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Part 2 LOADS ON FOUNDATION

Having understood the concept of foundation we proceed to understand various types of loads the foundations are subject to during its life time.

LOADS
As mentioned earlier, the loads on the structure may be static loads/dynamic loads. Under static loads we can classify the loads in following categories.

DEAD LOADS
The dead loads are the weights of those elements in a building which are permanently attached to the building and include a) self weight of the structure b) weight of the floor finishes c) weight of cladding material d) weight of false ceiling e) weight of internal walls f) weight of external walls g) weight of water proofing of roof h) any permanent fixtures i) weight of earth if directly supported on the structural elements

LIVE LOADS (OR IMPOSED LOADS)


The live loads are the load which are not a permanent part of the structure but are expected to superimpose on the structure during a part or all of its useful life. These are the loads caused by the intended use and types of occupancy in the building .The magnitude of live loads to be assumed are stipulated in

the local building codes depending upon the occupancy in a given building various buildings .The types of buildings are normally a) residential b) commercial c) Industrial d) Institutional e) Storage f) Parking g) public buildings It shall be noted that the live load does not include loads incidental to construction and shall be treated separately

EQUIPMENT LOADS (STATIC EQUIPMENTS)


These are the loads of the equipment installed in the building. The loads are specified by the designer /supplier of the equipment .The loads are furnished in the following manner. a) site erected weight b) Operating weight c) Hydro test weight d) Emergency weight

EQUIPMENT LOADS (DYNAMIC EQUIPMENTS)


These are the loads of the equipment installed in the building which have moving, rotating and / or reciprocating parts. The loads are specified by the designer /supplier of the equipment .The loads are furnished in the following manner. a) Static weight b) Dynamic forces

c) Equivalent static load to cater for dynamic effect.

SERVICE LOADS
These are the loads due to the services provided in a plant building. The services may be as follows. a) Process piping b) electrical cables c) instrumentation cables d) Water sprinklers e) HVAC ducting f) Utility piping

WIND LOADS
As mentioned earlier, the wind is essentially a dynamic load. Wind is defined as air in motion. The laws of fluid mechanics are applied to convert the dynamic load in to equivalent static load. All the local codes specify the basic wind speed for a given location. One has to visualise the building as a body immersed in a fluid (air) .The kinetic energy of air in motion is obstructed by the external elements of the building element such as cladding and roofing. The local codes define the equivalent static load for a given wind velocity based on various parameters. These are external wind pressures. The inside air exerts equal pressure on all the internal surfaces of the structure; this is called internal pressure. The magnitude depends upon the amount of openings in the walls cladding that permits the flow air.

EARTHQUAKE LOADS

Earthquake loads are dynamic loads caused by the ground displacement, acceleration during an earthquake. The ground acceleration is in any random direction. The mass of building responds to these accelerations causing time dependent displacement and vibrations in the structure. Based on the mass and stiffness of the building, equivalent static load is worked out which would cause similar displacement. This equivalent static load is represented as a percentage of acceleration due to gravity.

MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIMENT LOADS


Material handling equipment can be categorised as follows. a) Overhead travelling crane b) Monorails c) Cage Hoist d) Jib cranes e) Conveyors f) Fork lift g) Passenger lifts The manufacturer/supplier of this equipment would furnish all the relevant information on static/dynamic loads The overhead travelling cranes exerts lateral load and or longitudinal thrust apart from the vertical loads. The lateral load is generated when the weight lifted is moved laterally .While moving it has to overcome the friction over the surface it is moving .This lateral load acts at the top of gantry rail and causes horizontal bending and twisting of the beam it is supporting. The longitudinal load acts along the rail over which the crane is travelling and causes axial thrust and additional bending moment in the beam supporting the crane.

LOAD DUE TO EARTH PRESSURE

The earth pressure is lateral load acting permanently on the portion of the building below ground. It shall be treated as a basic load like dead load. If the ground surface on one side is higher than the other side, the building shall be designed for the differential pressure.

LOAD DUE TO WATER PRESSURE


The water pressure act as lateral load on the vertical surfaces and vertical on horizontal surfaces .If we consider the substructure as a whole, the lateral hydrostatic pressure is always balanced. But the hydrostatic uplift or buoyancy force must be counteracted by dead load to prevent uplift of the building.

LOAD DUE TO BLAST


Structures like control rooms need to be designed for probable blast in a plant so that the post blast damage can be minimized. The blast load is also a dynamic load and needs to be converted in to equivalent static load.

LOAD COMBINATIONS
Once the effect of individual loads are identified, the effect of co existent loads needs to be arrived at .to give the worst possible effect on foundation, specifically 1) The combination which gives maximum ve rtical load 2) The combination which gives worst maximum vertical load and worst horizontal load 3) The combination which gives minimum vertical load and worst maximum horizontal load 4) Any other combination which gives worst effect Manohar Kanade civil/s tructural consultants flat no 302 kumar pushkar 840 sadashiv peth Pune 411030