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Sub:- Managerial economics eMBA Div:-C


We would like to thank Prof.Dr.P.A.Johnson, who gave us an opportunity to work on this topic. Under his guidance we were able to work to the best of our ability and knowledge. Without his support we wouldnt have got such a wonderful experience Because of this project we got in-depth knowledge about the subject by working on various aspects Indian Foreign Trade Policy.

Thank You

Page Sr. No.
1. INTRODUCTION 2. Foreign Trade Foreign trade policy Foreign Trade Policy of India Basic Objective Of Foreign Trade Policy



FOREIGN TRADE POLICY OF INDIA (2009-14) Background Objectives

Aim in General
3. 4. IMPORTANT POLICES OF FTP OF INDIA (2009-14) IMPACTS OF FTP (2009-14) ON INDIAN TRADE 5. 6. Impact on Import of India Impact on Export of India


Foreign Trade
Exchange of goods and services between the countries is known as foreign trade. The difference is the producer and consumers reside in separate countries.

Foreign trade policy

Foreign trade policy is the combination of words first is foreign trade and second is policy Foreign trade: - It is the exchange of goods and services between nations. Goods can be defined as finished products, as intermediate goods used in producing other goods, or as agriculture product and foodstuffs Policy: - policy is the set of rules and procedure

Foreign Trade Policy of India

The Union Commerce Ministry, Government of India announces the integrated Foreign Trade Policy FTP in every five year. This policy is updated every year with some modifications and new schemes. New schemes come into effect on the first day of financial year i.e. April 1, every year. The Foreign trade.

Basic Objective Of Foreign Trade Policy

Simplifying procedures and bringing down transaction costs Facilitating development of india as a global hub for manufacturing, trading and services. Identifying and nurturing special focus areas to generate additional employment opportunities particularly in semi-urban and rural areas. Facilitating technological and infrastructural upgradation of the indian economy, especially through import of capital goods and equipments


This policy was announced on August 28, 2009 is an integrated policy for the period 2009-14 It is announced by UPA Government commerce and industry minister Anand Sharma.

Background:Before new policy it would be useful to take stock of our achievements in the foreign trade over the last 5 years policy which was for 2004 09. The foreign trade policy announced by the UPA Government in 2004 had set two objectives, namely, (i) to double our percentage share of global merchandize trade within 5 years and (ii) use trade expansion as an effective instrument of economic growth and employment generation. In the 2004-09 years our exports witnessed robust growth to reach a level of US$ 168 billion in 2008-09 from US$ 63 billion in 2003-04. Our share of global merchandise trade was 0.83% in 2003; it rose to 1.45% in 2008 as per WTO estimates. Our share of global commercial services export was 1.4% in 2003; it rose to 2.8% in 2008. Indias total share in goods and services trade was 0.92% in 2003; it increased to 1.64% in 2008. On the employment front, studies have suggested that nearly 14 million jobs were created directly or indirectly as a result of augmented exports in the last five years.

The UPA Government has assumed office at a challenging time when the entire world is facing an unprecedented economic slow-down. The year 2009 is witnessing one of the most severe global recessions in the post period. Countries across the world had affected in varying degrees and all major economic indicators of industrial production, trade, capital flows, unemployment, per capita investment and consumption have taken a hit. The WTO was estimated project a grim forecast that global trade is likely to decline by 9% in volume terms and the IMF was estimated project a decline of over 11%. The recessionary trend has huge social implications. The World Bank was estimated suggests that 53 million more people would fall into the poverty net in 2009 and over a billion people would go chronically hungry. Though India had not been affected to the same extent as other economies of the world, yet our exports of India has suffered a decline in the last 10 months due to a contraction in demand in the traditional markets of our exports.

Announcing a Foreign Trade Policy in this economic climate was indeed a daunting task. India cannot remain oblivious to declining demand in the developed world and that time India needed to set in motion strategies and policy measures which will catalyse the growth of exports.

Objectives of FTP 2009-14

The short term objective of our policy is to arrest and reverse the declining trend of exports and to provide additional support especially to those sectors which have been hit badly by recession in the developed world.

Achieving an annual export growth of 15% with an annual export target of US$ 200 billion by March 2011. In the remaining three years of this Foreign Trade Policy i.e. Upto 2014, the country should be able to come back on the high export growth path of around 25% per annum.

To double India's share in global merchandise trade by 2020 as a long term aim of this policy. India's share in Global merchandise exports was 1.45% in 2008.

To help exporters for technological upgradation.

Simplification of the application procedure for availing various benefits

To encourage exports through a "mix of measures including fiscal incentives, institutional changes, procedural rationalisation and efforts for enhance market access across the world and diversification of export markets.

Aim in General
The policy aims at developing export potential, improving export performance, boosting foreign trade and earning valuable foreign exchange. FTP assumes great significance this year as India's exports have been battered by the global recession.

A fall in exports has led to the closure of several small- and medium-scale exportoriented units, resulting in large-scale unemployment.


Epcg scheme (export promotion capital goods scheme )relaxations Zero duty EPCG scheme allows import of capital goods for pre production, production and post production (including CKD/SKD thereof as well as computer software systems) at zero Customs duty, subject to an export obligation equivalent to 6 times of duty saved on capital goods imported under EPCG scheme, to be fulfilled in 6 years reckoned from Authorization issue-date. To increase the life of existing plant and machinery, export obligation on import of spares, moulds etc. under EPCG Scheme has been reduced to 50% of the normal specific export obligation. Taking into account the decline in exports, the facility of Re-fixation of Annual Average Export Obligation for a particular financial year in which there is decline in exports from the country, has been extended for the 5 year Policy period 2009-14. It was operational till 31st March 2012 but now In Annual Supplement 2012-13 It extend upto 31st March 2013 & a new post-export EPCG scheme introduced This scheme provides flexibility to exporters for importing capital goods on payment of duty, based on 8 which an Export Obligation at a level of 85% to the original shall be stipulated. Thereafter, the exporter will be entitled to obtain Duty Free Scrips in proportion to the actual exports effected, thereby doing away with the requirement of monitoring the Export Obligation, thus reducing the transaction cost.

Technological Upgradation To aid technological upgradation of our export sector, EPCG Scheme at Zero Duty has been introduced. This Scheme will be available for engineering & electronic products, basic chemicals & pharmaceuticals, apparels & textiles, plastics, handicrafts, chemicals & allied products and

leather & leather products (subject to exclusions of current beneficiaries under Technological Upgradation Fund Schemes (TUFS), administered by Ministry of Textiles and beneficiaries of Status Holder Incentive Scheme in that particular year). The scheme shall be in operation till 31.3.2011. Jaipur, Srinagar and Anantnag have been recognised as Towns of Export Excellence for handicrafts; Kanpur, Dewas and Ambur have been recognised as Towns of Export Excellence for leather products; and Malihabad for horticultural products. FMS,FPS,MLFPS FOCUS MARKET SCHEME (FMS)

Objective is to offset high freight cost and other externalities to select international markets with a view to enhance Indias export competitiveness in these countries. Ineligible Exports 3.14.3 The following categories of export products / sectors shall Categories / Sectors for be ineligible for Duty Credit Scrip, under FMS scheme: FMS a) Supplies made to SEZ units; b) Service Exports; c) Diamonds and other precious, semi precious stones; d) Gold, silver, platinum and other precious metals in any form, including plain and studded Jewellery; e) Ores and Concentrates, of all types and in all forms; f) Cereals, of all types; g) Sugar, of all types and in all forms; h) Crude / Petroleum Oil & Crude / Petroleum based Products covered under ITC HS codes 2 709 to 2 715, of all types and in all forms; and i) Export of Milk and Milk Products covered under

ITC HS Codes 0401 to 0406, 1 9011 001, 1 9011 010, 2105 & 3501.


Objective is to incentivise export of such products which have high export intensity / employment potential, so as to offset infrastructure inefficiencies and other associated costs involved in marketing of these products. Entitlement Exports of notified products (as in Appendix 37D ofHBPv1) to all countries (including SEZ units) shall be entitled for Duty Credit scrip equivalent to 2 % of FOB value of exports (in free foreign exchange) for exports made from 27.8.2009 onwards.40 However, Special Focus Product(s) /sector(s), covered under Table 2 and Table 5 of Appendix 3 7D, shall be granted Duty Credit Scrip equivalent to 5 % of FOB value of exports (in free foreign exchange) for exports made from 27.8.2009 onwards. Support for Green products and products from North East Focus Product Scheme benefit extended for export of green products; and for exports of some products originating from the North East.

Market Linked Focus Products Scrip (MLFPS):

Export of Products/Sectors of high export intensity/employment potential (which are not covered under present FPS List) would be incentivized at 2 % of FOB value of exports (in free foreign exchange) under FPS when exported to the Linked Markets (countries), which are not covered in the present FMS list, as notified in Appendix 3 7D of HBPv1, for exports made from27.8.2009 onwards.

Annual Supplement 2012-13


7 new markets are being added to the Special Focus Market Scheme (Spl FMS)- Belize, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Morocco, and Uruguay. 46 new items are being added to Market Linked Focus Product Scheme (MLFPS). This would have the effect of including 12 new markets for the first time. Market linked focus product scheme is being extended till 31st March 2013 for export to USA and EU in respect of the apparel sector. 100 new items are being added to the Focus Product Scheme (FPS) list.

Status Holders To accelerate exports and encourage technological upgradation, additional Duty Credit Scrips shall be given to Status Holders @ 1% of the FOB value of past exports. The duty credit scrips can be used for procurement of capital goods with Actual User condition. This facility shall be available for sectors of lather (excluding finished leather), textiles and jute, handicrafts, engineering (excluding Iron & steel & non-ferrous metals in primary and intermediate form, automobiles & two wheelers, nuclear reactors & parts, and ships, boats and floating structures), plastics and basic chemicals (excluding pharma products) [subject to exclusions of current beneficiaries under Technological Upgradation Fund Schemes (TUFS)]. This facility shall be available upto 31.3.2011. Transferability for the Duty Credit scrips being issued to Status Holders under paragraph 3.8.6 of FTP under VKGUY Scheme has been permitted. This is subject to the condition that transfer would be only to Status Holders and Scrips would be utilized for the procurement of Cold Chain equipment(s) only.


Stability/ continuity of the Foreign Trade Policy To impart stability to the Policy regime, Duty Entitlement Passbook (DEPB) Scheme is extended beyond 31-12-2009 till 31.12.2010. Interest subvention of 2% for pre-shipment credit for 7 specified sectors has been extended till 31.3.2010 in the Budget 2009-10. Income Tax exemption to 100% EOUs and to STPI units under Section 10B and 10A of Income Tax Act, has been extended for the financial year 2010-11 in the Budget 2009-10. The adjustment assistance scheme initiated in December, 2008 to provide enhanced ECGC cover at 95%, to the adversely affected sectors, is continued till March, 2010. Marine sector Fisheries have been included in the sectors which are exempted from maintenance of average EO under EPCG Scheme, subject to the condition that Fishing Trawlers, boats, ships and other similar items shall not be allowed to be imported under this provision. This would provide a fillip to the marine sector which has been affected by the present downturn in exports. Additional flexibility under Target Plus Scheme (TPS) / Duty Free Certificate of Entitlement (DFCE) Scheme for Status Holders has been given to Marine sector. Gems & Jewellery Sector To neutralize duty incidence on gold Jewellery exports, it has now been decided to allow Duty Drawback on such exports. In an endeavour to make India a diamond international trading hub, it is planned to establish Diamond Bourse(s). A new facility to allow import on consignment basis of cut & polished diamonds for the purpose of grading/ certification purposes has been introduced. To promote export of Gems & Jewellery products, the value limits of personal carriage have been increased from US$ 2 million to US$ 5 million in case of participation in overseas


exhibitions. The limit in case of personal carriage, as samples, for export promotion tours, has also been increased from US$ 0.1 million to US$ 1 million. Agriculture Sector To reduce transaction and handling costs, a single window system to facilitate export of perishable agricultural produce has been introduced. The system will involve creation of multifunctional nodal agencies to be accredited by APEDA.

Leather Sector Leather sector shall be allowed re-export of unsold imported raw hides and skins and semi finished leather from public bonded ware houses, subject to payment of 50% of the applicable export duty. Enhancement of FPS rate to 2%, would also significantly benefit the leather sector. Tea Minimum value addition under advance authorisation scheme for export of tea has been reduced from the existing 100% to 50%. DTA sale limit of instant tea by EOU units has been increased from the existing 30% to 50%. Export of tea has been covered under VKGUY Scheme benefits. Pharmaceutical Sector Export Obligation Period for advance authorizations issued with 6-APA as input has been increased from the existing 6 months to 36 months, as is available for other products. Pharma sector extensively covered under MLFPS for countries in Africa and Latin America; some countries in Oceania and Far East.


Handloom Sector To simplify claims under FPS, requirement of Handloom Mark for availing benefits under FPS has been removed. EOU (EXPORT ORIENTED UNITS) EOUs have been allowed to sell products manufactured by them in DTA (domestic tariff area ) upto a limit of 90% instead of existing 75%, without changing the criteria of similar goods, within the overall entitlement of 50% for DTA sale. To provide clarity to the customs field formations, DOR shall issue a clarification to enable procurement of spares beyond 5% by granite sector EOUs. EOUs will now be allowed to procure finished goods for consolidation along with their manufactured goods, subject to certain safeguards. During this period of downturn, Board of Approvals (BOA) to consider, extension of block period by one year for calculation of Net Foreign Exchange earning of EOUs. EOUs will now be allowed CENVAT Credit facility for the component of SAD and Education Cess on DTA sale. Thrust to Value Added Manufacturing To encourage Value Added Manufactured export, a minimum 15% value addition on imported inputs under Advance Authorization Scheme has now been prescribed. Coverage of Project Exports and a large number of manufactured goods under FPS and MLFPS. DEPB DEPB rate shall also include factoring of custom duty component on fuel where fuel is allowed as a consumable in Standard Input-Output Norms.


Flexibility provided to exporters Payment of customs duty for Export Obligation (EO) shortfall under Advance Authorisation / DFIA / EPCG Authorisation has been allowed by way of debit of Duty Credit scrips. Earlier the payment was allowed in cash only. DFIAs, in line with the erstwhile DFRC scheme. Time limit of 60 days for re-import of exported gems and jewellery items, for participation in exhibitions has been extended to 90 days in case of USA. Transit loss claims received from private approved insurance companies in India will now be allowed for the purpose of EO fulfillment under Export Promotion schemes. At present, the facility has been limited to public sector general insurance companies only. Waiver of Incentives Recovery, On RBI Specific Write off In cases, where RBI specifically writes off the export proceeds realization, the incentives under the FTP shall now not be recovered from the exporters subject to certain conditions. Simplification of Procedures To facilitate duty free import of samples by exporters, number of samples/pieces has been increased from the existing 15 to 50. Customs clearance of such samples shall be based on declarations given by the importers with regard to the limit of value and quantity of samples. To allow exemption for up to two stages from payment of excise duty in lieu of refund, in case of supply to an advance authorisation holder (against invalidation letter) by the domestic intermediate manufacturer. It would allow exemption for supplies made to a manufacturer, if such manufacturer in turn supplies the products to an ultimate exporter. At present, exemption is allowed upto one stage only. Greater flexibility has been permitted to allow conversion of Shipping Bills from one Export Promotion scheme to other scheme. Customs shall now permit this conversion within three months, instead of the present limited period of only one month.

To reduce transaction costs, dispatch of imported goods directly from the Port to the site has been allowed under Advance Authorisation scheme for deemed supplies. At present, the duty free imported goods could be taken only to the manufacturing unit of the authorisation holder or its supporting manufacturer. Disposal of manufacturing wastes / scrap will now be allowed after payment of applicable excise duty, even before fulfillment of export obligation under Advance Authorisation and EPCG Scheme. Regional Authorities have now been authorised to issue licences for import of sports weapons by renowned shooters, on the basis of NOC from the Ministry of Sports & Youth Affairs. Now there will be no need to approach DGFT(Hqrs.) in such cases. The procedure for issue of Free Sale Certificate has been simplified and the validity of the Certificate has been increased from 1 year to 2 years. This will solve the problems faced by the medical devices industry. Automobile industry, having their own R&D establishment, would be allowed free import of reference fuels (petrol and diesel), upto a maximum of 5 KL per annum, which are not manufactured in India. Acceding to the demand of trade & industry, the application and redemption forms under EPCG scheme have been simplified. Reduction of Transaction Costs No fee shall now be charged for grant of incentives under the Schemes in Chapter 3 of FTP. Further, for all other Authorisations/ licence applications, maximum applicable fee is being reduced to Rs. 100,000 from the existing Rs 1,50,000 (for manual applications) and Rs. 50,000 from the existing Rs.75,000 (for EDI applications).


To further EDI initiatives, Export Promotion Councils/ Commodity Boards have been advised to issue RCMC through a web based online system. It is expected that issuance of RCMC would become EDI enabled before the end of 2009. Electronic Message Exchange between Customs and DGFT in respect of incentive schemes under Chapter 3 will become operational by 31.12.2009. This will obviate the need for verification of scrips by Customs facilitating faster clearances. For EDI ports, with effect from December 09, double verification of shipping bills by customs for any of the DGFT schemes shall be dispensed with. In cases, where the earlier authorization has been cancelled and a new authorization has been issued in lieu of the earlier authorization, application fee paid already for the cancelled authorisation will now be adjusted against the application fee for the new authorisation subject to payment of minimum fee of Rs. 200. An Inter Ministerial Committee will be formed to redress/ resolve problems/issues of exporters. An updated compilation of Standard Input Output Norms (SION) and ITC (HS) Classification of Export and Import Items has been published. Directorate of Trade Remedy Measures To enable support to Indian industry and exporters, especially the MSMEs, in availing their rights through trade remedy instruments, a Directorate of Trade Remedy Measures shall be set up.


IMPACTS OF FTP (2009-14) ON INDIAN TRADE Following are the major destinations of Indian export

Following are the major exports of india


Many measures are taken by government of India for growth of export in India. May schemes were introduced to encourage & give support to export to export more. Which result into growth in export of India.

Gems Export
250 224 200


150 128


100 69 50 72 79

0 05-06 06-07 07-08 08-09 09-10 10-11 11-12


140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 05-06 06-07 07-08 08-09 69 74 88 74 90 105 130




140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 05-06 06-07 32 39


132 54 66 79








Impact on overall Export of India

Export of India

303 246 200 163 83.54 103.09 126.26 175

2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12

However, as we look at the achievements of the year gone by, we can derive some satisfaction from the fact that Indian exports maintained their momentum registering a 20.9% growth last year to touch US$ 303 billion. This by all accounts is a commendable achievement and a critical turnaround, given the fact that exports had declined to US$ 178 billion in 2009-10. We have been able to reach thus far by providing a stable policy environment and the market diversification strategy . Indias exports to Asia, Africa and Latin America put together totaled US$188 billion which constitutes 62% of Indias total export basket which is a significant development. Another redeeming feature of export performance last year was substantial increase in value added exports, engineering exports touched US$ 60 billion, gems and jewellery crossed US$ 46 billion, and textiles exports crossed US$ 14 billion and pharmaceutical exports stood at US$ 13 billion.


Impact on Import of India Following are the major products of Indian import

Following are the major destinations of Indian import



Major reasons for increase in import: volatility in commodity prices and the crude oil prices touched a new high last year, adding pressure on our import bill.

The weakening of the rupee will have its own implication on annual import bill. Clearly Indian economy is passing through a difficult phase.



For achieving Action Plan of doubling Indias merchandise exports to US$ 500 billion following agenda is there :

Give a focused thrust to employment intensive industry because we view exports not only in terms of their economic contribution but as a means of generating gainful employment

Encourage domestic manufacturing for inputs to export industry and reduce the dependence on imports

Promote technological upgradation of exports to retain a competitive edge in global markets

Persist with a strong market diversification strategy to hedge the risks against global uncertainty

Encourage exports from the North Eastern Region given its special place in Indias economy

Provide incentives for manufacturing of green goods recognising the imperative of building capacities for environmental sustainability

Endeavour to reduce transaction cost through procedural simplification and reduction of human interface


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