting to use clip art, word art, colors, and fonts can’t hurt. Don’t throw away your paper and pencil, but consider the extra perks that technology can provide and use them to your advantage in the class- room. If a traditional bulletin board display of what a student learned studying a particular subject or book isn’t appealing, perhaps an interactive PowerPoint ® presentation, complete with sound, graphics and animation, will do the trick! The opportunity that technology affords students to create crisp-looking, visually appealing prod- ucts can provide the extra motivation needed to capture student interest.

References

Butler-Pascoe, M. E. (1997, May/June). Tech- nology and second language learners. Amer- ican Language Review, 1(3). Retrieved April

18, 2005, from www.languagemagazine.com/

internetedition/mj97/eets20.html.

Harjehausen, P. (n.d.). Strategies for teaching English language learners. Retrieved April

29, 2004, from www.plu.edu/~harjehpc/ell presentation.doc.

Haynes, J. (2004). Explaining BICS and CALP. Retrieved April 18, 2005, from www.every

thingesl.net/inservices/bics_calp.php.

Kerper-Mora, J. (n.d.). The role of foreign lan- guage teachers in the academic achievement of English language learners. Retrieved April

18, 2005, from http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/ FLteachers.ppt.

Northwest Regional Education Lab. (2003, June). Strategies and resources for main- stream teachers of English language learn- ers: General principles for teaching ELL students. By Request. Retrieved April 18,

2005, from www.nwrel.org/request/2003may/ general.html.

searchVB.com. (2003, November). searchVB. com definitions: Best practice. Retrieved April

18, 2005, from http://searchvb.techtarget.com/

sDefinition/0,,sid8_gci498678,00.html.

Simple Strategies for Effective Teaching With English Language Learners

By Bobby Hobgood, LearnNC

Successful learners have learned how to learn. They know their strengths. They know their areas of weakness. They also know how and where to get help when needed. This is not the case for many of our students whose first language is not English. Though they may understand what they hear or read, they may not be able to convey their understanding to others. Given their linguistic and cultural back- ground, they may not arrive with the skills necessary to further develop their academic skills in a new culture. Eng- lish language learners (ELLs) might say nothing when they don’t understand. This varies among students and has often been characterized by numerous linguists as the silent period (Haynes,

2004).

Before we can appreci- ate how certain teaching strategies will impact learning for ELLs, we need to know a little about the experience of a language learner. An overview of Second Language Acquisition Theory written specifi- cally for “Mainstream Teachers of English Language Learners” will help (Northwest Regional Educational Lab, 2003). Many of the same strategies and behaviors that we recognize as good teaching are essen- tial to effectively teach ELLs in the regular classroom. Though we may not have experienced professional devel- opment targeted at working with this special population, we can still trans- fer our knowledge of good teaching to

teach these students. The following techniques are reminders of what we already know. They take on new mean- ing as starting points for teaching classes that contain ELLs.

Starting Point: Identify English Language Learners

Since physical appearance is not a definitive indicator of who is and who isn’t a native speaker of English, we might overlook certain students who are still developing English proficien- cy. Identifying these students, know- ing their literacy level in their first language, and identifying their cur- rent stage of Eng- lish language development is an impor- tant start. Whatever their level of proficiency in either their native language or English, ELLs need inputs they can com- prehend. Stephen Krashen, not- ed linguist and lecturer, developed his “i + 1” theory, which holds that stu- dents need instruction that is appropriate for their current level of competence while push- ing them just beyond their comfort level (Shutz, 2002). Along the same lines, Vygotsky recognized students’ abilities to function just beyond their

lines, Vygotsky recognized students’ abilities to function just beyond their (continued on next page) News ◆

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level of competence with the assis- tance of someone else. These func- tions and abilities are known as the Zone of Proximal Development (North Central Regional Education Lab, n.d.; Vygotsky, 1978). In other words, stu- dents need interesting content that challenges their abilities. See A Guide to Learning English, which elaborates on this theory and provides other important information for working with ELL students (Shoebottom, 2003a).

Culture-Based Techniques

Culture plays a major role in the edu- cation of all children, yet with the ELL this variable is even more intrinsically linked to understanding the student. Since comprehensible input is neces- sary for developing proficiency, ELLs need consistent, rich language input, regardless of what language it is. This means allowing a student to discuss new material in his or her native lan- guage with a fellow native speaker in order to first develop the concep- tual understanding of a new topic. Extensive use of the native language can become problematic in the main- stream classroom since students can become too comfortable with speaking their native language at the expense of improving their English language skills. Initially, native language use offers the student the ability to develop friend- ships with other native speakers. It also serves as a support to ensure that stu- dents are not lost in the instruction of new concepts. Gradually, ELLs should move toward using more English to interact with others and to learn.

Keep in mind Lisa Delpit’s perspective on the discourse of power. In her book Other People’s Children, she holds that while we are modeling preferred ways of talking, speaking, writing, etc., in order to help minority students participate in the culture of power, we should not do so at the expense of those traits that make students unique, that make them individuals (Delpit, 1995). Allow stu- dents to use their own language where and when it is appropriate to do so. Further, using their native language in a content-rich environment helps them

to develop a strong sense of self. When ELLs are denied the opportunity to con- nect with their native background, they are essentially being told that their her- itage has no bearing on who they are. Teachnology.com offers a tutorial on the role of native language in working with ELL students (Pellino, 2003).

Another strategy for connecting with ELLs is simply to greet them daily in their own language. Demonstrat- ing your concern for your students by making the effort to connect through language can offer great comfort to newcomers. Just in case you may have lost your college language skills, see

Greeting your LEP students in their own language, which offers

assis-

tance for

in their own language , which offers assis- tance for learning basic expres- sions in several

learning

basic

expres-

sions in

several

dif-

ferent

lan-

guages

(Hobgood,

2002).

Finally,

stu-

dents from foreign cultures can be excellent cultural resources. If they are ready to do so, consider taking advantage of their first- hand knowledge of a particular culture. You might devise a cooperative learning activity whereby their contribution is necessary for completion of a learning task. They could serve as the cultural expert for their group.

Presentation Techniques

There are numerous basic presentation techniques we might take for granted that are critical to the success of ELLs on a daily basis. For example, how many times have you turned your back on the class to write something on the board, all the while continuing to talk to students? ELLs benefit tremendously

by being able to see your mouth as you speak. Along these lines, it is a good idea to make sure they are seated as close to you as possible when you are speaking to the class. For additional suggestions like these, see “Keys to Success for English Language Learn- ers” (Heining-Boynton, 2002), which highlights the key components of daily instruction that require attention to meet the needs of ELLs.

Speaking clearly, audibly, at a moder- ate pace, and using Standard English are among the suggestions Heining- Boynton discusses. This means avoid- ing the use of jargon and idioms not familiar to a non-native speaker. Within the confines of our daily learning com- munities, we are perhaps unaware of how frequently we use jargon and idioms. We forget that our dialect is not shared by all of our students, per- haps even those who speak English as natives! I remember commonly asking students who were

as natives! I remember commonly asking students who were distracted by a comic book or some

distracted by a comic book or some other item on their desk to “put it up.” Initially, such a command to a non- native speaker might be interpreted as asking them to elevate an object rather than stow it away from sight. There are several strategies we can use to provide comprehensible input to all

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of our students. See, for example, The 12 Cs for School Success: Clarifying Language Responses (Portland Public Schools, n.d.).

Visuals are powerful learning tools that extend our ability to make con- tent compre- hensible to our stu- dents. As a former French teacher, I relied frequently on the use of visuals to help me take the “abstract to concrete” for my students. I spoke little to no English in my classes, so visuals were my way of accomplishing what my speaking could not. For anyone learn- ing a language at any time, visuals help to create a mental imprint. With ELLs, take advantage of the clear visu- als from the Internet Picture Dictionary

(www.pdictionary.com).

Instructional Techniques

Be aware that checking for comprehen- sion by asking, “Do you understand?” is not an effective instructional strategy for many students. Questions that can be satisfied with a “yes” or “no” answer do not provide the feedback we seek when monitoring comprehension. Any student can simply nod or answer “yes” to avoid embarrassment in front of peers rather than admit he or she does not understand. To discover exactly what students know, ask them to explain the concept or idea to you or to give you an example. Allow them to draw, point to pictures, create a concept map through drawing or using software like Inspira-

tion ® (see www.inspiration.com), or use any

method to accommodate their current language skills.

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(continued from previous page) While you are teaching, keep in mind that ELLs are processing
(continued from previous page)
While you are teaching, keep in mind
that ELLs are processing a consider-
able amount of input at once and are
expected to do so at a pace they are
probably not ready for. Though you
cannot completely change your teach-
ing style, you can assist students with
skills for
being bet-
ter lis-
teners.
Several
strate-
gies for
improving
students’
listening
skills are
provided by
the Frank-
furt Inter-
national
School
(Shoe-
bottom,
2003b).
Working with
ELL students and
their writing might
seem an unrealistic
prospect for anyone
who has not had spe-
cialized training. Once
again, the Web houses
some simple strategies
that we can begin to
use immediately. The
ESL/NNS Resource
(English as a Second
Language/Non-native
Speaker) website is
a treasure trove of
resources for assisting
ELLs with their writing
(University of Minnesota,
2001). From the homepage,
see the Main ELS/NNS Document.
This resource offers advice on topics as
general as how to choose appropriate
readings to more specific strategies like
how to work with ELL students on writ-
ing transitions.

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If Nothing Else, Remember…

Making assumptions about the behav- iors of ELLs based on our knowledge of the behaviors of native speakers of English can sometimes lead to inter- preting a student’s behavior as being insubordinate. For example, imagine talking to an ELL who refuses to look at you. Normally, we might interpret this as an act of insubordination. Can you hear in your head, “Look at me when I’m talking to you”? The reality might otherwise be that the student comes from a culture where looking directly into the eyes of a teacher or elder is viewed as a sign of disrespect.

Keeping our instinct “in check” is a technique for avoiding misunderstand- ing and potential emotional injury to the student. We must be careful not to interpret students’ lack of participation as lack of understanding or unwilling- ness to participate. This could falsely lead us to discipline the student and, in the long run, to develop low expecta- tions of him or her. Little or no expec- tation on our part only enables ELLs toward a self-fulfilling proph- ecy of doing noth- ing to further their education (Cummins, 1996).

The posi- tion of teacher brings with it great responsibil- ity, much more than we could have imagined before any of us began our careers. Accepting this responsibility requires that we avoid assuming that any of our students come to us with certain prerequisite skills and understandings. By making an effort to get to know each of our students, provid- ing comprehensible input, making the abstract concrete, and attending to good presentation and instruction, we make it possible for ELLs to participate in their education and in ours.

References

Cummins, J. (1996). Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society. Ontario: California Association for Bilingual Education.

Delpit, L. (1995). Other people’s children: Cultural conflict in the classroom. New York: The New Press.

Haynes, J. (2004). Understanding second language terminology. Retrieved

January 12, 2004, from www.everythingesl.net/inservices/essential_vocab.php.

Heining-Boynton, A. (2002, March). Keys to success for English language

learners. Retrieved April 18, 2005, from www.learnnc.org/index.nsf/doc/ESL0407-1.

Hobgood, B. (2002, March). Greeting your LEP students in their own language. Retrieved April 18, 2005, from www.learnnc.org/index.nsf/doc/

learnlang0407-1.

North Central Regional Education Lab. (n.d.). Zone of Proximal Development. Pathways to school improvement. Retrieved April 18, 2005, from www.ncrel.

org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1zpda.htm.

Northwest Regional Education Lab. (2003, May). Strategies and resources for mainstream teachers of English language learners: Overview of second language acquisition theory. By Request. Retrieved April 18, 2005, from

www.nwrel.org/request/2003may/overview.html.

Pellino, K. (2003). Effective strategies for teaching English language learners. Teaching Tutorials: Helping You with your Everyday! Retrieved April 18,

2005, from www.teach-nology.com/tutorials/teaching/esl/6.

Portland Public Schools. (n.d.). The 12 C’s for school success: Clarifying language responses. Language and Culture Bulletin, 3(6). Retrieved April

18, 2005, from www.alliance.brown.edu/programs/eac/lncblt_v3-6.shtml

Shoebottom, P. (2003a, August). A guide to learning English: Advice to mainstream teachers. Retrieved April 18, 2005, from http://esl.fis.edu/

teachers/support/f-sum.htm.

Shoebottom, P. (2003b, August). A guide to learning English: Helping ESL students understand what you say. Retrieved April 18, 2005, from

http://esl.fis.edu/teachers/support/f-listen.htm.

Shutz, R. (2002, January). Stephen Krashen’s theory of second language acquisition. Retrieved January 12, 2004, from www.sk.com.br/sk-krash.html.

University of Minnesota. (2001, August). ESL NNS Resource. Retrieved April

18, 2005, from http://composition.cla.umn.edu/instructor_Web/NNS.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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The Banner Project:

A Collaborative Effort

By Judy Smith, Shelley Worman, and Nancy Ruppert

Emma Elementary School in Asheville, North Carolina, enrolls 480 students, of which 172 are designated through proficiency testing as English Language Learners (ELLs). Seventeen different countries are represented in the school. In the spring of 2003, the upper ele- mentary English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher and media coordinator developed a project for students to cre- ate banners for countries represented at the school. The project integrated English language, reading, research, social studies, writing, and technology. Also, through collaboration with a local professor, the project provided opportu- nities for university freshmen to tutor and learn from children in the field.

Banners include symbols illustrating the countries children came from on their journey to Emma. They are supplemented with a PowerPoint ® presentation of the countries, a book of symbols and sentences created by the students, and a game to play in learning about the countries. The proj- ect was supported by funds from the

the countries. The proj- ect was supported by funds from the Buncombe County Schools Foundation and

Buncombe County Schools Foundation and A Bright Ideas Classroom grant from Progress Energy.

Children worked on the banner project 45 minutes a day, five days a week, for three months. The college freshmen and collaborating university professor worked with the ESL teacher one day per week. Phases of the project included orientation of first-year university stu- dents, the pre-test, researching the symbols on the original banners in the media center to determine their impor- tance to the country, selecting and researching a country the students were not from, creating symbols, creating PowerPoint ® slides based on research, melding symbols and text into one class book, creating a student slide show, videotaping students’ reflections on their experiences, a review game, and a post-test. A celebration of the completed program was also held with families and friends from the community.

The university students were given a half-day orientation to the school, the project, and the software through the UNC-Asheville Bulldog Day, a service learning community outreach program. ELLs were given a pre-test by their uni- versity “buddy” that included symbols on existing banners. This test assessed the students’ language skills including their ability to recognize and elaborate on the symbols in English.

assessed the students’ language skills including their ability to recognize and elaborate on the symbols in
assessed the students’ language skills including their ability to recognize and elaborate on the symbols in

In the first few weeks, children select- ed one of nine countries that did not already have a banner in the school. They researched their country in the Media Center utilizing the Internet, reference materials, and other books. Three or four children worked on each country. Students worked on a country they were not from to enhance mul- ticultural understanding. They also researched one of the eight original banners to determine what each sym- bol represented.

Students organized their findings using Kidspiration ® , with a folder for each country. From the Kidspiration ® outlines, the children wrote sentences about the original banners. They also created a symbol that represented the country they were researching to put on the new banners. Children drew their symbols and wrote sentences about them. These symbols were then transferred to cloth, and the children glued their symbols to the banners. The sentences were edited, and the stu- dents created a PowerPoint ® slide for each symbol they designed. The univer- sity students gave one-on-one support in the editing and technology phase of the project.

After the project ended, the children were invited to the university cam- pus to have lunch with their bulldog buddies. At the luncheon, the media specialist presented the children’s slides. The children made thank-you certificates for their buddies, and the university students gave the children inflatable globes.

Project Benefits

Several benefits were realized from the

banner project. Children participated in

a guessing game where they were asked

to identify different countries based on characteristics of the old and new sym- bols. Students created questions for the game and played it often. At the end of the project, students were given a post- test using 18 symbols from the old banners. The post-test results indicate an increase in fluency, identification, and elaboration.

The pre- and post-test scores of ELLs reveal that they not only increased in the number of words they used but

also were able to identify 16 of the 18 symbols on the post-test. Children also increased in their elaboration (using more than one word to describe

a symbol) from an average of 4.5 sym-

bols in the pre-test to over 9 symbols in the post-test. The language devel- opment suggests that ELLs increased their fluency over time. At the end of the project, the children shared their thoughts and revealed that they “felt smart” and could “do anything.” The project promoted positive relation- ships and understanding among the various cultural groups and allowed students to conduct research, express themselves, and increase their tech- nology skills.

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to conduct research, express themselves, and increase their tech- nology skills. (continued on next page) News
to conduct research, express themselves, and increase their tech- nology skills. (continued on next page) News
to conduct research, express themselves, and increase their tech- nology skills. (continued on next page) News

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Table 1. Pre- and Post-Test Averages for Words, Identification, and Elaboration.

56.51 60 50 40 31.13 30 16.34 20 12.27 9.47 10 4.5 0 r hcaeofsdrowforebmuN
56.51
60
50
40
31.13
30
16.34
20
12.27
9.47
10
4.5
0
r hcaeofsdrowforebmuN

pre/post words

pre/post elaboration

pre/post identification

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The university students also learned much about teaching through this proj- ect. Throughout the semester, students kept a running log on WebCT. At the end of the semester, each student was asked to choose the most important quote from his or her journal entries. The following list represents their top six lessons learned:

Be open-minded.

Be as interested in the topic as the students are.

Realize that each child is different.

Be persistent.

Encourage children.

Realize that one’s speed at gaining fluency in a given language is not a gauge of intelligence.

In the course of one semester, these university students developed organi- zational skills and provided an invalu- able service to 34 children. Many have committed to becoming teachers. Ser- vice opportunities and collaboration may have encouraged some university students to pursue education as a career.

Judy Smith is the ESL teacher and Shel- ley Worman is the Media Specialist at Emma Elementary School. Dr. Nancy Ruppert is Professor of Education at UNC-Asheville.

Worman is the Media Specialist at Emma Elementary School. Dr. Nancy Ruppert is Professor of Education
Worman is the Media Specialist at Emma Elementary School. Dr. Nancy Ruppert is Professor of Education
Technology Support for Migrant Education: The Anchor School Project By Randi Zwicker, Collier County (FL)
Technology Support for
Migrant Education:
The Anchor School Project
By Randi Zwicker, Collier County (FL) Public Schools
In 1997, SERVE and Collier County
created a grant project that would pro-
vide migrant families a technological
“lifeline as they travel throughout the
United States.” The idea was to provide
a rigorous curriculum aligned with high
state standards, well-trained teach-
ers with time to learn and practice new
skills, parents who would become life-
long learners involved in the children’s
education, and collaboration with busi-
ness and others to leverage additional
resources. As the parents moved from
one location to another seeking work,
their children’s academic progress
would follow them electronically so that
the receiving teacher would have an
immediate picture of the child’s abili-
ties rather than waiting weeks to get the
cumulative folder.
The migrant students selected to par-
ticipate in this project attended three
area schools, two in Immokalee, Flor-
ida, a rural community whose major
industry is agriculture, and a Naples
school where the students’ parents were
employed by a local tomato grower. The
five-year grant was written to serve stu-
dents from kindergarten through second
grade. The students had to meet certain
requirements, mainly that their parents
would be migrating to specific areas in
northern Florida and into the southeast-
ern states during the summer months.
group that was beginning to
design Internet-based soft-
ware. They had created a col-
laborative piece of software
that allowed teachers to plan
online together and project
timelines for the activities.
Another feature of the
software allowed teachers
to put their assignments
online. The standards
could be accessed and
aligned to the lessons. It
would be accessible from
home and school. The dis-
cussion included the develop-
ment of an electronic portfolio of
student information and projects that
could be accessed by teachers—a major
component of the grant. However,
this particular software company was
unable to meet these requirements and
thus began the search for an electronic
method to store and share student
information.
Portfolio Components
Technologies Used
The initial concept for accomplishing
this task was to use the Internet as the
means of communicating from school to
school. This was initially discussed in
1997 when Internet use still seemed like
a progressive idea, one that would devel-
op and grow with the program. At the
What were the components that SERVE
and the district considered important
for the electronic portfolio? First, devel-
opment of a portfolio over time would
include proficiency levels in read-
ing, writing, math, technology, sci-
ence, social studies, and the arts. Next,
student input sections would include
goal setting, an All About Me file, and
school, family, and community activ-
ities. Finally, communication tools
would be comprised of teacher com-
ments, parent communications, demo-
graphics, assessment tools, lesson
plans, and standards alignment. The
purpose of the electronic portfolio was
to provide easy access to student
onset, we worked with a development
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a reality for teachers. They could get online to view the academic progress of their students, but this informa- tion was password protected to teach- ers within the district. There were also storage issues because of the size of the files being created by the students.

SERVE and the district began to look at an imaging process that would scan the student files, selected pieces of their classwork, and interface with the student information system. The files were compressed, so storage was not an issue. This process looked very promising and was password protected. Teachers began to use it the last year of the grant. However, they found the program to be cumbersome and time consuming. Interest in using the prod- uct dropped off, and as the grant came to an end, the decision was made not to continue with this product.

information for receiving teachers regardless of the school’s location in order to show student progress over time.

Teacher participation was a major part of the implementation of the grant. SERVE did an excellent job of bringing teachers together for well-defined pur- poses. Their ideas and needs formed the design of the electronic pieces. It was determined to start with student-cre- ated projects. All About Me was a simple three-page document constructed in either Hyperstudio ® or PowerPoint ® . Although a template was provided, students had choice in design and con- tent. The students would insert digital and scanned images into their work, write about their interests, and read and record to the file. They would write about areas of interest such as favor- ite subjects/books, family background (including pets), hobbies, favorite foods, responsibilities, and talents.

Lessons Learned
Lessons Learned

Another student activity was the gener- ating of goals both short and long term. The rationale behind the goal setting was to provide information for teachers to help with decision making, guiding instruction, and showing evidence of student growth and achievement. A les- son was developed whereby students learned about the importance of setting both academic and social goals. Hyper- studio ® or PowerPoint ® was used to create the file, and a template was pro- vided. Again, their voices were recorded reading their written work.

What has been learned from the Anchor School project? The project raised many questions on electronic portfolios that the district has not yet resolved. Electronic portfolios still pres- ent issues as to content and storage. Is the electronic portfolio coming from student work, or is it a combination of that and academic data? How would teachers from other districts be able to access this information, even if Inter- net-based, as it is password protected?

The good news is that the grant focused on the needs of our migrant children. The grant provided funding not only for the electronic portfolio development but also for an ESOL assistant in every school to work with the individual stu- dents. It also gave the district funding to bring groups of teachers together to share and develop proficiency stan- dards for elementary reading, writing, and math. Student technology stan- dards were adopted, benchmarked, and are being implemented throughout all elementary schools in the district. Finally, teachers learned how to design and use rubrics that truly assessed what was being taught. The Anchor School project brought into focus the importance of assessment and its impact on instruction.

The last major electronic component that students provided was Community and School Activities. In this component, the students used a template to provide information on sports interests, music, art, awards, hobbies, clubs, and church and family activities in which they par- ticipate. A template was provided, and the students scanned images, wrote about them, and recorded into these files using Hyperstudio ® or PowerPoint ® .

At this point, the teams of teachers along with SERVE needed a vehicle that could do more. The elements of the student electronic portfolio were being completed, but information on student academic performance was missing. By this time, the data warehouse was

Project Project Jericho: Jericho:

Training Training College College of of Education Education

Faculty Faculty in in TESOL TESOL

By Gail West, University of Central Florida

Florida’s teacher training institutions are now required to provide training in English for Speakers of Other Languag- es (ESOL) methods for their pre-service teachers who are majoring in Early Childhood Education, Elementary Edu- cation, Exceptional Education, and Eng- lish Language Arts Education so that upon graduation they will receive an ESOL endorsement in addition to certifi- cation in their major field of study.

The University of Central Florida responded to this new state require- ment by using an infusion model that was one of four proposed options designed by the Florida Department of Education (DOE). This model includes:

1. An anchor course, which is an introductory-level course grounded in five ESOL topics dictated by the state, each of which are further developed in the integrated courses.

2. An applied linguistics course, since this knowledge and skill is prerequisite to so many of the Florida ESOL Performance Standards.

3. Infused courses that focus on methods, materials, and assess- ment strategies that integrate the relevant 25 ESOL Perfor- mance Standards required by the Florida DOE into the regular teacher preparation

curricula (see www.firn.edu/doe/ omsle/perstand.htm).

Preparing College Faculty

UCF received a two-year federal grant to provide its College of Education faculty a professional development program and to implement the infu- sion program for pre-service teachers. It was called Project Jericho because the purpose of the project was to bring down the walls that block the success of ESOL students in their school and community and to break down the bar- riers that often exist between universi- ties and K12 schools.

The state of Florida requires that adjunct, part-time, and full-time college faculty teaching these ESOL-infused courses must have “sufficient experi- ence or training” to infuse the relevant 25 ESOL Performance Standards in the courses they teach. The expecta- tion was that faculty would complete the equivalent of a three-semester-hour course or a minimum of 45 contact hours of ESOL instructional prepara- tion. Therefore, the first year of the project focused on the design and delivery of professional development for College of Education faculty and the integration of ESOL instruction into the College of Education curricula and programs.

Faculty instruction covered the five topics required by the state of Florida. Five modules of nine hours each were developed:

1. Methods of teaching ESOL

2. ESOL curriculum and materials

3. Cross-cultural communication and understanding

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(continued from previous page) 4. Applied linguistics 5. Testing and evaluation 1. A three hour
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4. Applied linguistics
5. Testing and evaluation
1.
A three hour face-to-face
presentation
2.
Three hours of Web-based
instruction
3.
Three hours of group work
Module Block Two

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addressed in the respective module. WebCT is an online course manage- ment system that provides a shell for modules, presentations, and quizzes. It also includes a discussion forum where faculty post, to either the entire fac- ulty or their group mentor, responses to online exercises. Upon completion of the Web activities, faculty members were required to complete a quiz online. The responses to the quiz were forward- ed to Project Jericho administration for grading and recording on a master data

administration for grading and recording on a master data sheet. The scores of each faculty mem-

sheet. The scores of each faculty mem- ber were sorted by a faculty mentor and distributed during each ESOL Task Force meeting to all faculty mentors for their files.

Since block two of each module required accessing the website and using WebCT, faculty members who were unfamiliar with WebCT were offered training sessions. In this way, faculty not only learned the content of the ESOL modules but also had an experience of learning online, some- thing many of them had shunned before this experience. As a result, sev- eral faculty members began to enhance their own courses with WebCT once they had had the experience of using its resources and tools.

Because this training has to be ongoing in order for new hires to be provided the required staff development after the initial training was completed, the face-to-face sessions were videotaped. The Web-based lessons continue to be available and are updated as needed to ensure that the links are active and to evaluate the completed activities sub- mitted by the participants. Having the staff development available in video and

The nine hours of each module were divided into three 3-hour blocks:

Initially, one module per month was presented. Faculty who are respon- sible for teaching primary language arts, reading methods, multi- cultural, and teaching diverse population courses received an additional 15 hours of instruction on second language acquisition, language use, and literacy peda- gogy for ESOL students.

Module Block One

Block one of each mod- ule con- sisted of a face- to-face whole group

pre-

senta-

tion by an expert in the field. In the event that a faculty member was unable to attend, the pre- sentations were videotaped. Copies of the videotape and handouts distributed during each presentation were available for check out in the Curriculum Materi- als Center in the College of Education and on each branch campus. A record of faculty members checking out the video and retrieving their handouts was also kept for accountability purposes required by the state.

Block two of each module required fac- ulty members to access the UCF TESOL website that used WebCT for addi- tional instruction in the ESOL topic

Web-based format alleviated the need to try to constantly schedule training dates for new faculty members. Each semester new hires are provided with an orientation to launch their ESOL training that is then continued via video and the Web.

Module Block Three

developed. All four programs have now received state approval for majors to receive the state ESOL endorsement.

Block three is no longer a part of the process since the courses have now been infused. Now all new hires do the second language acquisition modules as well as the first five since we believe all faculty should be aware of and understand the process of acquiring a second language.

Lessons Learned

Although the professional development of our faculty is certainly a significant accomplishment of Project Jericho, fac- ulty response to this endeavor has been an added accolade. With few exceptions, participants have been extremely recep- tive to the acquisition of new knowledge and skills that have relevant and imme- diate practical application to their own instruction and their students’ learn- ing. Using these strategies, they are addressing the needs of their linguistically and cul- turally different stu- dents. In addition, they are modeling appropriate ESOL pedagogy. Previ- ously unaware that their own teaching practices already incorpo- rated ESOL strategies, other faculty members have expressed delight in the modules’ validation of their current teaching practices. Faculty members have also accorded ESOL Task Force members and their fellow faculty mem- bers much respect and admiration, commenting on the professional, enthu- siastic, and motivating demeanor in which they have conducted themselves. This attitude is reflected in the follow- ing faculty comment: “Excellent job. It is great to hear presentations from our colleagues. It gives me a more global look at what our college has to offer and gives me a sense of pride in what we do.” Thus, in numerous ways, Proj- ect Jericho has already begun to bring down the barriers between faculty and students.

Initially, block three of each module involved group work facilitated by a group faculty mentor. Groups were composed of faculty within the four programs and educational foundations. Mentors were faculty members from those programs who had both ESOL experience and teaching knowledge. They were not, however, ESOL faculty per se. In some ways, this has been seen as an advantage since faculty members saw their peers in their own programs able to incorporate ESOL strategies within their courses.

Although group work exercis- es were to be a practi- cal application of the concepts presented both in the face- to-face

presenta-

tion and online in the WebCT activities in order to infuse the courses in which the ESOL strategies were to be taught, the mentor was given some lati- tude as to the nature and delivery mode of the exercise. Some mentors chose to meet as a group and work on the project together; others opted to meet online with their mentees. All exercises were ultimately completed in written form and submitted to the faculty men- tor for record-keeping purposes. The main thrust of the group activities was to develop the ESOL modules or assign- ments to be incorporated into the vari- ous courses after decisions had been made on which competencies would be addressed in which courses. In the end, 43 courses were infused, and the two new “stand-alone” courses were

in which courses. In the end, 43 courses were infused, and the two new “stand-alone” courses

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Designing an Online Professional Development Tool for ESL Teachers By Christine Corrigan and Mary Russell,
Designing an Online
Professional Development Tool
for ESL Teachers
By Christine Corrigan and Mary
Russell, National Center on Adult
Literacy (NCAL)
Kentucky, and the National Center on
Adult Literacy (NCAL) at the University
of Pennsylvania.
Background
ESL/CivicsLink, soon to be licensed
and distributed by Kentucky
Educational Television (KET), is
a technology-based professional
development system in English lan-
guage literacy and civics education.
The project was funded by a U.S.
Department of Education grant to
develop and implement an online
professional development tool for ESL
teachers of adults. ESL/CivicsLink was
developed in partnership with PBS, Jef-
ferson County Public Schools (JCPS) in
Our job at NCAL was to provide the
technology know-how in designing
a useful and accessible professional
development website for teachers.
Therein lay many of the “trials and trib-
ulations,” as well as the triumphs, that
made the project an exciting challenge.
The Pilot
The pilot-testing phase was a critical
juncture in the development of the site.
Determining teachers’ satisfaction and/
or frustration as they used the technol-
ogy was of the utmost importance to
NCAL. Having the best content in the
What Is It?
◆ Make available a teacher commu-
nication system—the Community
Space—so that teachers can par-
ticipate in threaded discussions.
ESL/CivicsLink is a system
designed to:
◆ Help ESL teachers develop instruc-
tional skills and acquire content
knowledge in ESL and civics.
◆ Be a model of the kinds of practic-
es that teachers can adapt and use
for their own classrooms but that
focused on their own learning first.
◆ Provide a Portfolio section intended
to systematically organize and
store both the materials teachers
created while working through the
units and any other materials that
were relevant to their practice.
◆ Address specific topics of concern
in ESL, such as “Teaching a Citi-
zenship Class,” “Meeting Learner
Needs and Goals,” and “Using
Technology in the Classroom.”
◆ Give teachers easy access to
resources, a collection of docu-
ments, and links to useful
research and information related
to the unit topics.
◆ Provide teachers with advice from
experts and teachers in the field,
interactive activities, classroom
applications, and suggestions for
collaborative projects.
While ESL/CivicsLink utilizes tech-
nology as the delivery system, it was
designed to avoid making technology
skills the topic of the instruction. It
was hoped that the interactivity of
the site would provide teachers with
a natural and gradual familiarity with
technology.

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Development

 

Additional field tests. More field tests

Creating ESL/CivicsLink was a two- year process that involved numerous challenges. In brief, the steps taken to meet the challenge of developing the site included:

Field tests with ESL teachers. The field

were held with teachers midway through the development process to test the efficacy of the content and determine the teachers' ease of use with the technology.

Modifications. Based on findings from the field tests, changes were imple- mented, primarily in the techno- logical aspects of the site, and the units, communication system, and teacher portfolio section were com- pleted.

Launch. A pilot test of the system (discussed in more detail below) was conducted with teachers at three different sites. Data obtained from the teachers in the pilot phase led to significant improve- ments in the system.

tests were conducted to determine the areas in which the teachers perceived the most professional development training needs. The unit topics emerged from the input and data we received from the teachers.

Writing the content. PBS and JCPS

provided the written content (activ- ities, projects, and lesson plans) for the units.

Providing the technology and designing the

website. NCAL designed the website, adapted the written content for the Web, and worked closely with our programmers to program the site.

Completion. KET (a PBS affiliate) obtained the rights to license and distribute ESL/CivicsLink in the spring of 2003.

world would matter very little if teach- ers disliked or were resistant to using it because of a negative experience with the technological features of the site. As development drew to a close, we were anxious to see how the teachers would interact with the site and, given the col- laborative nature of the site content, how well the site allowed teachers to interact with each other.

Sixty teachers from three states (Cali- fornia, Pennsylvania, and New York) participated in the pilot test, 42 of whom completed all of the activities in the four units that we tested. All par- ticipants were encouraged to access the online materials from a variety of locations (home, school, library, etc.). Of particular interest to NCAL was the technology background of the partici- pating teachers. We hypothesized that teachers’ satisfaction with the system would have a direct correlation to how much prior experience and comfort they had using the technology.

Using questions generated from Engage indicators, data were collected to clarify possible relationships between teachers’ ability to use the tools and their report- ed usage of technology for personal and professional purposes (NCREL, 2001). Thirty-nine teachers responded to nine questions by indicating how often they employed technology for specific pur- poses (e.g., professional development). Twenty-one teachers were ranked as occasional users, 15 as regular users, and three as frequent users. Responses for individual questions, however, pro- vided a clearer picture of how these teachers use technology.

Four usage questions were directed at how teachers used technology in their professional lives. We found that only a quarter of the participating teachers were regular users of technology for professional purposes. Sixty percent of the teachers had never used tech- nology in two specific areas—either in an online course or in other formal

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professional development. Sixty percent of the teachers said they used technol- ogy occasionally with assistance and support. These usage patterns indicate that the majority of these teachers had little experience with using technology as part of their professional lives or for their own learning.

What then of the correlation between prior experience and user satisfaction? In terms of overall satisfaction, the beginning reported level of technology use did not seem to affect how teach- ers felt about their online experience at the conclusion of the project. The comparison between teachers' previous experience with technology and their ratings of satisfaction did not show greater satisfaction in high-tech users, nor significantly less in the low users. Technology proficiency did not seem to greatly influence the overall satisfac- tion level.

Along with the technology issues, NCAL also gathered data about how teach- ers viewed the content of the units. We used a 4-point Likert scale to measure how helpful, useful, and engaging they found the material. The “helpful” rating was defined as content that increased their understanding of the topic. The “useful” rating was defined as the rel- evance of the content to teacher needs. The “engaging” rating was defined as the level of interest teachers had in the content. Among the findings, 88% of all teachers rated the units they completed “mostly very” helpful, 90% rated them “mostly very” useful, and 92% “mostly very” engaging.

Teachers also rated the ease with which they connected their learning with their classroom activities. Of the 45 replies we received in response to follow-up questions about how their learning affected practice, 41 responses indi- cated that teachers believed that they had a heightened awareness of goal setting and cultural and naturalization issues, an increased interest in assess- ment, and better knowledge of resourc- es. Twelve teachers reported that they planned changes in practice as a result of their participation.

Implications

As noted earlier, a major objective for developing ESL/CivicsLink was to pro- vide teachers with a natural and gradu- al familiarity with technology. How did we do? As the pilot progressed, we were encouraged to note that most teachers said they gained confidence overall in their ability to use technology. However, a good number of teachers experienced frustration in using some of the online tools (e.g., Community Space, Email, and Portfolio). Although little prior experience with using technology may have been a small factor in their frus- tration, the larger reason involved flaws that came to light in the system itself. In the post-pilot period, NCAL worked on addressing these flaws and in doing so saw several implications emerge for designing and implementing a system such as this.

Include a thorough grounding in the functionality of the system.

In order to provide a gradual familiar- ity with technology, teachers should be given a thorough overview of the con- tent and tools of the system they will be using. An Orientation unit was meant to serve this function, but we did not require the teachers to work through the unit. Consequently, many of them skipped it. This may partially explain the number of problems these teachers encountered. It is unlikely that a gen- eral review of Web-based tools would serve as well, since even some of the experienced teachers had problems. The instructional system should be learned in context (i.e., be a mediated interaction).

The Discussion Board tool in the Community Space was largely unsuc- cessful among the three groups of teachers. Teachers appeared to under- stand the purposes of these tools, but regretfully, “technical” problems they encountered made them difficult to use. Some of the problems were not technical but rather a matter of understanding the system, and they might have been avoided by provid- ing a more complete introduction to it. The Resources tool, however, was very

successful. Teachers valued the depth and breadth of the resources provided and the convenience of having them all in one place. The Portfolio, intend- ed to be a space for teachers to collect and record their own materials and learning, was underused, which may indicate either that teachers did not see the purpose for the space or that they did not see a need for it.

Provide opportunities for communication and collaboration.

Teachers seem to want (and need) consistent and continued support as they work through the materials. Teachers should also be encouraged (one suggested they be required) to post to the discussion board and share information with each other. Practice should incorporate the elements discussed here.

Design specifically for teachers (teacher- centered).

In reviewing the responses of teachers to the questions on their experience with the ESL/CivicsLink online profes- sional development, what stands out is the overall effectiveness of an envi- ronment that was designed to support teacher learning by assessing teacher needs, addressing the priorities of teachers, and linking their professional development experience to practice. Providing a learner-centered environ- ment in professional development has often been interpreted to mean training teachers to provide such an environ- ment for their learners, and has rarely been designed as a learning environ- ment for the teacher her/himself. Teachers who experience such an envi- ronment for their own learning are bet- ter prepared to be able to employ it for the learning of their students.

Conclusion

 

In spite of the difficulties noted above, the teachers in the pilot test said that they acquired knowledge, honed their skills, and occasion- ally changed their attitudes as a result of participating in the pilot. In designing effective professional development for teachers, it is important to remember that the incorporation of technology into their professional development has profound implications for educa- tors of adults in the kind of objec- tives and methods that might be employed to instruct. These issues,

as well as those of effectiveness, must be incorporated into the materials and then applied and tested. These tasks make the pro- cess complex and time consuming. The power of technology, however, creates a context in which teach- ers are empowered to change their perspectives of what they can do and how they can do it. And tech- nology may provide the means for adult educators to receive development that is authentically “professional.”

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www.seirtec.org/publications.html RTEC Resources for Educators of English Language Learners for educators, parents, and

www.seirtec.org/publications.html

RTEC Resources for Educators of English Language Learners

for educators, parents, and students; possible action options; implementation pitfalls; dif- ferent points of view; illustrative cases; and references. To capture some of the success of ELL and to support professional develop- ment, NCREL has also published a multimedia package consisting of a video and a booklet with support materials. This package, Enhanc- ing Academic Success Through Technology for Limited-English-Proficient Students, is avail-

able at www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/methods/technlgy/

te9resources.htm.

te9resources.htm. enGauge Success Stories: Limited-English- Proficient

enGauge Success Stories: Limited-English- Proficient Student in El Paso

www.ncrel.org/engauge/resource/stories/elpaso.htm.

The enGauge framework identifies six condi- tions that are essential for the effective use of technology. This enGauge success story describes two high-achievement schools where teachers successfully use technology as a tool to support engaged learning for a large number of limited-English-proficient students.

for a large number of limited-English-proficient students. Tecnología Para Todos: Using Technology to Break Through

Tecnología Para Todos: Using Technology to Break Through Language Barriers in Schools Gilbert Valdez and Asta Svedkauskaite

www.ncrel.org/info/nlp/lpf02/todos.htm

This article in NCREL’s Learning Point Maga- zine (Fall 2002) describes possible classroom uses of technology with a variety of relevant bilingual websites and software. For example, teachers can have their students participate in international exchanges with the use of sug- gested multilingual translators.

with the use of sug- gested multilingual translators. Understanding the No Child Left Behind Act of

Understanding the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: English Proficiency (Quick Key 5)

www.ncrel.org/litweb/qkey5

A brochure designed to help educators in schools and districts understand the basics of what NCLB means for their English proficiency programs. The brochure covers NCLB Eng- lish Proficiency requirements, activities that can receive federally administered competitive grants, guiding questions for educators, and resources providing detailed information.

By Nita Matzen, Project Director, SEIRTEC

Funded by the U.S. Department of Edu- cation, the Regional Technology in Edu- cation Consortia (RTEC) provide resources, profes- sional development, and technical assistance to help ensure the effective use of technology in education. Each of the 10 RTECs serve a specific region of the country. SEIRTEC, for example, serves the six southeastern states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina. The following list is a sampling of free resources available for ELL educators from other RTECs and their partners.

for ELL educators from other RTECs and their partners. Insertando la Tecnología en el Salón de

Insertando la Tecnología en el Salón de Clases: Una Guía Para Educadores Martha Boethel, Victoria Dimock, Lin Hatch

This guide for administrators of rural school districts provides information on developing and implementing an effective educational technol- ogy plan. The Spanish translation is available in PDF format from the SEIRTEC website.

is available in PDF format from the SEIR ◆ TEC website. Critical Issue: Using Technology to

Critical Issue: Using Technology to Support Limited-English-Proficient (LEP) Students’ Learning Experiences Asta Svedkauskaite, Laura Reza-Hernandez, Gil Valdez, Mary Clifford, and David Durian

www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/methods/technlgy/te900.htm

The North Central Regional Educational Labo- ratory (NCREL) Pathways to School Improve- ment series contains Critical Issue documents that synthesize research, policy, and best practices. The Critical Issue: Using Technology to Support Limited-English-Proficient (LEP) Stu- dents’ Learning Experiences focuses on devel- oping effective strategies for using technology as a tool with ELL students. The Critical Issue includes a synthesis of the research on using technology with ELL students as well as goals

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Casa Notes http://casanotes.4teachers.org Casa Notes is a tool to help teachers create notes that are
Casa Notes
http://casanotes.4teachers.org
Casa Notes is a tool to help teachers create notes that are
typically sent home to parents. Approximately 12 tem-
plates are available that allow teachers to customize some
of the content. Teachers also have the option to select
whether the notes should be in English or Spanish.
Resources on Limited English Proficiency and
English Skills
http://4teachers.org/profd/lep.shtml
The High Plains RTEC has professional development
resources to enhance knowledge and skills. This page
contains links to resources for serving ELL. Resources are
categorized in the following headings: English as a second
language, bilingual education, and learning resources.
Learners, Language, and Technology: Making
Connections That Support Literacy
Judy Van Scoter and Suzie Boss
www.netc.org/earlyconnections/pub/index.html
A
publication of the Northwest RTEC and Regional Educa-
tional Laboratory (March 2002), Learners, Language, and
Technology: Making Connections That Support Literacy, is
a
guidebook to help educators with the effective uses of
technology for literacy. The material is arranged in seven
sections: 1) Understanding Early Literacy, 2) Understand-
ing Technology’s Role in Literacy, 3) Meeting the Needs of
Diverse Learners, 4) Considering Technology, 5) Putting It
All Together, 6) Conclusion and 7) Appendices. The guide
provides practical information and real-world classroom
anecdotes on using technology to support and improve stu-
dent literacy skills.
Strategies and Resources for Mainstream Teachers of
English Language Learners
Bracken Reed and Jennifer Railsback
www.nwrel.org/request/2003may/ell.pdf
Produced by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory
(May 2003), this booklet addresses concerns and issues of
mainstream teachers of ELL. The booklet contains an over-
view of the pertinent literature and research related to ELL,
including the implications of NCLB. Instructional methods
and general principles for teaching ELL are discussed. A
sampling of schools and programs addressing ELL, selected
resources, and contact information is also included.
TALON
www.southcentralrtec.org/talon
TALON is a database of resources and Internet sites cre-
ated by the SouthCentral RTEC. The database contains
a
category of Languages Other than English. Within that
category are subcategories such as Bilingual/ESL. Each
annotation listed in TALON contains a description, site
source, and URL.
To be shared with parents or other caregivers who want to improve their own English language skills. If they don’t have Internet access at home, they may need informat ion about
community access sites (such as public libraries, community tech centers, and school after-hours programs).
All of these Web
s containsite
learning activities
for adults who
want to practice
d improve theiran
English language
These sites follow a sequential curriculum:
Web Site and URL
Description
,skills
in
reading
English for All
www.myefa.org/
English language learning is embedded within stories and “life skills” episodes. Each episode contains
engaging videos, defined objectives, and English learning exercises set within real-life contexts.
,writing
speakinglistening
, and
. The
activities are appropriate for people with
dESLgol
skill level s. Each site differsdifferent
its approach and style, so Englis hin
language learners can select activities
are specific to their own needs andthat
interests.
www.eslgold.com/
This site provides hundreds of pages of free English teaching and learning materials for both students
and teachers. All resources are organized by skill and level for quick and easy access.
Englis h ONLINEReal
/www.real-english.com
series of units that emphasize learning conversational English. Each unit offers short “streetA
interview” videos where learners can watch and listen to everyday, “non-classroom” American English.
work on follow-up quizzes after watching the videos .Learners
This publication is intended to help parents or other caregivers locate informative Web sites for improving their own English language skills. Inclusion does not represent an endorsement by SEIR�TEC.
is for informational purposes only . This product was developed by the National Center on Adult Literacy (NCA L), a partner in the SouthEast Initiatives Regional Technology in Education Consor tiumIt
(SEIR�TEC). SEIR�TEC is funded by the U.S. Department of Education under grant number R302A0000011, CFDA 84.302A to support the integration of technology in education. The contents of the
product do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Education or any other agency of the United States government.
3329 Durham Chapel Hill Blvd, Suite 200, Durham, NC 27707 • (800) 755-3277 • (919) 402-1060 • (919) 402-1617 (fax) • www.seirtec.org
TM
Durham, NC 27707 • (800) 755-3277 • (919) 402-1060 • (919) 402-1617 (fax) • www.seirtec.org TM

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Learning Languages Naturally in a Computer-Based Environment: A Software Review of Rosetta Stone Language Library
Learning Languages Naturally in
a Computer-Based Environment:
A Software Review of
Rosetta Stone
Language Library
By Jenifer O’Sullivan, Education Technology
Specialist, SEIR◆TEC
As children, we learn our native language through a
natural process of listening and repeating the words
and phrases we constantly hear from those around
us, and interactions between biological, sociocultural,
and environmental factors also influence our language
development. We start with basic sounds, and then
move to words using visual cues to prompt repetition of
the verbal sounds. We then learn appropriate ways to
combine words to make phrases and sentences. As we
develop, we learn the finer points of syntax, semantics,
and pragmatics (American Council on the Teaching of
Foreign Languages, 1999). A typical sequence of lan-
guage development includes babbling, use of one word,
uttering two-word statements, telegraphic speech, then
ultimately adult-like speech (Santrock, 1994). One
software program that incorporates many of these prin-
ciples of native language development (use of images,
sounds, written words) is the Rosetta Stone Language
Library.
TM
Created 5/04
All of these Web sites contain learning activities for adults who want to practice and improve their English language skills in
reading, writing, listening, and speaking. The activities are appropriate for people with different skill levels. Each site differs in
its approach and style, so English language learners can select activities that are specific to their own needs and interests.
These sites provide access to many different English language resources:
The Rosetta Stone Language Library is series of pro-
grams on CD and online for learning a second lan-
guage. Students work individually with the program to
master each of the instructional levels. Using a combi-
nation of text, photographs, and voice, the learner can
choose from 13 exercises that develop listening compre-
hension, reading, speaking, and writing and meet the
needs of a variety of learning styles.
Web Site and URL
Description
E.L. Easton
ton.com/http://eleas
Tower of Englis hThe
www.towerofenglish.com/
Extensive materials and links for Business English, English for Special Purposes, varieties of English,
TOEFL and TOEIC practice activities, pronunciation practice, quizzes, and audio.
Links to hundreds of Web sites for English learning organized by topics such as Business, Culture, Food,
Idioms/Slang, Lifestyle, and many more.Grammar,
These sites provide English practice with a variety of activities and games:
Web Site and URL
Description
1-Language.com
Discussion forums, chatrooms, a literature library, online TOEIC tests, quizzes, video, audio, and games.
The Rosetta Stone Language Library Series builds skills
in each of the four ELL
domains identified by
Title III of No Child Left
Behind Act, including
speaking, reading, writ-
ing, and listening (U.S.
Department of Educa-
tion, 2002).
/www.1-language.com
Activities for ESL
Students
A straight-forward, accessible site that offers quizzes, exercises, and puzzles for English learning. The bilingual quizzes section is a plus.
/http://a4esl.org
Interesting Things for ESL Students
/www.manythings.org
interactive learning games that include puzzles, word games, quizzes, “singing sentence s,” and more. Most of the gamesCreative,
simple feedback .provide
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quizzes, “singing sentence s,” and more. Most of the gamesCreative, simple feedback .provide News ◆ 26
◆ Speaking: Using a microphone connected to the computer, the Speech Recognition mode allows the
◆ Speaking: Using a microphone connected to the
computer, the Speech Recognition mode allows
the learner to practice and compare his or her
pronunciation to the pronunciation of the native
speaker for every word, phrase, and sentence in
the program. This program provides an acoustic
comparison and graphical display recognition
and allows the learner to slow down the native
speaker’s voice to hear individual words, sounds,
and phonemes.
◆ Reading: Working exclusively in the target language,
the program has an activity mode that presents
written text without spoken-language support. The
learner has to match the words to an image, and
the computer verifies the meaning. There is another
activity mode where the learner must match the
written words to the spoken-language cue.
◆ Writing: Dictation mode uses the computer to check
written work for accuracy. Learners click on a
picture and then must type what they hear. The
program indi-
cates errors
and allows the
learner to cor-
rect work before
proceeding. The
program checks
for spelling,
capitalization,
punctuation,
vocabulary, and
syntax of the tar-
get language.
◆ Listening: Listen-
ing comprehen-
sion is the focus
of the Rosetta
Stone Language
Library program.
Almost every
activity involves
the learner listen-
ing to a native
speaker and then
matching the
speech to a corre-
sponding image and/or
written text.
Recommended Ages:
The program is effective with students as young as
11 years old.
User-Friendly: The software is easy to install and run,
with user-friendly buttons for navigation. “Exit” and
“Help” buttons are available on every screen. The
(continued on next page)
Share these resources with parents or caregivers of ELL students who want to know more about how to help their children manage school. If they don’t have Internet access at home, they
may need information about community access sites (such as public libraries, community tech centers, and school after-hours programs).
Parents and children learning together:
Web Site and URL
Description
The Kids on the Web: Homework Tools
www.zen.org/%7Ebrendan/kids-homework.html
Links to resources such as encyclopedias and dictionaries as well as other resources that can be
helpful for children’s homework.
National Parent Teacher Association
www.pta.org/parentinvolvement/index.asp
Family learning activities to do at home, articles on topics such as testing and report cards, and suggestions such as “100 Ways For
Parents to Be More Involved in Their Child’s Education” (in English and en Español).
www.pta.org/parentinvolvement/spanish/index.asp
S Kids: Dragon TalesPB
http://pbskids.org/dragontales/
A site with activities for young children. Explore the caregivers and “parent tales” sections for additional activities and strategies that
support success in school. Also includes printable award certificates for children.
S ParentsPB
www.pbs.org/parents/
Click on “Fun & Games” for activities for parents and children to do together. Click on “Issues & Advice” for information on child
and development, communication, school, and reading and language (in English and en Español).behavior
/www.pbs.org/parents/quickstart/spanish
This publication is intended to help parents or other caregivers locate informative Web sites that will help them help their children. Inclusion does not represent an endorsement by SEIR�TEC. It is
for informational purposes only. This product was developed by the National Center on Adult Literacy (NCA L), a partner in the SouthEast Initiatives Regional Technology in Education Consor tium
(SEIR�TEC). SEIR�TEC is funded by the U.S. Department of Education under grant number R302A0000011, CFDA 84.302A to support the integration of technology in education. The contents of the
product do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Education or any other agency of the United States government.
3329 Durham Chapel Hill Blvd, Suite 200, Durham, NC 27707 • (800) 755-3277 • (919) 402-1060 • (919) 402-1617 (fax) • www.seirtec.org
TM
Durham, NC 27707 • (800) 755-3277 • (919) 402-1060 • (919) 402-1617 (fax) • www.seirtec.org TM

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(continued from previous page) learner has control over the sounds that indicate correct and incorrect
(continued from previous page)
learner has control over the sounds that indicate
correct and incorrect answers. The program can
run in a test mode or in practice mode. Scores
(number correct and incorrect) can be shown or
not shown. Learners receive feedback immediately
in a non-threatening environment with multiple
opportunities for selecting the correct response.
Materials Included: The classroom edition includes a
handbook for teachers, an illustrated user’s guide,
and a language book with curriculum text and an
index of words. It also includes a student manage-
ment system with a student workbook and study
guide and a book of quizzes and tests.
System Details: Win 3.1, Macintosh. Equipment:
microcomputer (486DX, 8MB RAM [16MB RAM for
Win 95]), hard drive with 4MB free, SVGA monitor
(256 colors), double-speed CD-ROM drive, sound
card, amplified speakers or headphones, micro-
phone. [3-12, ESL] Three CD-ROMs contain 19
units, with 10 or 11 chapters each, plus one review
chapter (Evalutech, n.d.).
Contact/Pricing Information: The Rosetta Stone: English I,
English II, English III (American). Fairfield Language
Technologies, 165 South Main St., Harrisonburg, VA
22801. 800-788-0822. (Hart, Inc., 320 New Stock
Rd., Asheville, NC 28804) 1999. $295 each (for mul-
tiple-copy discounts, contact producer). ◆
References
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign
Languages. (1999). Standards for foreign lan-
guage learning: Preparing for the 21st century.
Retrieved March 5, 2004, from www.actfl.org/public/
articles/details.cfm?id=33.
Helping children with reading:
Evalutech. (n.d.). Infotech review: The Rosetta
Stone, English I (American). Retrieved March 5,
TM
Web Site and URL
Description
2004, from www.evalutech.sreb.org/searchtest/reviewdetail.
Created 5/04
asp?Code=6023.
¡Colorin Colorado!
http://www.colorincolorado.org/homepage.php
Information and activities on working with children to improve their reading, suggestions on how to help children with
school and talk to teachers, and information on educational rights (in English and en Español).
Rocket sReading
http://www.readingrockets.org/pdf/family_guide.pdf
Downloadable booklet with suggestions for activities for parents and children to do together (in English and en Español).
Fairfield Language Technologies. (2004). Rosetta
Stone Language Library Series website. Retrieved
Reading Rockets: At Home
http://www.readingrockets.org/lp.php?SSID=2
Links to articles about how parents can encourage reading at home, issues for English language learners, and connecting
with school.
March 5, 2004, from www.rosettastone.com/home.
General information about school issues:
Santrock, J. (1994). Child development. Madison,
WI: Brown & Benchmark.
Web Site and URL
Description
Connect
for Kids: Parent Involvement in Education
Links to articles on parent involvement, homework, and other topics related to school.
http://www.connectforkids.org/resources3139/resources_subject.htm?doc_id=82761
U.S. Department of Education. (2002). No Child
Left Behind Act of 2001. Retrieved March 5,
Especially for Parents
http://www.ed.gov/parents/landing.jhtml
2004, from www.ed.gov/nclb/landing.jhtml.
http://www.ed.gov/espanol/bienvenidos/es/index.html?src=gu
from the U.S. Government for parents on such topics as preparing my child for school, helping myInformation
child read, my child’s special needs, and college for my child (in English and en Español).
FirstFind
Useful resources on a wide range of topics in plain and simple English. Click on “Education” or “Family Activities”
http://www.firstfind.info/
particular fo r ideas, activities, and information.in
Educatio n AssociationNational
http://www.nea.org/parents/nearesources-parents.html
for parent s on parent-teacher conferences; helping children with reading, math, and science; homework;Guides
and others (in English and en Español).
s Declaration of RightsParent
http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/declarationofrights/main_content.html
Learn more about the No Child Left Behind law, your rights as a parent under the law, or download your own
copy of the Declaration of Rights (in English and en Español).
News
28
Wire
under the law, or download your own copy of the Declaration of Rights (in English and
Practice With Phonics, Vocabulary, and Reading: A Review of Orchard Software By Beth Thrift, Education
Practice With
Phonics,
Vocabulary, and
Reading:
A Review of
Orchard Software
By Beth Thrift, Education Technology
Specialist, SEIR◆TEC
Orchard Software offers phonics sequences,
vocabulary builders, and reading links Skill
Trees (lessons) in English that can be used
to support English Language Learners (ELLs)
in building basic vocabulary and grammar
structure.
Lessons provide both written and oral instruc-
tions and graphical, oral, and text prompts and
feedback. Students can use the keyboard or a
mouse to respond to practice questions, play
learning games, and take tests. Learners collect
stars, butterflies, basketballs, points, and more
for correct responses. Activities are varied and
engaging and incorporate speech, text, sound,
graphics, and animation. Lessons are sequenced,
incremental, and repetitive.
K–3 Vocabulary Builders
Lessons (20 for kindergarten, 30 each for grades
1−3) use a stimulus, response, and reinforce-
ment model to teach oral and visual recognition,
fluency, and lexical retrieval. Lessons include
three preview and practice activities, three prac-
tice games, and two testing and evaluation activi-
ties. A template for making printable worksheets
is included. In one preview and practice activ-
ity, Word Preview, a window opens displaying a
word in large font with a sentence using the word
below in a smaller font. The word is spoken; the
sentence is read; and then each letter is high-
lighted as the word is spelled orally. The student
can choose to have the word or sentence reread
(continued on next page)
El Internet está lleno de lugares que puede visitar para mejorar la educación de sus hijos o su propia educación. Use esta guía como punto de partida.
Si
Busque en estos
Ayuda para hacer tareas con los
Tareaweb
ww w.tareaweb.com /
niños
para mapas, consultas y útiles contenidos.Fuente
www.field.d21.k12.il.us/school2home/ayuda/enlaceconelhogar.htmlEnlace
con el Hogar
Pautas sencillas y relevantes para hacer que la tarea sea algo cotidiano.
s Abiertas www.uft.org/index.cfm?fid=240Puerta
para hacer lo mejor de su visita con los maestros .Pautas
Obtener noticias, diccionarios,
traducciones, etc.
Google
www.google.com/intl/es/
Sitios web de noticias y recursos en español.
www.diccionarios.com/Diccionarios.com
Definiciones, incluso traducciones a otros idiomas.
Bibliotecas Públicas
www.reforma.org/spanishwebsites.htm
web con informac ión en español en bibliotecas de los EE.UU.Sitios
Recomendaciones para mejorar
la educación de los hijos con
necesidades especiales
CNDIND
www.nichcy.org/spanish.htm
Nacional de Diseminaci ón de Información para Niños con Discapacidades, incluye respuestas a preguntasCentro
comunes e información estatal.
TM
Created 5/04
Discapacidades, incluye respuestas a preguntasCentro comunes e información estatal. TM Created 5/04 News ◆ 29 Wire

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(continued from previous page) or the word respelled. The student chooses to move at his
(continued from previous page)
or the word respelled. The student chooses to
move at his or her own pace and can navigate to
the next word or return to a previous word. Les-
sons meet Reading First criteria.
K−3 Language
Arts
Vocabulary
Builder Menu
Page
Grade 2
Language Arts
Word Preview
Activity
Phonics Sequences
El Internet está lleno de lugares que puede visitar para mejorar la educación de sus hijos o su propia educación. Use esta guía como punto de partida.
Si
Busque en estos
Entender el gobierno, la ley, las
Aprenda la Red
www.learnthenet.com/spanish/html/00start.html
escuelas y el Internet (la Red)
a el vocabulario, los conceptos, y las herramientas del Internet.Aprend
FirstGov.gov
ww w.firstgov.gov/ Espanol/ Topics /Hogar_Familia.shtml
Información y servicios del gobierno de los Estados Unidos. Muy útil para entender los niveles de gobierno
.estadounidense
Sixty activities across four levels of phonics
sequencing are available to help students learn
the alphabet, initial and final sounds, letter rec-
ognition, vowels, ending blends, digraphs and
endings, multiple syllables, and sight words.
Students use the mouse to match letters or
words to pictures or to connect consonants to
ending blends. In advanced levels, students read
a simple story and select sight words within
the story. Instructions, cues, and feedback are
provided orally.
Lessons meet
Reading First
criteria.
School Success Info.org
www.schoolsuccessinfo.org/espanol/padresenlaescuela.html
Cómo relacionarse con los maestros y las escuelas.
El Panal
www.beehive.org/spanish/
Tiene información sobre los siguientes temas: dinero, salud, estudios, empleos, y familia.
YoSíPuedo
ww w.YoSiPuedo.gov/
Iniciativa educativa de la Casa Blanca con consejos prácticos para diferentes edades.
Phonics Sequence
Ending Blends
Story Activity
Título I
www.plassociates.org/pubs/nclbspanish.pdf
Respuestas sobre lo que dice la ley en cuanto a los programas de lectura en las escuelas.
This publication is intended to help Spanish-speaking parents or other caregivers locate informative Web sites. Inclusion does not represent an endorsement by SEIR�TEC. It is for informational purposes
. This product was developed by the National Center on Adult Literacy (NCA L), a parter in the SouthEast Initiatives Regional Technology in Education Consor tium (SEIR�TEC). SEIR�TEC is fundedonly
by the U.S. Department of Education under grant number R302A0000011, CFDA 84.302A to support the integration of technology in education. The contents of the product do not necessarily reflect the
views of the U.S. Department of Education or any other agency of the United States government.
3329 Durham Chapel Hill Blvd, Suite 200, Durham, NC 27707 • (800) 755-3277 • (919) 402-1060 • (919) 402-1617 (fax) • www.seirtec.org
TM
News
30
Wire
NC 27707 • (800) 755-3277 • (919) 402-1060 • (919) 402-1617 (fax) • www.seirtec.org TM News

Reading Links

Five levels spanning pre-primer through grade 3 integrate spelling, reading, writing, and close activities to help students learn sight-recognition vocabulary, left to right directional- ity, fluency and rate, practice writing, and meaning and contextual clues. Learners’ instructions, cues, and feed- back are provided orally. Lessons meet Reading First criteria.

Language Arts

4−6, Grammar

Skills: ESL

Translations

In this pro- gram, learning games allow the learner to identify and

correct common usage errors and mis- used words. Intentional errors appear in an English language sentence with a Spanish translation shown beneath. Learners click on the error in the Eng- lish language sentence and receive either positive auditory and visual feed- back or the correct response and an explanation in Spanish in text. Instruc- tions are provided only in English text.

Software prices are based on Skill Tree selection and site licenses. Windows or Macintosh platforms are available for stand-alone workstations and networked systems. Hardware require- ments vary. Contact informa- tion for Orchard Software:

ments vary. Contact informa- tion for Orchard Software: Siboney Learning Group, 325 N. Kirkwood Road, Suite

Siboney Learning Group, 325 N. Kirkwood Road, Suite 200, Saint Louis, MO 63122. 1-888-726-8100, or

www.orchardsoftware.com.

ESL Grammar Skills with Spanish Translations

. ◆ ESL Grammar Skills with Spanish Translations T HE V ISION M AGAZINE O ne
. ◆ ESL Grammar Skills with Spanish Translations T HE V ISION M AGAZINE O ne

THE VISION MAGAZINE

O ne of the SERVE Center’s responses to the grow-

ing number of English language learners (ELL) in

its region and the accompanying related needs

of educators is to provide an awareness-level publica- tion that addresses relevant issues. The forthcoming ELL-themed Vision magazine is geared toward educators, policymakers, and others interested in the instructional issues of ELL students and includes articles ranging in topics related to the field. Topics include ELL statistics, an overview of Title III of NCLB, advancing reading for ELL students, bilingual education, newcomer programs, ELL assessments, and other related resources. Available fall 2005.

For further information, please contact Dr. Paula Egelson at the SERVE Center: 800-755-3277.

News

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Wire

3329 Durham Chapel Hill Blvd., Suite 200 Durham, NC 27707 800•755•3277 Toll-free 919•402•1060 Voice
3329 Durham Chapel
Hill Blvd., Suite 200
Durham, NC 27707
800•755•3277 Toll-free
919•402•1060 Voice
919•402-1617 Fax
www.seirtec.org

This newsletter was developed by the SouthEast Initiatives Regional Technology in Education Consortium (SEIRTEC) and is based on work sponsored wholly or in part by the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE) under grant number R302A0000011, CFDA 84.302A. Its contents do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the OESE, the U.S. Department of Education, or any other agency of the United States Government.

First Printing, 2005

NewsWire Editorial Staff

Elizabeth Byrom, Principal Investigator, SEIRTEC

Nita Matzen, Project Director, Technology in Learning

Kevin Oliver, Assistant Professor, North Carolina State University

SERVE Publications Team

Karen DeMeester Donna Nalley Jane Houle Tracy Hamilton

Reviewers

Paula Egelson, Program Director, Reading and School Improvement, SERVE

Zelia Frick, Supervisor of Instructional Technology, Guilford County Schools, NC

Tammy Mainwaring, Education Associate, Office of Technology, SC Department of Education

Nancy McMunn, Project Director, Assessment, Accountability, and Standards, SERVE

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