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Students need to know what is expected of them in your classroom.

To ensure that you have smooth transitions throughout the day, think carefully about the routines for which you must plan. Clarify them in your mind. It may be helpful to make a list of transitional times throughout the day (see the list below to help you get started!). Other teachers or your mentor can serve as resources by sharing their own classroom procedures and routines. Before establishing specific procedures or routines, it is necessary to have a discussion with students about their importance. During this discussion, you should be able to talk about the rationale behind various routines. When possible, invite students to create procedures with you. This process can nurture a sense of ownership and community in your classroom. In establishing procedures or routines, it is important to:

Ensure that students understand the reason for the routine. Clarify the procedure through modeling. Allow students opportunities to practice the routine through rehearsal. Try not to overwhelm students by teaching too many routines at once. The process of establishing routines and procedures may take several days. Remember that it will probably be necessary to revisit this process as you see the need.

The following list may help you get started in thinking about times during the day for which you may want to establish procedures and routines:

Beginning the day Entering and exiting the classroom Labeling papers Collection and distribution of papers Signaling for quiet and attention Appropriate times for moving around the room Emergency drills and procedures Going to the restroom Moving throughout the school Late arrival Grading and homework policies (including make-up work) Asking questions Finishing an assignment early Dismissal

Students need to know what is expected of them in your classroom. To ensure that you have smooth transitions throughout the day, think carefully about the routines for which you must plan. Clarify them in your mind. It may be helpful to make a list of transitional times throughout the day (see the list below to help you get started!). Other teachers or your mentor can serve as resources by sharing their own classroom procedures and routines. Before establishing specific procedures or routines, it is necessary to have a discussion with students about their importance. During this discussion, you should be able to talk about the rationale behind various routines. When possible, invite students to create procedures with you. This process can nurture a sense of ownership and community in your classroom. In establishing procedures or routines, it is important to:

Ensure that students understand the reason for the routine. Clarify the procedure through modeling. Allow students opportunities to practice the routine through rehearsal. Try not to overwhelm students by teaching too many routines at once. The process of establishing routines and procedures may take several days. Remember that it will probably be necessary to revisit this process as you see the need.

The following list may help you get started in thinking about times during the day for which you may want to establish procedures and routines:

Beginning the day Entering and exiting the classroom Labeling papers Collection and distribution of papers Signaling for quiet and attention Appropriate times for moving around the room Emergency drills and procedures Going to the restroom Moving throughout the school Late arrival Grading and homework policies (including make-up work) Asking questions Finishing an assignment early Dismissal eHow Education Preschool & Elementary School Elementary School Classrooms How to Establish Classroom Routines

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How to Establish Classroom Routines

By Mandi Titus, eHow Contributor

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Routines help students know what is expected of them throughout the day. Establishing effective classroom routines early in the school year helps keep your classroom running smoothly and ensures that no time is wasted while students wonder what they should be doing during times of transition. Classroom routines can be established for many activities, including entering the classroom in the morning, transitioning between activities and preparing to leave the classroom. The basic procedures for establishing solid routines remains the same regardless of the routine procedure that you are teaching your students.

Read more: How to Establish Classroom Routines |

Designing and establishing classroom routines was not a course that my teachers' colleges offered me.

I think that was a serious omission on their part.

We all know that if students are free to move about as they please, when they please, they will do exactly that. Limiting their choices and restricting their movements do wonders for establishing a conducive learning environment. The first step in creating classroom routines is to establish optimal traffic flow patterns.

Traffic Flow
With the exception of computer labs and science labs, there doesn't seem to be a lot of essential variation from classroom to classroom within the same school. But, the location of the entry door is sometimes in the left corner, the right corner, or even in the middle. How do you want your kids to enter and exit your classroom? If you channel them all in one direction, you won't have to worry about them swarming in, knocking stuff off the teacher's desk, and otherwise acting chaotic. In my case, my classroom door was in the left corner of the room and my desk was located directly across from it. As a result, I determined that students entering the room should immediately turn right, proceed to the back of the room, turn left, proceed to the appropriate aisle, and then move forward to their assigned seats. When exiting the classroom, students would follow the same movement pattern in reverse.

Preparing Students for Entry

What do you want your kids to accomplish before they enter your classroom? I think that we would all agree that students should be prepared for learning when they enter your classroom. They should have already visited the restrooms. They should have already had a turn at the water fountain.

Establishing Classroom Routines and Procedures

written by: Laurie Patsalides edited by: Elizabeth Stannard Gromisch updated: 7/13/2010

The key to starting the year school year off right is to establish solid classroom routines and procedures for everything you expect your students to do. When starting the classroom management system by establishing the procedures you expect, the year is sure to be a rewarding one!

Know the Routines You Want to Teach

I used to think that classroom management involved simply putting up a great behavioral chart and rewarding students for good behavior. Although that is a part of classroom management, giving the students clear, concise routines and procedures to follow is the key to great behavior. If students know what the teacher's expectations are and how to reach them, then you will have the start to a great year. In the beginning and all year round, you must make room in your lessons plans to teach routines. In the beginning of the school year, this should be every day. I usually take the first month of school to work on procedures, that way you know you have covered them all. Do not try to cram them in, let them evolve naturally through each subject and as you need them. Even during the middle or toward the end of the school year, you can schedule classroom management and routines into your day. When setting classroom routines, first ask yourself, what do I expect my students to do and then how do I expect them to do it? Start by answering the following questions for each subject: How do I expect my students to line up, raise their hands, get a pencil, use the lavatory, become quiet,

collect and submit their work, hold a book, sit in a chair, collect and use materials for a project, prepare for dismissal or a fire drill, move around the classroom...? Anything you expect students to be able to do must have a procedure to follow. This is very important when starting the new year and procedures can be added as you need them. In the beginning of the year, regardless of whether they are in Kindergarten, First or Second Grade, the students must learn what you expect. Always assume that they do not know it!

Children & Discipline

Answers to Frequent Concerns About Discipline and Boundaries

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For example, if you want your children to move from their seats to the rug for circle time or morning routine, explain first how they will get up from their seat, how they will walk to the circle time area, and where they will sit down, model it, and then choose some students to model it for the rest of the class. Practice, practice, practice until it meets your expectations and reward with plenty of praise when it does. Always choose students to model who show that they are most willing to comply to demonstrate to the rest of the class. Those who are not willing to comply should be given many opportunities to try again and much praise when they do what you expect correctly. This will create a caring community in your classroom. After a few weeks you will be able to cut back some on the praise but may need to remind the students later in the year or during times of disruption to the routines (i.e. around vacations and holidays) what your expectations are. If necessary, practice the modeling again as you did in the beginning of the school year. Say it in a lighthearted way, "oh class, we seem to have forgotten the classroom procedure of how to go to our seats, let's practice again." Do this as many times as necessary. In First and Second Grades the students may not need to practice as long as in Kindergarten, but definitely make your expectations known to your new class. In our next article in the series we discuss how to evaluate classroom procedures to see if they are working and what to do when they are not!

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But most importantly, they should have made that visit to their lockers to get what they need for your class: textbook, paper, something to write with, and anything else that you require them to bring to your class. As a language arts teacher, not only did I inform them of what I expected them to bring to my class, I also posted daily reminders on the hallway bulletin board right outside the classroom door. If you make this clear to your kids from the very beginning, you won't find yourself in the position of having to write hall passes throughout the class period instead of facilitating learning. Unless there is a true emergency, I remind students, no one will be allowed to leave my classroom. If that sounds a little draconian, remind students that we are in the business of success. Success requires full participation, attention, and sincere effort. The kinds of things that they are likely to learn in the hallway, will not likely contribute to their chances of being successful.

Obtaining Classroom Materials

What additional materials will students need after they have gotten to your class, and how will they obtain them? On Mondays in my class, for example, students know that they need their reading journals for Readers Workshop. Their reading journals are actually file folders containing their written responses to writing prompts, a list of prompts to write about, and the rubric to guide their efforts. Without these folders, students will have nothing to do during work time. As a result, I keep these file folders in my classroom so that they will not magically disappear in lockers or end up under beds.

Organizing Classroom Materials

When they enter my classroom on that particular day and they have gotten to the rear of the room, they get their folders from a document holder that I have labeled to match their seat numbers. Document holders are relatively inexpensive and can be purchased in your local office supply store. Because I have five classes, each numbered slot contains as many as five folders. To prevent them from standing there sorting through folders to find theirs, I color code the folders.

Everyone in my first period class has blue folders. The only blue folder in slot number eight belongs to my first period student, Andrew Garcia. As a result, Andrew is able to select his folder quickly and then proceed to his seat. Time for horseplay is radically minimized. Boxes of color file folders are slightly more expensive than manila folders, but they are well worth it. Other than blue, I normally use green, red, yellow, and purple. The color doesn't matter so much as long as each member of the class has the same color. Can you imagine the chaos that would ensue if students had to sort through a big stack of manila file folders to locate their own? On Tuesdays in my class, students know that they will need their writing journals. Their journals are actually standard composition books that their parents buy for them before the beginning of school. I store these journals in a bookcase at the back of the classroom that is labeled "Writing Journal Library." Once again, I use color coding. Most composition books have black spines, but there are a few odd variations. I tape large stick-it notes near the bottom of each spine and direct students to write their assigned seat numbers on the notes so that they are visible when approaching the Writing Journal Library. The composition books rest on the shelves like regular books--spines placed vertically in a row, organized by color. All of my first period students now have a blue file folder and a blue composition book, and they are able to locate them quickly and easily.

Managing the Pencil Sharpener

As I'm sure you will agree, the pencil sharpener can be the bane of our existence as teachers. If you allow it, the pencil sharpener becomes the social gathering point within the classroom. It can

also be a primary location for conflicts. So, it is imperative to include sharpener management as part of your classroom routines. Unless you are a math teacher, consider requiring students to use ink only. However, ink pens can be a tool for classroom disruption--they get "leaky" or busy fingers somehow find ways to break them open, depositing ink all over fingers, clothing, desks, and the floor. Now they have an emergency. They have to go to the restroom to clean up. Now you have to summon the custodian.

If you choose to use a pencil sharpener, please consider buying a professional grade sharpener. Not one of those small electriconic things that they issue at the beginning of the school year that never seem to make it through the first grading period. Professional grade sharpeners are pricey--around $150 or so. But they are well worth it. They are much quieter, much faster, and much more resilient. The one I purchased about five years ago was still going strong when I retired. Plus, I ended up selling it to another teacher for $25. I require my students as they enter the classroom to use the sharpener once before the beginning of class. The sharpener is located near the Writing Journal Library, so crossing to the other side of the classroom is not necessary. Once they have sharpened their pencils for the first time, they're done--any future sharpening must be accomplished with handheld sharpeners at their desks.

Movement during Class

Students have arrived prepared for your class. They have obtained the necessary materials as you have prescribed, and they have sharp pencils. Because they have found their seats and begun the warm-up activity, class begins right at the tardy bell. There is no need for further movement during class, unless an activity requires it. No one gets up to throw away trash--trash is kept at each desk for deposit in the trash can at the end of class. No one balls up paper in preparation for a visit to the trash can. If they "mess up their paper," they put aside the whole sheet for disposal at the end of class. Please consider structuring classroom routines for specific activities during the instructional day by using the CHAMPs Management System.

Dismissing the Class

Establishing effective classroom routines for the dismissal of students is crucial. The last thing you probably want is for everyone to jump up at the bell and run out of the classroom. About three minutes before the final class bell, I call section by section for students to return their materials to their proper locations, deposit trash, and come back to their seats. When the bell does ring, everyone is prepared to go. Students exit in the reverse order that they entered. Everyone has cleared the room, and I am ready to greet the next group of students.

Implementing Classroom Routines

I begin implementing classroom routines on the second day of school. Normally on the first day of school, it is impossible to accomplish much more than to introduce the first warm-up activity,

assign seats, check the roll, and explain the first assignment. Please see the First Day of School page for more details. But, I reserve the entire second day of school to explain my classroom routines. I demonstrate each routine for them. I step out into the hallway, re-enter the room, and go through it step-bystep. At the end of my demonstration, I quiz them about what they have just observed.

I present this quiz in the form of a simple PowerPoint presentation which I display on the classroom television. There are fifteen multiple-choice questions and five true or false statements. I include a bonus question at the end. I explain that if they get the bonus question correct, it will add 10 points to their scores. If they get it wrong, no points are deducted from their scores. It's a win, win situation. After all, I explain, we are in the business of success. Before I advance to the slide that contains the bonus question, I explain that this will require a short answer. Please use three to five complete sentences to express your response. Bonus Question: Why do you think having classroom routines is important? After a few minutes of thinking and responding time, I direct students to exchange papers for grading. Then, I display the answers to the quiz. In this way, students have immediate feedback about how well they did. I conclude by explaining what an acceptable answer would be for the bonus question. Invariably, I get lots of questions from kids about whether the answer that they are looking at on someone else's paper is acceptable. And, almost always, it is. They get it! They understand the classroom routines, and they know why they are important. They have bought into it. My classroom routines are in place.

Signs for Everything

I put signs on almost everything in my classroom. This is just simply because it makes it easier for kids to find things. There are signs for the Writing Journal Library, the Reading Journals, and even a large sign pointing to where the pencil sharpener is located. There are several more signs throughout the room, but I'll save that for my page on Classroom Design. I even have directional signs located at strategic points. There is a right-turn indicator that greets students when they first enter the classroom. There is a left-turn sign in the first corner of the room that they encounter, indicating the path of movement. Several of my colleagues actually tape large arrows on the floor of the classroom to remind students of the path that they are to take. Everything has been thought out, everything is labeled, and there is no room for confusion.

Establishing effective classroom routines requires a considerable amount of thought and effort.

Kids truly respond positively in a structured environment. If you can guide them into the discovery of the importance of classroom routines, and if you can get them to buy into them, you will have greatly enhanced your chances for having a successful school year. But, if you have never used classroom routines before, please consider doing so. sIt will be the best time that you ever spent, and it will repay itself over and over again. Kids truly respond positively in a structured environment. If you can guide them into the discovery of the importance of classroom routines, and if you can get them to buy into them, you will have greatly enhanced your chances for having a successful school year.

Improve classroom management with effective classroom routines. All classrooms today have students who exhibit inappropriate behavior from time to time, some more frequently than others. Have you ever wondered why some teachers seem to be able to handle behavior situations better than others? Become one of those teachers! A consistent approach with no exceptions are your key to success in classroom management. Here's your checklist. Ask yourself how you handle each of these situations and do your students know what your expectations are? 1. What method do you employ to get your student's attention? (Count to three? Raise your hand? Flick the lights or a bell?) 2. What are your students expected to do when they come in first thing in the morning? from recess? lunch? 3. What routines are in place when students finish work early? 4. How do your students ask for assistance? 5. What are the consequences for unfinished work? late work? sloppy work? the student who refuses to work? 6. What are the consequences when a student disturbs another student? 7. Where do students turn their assignments/tasks in? 8. What are your routines for sharpening pencils? 9. How does a student ask to leave the room to use the washroom? Can more than one go at a time? 10. What are your dismissal routines? 11. What are your tidy up routines? 12. How are your students aware of all of your routines? To have effective classroom management, teachers have routines that are well known and that have logical consequences when they're not followed. If you and your students can answer all of the questions above, you're well on your way to creating a positive learning environment with minimal distractions.

Building classroom routines

I have been considering classroom management this week for a number of reasons. First of all, I am going to deliver a training session on it and I have been thinking about the focus. I will certainly discuss de-escalation strategies and language- see this blog from Tom Sherringtonbut another focus will be routines. I think good routines are essential for calm classrooms and they are also essential to create the climate for outstanding lessons. Often, school is the most routine thing in some of our students lives and, while they may never admit it, I am sure that even the naughtier students crave teachers where the classes are ordered and learning can take place. Secondly, I have a couple of classes which I feel are not making the progress I would like and I can see that this is partly because, for various reasons, my classroom expectations and routines are not ingrained. I filmed myself teaching one of these classes yesterday and it was clear that I wasnt following my own routines. (Also clear was the fact that I have to establish a healthy eating routine!) So part of the reason for writing this post is for me to develop these areas of my practice- to look at the routines that work effectively in most of my lessons and apply them to areas where they are not established.
Lesson plan Definition: A detailed description of the individual lessons that a teacher plans to teach on a given day. A lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide instruction throughout the day. It is a method of planning and preparation. A lesson plan traditionally includes the name of the lesson, the date of the lesson, the objective the lesson focuses on, the materials that will be used, and a summary of all the activities that will be used. Lesson plans are a terrific set of guidelines for substitute teachers.

Five-Step Lesson Plan Five-E Lesson Plan Weekly Lesson Plan Unit Plan Inquiry-Based Lesson Plan
Read more: Types of Lesson Plans |

think that the essential features of a good lesson plan are that it:

Should be prepared shortly before it is needed, and reviewed before the class is taught in order to note new ideas or insights Should balance the need for detail without being overly rigid or script-like Should be prepared with the needs of the class in mind, and take account of their individual backgrounds, experience, ability and interest. Should include as a minimum: a. aims and objectives b. the activities, methods and practices that will be covered c. list of resources needed d. notes on how the lesson links to previous and / or future classes e. provision for discussion / Q & A. Should have space for notes / reflection either during or just after the class e.g. Janu Sirsasana should be pushed back to the end of the class to fit in with the other seated postures

I usually plan my lessons a term at a time. I do an overall plan for the term starting with the last class and working backwards. This means that the practices over the term build up the students experience and ability in a logical way. Once I have my overall plan I practice it a couple of times and make any key changes to the main practices and techniques that I think are required to give a fully rounded practice. Each week I review the class, decide on my peak practice and make any further additions or amendments. Each class has a peak posture or practice where I spend more time teaching the practice. This includes an increased level of detail about the history, benefits and variations of the practice and I also take the opportunity to adjust and assist more students than usual. Working on a termly basis also gives me time to practice any techniques which I have grown unfamiliar with before demonstrating them to the class. I can therefore also use this method of lesson planning to develop my personal practice, but only as a side benefit I dont make this the reason for incorporating certain practices. I focus on developing the main cohort of students for example, by observing where any physical weaknesses are in terms of posture practice and aiming to address that in the next term, or introducing them to a new pranayama (breathing technique). Have a space to reflect on the class plan is a great idea as it means you can note down any thoughts or issues for next time. For example when a pose feels like it is in the wrong place e.g. a sitting pose amongst standing postures, or perhaps you thought that a different counterpose would work better. It is also great for noting down the practicalities of the class e.g. whether you ran out of time, or needed to fill time. You often think that you will remember these things, but after a few classes you just cant keep track!
1. Begin with the end in mind. What do you want the students to learn from this lesson? What state or national standards are you meeting? What does the state or your district require? What


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age students are you trying to reach? How are you going to assess that learning? Once you've determined this, write a quick description and list out your objectives for the assignment. Create a key vocabulary list that you will add to as you write out your lesson plan procedure. This will help you remember terms that you need to make sure the students understand as they work through the lesson. Create a materials list and add to this as you write your procedure so that you know exactly what you will need including A/V equipment, number of copies, page numbers from books, etc. Determine how you will introduce the lesson. For example, will you use a simple oral explanation for the lesson, an introductory worksheet, or an interactivity of some sort. Decide the method(s) you will use to teach the content of your lesson. For example, does it lend itself to independent reading, lecture, or whole group discussion? Sometimes it is best to use a combination of these methods, varying teaching techniques: beginning with a couple minutes of lecture, followed by a short whole group discussion to ensure that the students understand what you have taught them. Once you have determined how you will teach the content of the lesson, write out supporting information in your notes. Determine how you will have the students practice the skill/information you just taught them. For example, if you have taught them about the laws of supply and demand in economics, how you will have them practice this information to truly gain an understanding of the material. Will you have them complete independent practice, use a whole group simulation, or allow students to work cooperatively on a project? These are just three possibilities of how you can have them practice the information. Once you determine how students will practice the skills that you taught them, write out step by step instructions. Create an end of period review. Complete details for any homework or assessments that you will be giving the students. Decide on any accommodations you need to make for your class including accommodations for ESL and special education. Once you have completed your lesson plan, finish out the details including creating the assessments, homework assignments, and any handouts. Finally, make copies and collect materials for the lesson.

1. Some teachers find that by writing the assessment first, they are better able to focus their lesson on what is essential. 2. Try not to always rely solely on your textbook for lessons. At the same time make sure that you evaluate any other source you might use like other books, teachers, written resources, and internet web pages. 3. Some school districts require standards to be listed on the lesson plans while others don't. Make sure that you check with your school district. 4. Overplan, overplan, overplan. It is much easier to cut things out of a plan or continue it the next day than fill up fifteen or twenty extra minutes. 5. If possible, connect homework to real life. This will help reinforce what the students should be learning. What You Need

Lesson Plan Template or Plain Paper Pen Textbooks, Books, and/or Other Materials

Print media is a rather commonly used term referring to the medium that disseminates printed matter. In everyday life we refer to print media as the industry associated with the printing and mostly with the distribution of news through a network of media, such as newspapers and journals. People also refer to print media simply with the term "press;" it's an intermediate communicative channel aiming at reaching a large number of people

Read more: What Is the Definition of Print Media? | on-Print media are the sources where information is available in non-conventional form. It may be audio-visual and varieties of microforms. Even maps, atlases and globes, etc.are sometimes included. However, no suitable definition is available to encompass precisely the term or it is difficult to provide a suitable and acceptable definition, therefore we would list the non-print media that normally include: 1) Photographs, film slides, transparencies; 2) Realia, mock-ups, models and specimens; 3) Phono-recordings, including discs; 4) Audio tapes, cassettes and cartridges; 5) Motion pictures, Video Tapes, Kinescopes; 6) Portfolio, Kits;

Electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical energy for the end-user (audience) to access the content. This is in contrast to static media (mainly print media), which today are most often created electronically, but don't require electronics to be accessed by the end-user in the printed form. The primary electronic media sources familiar to the general public are better known as video recordings, audio recordings, multimedia presentations, slide presentations, CD-ROM and online content. Most new media are in the form of digital media. However, electronic media may be in either analog or digital format.

Importance of Instructional Materials in Education

Thirty years ago, educators paid little attention to the work of cognitive scientists, and researchers in the nascent field of cognitive science worked far removed from classrooms. Today, cognitive researchers are spending more time working with teachers, testing and refining their theories in real classrooms where they can see how different settings and classroom interactions influence applications of their theories. What is perhaps currently most striking is the variety of research approaches and techniques that have been developed and ways in which evidence from many different branches of science are beginning to converge. The story we can now tell about learning is far richer than ever before, and it promises to evolve dramatically in the next generation. For example, research from cognitive psychology has increased understanding of the nature of competent performance and the principles of knowledge organization that underlie peoples abilities to solve problems in a wide variety of areas, including mathematics, science, social studies and history. Developmental researchers have shown that young children understand a great deal about basic principles of biology and physical causality, about number, narrative, and personal intent, and that these capabilities make it possible to create innovative curricula that introduce important concepts for advanced reasoning at early ages. Research on learning and transfer has uncovered important principles for structuring learning experiences that enable people to use what they have learned in new settings. Work in social psychology, cognitive psychology, and anthropology is making clear that all learning takes place in settings that have particular sets of cultural and social norms and expectations and that these settings influence learning and transfer in powerful ways. Collaborative studies of the design and evaluation of learning environments, among cognitive and developmental psychologists and educators, are yielding new knowledge about the nature of learning and teaching as it takes place in a variety of settings. In addition, researchers are discovering ways to learn from the wisdom of practice that comes from successful teachers who can share their expertise.

Further, emerging technologies are leading to the development of many new opportunities to guide and enhance learning that were unimagined even a few years ago. All of these developments in the study of learning have led to an era of new relevance of science to practice. In short, investment in basic research is paying off in practical applications. These developments in understanding of how humans learn have particular significance in light of changes in what is expected of the nations educational systems. On the other hand, in the early part of the twentieth century, education focused on the acquisition of literacy skills: simple reading, writing, and calculating. It was not the general rule for educational systems to train people to think and read critically, to express themselves clearly and persuasively, to solve complex problems in science and mathematics. Now, at the end of the century, these aspects of high literacy are required of almost everyone in order to successfully negotiate the complexities of contemporary life. The skill demands for work have increased dramatically, as has the need for organizations and workers to change in response to competitive workplace pressures. Thoughtful participation in the democratic process has also become increasingly complicated as the locus of attention has shifted from local to national and global concerns. Above all, information and knowledge are growing at a far more rapid rate than ever before in the history of humankind. As Nobel laureate Herbert Simon (2001) wisely stated, the meaning of knowing has shifted from being able to remember and repeat information to being able to find and use it. More than ever, the sheer magnitude of human knowledge renders its coverage by education an impossibility; rather, the goal of education is better conceived as helping pupils develop the intellectual tools and learning strategies needed to acquire the knowledge that allows people to think productively about history, science and technology, social phenomena, mathematics, and the arts. Fundamental understanding about subjects, including how to frame and ask meaningful questions about various subject areas, contributes to individuals more basic understanding of principles of learning that can assist them in becoming self-sustaining, lifelong learners. In the light of these significant findings on teaching and learning, various groups, both governmental and non-governmental, aimed to promote changes in the national curriculum and to motivate, encourage and effectively utilize teachers to develop, design, and exchange teaching-learning materials. These groups prepare multimedia teaching-learning packages and relevant curricula based on the learners needs and interests. The package consists of materials on literacy and numeracy, civic and social responsibility science, environment, health and nutrition, hygiene and sanitation and other related studies. In relation to this, audiovisual education emerged as a discipline in the 1920s. This happened when a visual instruction movement arose, which encouraged the use of visual materials to make abstract ideas more concrete to pupils. As sound technology improved, the movement became known as audiovisual instruction. Educators at that time viewed audiovisuals only as aids to teachers. Not until World War II, when the armed services used audiovisual materials to train large numbers of persons in short periods of time, did the potential of these devices as primary sources of instruction become apparent. In the 1950s and 60s, developments in communications theory and systems concepts led to studies of the educational process, its elements, and their interrelationships. Among these elements are the teacher, the teaching methods, the information conveyed, the materials used, the student, and the students responses. As a result of these studies, the field of audiovisuals shifted its emphasis from devices and materials to the examination of the teaching-learning process. The field is now known as audiovisual communications and educational technology, and audiovisual materials were viewed as an integral part of the educational system.

Hence, if the instructional materials are well organized, well constructed and presented properly, a successful teachinglearning can be achieved.
Characteristics of a Good Instructional Materials The use of instructional materials is a big help for the teacher to facilitate the teaching -learning process. These visual aids are important in motivating and arousing your students interest. Here are some characteristics of a good instructional materials that will help you in your teaching process. The size! It is a must that the material is big enough to be seen by the farthest students in the classroom.. Consider also the font size and font style to be use. The color! Students are more interested to those materials which are colorful and beautiful. Remember that mostly students are more attracted to bright colors because it is easily catch the students attention and facilitate learning process. The durability! Instructional materials are not made for one session only they must last if possible until lifetime so that it can be reuse. See to it that it can stand for longer duration of time so that the effort and money you render to have it will not lost in just o one glimpse or snap. The economy! Consider also the salary of the teacher, his expenses in making that instructional materials. They can use their resourcefulness and creativity to produce their own material. If possible use the cheaper things and making your materials so that it is not a burden on your part. It's portability! Your materials must be easy to handle and carry so that it is more convenient for your part to catty it wherever you will teach. Imagine if you're teaching in fourth floor and your instructional material is too heavy and big it is not convenient for you to have it. The relativity! Of course it must be related to the topic or lesson you are into. Remember that teacher uses instructional materials to at ease the burden of teaching and so that student will understand the subject better. Last, it must be unique! Students want to have things which makes them curious about it. Let them manipulate the material to evaluate how they learn through their own. In teaching it is must to have and know the characteristics a goof instructional material so that you can be an effective and efficient teacher someday.

12. Outline: Part I Principles in Test Construction Steps in Preparing Test Questions Preparing Multiple Choice Questions Preparing True or False Questions Part II Review of Part I Preparing Matching Type Questions Preparing Sentence Completion Questions Preparing Essay Questions Other types of Test Questions Wrap-up/Things to Remember 13. The evaluation of pupils progress is a major aspect of the teachers job. Evaluating Educational Outcomes (Oriondo & Antonio) 14. Explain the message of the comic strip. 15. The Purpose of Testing To provide a record for assigning grades. To provide a learning experience for students. To motivate students to learn. To serve as a guide for further study. 16. The Purpose of Testing To assess how well students are achieving the stated goals of the lesson. To provide the instructor with an opportunity to reinforce the stated objectives and highlight what is important for students to remember. 17. Characteristics of Good Tests Validity the extent to which the test measures what it intends to measure Reliability the consistency with which a test measures what it is supposed to measure Usability the test can be administered with ease, clarity and uniformity 18. Scorability easy to score Interpretability test results can be properly interpreted and is a major basis in making sound educational decisions Economical the test can be reused without compromising the validity and reliability Other Things to Consider 19. To be able to prepare a good test, one has to have a mastery of the subject matter, knowledge of the pupils to be tested, skill in verbal expression and the use of the different test format Evaluating Educational Outcomes (Oriondo & Antonio)

20. Multiple Choice True or False Matching Type Fill-in the blanks (Sentence Completion) Essay 5 Most Commonly used Test Format Source: Turn-out of Test Questions in SSI (20032007) 21. General Steps in Test Construction OUTLINE DRAFT ORDER TEST ANALYZE SUBMISSION PRODUCE A T.O.S. 22. OUTLINE: the unit learning objectives or the unit content or major concepts to be covered by the test Back to Main Menu 23. Table of Specifications (TOS) A two way chart that relates the learning outcomes to the course content It enables the teacher to prepare a test containing a representative sample of student behavior in each of the areas tested. 24. 25. Dont make it overly detailed. It's best to identify major ideas and skills rather than specific details. Use a cognitive taxonomy that is most appropriate to your discipline, including non-specific skills like communication skills or graphic skills or computational skills if such are important to your evaluation of the answer. Tips in Preparing the Table of Specifications (TOS) 26. Weigh the appropriateness of the distribution of checks against the students' level, the importance of the test, the amount of time available. MATCH the question level appropriate to the level of thinking skills Tips in Preparing the Table of Specifications (TOS) 27. Examples of Student Activities and Verbs for Blooms Cognitive Levels Table 2.1 in Jacobs & Chase (1992:19) Apply, solve, show, make use of, modify, demonstrate, compute Using a concept or principle to solve a problem Application Explain, predict, interpret, infer, summarize, convert, translate, account for, give example, paraphrase Explaining/interpreting the meaning of material Comprehension Define, list, state, identify, label, name, who?, when?, where?, what? Remembering facts, terms, concepts, definitions, principles Knowledge Words to Use in Item Stem Student Activity Blooms Cognitive Level 28. Examples of Student Activities and Verbs for Blooms Cognitive Levels Table 2.1 in Jacobs & Chase (1992:19) Appraise, evaluate, justify, judge, which would be better? Making a judgment based on a pre-established set of criteria Evaluation Design, construct, develop, formulate, imagine, create, change, write a poem or short story Producing something new or original from component parts Synthesis Differentiate, compare/contrast, distinguish ____from ____, how does ____relate to ___, why does ____work Breaking material down into its component parts to see interrelationships/ hierarchy of ideas Analysis Words to Use in Item Stem Student Activity Blooms Cognitive Level 29. Tips in Preparing the Table of Specifications (TOS) The following array shows the most common questions types used at various cognitive levels. Multiple Choice Essay Multiple Choice Short Answer Problems Essay Multiple Choice True/False Matching Type S. Completion Short Answer/RRT Analysis and Evaluation Application Factual Knowledge 30. Activity: Prepare a short TOS using the selection in your activity sheet. Back to Main Menu 31. DRAFT the questions covering the content in the outline Back to Main Menu 32. ORDER the selected questions logically. Place simpler items at the beginning to ease students into the exam. Group item types together under common instructions. If desirable, order the questions logically from a content standpoint (e.g. chronologically or by conceptual groups, etc.) Back to Main Menu 33. Test PUT the questions away for one or two days before rereading them or have someone else review them for clarity. TEST the questions by actually taking the test. Back to Main Menu 34. ANALYZE the items to give you an idea whether the questions were well-written or poorly written as well as if there were problems in understanding instruction. Back to Main Menu 35. General Rules in Writing Test Questions Number test questions continuously. Keep your test question in each test group uniform. Make your layout presentable. Do not put too many test questions in one test group. T or F: 10 15 questions Multiple Choice: max. of 30 questions Matching type: 5 questions per test group Others: 5 10 questions 36. Some additional guidelines to consider when writing items are described below: Avoid humorous items. Classroom testing is very important and humorous items may cause students to either not take the exam seriously or become confused or anxious. Items should measure only the

construct of interest, not ones knowledge of the item context. Write items to measure what students know, not what they do not know. (Cohen & Wallack) 37. Multiple Choice Test 38. When checking the stems for correctness: Ensure that the stem asks a clear question. Reading level is appropriate to the students The stem is grammatically correct . Negatively stated stems are discouraged. What to Look for on Multiple Choice Tests 39. Example: What is the effect of releasing a ball in positive gravity? a) It will fall down. correct b) It will retain its mass. true but unrelated c) It will rise. false but related d) Its shape will change. false and unrelated What to Look for on Multiple Choice Tests 40. Multiple Choice Questions Use negatively stated stems sparingly and when using negatives such as NOT , underline or bold the print. Use none of the above and all of the above sparingly, and when you do use them, don't always make them the right answer. Only one option should be correct or clearly best. 41. Multiple Choice Questions: All options should be homogenous and nearly equal in length. The stem (question) should contain only one main idea. Keep all options either singular or plural. Have four or five responses per stem (question). 42. Multiple Choice Questions: When using incomplete statements place the blank space at the end of the stem versus the beginning. When possible organize the responses. Reduce wordiness. When writing distracters, think of incorrect responses that students might make. 43. Examples Sheldon developed a highly controversial theory of personality based on body type and temperament of the individual. Which of the following is a criticism of Sheldon's work? a. He was influenced too much by the Freudian psychoanalysis. b. His rating of physique and temperament were not independent. c. He failed to use empirical approach. d. His research sample was improperly selected. 44. Examples Better: (Eliminate excessive wording and irrelevant information) 1. Which of the following is a criticism of Sheldon's theory of personality? 45. Examples The receptors for the vestibular sense are located a. in the fovea. b. in the brain. c. in the middle ear. d. in the inner ear. 46. Examples Better: (Include in the stem any word(s) that might otherwise be repeated in each option.) The receptors for the vestibular senses are located in the _______. a. fovea b. brain c. middle ear d. inner ear 47. Examples Which is not a major technique for studying brain function? a. Accident and injury b. Cutting and removing c. Electrical stimulation d. Direct phrenology 48. Examples Better: (Use negatively stated stems sparingly. When used, underline and/or capitalize the negative word.) Which is NOT a major technique for studying brain function? 49. Examples 4. ________________ is the least form of behavior disorder. a. Psychosis b. Panic disorder c. Neurasthenia d. Neurosis 50. Examples Better: (When using incomplete statements avoid beginning with the blank space.) The least severe form of behavior disorder is __________________. 51. Examples The number of photoreceptors in the retina of each human is about a. 115 million b. 5 million c. 65 million d. 35 billion 52. Examples Better: ( When possible, present alternatives in some logical order.) The number of photo receptors in the retina of each human is about a. 5 million b. 35 million c. 65 million d. 115 million 53. Examples 6. Latane and Darley's smoke-filled room experiment suggested that people are less likely to help in groups than alone, because people a. in groups talk to one another. b. who are alone are more attentive. c. in groups do not display pluralistic ignorance. d. in groups allow others to define the situation as a non-emergency 54. Examples Better: (All alternatives should be approximately equal in length.) 6. Latane and Darley's smoke-filled room experiment suggested that people are less likely to help in groups than alone, because people in groups a. talk to one another b. are less attentive than people who are alone c. do not display pluralistic ignorance d. allow other to define non-emergencies 55. Activity: Prepare two multiple choice questions based on the selection in your activity sheet. 56. True or False

57. Each statement is clearly true or clearly false. Trivial details should not make a statement false. Statements are written concisely without more elaboration than necessary. Statements are NOT quoted exactly from text. What to Look for on True/False Tests 58. Give emphasis on the use of quantitative terms than qualitative terms. Avoid using of specific determiners which usually gives a clue to the answer. False = all, always, never, every, none, only True = generally, sometimes, usually, maybe, often Discourage the use of negative statements. Whenever a controversial statement is used, the authority should be quoted. Discourage the use of pattern for answers. Tips in Making True/False Tests 59. Examples: ____ 1. Repetition always strengthens the tendency for a response to occur. (Using "always" usually means the answer is false.) Find the errors, and/or problems with the following true-false tests. 60. Examples: _____ 2. The process of extinction is seldom immediate but extends over a number of trials. ( Words like "seldom" usually indicate a true statement.) 61. Examples: _____ 3. The mean, median, and mode are measures of central tendency, whereas the standard deviation and range are measures of variability. (Express a single idea in each statement.) e.g.The mean and standard deviation are measures of central tendency. 62. Activity: Prepare two true or false questions based on the selection in your activity sheet.

bjective tests are ones that are based on the written objectives for a unit of study. In order to be truly effective, questions on these tests must directly relate to the stated objectives that were covered in each lesson during the unit. Optimally, these types of tests should be created before the teacher starts the unit in order to help guide the teacher as they work through their lessons with the students. Following are key steps in creating an objective test that not only covers what was taught but also provides a guide towards remediation of individual objectives if necessary. 1. Write Excellent Objectives The first step in creating effective lessons and assessments is having quality objectives to begin with. Great objectives not only detail what it is that you expect the students to learn but must also give an indication of how you will assess their progress. Therefore, this gives you the teacher a guide as you create your assessment instruments. Following are examples of both poor and well written objectives:

Upon completion of the lesson, the student will know the periodic table. This is a poorly written objective in that it does not specifically state what the student needs to 'know'. Further, it does not provide teachers a way to measure exactly how a student has met the objective. Upon completion of the lesson, the student will be able to explain how the position of an element on the periodic table relates to its atomic number. This is a well written example. The student not only knows what they want the students to understand but also provides a guide to how the student will show this understanding. In this example, a short answer question on the test would be most effective.


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2. Create a Set of Questions for Each Objective The next step when creating an objective test is to go through each of the objectives on your list and create a set of questions for each objective. You should at least write 3-4 questions for each objective.

This will help you get a good handle on how well the students have met the goals you set for them. If your question requires students to write a paragraph or essay, then you might only need one question to ensure that the objective has been met. 3. Map Each Question to a Level of Bloom's Taxonomy Many teachers write tests based on the lowest two levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. However, we should attempt to include questions from higher levels of the taxonomy to enable students to demonstrate thinking rather than simply recalling information. By mapping each question, you can make sure that there is a adequate balance. 4. Create a Guide for Remediation for Each Question This step of the process takes some additional work on the teacher's part, and it is often overlooked. However, it can be invaluable when helping students who are struggling with particular concepts in your class. For each question, you should make a note for yourself of where students can go either in the text or in their own notes to review the information that they missed on the test. Once the test is graded, you can provide students with this 'key' so that they can go back and relearn the information before moving on to the next unit.

A further step that teachers can take is to gather alternative teaching resources in addition to those already used for each objective. Students that have struggled may need a fresh approach to difficult concepts. Again, this will take some time and dedication on your part, but the potential rewards can be huge in terms of student learning. Assessment and its Importance Assessment of student academic achievement is the process of evaluating whether students are learning what we say they are learning. More specifically, assessment is the systematic collection, review, and use of information to increase students' learning and development. Through a variety of measures, students are assessed to determine whether or not they are achieving the learning outcomes that faculty have determined for their courses and programs. Assessment is important for several reasons: Assessment results provide qualitative information that helps faculty determine how they might improve courses and/or programs through changes in curriculum, teaching methodologies, course materials, or other areas. When integrated into the planning cycle for curriculum development and review, assessment results can provide a powerful rationale for securing support for curricular and other changes. Assessment may provide comparative data that can give you valuable information on how well your students are meeting the learning outcomes for your course or program, or may show how WCC students perform compared to those at similar institutions. An effective assessment program is required by the North Central Association for continuing accreditation as evidence of the College's efforts toward continuous improvement of effective teaching and learning. Most important, assessment is a tool that leads to a continuous cycle of improved student learning.

Preparing Students for Tests

Good Assessment Strategies

by Pearson Education Development Group.

The words "assessment" and "testing" are often enough to send goose bumps up the arms of many students and teachers. By learning a few assessment strategies, however, you can help your students through even the most anxious moments and help them score higher in the process. Assessment tools, which only measure a students knowledge at a given time, are of three main types: observations, portfolios and tests. Heres a quick overview: Assessment Tool Observations Basic Description Teacher observes students performance during specific activities. Students revise and refine their work before choosing to save it in portfolios. Examples

oral reports debates science experiments projects writing folders art collections math puzzles pop quizzes open-book tests end-of-unit tests standardized tests



Testing usually has a time limit; students have little opportunity to revise.

Observations and portfolios are often called "performance" or "authentic" assessment.

Proponents of these assessment types believe these tools are most valuable because they not only test students ability to recall material, but also provide information about how students use that knowledge. The proponents point out that performance-based assessment more accurately evaluates higher-order thinking skills, such as analysis, synthesis, interpretation and evaluation. Todays educators know that tests, especially standardized tests, are being used more than ever to validate students learning. In many cases these tests also evaluate the teachers themselves. This is especially true now that state and national standards are so strongly embraced. And, indeed, standardized tests are subjected to rigorous screenings to ensure validity and reliability. In addition, they do facilitate comparisons among students and regions. There is no question that standardized tests are here to stay. Take a look at the following strategies that can help you and your students prepare for them. Then choose those that seem best suited for your classroom and incorporate them into the curriculum. Remember to use the following strategies not just immediately before a test, but as ongoing elements that are interwoven into your daily routine:

Before students read a passage, encourage them to read the questions that follow. Doing this will help them focus on important parts of the passage. Then as they read, they can lightly underline content that might be useful in answering the questions. Encourage students to find support for their answers in the passage, as well as from any relevant experiences of their own. When working through material with students, ask them for the same information in a variety of ways. Examples: What do you think will happen? What do you think the result will be? Too often, students have difficulty answering questions because they are unfamiliar with a tests


After reading a passage, students can write their own questions to share with one another. This activity can help students better understand the relationship between questions and accompanying passages. Try this activity with cloze-format sentences, as well. Provide students with many opportunities to make estimations. Practicing estimation can help students quickly evaluate their answers to mathematical questions on standardized tests. Have students create their own word problems using data other than those in their math lessons. For example, you might have them draw on mathematical information they find in a current-events article, a weather report, or a social studies assignment. This activity can not only help students transfer skills they learned in math to other content areas but also help them approach word problems with more confidence. As students take a test, encourage them to circle or jot down the numbers of the items they are unsure of. When theyre finished with the test, encourage them to go back over just the questions they circled or noted. Too often, students dont actually go back and check their work because theyre tired and just cant face "retaking" the whole test. After a test, discuss as a group why answers are correct or incorrect. Bubble answer sheets have come to be associated with standardized tests and this association can create fear and uneasiness in some students. To help students overcome this negative association, use the bubbles for activities other than tests. For example, each morning attach a class list on the bulletin board. Next to each name on the list include one or more bubbles. Have students fill in the bubbles to indicate their attendance or choice of lunch. Remember: There is a difference

between test practice and test preparation. Test practice is simply drill based on previous tests. Test preparation provides students with strategies that will enable them to focus on content and not become frustrated with unfamiliar formats and situations. These strategies can help your students improve their performance on tests and their comfort level with assessment in general. Try them and see which ones work best for you and your students.

Read more on TeacherVision: Follow us: TeacherVision on Facebook A bulletin board (pinboard, pin board, noticeboard, or notice board in British English) is a surface intended for the posting of public messages, for example, to advertise items wanted or for sale, announce events, or provide information. Bulletin boards are often made of a material such as cork to facilitate addition and removal of messages, or they can be placed on computer networks so people can leave and erase messages for other people to read and see.

Importance of Bulletin Boards

Boring bulletin boards can be transformed into exciting decorations.

Bulletin boards are an important component of classrooms. They provide a way to introduce new material or display student work. Educators should create boards that are equally engaging and educational. The use of interactive boards in the classroom ensures that students recognize the importance of the posted materials. Bulletin boards should be changed frequently and relate to concepts currently being covered in class.
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1. Build Interest

An eye-catching bulletin board will build interest in every student. Educators should strive to create bulletin boards that introduce new concepts in an exciting way. Bulletin boards appeal to the visual side of learning for students. To build interest, educators should decorate the boards before a new concept is discussed with the class. Students' curiosity will begin to build and they will be more likely to pay attention to the lesson.


Motivate students to work harder with a bulletin board that displays outstanding student work. Educators should strive to draw attention to every child's work at some point during the year. Students will be motivated to do better on

assignments to have their work displayed. After viewing their work posted on a bulletin board, students develop a sense of pride, ownership and motivation to continue to create work that is worthy of attention. Sponsored Links

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Interactive bulletin boards are perhaps the best type of display. Students will spend more time viewing and attempting to understand interactive bulletin boards. Students should be able to move pieces around on the board, solve puzzles or put their own spin on the board. This type of kinesthetic learning will encourage students to build understanding. Interactive bulletin boards add some excitement to this typically visual decoration.


Bulletin boards can be used to revisit concepts that have been previously covered in class. Material can be reintroduced before an upcoming test or at the end of a unit. Bulletin boards can be used to prompt the students' memory of previously covered material. Students will enjoy seeing a board full of information that they have already learned about. Bulletin boards used to review older concepts provide encouragement to students as they realize just how much they have learned.

Why Is Teamwork Important in the Classroom?

Working together is essential for positive social growth.

From team teaching to the teacher-student dynamic and student-student pairings, teamwork is present in many classrooms from prekindergarten through high school. Positive teamwork experiences help students learn social skills, cooperative problem solving and new points of view. Teamwork helps teachers learn how to be more effectively use classroom time to impart lessons.
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1. Team Teaching

In team teaching educators work together to plan curriculum, develop lessons/activities and instruct students. Educators in a team teaching situation learn via a mentoring relationship. A more senior teacher gives support and suggestions to a less experienced educator, while the newer teacher adds a fresh perspective to classroom issues. Students attending schools that use a team teaching approach benefit from the larger amount of individual attention two teachers can provide. Additionally, students get a daily reminder of how to work together, resolving conflicts and respecting others' ideas and opinions.

Teacher-Student Teamwork

Although students work independently at times, a constructive dynamic in which the students and the teacher work together to enhance the learning process builds developmental and academic skills. Positive student-teacher interactions have long-lasting effects for the child, according to the American Psychological Association. These include developing communication skills, improving overall social growth and higher scholastic achievement. By working together with one, or a team of students, teachers facilitate an environment in which opinions matter, ideas abound and respect is valued.

Student Teamwork

For years the traditional schooling experience was known for independent academic work such as singular assignments and test taking. Contemporary educational approaches place a high value on the importance of teamwork among students. Encouraging teamwork in the classroom helps students of any age to build relationships, better understand the importance of respect, learn that differences can be positive and recognize new ideas. Additionally, teamwork combats negative social behaviors and help children become confident in their abilities to resolve conflicts.

Teamwork to the Future


Interpersonal skills such as working well on a team are a vital piece of workplace know-how, according to the U.S. Department of Labor's Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. Whether it is teachers working together to model positive behaviors or students collaborating in groups, an early foundation in teamwork skills helps children as they grow and develop into adults. Teaching children teamwork allows them to acquire the skills the modern global market requires.

veryone can agree that school is important for youth. But what about extracurricular activities? Is football really making a difference in a young mans life? Is playing in a band something nice for an adolescent or something more? Is going to the local community center really good for my child? After-school programs and extracurricular activities can offer youth a safe and supervised haven and a chance to learn new skills such as conflict resolution, prepare for a successful career, improve grades and develop relationships with caring adults. These skills can be critical in helping youth develop in positive ways and to avoid behavior problems and conflict. The afterschool hours are the peak time for juvenile crime and risky behaviors such as alcohol and drug use. Most experts agree that after-school programs offer a healthy and positive alternative. Benefits of After-School Activities Friends. A club or group is a great way to find friends. In clubs centered around an activity, children can meet others who share your interests. Youth can explore their physical, creative, social, political, and career topics with like-minded people. In other youth programs, children have the opportunity to meet teens who are different from them. Lots of youth programs bring people together with those who are different as a way to break down the barriers between people. College. Extracurricular activities look good on college and job applications and show admissions officers and employers a child that is well-rounded and responsible. Specific activities help with specific goals if a teen wants to teach language or get a bilingual job,

being the president of the Spanish club shows the depth of their commitment. Additionally, most studies find that children who participate in these activities are more successful academically than those who dont. Creativity. After-school activities can provide an outlet for creativity and problem-solving. Obvious choices are arts and crafts, music, performing arts, but other activities like sports and collecting can teach problem-solving skills. The best activities for your children are those that encourage their natural curiosity and interests. Teamwork and Respect. Teamwork is an important life skill both in home life and at work. Various group activities require children to work together to achieve a common goal and remove the focus from the individual to the team. Respect for coaches, teachers, leaders and their peers can also be developed through group activities. Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts teach these important skills as well as some other activities like sports, drama and dance. Time Management. Participating in one or more activities can teach a child how to juggle school, homework, family life, and their after-school activities as well and learn the importance of priorities and planning. Self-Confidence. For a teen who is not gifted academically, the chance to excel in the arts or in sports, for example, can make a huge difference in self-esteem. Additionally, when children learn new skills and engage in social activities, they become more self-confident. Learning social skills, like cooperation, negotiation, and conflict resolution, in a fun and relaxed environment will help them interact appropriately with others a skill valuable in all aspects of life from home life to the workplace. Stress Relief. Many activities take place in a relaxing environment and begin with warm-up techniques or exercises. These promote healthy methods for dealing with stress. In an increasingly complex and pressure-oriented world, the more we are able to find positive ways to deal with stress, the better we are. All enjoyable activities provide a source of stress relief. Real-World Skills. Many extracurricular activities such as journalism, photography, debate, or even part-time jobs like cutting lawns or babysitting teach real-world skills, which can lead to lifelong interests, even careers. Activities can teach real world skills that encourage life-long interests. They help kids explore their physical, creative, and social potential. They allow kids to find out where their career or political interests may lie. Avoiding Risky Behaviors. Despite the tendency to think of older children as able to take care of themselves, studies show that after-school activities benefit youth at all levels, from elementary to high school. In fact, middle and high school students may often benefit most from these programs. A recent survey of high school students, for example, revealed that students in after-school programs had greater expectations for the future and were more interested in school than their peers. The self-esteem and sense of purpose that children can get from serious involvement in extracurricular activities may help raise their aspirations and give them a reason to say no to risky behaviors. Students who spend no time in extracurricular activities, such as those offered in after-school programs, are 49 percent more likely to have used drugs and 37 percent more likely to become teen parents than are those students who spend one to four hours per week in extracurricular activities. The peak hours for juvenile crime and juveniles becoming a victim of violence are between 3 and 6 p.m. Lack of supervision, idle time or boredom tends to lead youth in the direction of bad behavior. Ideas for After-School Activities Join a sports team, ranging from basketball, baseball, soccer, track, gymnastics, tennis, aerobics, volleyball, and swimming within your community through the school, Recreation Department, or local YMCA.

School-sponsored clubs include the debating team, chess club, student government, newspaper, yearbook, environmental club, 4-H, scouts, language clubs, drama, choir, photography, band, Business Professionals of America, computer club, and much more. Youth can get involved with groups as a way to get support from other students with your background, such as Latino or Jewish clubs. Part-time jobs such as bagging food at the local grocery story, mowing lawns, washing cars, pet sitting, and babysitting keep youth engaged in safe activities and teach responsibility. Local churches may also sponsor activities for youth, regardless of whether your family is a member, including youth groups, community service and recreational opportunities. Community Youth Centers, such as the ones offered by Middle Earth, are safe, supervised places for teens to gather. They often offer a variety of positive activities such as recreational activities, life skills, homework assistance, and community service opportunities, as well as provide youth with caring adults for guidance and supervision. A Parents Role in Outside Activities

Carpooling. Before you think of the many miles and hours you will spend driving your children around to different activities as a chore, consider how you are contributing to your childs development (see the benefits above). Plus, you can use the time in the car to talk with your teen to gain new insight into your childs life and views. Balancing. Parents must help their children balance all of the demands on their time. There are no specific rules to determine how many activities are too much, but helping your child learn time management skills could be one of the most valuable lessons you teach them. Remind them that they must take care of themselves (by getting enough sleep, eating right, exercising) to enjoy the additional activities they undertake. Advocating. Support your school and other organizations that offer high-quality activities. Consider volunteering as a scout leader, coach or club leader. Parents who participate with their child may even find that they grow closer as they share conversation about their childs interests. Identifying. The large variety of choices in extracurricular activities can be overwhelming for a child. Help your teen identify his/her options and interests. Encouragement and Support. Parents need to be supportive of their teens activities and interests, even if they are not fond of the chosen activity. Dont force your adolescent into a sport or activity that interests you. Encourage your child to stick with an activity even if it appears difficult. Practice the activity with your child and support him or her by attending their events as often as possible.

1. eHow

The Importance of School Activities

By David Paige, eHow Contributor

It is imperative that students have an assortment of school-related activities they can participate in. These activities can range from activities during normal school hours to after-school activities. No matter the time, these activities should be available to every student, and it is encouraged that every student participate in at least one activity.

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1. Exercise

One of the primary reasons school activities are important is because it gives students the exercise they might not normally receive. Of course, this type of activity usually occurs after school. Most popularly, these types of activities include major sports such as football, basketball, baseball, tennis, track and field and soccer but also might include gymnasium games such as dodgeball, wiffleball and other games. After-school programs such as the Boys and Girls Club are ideal in a school district as this is the easiest way for students to get their exercise.

Impression on Colleges

Activities during and after school also make a good impression on colleges if students are planning to pursue more education. Colleges look for students who do not just go to school and go home after school is over. Instead, they look for students who have good grades while at the same time participated in extracurricular activities. These activities range from participating in clubs and sports to volunteering after school at a recreation center or having a part-time job. If a college sees you maintained good grades while participating in these activities, it will be impressed.


School activities also allow students to be creative when they otherwise would not have had the chance. Activities such as gifted-and-talented programs that allow gifted students to participate in activities they otherwise would never have experienced in the classroom are a great way to allow students to be creative. Additionally, participating in clubs such as drama and chorus that appeal to students' interest also allows them to expand their knowledge and be creative.

Expanding Interests

Students also can have their interests expanded by participating in activities. These activities could consist of anything, such as joining the Future Business Leaders of America, the school's debate team and the chess team, to name a few. By participating in these activities, a student might realize he is interested in something he never knew he was interested in before. For example, if a student has never acted before and joins a drama club, he may find out he enjoys drama and will develop an interest in it. This could lead to bigger things for the student, such as acting in college and beyond. These types of scenarios apply to every activity and are important to have in every school.

mportance of Teachers to Students

January 16 is Teachers' Day in Thailand. In other countries days are also set aside to honor teachers. Why? It is undeniable that teachers play a big role in the lives of students. In fact, teachers are just as important as parents in the education of children. Therefore, it is fitting to give all educators their due honor and respect. A few years back while teaching EFL in Taiwan, A Chinese teacher remarked to me that there are never any bad students, but there are only bad teachers. At the time I was surprised to hear this, because I firmly believed there were indeed bad students based on my previous teaching experiences. That was until I started to reflect on the relationship between teachers and students, and the true responsibilities of teachers to students. It then started to become clear to me that

students would certainly be bad if teachers did not meet their responsibilities to them. What, then, are the responsibilities of teachers to students?

Teacher in a Secondary Classroom in Sierra Leone

Source: Thanks to Wikipedia

Responsibilities of Teachers to Students

All school teachers, especially those engaged in the education of K-12 students, have both academic and non-academic responsibilities to their pupils. Sadly and unfortunately, most people only consider the academic responsibilities. They want their children's teachers to be the most knowledgeable of the subject matter they are teaching, and also be the best in getting their kids to learn. Non-academic responsibilities, however, are just as important as academic responsibilities. Chances are that 20-30 years from now the non-academic moral lessons learned in the classroom will be remembered more than any academic knowledge. Academic Responsibilities All parents want their children to have the best teachers. Best here implies that the teacher has the responsibility to be one of the best trained and knowledgeable in his or her subject matter expertise. it also means that the instructor is able to teach skills and facilitate learning just like a coach does in sports. Not every teacher, however, needs to have a Ph.D. or be an expert in the subject he is teaching. Many successful baseball, basketball, and football coaches have not been all-stars. What is important is for the teacher to be a fair, dedicated, and honest motivator who can get the most out of his students through concentration, attention to detail, and practice, much like a coach of a sports team. Non-academic Responsibilities I wouldn't be afraid to bet that most people remember their favorite teacher in school for the nonacademic moral lessons which they got out of the class. Teachers' non-academic responsibilities are so important to students, because many of them spend more time each day with teachers than with parents. At private schools in Thailand where I teach EFL, many parents drop their kids off at around 6:30 A.M. and don't pick them up until 5:00 P.M. or 6:00 P.M. Because teachers spend so much time each day with kids, it is necessary for them to be a parent-like figure and also a role model inculcating moral values. Teachers as Parent-like Figures In many homes a mother or father will only have a few hours each day to interact with their kids. For this reason, teachers must assume parental responsibilities while being with their students. This is especially true for students in grades K-9. Just like a good parent, a good teacher must be loving, caring, compassionate, kind, fair, and forgiving. Students expect this from teachers. I have found that if I am loving, caring, compassionate, kind, fair, and forgiving to my students, they will treat me and their classmates likewise. Teachers as Role Models All children and youth are searching for role models. Too often the role models whom a lot of kids choose from today's pop culture leave a lot to be desired. Many of these role models are pop performers whose behavior should not be emulated. I personally find the lyrics of many pop rap songs sexually suggestive and abusive to young children. This fascination with body art through tattoos and body-piercing is also not setting a good example for kids. Therefore, a good teacher as a role model should outwardly and inwardly display no bad habits or behavior in dress, grooming, or body defacing for students to notice. My ideal role model is a teacher who doesn't

drink, smoke, take drugs, have tattoos, or display outlandish body-piercing. If a teacher can't break the habits of drinking and smoking, he or she must never come to school drunk or be seen drinking or smoking by his or her students. If the teacher must have a tattoo, he or she must always have it covered up and never exposed to pupils. Professional dress should always be worn in the classroom, and casual sports attire worn only for school activities. As an excellent role model, teachers have the responsibility to be honest, hard-working, have an enthusiasm for teaching and learning, be punctual, and display cooperation and compromise in the classroom. Students do pay attention to the behavior of their teachers. If teachers are seen to be honest, hard-working, and enthusiastic in class, their students will be less likely to cheat. Classes will be more lively with a quest for learning, and students will work harder to be recognized on the teachers' wall of fame in the classroom. Students will not be tardy to class if teachers are also punctual to class. I have found that cooperation and compromise are necessary features of motivation. If a teacher models cooperation and compromise in the classroom, he can expect students to display it both inside and outside of class. Finally, as exemplary role models, teachers must always practice and insist on good manners both in and out of class, and make sure students are responsible. This includes giving greetings to all teachers and elders when meeting, not talking while other students or the teacher is talking in class, and not throwing things in class. I have found that many students are irresponsible when it comes to bringing their books to class and doing homework. It is teachers' responsibility through consequences of actions to ensure that students accept responsibility in the basic student chores of bringing materials to class and doing homework. The responsibilities of every school teacher are more important today than ever before. If teachers are to effectively train our future leaders of tomorrow, they must pay attention not only to their academic responsibilities but also to their non-academic responsibilities of teaching moral values to students.