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2.3 Electric Conductivity (EC) Meter 1.

Electrolytic Conductivity Deionized water hardly conducts electricity, but when salts are dissolved in the water, they dissociate into ions, making the deionized water electrolytically conductive. This conductive degree is called electrolytic conductivity. As the amount of salts becomes larger, the electrolytic conductivity increases. Electrolytic conductivity is the reciprocal of the electric resistance of a solution existing between two electrodes which have a cross section area of 1 cm2 and are separated 1 centimeter from each other. Substance cannot be identified by measuring the electrolytic conductivity of the solution, but the approximate amount of salt dissolved in the solution can be determined. 2. Measuring Principle Assume k [S/cm] for the electrolytic conductivity of a solution, R[] for the resistance of the solution, and K [1/cm] for the cell constant which is determined by the shape of each electrode. Now the electrolytic conductivity, k, is expressed as follows: k = K/R For the electrodes, platinum or platinum black is used. However, for a system which continuously measures a sample solution, stainless steel or special steel electrodes are often used instead. 3. Measuring Method

Electrolytic conductivity can be measured by either the alternating bipolar method or the electromagnetic induction method. 1) Electrolytic conductivity meter using the alternating bipolar method An electrode with two poles is immersed in a solution to measure its electrolytic conductivity. AC voltage is applied across the two poles. The electric current flowing across the poles is used to measure the solution's resistance (R), and then the electrolytic conductivity. Since the electrolytic conductivity varies depending on the temperature, the measured electrolytic conductivity is converted to that at 25oC??? by using a temperature compensation element. 2) Electrolytic conductivity meter using the electromagnetic induction method Two electrodes made by covering transformers T1 and T2 with insulating material are immersed in a solution. When AC current is applied to the primary coil C1, induced current I in proportion to the electrolytic conductivity of the solution flows through C2. On the other hand, voltage E is generated, in proportion to the induced current I, in the secondary coil C3 of the transformer T2 using C2 as its primary coil. This voltage is measured to obtain the electrolytic conductivity.

Fig.4.2.4 Typical configuration of electrolytic conductivity meter using the AC voltage method

Fig.4.2.5 Typical configuration of electrolytic conductivity meter using the electromagnetic induction method