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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als XLS, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Box culvert
- 001 R0 STK Substructure Design AMH to Be Sent
- Calculation of L20-H0.75m_new
- 46947288 Post Tensioned Design1
- Abutment Design
- PIPE CULVERT DESIGN
- Pile Foundation & Concrete Column Design
- 01_T_bridge -16.500_Span
- Bridge.pdf
- Design of Pcc Abutment - Open Foundation
- VR T-Beam Bridge
- RCC Detail Design of Abutment and Pier
- C-900-1320-001_4A_0001 (Calculation Sheet for Standard Anchor Bolts)
- RC pier-f(Box & Girder).xls
- RCC42 Post Tensioned Analysis & Design
- Prestressed Design
- Bolts Material Selection.pdf
- Pilar Jembatan
- I-Beam Girder Computions.xls
- Bridge

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a. National Highway b. Regional Highway working stress for pile load bearing capacity calc c. District Road 3 d. Bridge Type Simple Supported Single Span T- Girder e. End Span Length,C/C 24.400 m f. Total Girder Length 25.000 m g. Cross Section Category RCC h. Stem Height 1.900 m i. H1, Back wall top to Well cap top 4.947 m j. H2, Well cap height 1.200 m k. H, Back wall top to Well cap bottom (Toe) 6.147 m l. Ko , Co-efficient of Active Horizontal Earth Pressure , 0.441 (AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1.) kN/m2 m) Dp-ES, DL Surcgarge Horizontal Pressure Intensiy (ES) 7.935 2. Calculations for Dead Loads Of Super-structure : A. Super Imposed Loads on Girders : i. Exterior Girder Item 1.Railing Post 2. Railing Beam 0.175 3Curb (a). Side walk (b). (-)Conduit 4. Slab 0.300 0.925 0.200 0.175 1.475 0.225 2.125 Total for (1+2+3+4)= 5. Wearing Course 6.Conduit (For Utility) 0.075 0.925 0.650 0.225 Total for (5+6)= Sub - total = Cross Section m m 0.225 0.225 Height m 1.070 Interval (m) 2.000 number 3.000 Load kN/m 0.650

2. Wearing Course

3.450 13.050

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B. Self-Weight of RCC Girders & X-Girders: i. Exterior Girder Item i. Central Section Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Section 7 Sub - total = ii. End Section Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Sub - total = nos 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 Length m 25.000 25 25 25 25 25 25 Width m 2.000 0.000 0.150 0.150 0.350 0.000 0.000 Height m 0.200 0.000 0.000 0.150 1.800 0.000 0.000 Volume m3 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.563 15.750 0.000 0.000 Weight kN 13.500 378.000 391.500

0 0 0

Self weight kN

Exterior Girder ii. Interior Girder Interior Girder iii. Cross Girder Cross Girder Section 1 Section 2 Sub - total = nos 1.000 2.000

391.50

Self weight

391.50

Number of Cross Girder = Length of Cross Girder = Length width m m 6.600 0.250 6.600 0.075 Cross Girder Self weight

3. Dead Load Reaction for Abutment Item i. Exterior Girder a. Super Imposed without WC & Utility b. Self Weight c. Wt. from X-Girder d. Total from (a+b+c) e. Super Imposed only WC & Utility f. Total Load from Exterior Girder ii. Interior Girder a. Super Imposed without WC. b. Self Weight c. Wt. from X-Girder d. Total from (a+b+c) e. Super Imposed only WC. d. Total for Int.-Girder nos 2 2 5 2 2 Length m 25.000 25.000 0.825 25.000 LOAD/METER Load for 1 no. Total Load kN/m kN kN 18.680 15.660 10.335 36.045 3.203 467.001 391.500 42.632 901.133 80.063 1,023.827 934.001 783.000 85.264 1,802.265 160.125 2,047.654 Reaction kN 467.001 391.500 42.632 901.133 80.063 981.195

3 3 5 3 3

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(kN) =

2185.715625

4.300 Ra = 287.111 kN

4.300 24.400

Wheel load Reaction for 2 Lane on Each Abutment Dynamic Load Allowance Factor (DLAF) (Applicable only for Truck/Wheel Load & Tandem Loading & Tandem Loading) Wheel Load Reaction on Each Abutment including DLAF (IM) iii. Lane Load on Bridge Deck a. Lane Load Intensity = 9.300 kN/m/Lane b. Length of Bridge Deck = 25.000 m c.Lane Load for 1(One) Lane Bridge = 232.500 kN Reaction on each Abutment due to Lane Load for 2 Lane Bridge Deck iv. Pedestrian Load 2 a. Pedestrian Load Intensity = 3.600 kN/m b. Width of Each Sidewalk = 1.250 m c. Length of Sidewalk = 25.000 m d. Pedestrian Load on 1no Sidewalk = 112.500 kN Reaction on each Abutment due to Pedestrian Load on 2nos Sidewalk Total Live Load Reaction for Abutment

RWheel-F =

763.714 kN

RLane =

232.500 kN

RPedestrain = RLL =

112.500 kN 1,108.714 KN

5. Calculations for Vertical Load and Resisting Moment from Abutment Components, Soil & Also Resisting Moment from Superstructure Loads (Live & Dead) : Arm from Height Width Length Weight Components Toe m m m KN m i. Back Wall 2.147 0.300 9.350 144.536 3.225 ii. Bridge Seat-Rect.-1 0.600 1.000 9.350 134.640 2.875 " Rect.-2 0.300 0.450 9.350 30.294 2.750 " Tri -1 0.300 0.400 9.350 13.464 3.108 " Tri-2 0.300 0.150 9.350 5.049 2.475 iii. Stem-i 1.900 0.450 9.350 95.931 2.750 Stem-ii 1.900 0.300 9.350 127.908 3.075 Sub Total for i + ii + iii = 551.822

Resisting Moment KN-m 466.129 387.090 83.309 41.851 12.496 263.810 393.317 1,648.001

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iv.Wing Wall -Well Part-2 nos 4.947 0.450 Cantilever Part-1,Rect-2 nos 2.000 0.450 Cantilever Part-2,Trin-2 nos 1.500 0.450 Sub Total for iv = v.Counterfort Wall Abutment- (3 nos) WingWall-1 (2 nos) 4.947 0.450 WingWall-2 (2 nos) WingWall-3 (2 nos) Sub Total for v = vi. Well Cap-Part-1(Rectangular) 1.200 12.750 Part-2 (Rectangular) 1.200 7.250 Part-3 (Semi Circular) 2nos. 1.200 2.750 Sub Total for vi = Total for Substructure Components= vii. Back Fill (BF-1) 4.947 9.350 " (BF-2) " (BF-3) Sub Total for vii = Vertical load components of Abutment (sub-structure) vii.Dead Load Reaction & Moment from Superstructure vii. Live Load Reaction & Moment from Superstructure Total Vertical Load & Moment from Structure

317.894 129.600 48.600 366.494 184.325 184.325 1,009.800 574.200 940.950 2,524.950 3,627.592 2,102.265 2,102.265 5,729.857 KN 2,185.716 1,108.714

1,275.551 907.200 364.500 1,640.051 972.316 972.316 4,165.425 789.525 1,940.710 6,895.660 11,156.028 8,908.347 8,908.347 20,064.375 KN-m 6,010.718 3,048.964 29,124.057

PV

9,024.287

6. Calculation of Horizontal Loads (Pressures) & Overturning Moments i. Earth Pressure, P (AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1.) ii. Horizontal Surcharge Load on Abutment (AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1.) 995.609 600.820 72.871 402.334 121.398 KN KN KN KN KN KN KN 2.849 0.600 0.400 3.674 0.600 7.947 2.000 m m m m m m m 2,836.490 360.492 29.148 1,477.974 72.839 1,291.388 54.530

ii. Braking Force (25% of Truck Weight 162.500 = 162.500kNActing at1.800m Above Deck ; AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.4) iii. Wind Load on Substructure (0.950kN/m2 27.265 on Vertical Faces Perpendicular to Traffic. AASHTO-LRFD-3.8.1.2.3). iv. Wind Load on Superstructure (0.800kN/m2 69.686 on Vertical Surface of all Supperstructure Elements. AASHTO-LRFD-3.8.1.2.2; Table-3.8.1.2.2-1.) v. Wind Load on Live Load ( 0.550kN/m Acting at 13.750 1.800 m Above Deck ; AASHTO-LRFD-3.8.1.3) Total Horizontal Forces VH = (KN) 2,466.234

KN

4.000

278.746

KN KN

7.947

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7. Calculations for Factor of Safety Against Overturning & Factor of Safety Against Sliding Abutment Structure Against Imposed Vertical Loads/Forces & Horizontal Forces/Pressure on Abutment & Also Location of Rsultant Forces in Y-Y Direction Well Cap Toe i. Factor of Safety Against Overturning ii. Factor of Safety Against Sliding iii. Location of Resultant Force,Lr Mr / Mo 0.4 * Pv / Vh (Mr - Mo) / Pv

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ainst Y-Y

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZAR-TEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ;- 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).

C. Checking of Stability for Abutment & Well Cap Against Loads of Different Components & Applied Forces on Structural Elements :

1 Information about Soil, Foundation, Abutment & Wing-walls: a) Type of Sub-soil : a) At Borehole No-BH07 (Cox's Bazar End), from GL (GL is - 2.25m from Road Top Level) up to 2.50m depth Sub-soil posses Loss gray fine Silty sand having SPT Value ranging 7 to 12. Whereas in next 0.75m from depth 2.50m to 3.75m there exists Medium dense gray fine sand with SPT value ranging from 12 to 40. From depth about 3.75m there exists Bed-rock (Gray Shale) having 50 and over SPT values . b) At Borehole No-BH08 (Teknuf End), from GL (GL is - 2.25m from Road Top Level) upto 2.75m depth Sub-soil posses Medium dency gray sandy silt having SPT Value renging 12 to 37. In next 2.15m (About depth 2.75m to 4.80m) there exists Medum densey gray fine sand with SPT value renging from 37 to 50. From depth about 4.80m there exists Bed rock (Gray Shale) having SPT value 50 over. Due to its Geographical position, Marin Drive Road have every risk to effected by Wave action & Cyclonic Strom from Sea. More over the Slain Water is also an important factor for RCC Construction Works in these area. In Designing of any Permanent Bridge/Structure on this Road, specially in Foundation Design all the prevalling adverse situations should be considered for their Survival and Durability. Though as per Soil Investigation Report there exist Loss to Medium dency gray sandy silt on Seashore Sub-soil, but due to ground their formation those posses a very poor Mechanical bonding among it contitutent.But there exites Bed-rock at a considerably short depth (About 3.75m to 4.80m) from the Ground Level.Presence of Bed-rock is an important for the Foundation of any Structue on this Road. To encounter all mentioned adverse situations Provision of RCC Caissons embedded into the Bed-rock will be best one as Foundation of Bridges on this Road. RCC Caissons embedded into the Bed-rock will be a Solid mass to save guard the Structure against Errosion, Sliding, Overturning etc. which caused by the Wave action & Cyclonic Strom. More over against Salinity effect necessary meassary can provide for RCC Caissions. Thus it is recommended to Provide RCC Caissions embedded into the Bed-rock at least 1.50m into Bed-rock as Foundation of Delpara Bridge. Wall Type Abutment. Wall Type Wing Walls Integrated with Abutment Wall having Counterforts over Well & Cantilever Wings beyond Well. Ultimate Stress Design (AASHTO-LRFD-2004).

b) Type of Foundation

: :

e) Design Criteria

2 Design Data in Respect of Unit Weight, Strength of Materials, Soil Pressure & Multiplier Factors : Description

3 i) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m :

Notation Dimensions

Unit.

Page 33

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZAR-TEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ;- 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).

(Having value of Gravitional Acceleration, g = a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt)

2 9.807 m/sec )

a) b) c) d) e)

Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt)

iii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTO-LRFD-2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength, f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, Ec = 0.043gc1.50f/c (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.4). d) Poisson's Ration = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2), subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.5). e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete, fr = 0.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). f) Steel Ultimate strength, fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement, Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.00 8.40 23,855.62 2.89 fr fy fs ES 2.89 MPa MPa MPa MPa

iv) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD-3.4.1 ; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) b) c) d) e) Modular Ratio, n = Es/Ec 6 = 8.384 Value of Ratio of Steel & Concrete Flexural Strength, r = fs/fc Value of k = n/(n + r) Value of j = 1 - k/3 Value of R = 0.5*(fckj) Let n r k j R 8 19.524 0.291 0.903 1.102

v) Sub-soil Investigation Report & Side Codition Data: a) SPT Value as per Soil Boring Test Report, / b) Corrected SPT Value for N>15, N = 15 + 1/2(N - 15) = 15 + 1/2(50 - 15) = 15 + 1/2(50 - 15) = 32.5 . Say N/ = 33 c) Recommended Allowable Bearing Capacity of Soil as per Soil Investigation Report witht SPT Value 50 over, p = 7.2 Ton/ft2. = 770kN/m2 N N/ p 50 Over 33

2 770 kN/m

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZAR-TEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ;- 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).

d) For Back Filling with Clean fine sand, Silty or clayey fine to medium sand Angle of Friction with Concrete surface, d = 190 to 240, e) AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1. Recommended Co-efficient of Lateral Active Earth Pressure Ka-recom v) = 0.34 to 0.45 (AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1.) Provided Co-efficient of Active Earth Pressure is Average of, Ka-recom

19 to 24

Ka-recom Ka

vi) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors Under Strength Limit State (USD) : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) vii) Live Load Multiplier Factors : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load Allowence-IM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS STRENGTH - III gDC 1.250

gDW gEH

1.500

1.500

gEV gES

1.350

1.500

m gLL-Truck IM

1.000

1.750 1.330

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l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR

STRENGTH - V

gLL-WL gLL-FR. gLL-TU. gLL-CR. gLL-SH. gLL-TG. gLL-SE. gLL-EQ. gLL-CT. gLL-CV.

l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

vii) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD-3.4.1 ; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.000

gDW gEH

1.000

1.000

gEV gES

1.000

1.000

ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 :

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a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load Allowence-IM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1 ; SERVICE - II (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV 3 Sketch Diagram of Abutment & Wing wall:

5225

m gLL-Truck IM

1.000

1.000 1.300

gLL-Lane gLL-PL. SERVICE - II SERVICE - II gLL-CE. gLL-BR. gLL-LS. gLL-WA. SERVICE - IV SERVICE - II gLL-WS. gLL-WL gLL-FR. gLL-TU. gLL-CR. gLL-SH. gLL-TG. gLL-SE. gLL-EQ. gLL-CT. gLL-CV.

1.000 1.000 1.300 1.300 1.000 1.000 0.700 1.300 1.000 1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

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300

12750 3000 600 3450 600 3450 600 3450 600 600

5225 2100

300

700

C 2000

2525

2150

5500

600 2150

1447

450

2750

3000

3000

450

3450 450

3450

450

1200

600

4300 5500

600

4 Dimension of Different Sub-Structural Components & RCC Well for Foundation: i) Dimensions of Sub-Structure. a) Height of Abutment Wall from Bottom of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall, b) Height of Abutment Wall from Top of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall, c) Height of Abutment Well Cap, d) Height of Abutment Steam e) Depth of Girder including Deck Slab f) Height of Bearing Seat g) Height of Back Wall = hGir. + hBearing h) Height of Wing Wall i) Length of Wing Walls upon Well cap H H1 hWell-Cap. hSteam. hGir. hBearing hb-wall H-W-Wall LW-W-Well-Cap 6.147 m 4.947 m 1.200 m 1.900 m 2.000 m 0.147 m 2.147 m 4.947 m 2.975 m

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6350

H1 = 4947

1775

H = 6147

1500

450 300

2750

1900

2147

j) Width (Longitudinal Length) of Abutment Well Cap, Length (Transverse Length) of Abutment Well Cap, k) Transverse Length of Abutment Wall (Outer Face to Outer Face) in X-X l) Direction. m) Inner Distance in between Wing Walls (Transverse), n) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Bottom o) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Top p) Thickness of Counterfort Wall (For Wing Wall) q) Number of Wing-Wall Counterforts (on each side) r) Clear Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall at Bottom s) Average Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall = (tAB-Wall-Bot + tAb-Wall-Top)/2+SClear-Count& Ab-Bot. t) Effective Span of Wing Wall Counterfort = SAver-Count + tWW-Countf u) Thickness of Wing Walls within Well Cap, v) Thickness of Cantilever Wing Walls w) Length of Cantilever Wing Walls x) Height of Rectangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls y) Height of Triangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls z) Longitudinal Length of Well Cap on Toe Side from Abutment Wall Outer Face. z-i) Average Length (Longitudinal) of Well Cap on Heel Side from Abutment Wall Face.= SAver.-Count.& Ab. + tWW-Count. ii) Dimensions of RCC Well for Foundation. a) Width of Well in Y-Y Direction (In Longitudinal Direction) b) Length of Well in X-X Direction (In Transverse Direction) c) Depth of Well from Bottom of Well Cap up to Bottom of Well Curb

5.500

12.750 m 10.250 m

9.350 m 0.750 m

L-W-Cap-Heel-Aver.

2.825 m

Page 39

d) Wall thickness of Well, f) Thickness of Partition Walls of Well, g) Diameter of Outer Circle, h) Diameter of Inner Circle = DOuter - 2* tWall i) Transverse Length of Rectangular Portion of Well Cap =LWell-X-X - DOuter j) Length of Partition Walls = DOuter - 2*tWall k) Number of Pockets within Well l) Distance between Inner Faces of Pockets in Y-Y Direction (Longitudinal Span Length). m) Distance between Inner Faces of Outer Pockets in X-X Direction (Transverse Span Length). n) Distance between Inner Faces of Central Pocket in X-X Direction (Transverse Span Length). o) Width of Well from its c.g. Line in X-X. = WWell-Y-Y/2 p) Surface Area of Well at Top & Bottom Level = pDOuter2/4 + LRect*DOuter q) Total Length of Staining of Well (Main & Partitions) through Center line = p*(DOuter+ DInner)/2 + 2*LRect. + 2*LParti r) Surface Area of Well Cap = LAb-T-W-Cap*W1/2-Well-Y-Y + 0.5*pDOuter2/4 + LRect*W1/2-Well-Y-Y s) Distance of c.g. (X-X) Line from Well Cap Toe Face = (LAb-T-W-Cap*(W1/2-Well-Y-Y)2*1.50+ (0.5*pDOuter2/4)*0.50*DOuter*3/4 + LRect*W1/2-Well-Y-Y2/2)/AWell-Cap. t) RL of Highest Flood Level (HFL) u) RL of Maximum Scoring Level (MSL)

SPock-X-X-Outer.

3.450 m

SPocket-X-X-Central.

3.450 m

2.750 m

2 63.633 m

38.494 m

AWell-Cap.

2 66.879 m

bc.g.-Y-Y.

2.939 m

HFLRL MSLRL

2.100 m (4.750) m

5 Calculations for Safe Bearing Capacity (S.B.C.) of Soil for Well (Caisson) as Abutment Foundation . a) Height between RL of HFL & RL of MSL = HFLRL - MSLRL x = (2.100- (-)4.75)m h 6.850 m

Page 40

b) Minimum Depth required for Bottom Level of Well from MSL= h/3 c) Provided Depth from Well Cap Bottom up to Bottom Level of Well d) Calculated Soil Bearing Capacity at Bottom Level of Well Foundation pCal = 3.5(N-3)*{(B+0.3)/2B}*a*b + W; Where N = 50 over, the Field SPT value;

2.283 m 6.325 m

2 164.811 kN/m

N/ = 33,the Corrected SPT value; f = 36.900, the Angle of Shearing Resistance of Soil; B =5.000m,Width of Well for Foundation; D = 6.250m, Depth of Well; a = 0.50, for Submerge of Well Bottom; b = (1+D/5B) > 1.20 = (1+6.25/5*5) = 1.2 and W = Soil Pressure per m2 at Bottom Level of Well = D*g = 6.250*18.00kN/m2 = 112.500kN/m2 Thus the Calculated Soil Bearing Capacity pCal = 3.5(N-3)*{(B+0.3)/2B}*a*b + W, = (3.5*(50-3)*((5.00+0.3)/(2*5))*0.50*1.20 + 112.500)kN/m 2 = 164.811kN/m2 e) Since the Soil Bearing Capacity as per Soil Investigation Report, Since the Soil Bearing Capacity as per Soil Investigation Report, p = 770kN/m2 > pCal = 164.811kN/m2, thusthe Well Foundation is OK in respect of S.B.C. 6 Checking for Stability of Well Cap as Abutment Base against all applied Forces: i) Imposed Vertical Loads/Forces upon Abutment Well Cap (As per Design Calculation Sheet - C) : a) Dead Load Reaction from Super-Structure b) Live Load Reaction from Super-Structure (Pedestrians, Wheel & Lane Load) c) Dead Load Reaction from Sub-Structure & Earth Pressure, d) Total Vertical Forces due to Dead & Live Load (Super-Structure + Sub-Structure) e) Moment due to Dead Load Reaction from Super-Structure f) Moment due to Live Load Reaction from Super-Structure g) Moment due to Dead Load & Soil Pressure for Sub-Structure h) Total Resisting Moment due to Vertical Forces (Dead & Live Load from Super-Structure + Sub-Structure, Earth Pressure) i) Total Horizontal Forces due to Earth Pressure, Surcharge, Braking, WindLoad, Dead Load Friction etc. j) Total Overturning Moments due to Horizontal Forces ii) Checking Against Overturning. RDL-Supr. RLL-Supr. RDL-Sub. PV 2,185.716 kN 1,108.714 kN 5,729.857 kN 9,024.287 kN

PH

2,466.234 kN

MO

6,510.878 kN-m

Page 41

a) Factor of Safety against Overturning, FSOverturn = MR/MO 2. b) Since FSO > 2 , thus the Structure is safe in respect of Overturning. iii) Checking Against Sliding. a) Factor of Safety against Sliding, FSSlid = 0.4*PV / PH 1.50. b) Since FSSlid > 1.50, thus the Structure is safe in respect of Sliding.

FSOverturn

4.473

OK

FSSlid

1.464

Not OK

iv) Calculation of Eccentricity in respect of c.g. Line of Pile Cap in X-X Direction due to Applied Loads & Moments ( Vertical & Horizontal): a) Net Moment or Algebraic sum of Moment about 'B' = MR - MO b) Distance of Resultant Forces from Well Cap Toe Face, x = MN /PV c) Distance of c.g. (X-X) Line from Well Cap Toe Face d) Eccentricity, e = bc.g.-Y-Y. - x e) 1/6th Distance of bc.g.-Y-Y. from c.g. towards Well Wall Cap Toe = bc.g.-Y-Y./6 MN x bc.g.-Y-Y. e 1/6th 22,613.179 kN-m 2.506 m 2.939 m 0.433 m 0.490 m

f) Since the Calculated Eccentricity has (+) ve value & its Location is within Middle 1/3rd Portion of the Pile Cap in Y-Y direction, Factor of Safety against Overturning & Sliding are within limit range, Thus the Structure is a Stable One in all respect. 7 Checking for Stability of Well Cap as Abutment Base Without Superstrucre Loads (DL & LL) : i) Applied Loads Moments : a) Dead Load Reaction from Sub-Structure & Earth Pressure, b) Moment due to Dead Load & Soil Pressure for Sub-Structure c) Total Horizontal Forces due to Earth Pressure, Surcharge & Wind Load on Substructure. d) Total Overturning Moments due to Horizontal Forces ii) Checking Against Overturning. a) Factor of Safety against Overturning, FSOverturn = MR/MO 2. b) Since FSOvertur > 2 , thus the Structure is safe in respect of Overturning. iii) Checking Against Sliding. a) Factor of Safety against Sliding, FSSlid = 0.4*PV / PH 1.50. FSSlid 1.032 FSOverturn 4.153 RDL-Sub. MDL-Sub. PH 5,729.857 kN 20,064.375 kN-m 2,220.297 kN

MO

4,831.474 kN-m

Page 42

b) Though FSSlid < 1.50, but the Well Cap would be a Integrated Component of the RCC Well, which will make the Structure a Safe one in respect of Sliding. iv) Calculation of Eccentricity in respect of c.g. Line of Pile Cap in X-X Direction due to Applied Loads & Moments ( Vertical & Horizontal): a) Net Moment or Algebraic sum of Moment about 'B' = MR - MO b) Distance of Resultant Forces from Well Cap Toe Face, x = MN /PV c) Distance of c.g. (X-X) Line from Well Cap Toe Face d) Eccentricity, e = bc.g.-Y-Y. - x e) 1/6th Distance of bc.g.-Y-Y. from c.g. towards Well Wall Cap Toe = bc.g.-Y-Y./6 MN x bc.g.-Y-Y. e 1/6th 14,334.518 kN-m 2.502 m 2.939 m 0.437 m 0.490 m

f) The Calculated Eccentricity has (+) ve value & its Location is within Middle 1/3rd Portion of the Well Cap in Y-Y direction, Factor of Safety against Overturning is within limit range, though Safety Factor against Sliding is less than limit range but the Well Cap is Integrated with RCC Well Structure, thus the Structure is a Stable One in all respect without Superstructure Loads also.

Page 43

Page 44

D. Design Data, Factors & Methods for Analysis of Flexural Design of Structural Elements:

1 General Data for Construction Materials of Different Structural Components : Description

3 i) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration, g =

Notation Dimensions

Unit.

2 9.807 m/sec )

a) b) c) d) e)

Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt)

a) b) c) d) e)

Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt)

iii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTO-LRFD-2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength, f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, Ec = 0.043gc1.50f/c (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.4). d) Poisson's Ration = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2), subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.5). e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete, fr = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2)Mpa (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). f) Steel Ultimate strength, fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement, Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.000 8.400 23,855.620 2.887 fr fy fs ES 2.887 MPa MPa MPa MPa

iv) Strength Data related to Working Stress Design & Service Load Condition ( WSD & AASHTO-SLS ) : a) b) c) d) e) Modular Ratio, n = Es/Ec 6 = 8.384 Value of Ratio of Steel & Concrete Flexural Strength, r = fs/fc Value of k = n/(n + r) Value of j = 1 - k/3 Value of R = 0.5*(fckj) Say n r k j R 8 19.524 0.291 0.903 1.102

v) Design Data for Resistance Factors for Conventional Construction (AASHTO LRFD-5.5.4.2.1). :

(Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f ) a) b) c) d) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete fFlx-Rin. 0.90 For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete fFlx-Pres. 1.00 For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete fShear. 0.90 For Axil Comression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme fSpir/Tie/Seim. 0.75 Limit State (Zone 3 & 4). Flexural value of f of Compression Member will Increase Linearly as the Factored Axil Load Resitance, fPn, Decreases from 0.10f/cAg to 0. For Bearing on Concrete fBearig. 0.70 For Compression in Strut-and-Tie Modeis fStrut&Tie. 0.70 For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete fAnc-Copm-Conc. 0.80 For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones fAnc-Ten-Steel. 1.00 For resistance during Pile Driving fPile-Resistanc. 1.00 For Partially Prestressed Components in Flexural with or without Tension fFlx-PPR. 1.00 Resistance Factor f = 0.90 + 0.10*(PPR) in which, PPR = Apsfpy/(Apsfpy + Asfy), where; PPR is Partial Prestress Retio. PPR 2 As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm As 2 Aps = Steel Area of Prestressing Steel mm Aps fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Bar in MPa. fy 410.00 fpy = Yeiled Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. fpy

e) f) g) h) i) j)

vi) b Factors for Conventional RCC & Prestressed Concrete Design (AASHTO LRFD-5.7.2.2). : a) Flexural value of b1, the Factor of Compression Block in Reinforced Concrete up to 28 MPa. i) For Further increases of Strength of Concrete after 28 MPa agaunst each 7MPa the value of b1 will decrese by 0.05 & the Minimum Value of b1 will be 0.65. ii) For Composite Concrete Structure, b1avg = (f/cAccb1)/(f/cAcc); where, Acc =Area of Concrete Element in Compression of Crresponding Strength. b) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete b 0.85 b1 0.85

vii) Ultimate Strength Data for Design of Prestressing Components ( USD & AASHTO-LRFD-2004) : a) For Uncoated & Stress-relieved 7 (Seven) Wire according to AASHTO-LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications (AASHTO-LRFD-5.4.4) will be; i) AASHTO M 203/M 203M (ASTM A 416/A 416M), or ii) AASHTO M 275/M 275M (ASTM A 722/A 722M). b) Tensial Strength for Strand with Grade 250 having Diameter 6.35 to 15.24mm, c) Tensial Strength for Strand with Grade 270 having Diameter 9.37 to 15.24mm, d) Tensial Strength for Type-1 Plain Bar having Diameter 19 to 35mm, e) Tensial Strength for Type-2 Deformed Bar having Diameter 16 to 35mm, fpu-250-Str. fpu-270-Str. fpu-Ty-1-P-Bar fpu-Ty-1-P-Bar 1,725 Mpa 1,860 Mpa 1,035 Mpa 1,035 Mpa

f) Yield Strength for Strand with Grade 250 having Diameter 6.35 to 15.24mm, = 85% of Tensial Strength (fpu). g) Yield Strength for Strand with Grade 270 having Diameter 9.37 to 15.24mm, = 85% of Tensial Strength (fpu). h) Yield Strength for Type-1 Plain Bar having Diameter 19 to 35mm, = 85% of Tensial Strength (fpu). i) Yield Strength for Type-2 Deformed Bar having Diameter 16 to 35mm, = 80% of Tensial Strength (fpu). j) Modulus of Elastacity for Strand j) Modulus of Elastacity for Bar

fpy-250-Str.

1,466 Mpa

fpy-270-Str.

1,581 Mpa

fpy-Ty-1-P-Bar

880 Mpa

fpy-Ty-1-P-Bar

828 Mpa

Ep-Strandy Ep-Bar

2 Different Load Multiplying Fatcors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : i) Formula for Load Factors & Selection of Load Combination : a) Formula for Load Factors Q = igiQi f Rn = Rr; (ASSHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-1 & 3.4.1-1) Where, i is Load Modifier having values i = D R I 0.95 in which for Loads a Maximum value of gi Applicable; (ASSHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-2), & i = 1/(D R I ) 1.00 in which for Loads a Minimum value of gi Allpicable; (ASSHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-3) Here: gi = Load Factor; a statistically based multiplier Applied to Force Effect, f = Resistance Factor; a statistically based multiplier Applied to Nominal Resitance, i = Load Modifier; a Factor related to Ductility, Redundancy and Operational Functions, For Strength Limit State; D i = D = 1.00 for Conventional Design related to Ductility, 1.000 R i = R = 1.00 for Conventional Levels of Redundancy , 1.000 i = I = 1.00 for Typical Bridges related to Operational Functions, Qi = Force Effect, Rn = Nominal Resitance, Ri = Factored Resitance = fRn. ii) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD-3.4.1 ; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.250 l 1.000

gDW

1.500

c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2)

gEH

1.500

gEV

1.350

gES

1.500

iii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load Allowence-IM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH STRENGTH - III STRENGTH - V m 1.000

gLL-Truck IM

1.750 1.330

gLL-Lane gLL-PL. gLL-CE. gLL-BR. gLL-LS. gLL-WA. gLL-WS. gLL-WL gLL-FR. gLL-TU.

1.750 1.750 1.750 1.750 1.750 1.000 1.400 1.000 1.000 1.000

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

(With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV gLL-TG. 1.000

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

3 Different Load Multiplying Fatcors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD-3.4.1 ; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.000

gDW

1.000

gEH

1.000

gEV

1.000

gES

1.000

ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load Allowence-IM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1 (SERVICE - I); (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) m 1.000

gLL-Truck IM

1.000 1.000

d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV 3 Intensity of Different Imposed Loads (DL & LL) & Load Coefficients : i) Coefficient for Lateral Earth Pressure (EH) : a) Coefficient of Active Horizontal Earth Pressure, ko = (1-sinff ) ,Where; f is Effective Friction Angle of Soil b) For Back Filling with Clean fine sand, Silty or clayey fine to medium sand SERVICE - IV SERVICE - II SERVICE - II SERVICE - II

gLL-Lane gLL-PL. gLL-CE. gLL-BR. gLL-LS. gLL-WA. gLL-WS. gLL-WL gLL-FR. gLL-TU.

1.000 1.000 1.300 1.300 1.000 1.000 0.700 1.300 1.000 1.000

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

gLL-TG.

1.000

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

ko

0.441

34.000

Effective Friction Angle of Soil, f = 340 .(Table 12.9, Page-138, RAINA,s Book) c) Angle of Friction with Concrete surface & Soli AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1. d) Value of Tan d (dim) for Coefficient of Friction. = 0.34 to 0.45 (AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1.) d 19 to 24

O

Tan d

ii) Dead Load Surcharge Lateral/Horizontal Pressure Intensity (ES); AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.1. : a) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Uniform Surcharge, Dp-ES = ksqs in Mpa. Where; b) ks is Coefficien of Earth Pressure due to Surcharge = ko for Active Earth Pressure, c) qs is Uniform Surcharge applied to upper surface of Active Earth Wedge(Mpa) = wE*10-3N/mm2 Dp-ES

2 0.007935 N/mm 2 7.935 kN/m

ks qS

0.441

2 0.018 N/mm

iii) Live Load Surcharge Vertical & Horizontal Pressure Intensity (LS); AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4. : a) Constant Earth Pressur both Vertical & Horizontal for Live Load Surcharge on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic), Where; Dp-LS = kgsgheq*10-9 Dp-LL-Ab<6.00m Dp-LL-Ab6.00m 0.007141 7.141 0.004761 4.761 0.008331 8.331 0.004761 4.761 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2

b) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Live Load Surcharge for Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic), Where; Dp-LS = kgsgheq*10-9 ,

Dp-LL-WW<6.00m Dp-LL-WW6.00m

c) d) e) f)

ks is Coefficien of Latreal Earth Pressure = ko for Active Earth Pressure. gs is Unit Weight of Soil (kg/m3) Since wE, the Unit Wieght of Soil = 18kN/m 3, thus gs = wE*10^3/g g is Gravitational Acceleration (m/sec2), AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.1.2.

2 9.807 m/sec

g) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm). Having, H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm ; AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4; Table-3.11.6.4-1. h) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Abutment having H < 6000mm.& H 6000mm. AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4; Table-3.11.6.4-1.

i) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm). Having, H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm ; AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4; Table-3.11.6.4-2.

heq-WW<6.00m. heq-WW6.00m.

1050.000 mm 600.000 mm

j) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Wing Walls, Having H < 6000mm.& H 6000mm.

Weq-WW<6.00m. Weq-WW6.00m.

mm m mm m

iv) Wind Load Intensity on Superstructure Elements (WS) : a) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Superstructure Elements in Lateral Direction of Wind Flow (Parallel to Traffic). AASHTO-LRFD-3.8.1.2.2; Table-3.8.1.2.2-1. b) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Superstructure Elements in Longitudinal Direction of Wind Flow (Perpendicular to Traffic). v) Wind Load Intensity on Substructure Elements (WS) : a) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Substructure Elements in Lateral Direction (Parallel to Traffic). = 0.0019*cos600 Mpa, Considering 600 Skew Angle of Main Force; (AASHTO-LRFD-3.8.1.2.3). b) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Substructure Elements in Longitudinal Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic). = 0.0019*sin600 Mpa; Considering 600 Skew Angle of Main Force; (AASHTO-LRFD-3.8.1.2.3). vi) Wind Load Intensity on Live Load (WL) : a) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Live Load upon Superstructure in Longitudinal Direction (Parallel to Traffic). = 0.550 N/mm, having action at 1800mm above Deck & Considering 600 Skew Angle of Force; for Two Lane Bridge. (AASHTO-LRFD-3.8.1.3; Table- 3.8.1.3-1). b) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Live Load upon Superstructure in Lateral Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic) = 0.500N/mm having action at 1800mm above Deck & Considering 600 Skew Angle of Main Force; for Two Lane Bridge.(AASHTO-LRFD-3.8.1.3; Table- 3.8.1.3-1). vii) Intensity on Breaking Force (BR) : a) Intensity of Horizontal Breaking on Superstructure is the Greater value of pLL-Sup-Break. i) 25% of the Axle Weight of Design Truck/Design Tendem, or pLL-25%-Truck. ii) 5% of Design (Truck + Lane Load) or (Design Tendem + Lane Load) pLL-5%-(Tru+Lane.) Breaking Force is for Two Lane Bridge & its Action at 1800mm above Deck. (AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.4). 162.500 kN 162.500 kN 55.750 kN pWind-LL-Sup-Let. 0.550 N/mm 0.550 kN/m pWind-Sub-Let. 0.000950 Mpa 2 0.950 kN/m pWind-Sup-Let. 0.000800 Mpa 2 0.800 kN/m

pWind-Sup-Long.

pWind-Sub-Long.

pWind-LL-Sup-Long.

i) Structural Modeling (AASHTO-LRFD-5.6.3.2) : a) Factored Resistance of Strut-and-Tie, Pr = fPn . i) For Unreinforced Compressive Struts ii) For Reinforced Compressive Struts b) Pn = Nominal Resistance of Strut or Tie in N. i) For Unreinforced Compressive Struts ii) For Reinforced Compressive Struts c) f = Tension/Compression Resistance Factor as required for the Component.

Pr-Unrin. Pr-Rin.

179928.000 N 2488118.954 N

Pn-Unrin. Pn-Rin. f

ii) Proportioning of Strength for Unreinforced Compressive Struts, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.6.3.3.1) : a) Nominal Resistance of Unreinforced Strut in N, Pn-Unrin. = fcuAcs; where, Pn-Unrin. 257040.000 N 257.040 kN

2 17.850 N/mm

b) fcu = Limiting Compressive Stress in MPa as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.6.3.3.3. = f/c/(0.8+172e l ) 0.85f/c, here, e l = 0.002 mm/mm, the Pricapal Tensile Strain of Crack Concrete due to Factored Load. Thus f/c/(0.8+172e l ) = 18.357 & 0.85f/c = 17.850 c) Acs = Effective X-Sectional Area of Strut in mm 2 under the provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.6.3.3.2. For Strut Anchored by Reinforcement the Length of Strut is 6-times the Main bar Diameter & Width is Width of Component. For RCC Girder Diameter of Bar fBar = 32 mm & Width of Girder b= 450 mm. Acs = fBar*b

fcu.

Acs.

2 14,400.000 mm

iii) Proportioning of Strength for Reinforced Compressive Struts, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.6.3.3.2) : a) Nominal Resistance of Reinforced Strut in N, Pn-Rin. = fcuAcs + fyAss ; where, Ass is Area of Reinforcement of Strut in mm 2 . For RCC Girder nos. of Bars 2 Nbar = 10 nos.X-Area of bar,Af =p*fBar2/4 = 804.25 mm 2 Thus Ass = Af*Nbar.= 8,042.48 mm iv) Proportioning of Tension Ties, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.6.3.4.) : a) Nominal Resistance of Tension Tie in N, Pn-Ten. = fyAst + Aps(fpe + fy); where, Pn-Tie.

5,605,606.604

Pn-Rin.

3,554,455.649

N 3,554.456 kN

N 5,605.607 kN

b) Ast is Total Area of Longitudanal Reinforcement of Tie in mm 2 . For RCC Girder Total nos.Bar Nbar = 17 nos. Thus, Ast = Af*Nbar. c) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel in mm 2 . For RCC Girder, Aps = 0. d) fpe is Stress in Prestressing Steel after loss in MPa. For RCC Girder, fpe = 0

Ast.

2 13,672.211 mm

Aps. fpe

v) Proportioning of Node Regions at Bearing Positions on Support, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.6.3.5.) : a) The Compressive Stress of Node Regions Bounded by Compressive Struts and Brearing Area will be, fc-Node-Bearing 0.85ff/c b) The Compressive Stress of Node Regions Anchoring by a One-direction Tension Ties will be, fc-Node-1-Dir-Ten-Tie 0.75ff/c c) The Compressive Stress of Node Regions Anchoring by a Two-direction Tension Ties will be, fc-Node-2-Dir-Ten-Tie 0.65ff/c vi) Design AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Axle to Axle distance Wheel to Wheel distance Rear Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Rear Single Wheel Load Middle Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Middle Single Wheel Load Front Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Front Single Wheel Load DAxel. DWheel. LLRW-Load LLRS-Load LLMW-Load LLMS-Load LLFW-Load LLFS-Load 1.800 4.300 145.000 72.500 145.000 72.500 35.000 17.500 m m kN kN kN kN kN kN fc-Node-Bearing N/mm2

fc-Node--1-Dir-Ten-Tie

N/mm2

fc-Node-2-Dir-Ten-Tie

N/mm2

vii) Design AASHTO Lane Loading : a) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 9.300N/mm through the Length of Bridge for 1 (One) Lane of Bridge & acting over a 3.000m Wide Dcak Strip in Transverse Direction. Thus Lane Load per meter Length of Bridge for 1 (One) Lane = (9.300*1000/1000)kN/m b) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 9.300N/mm through the Length of Gridge for Single and acting over a 3.000m Wide Strip in Transverse Direction. Thus Intensity of Lane Load per meter Length & for per meter Width = 9.300/3.000kN/m/m-Wd. viii) Design AASHTO Pedestrian Loading : a) Design Pedestrian Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 3.600*10-3MPa through the Length of Sidewalk on both side and acting over the total Wide of Sidewalk. ix) Design Live Line Loading of Sidewalk : a) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.1.3.4 Bridges having Overhanging Deck Slab Span not Exceeding 1800 mm from Center of Exterior Girder & where Exists a Structurally Continuous Concrete Railing, there will be a Longitudinal & Uniformly Distributed Line Live Load (LL) of Magnitude of 14.600N/mm. Action of Line Load will be at Distance 300mm from the Face of Railing & it would Replace the Outside Row of Wheel Load. Since the Design Strip is in PLL-Line. 14.600 kN/m LL-Pedest

2 0.003600 N/mm 2 3.600 kN/m

LLLane

9.300 9.300

N/mm kN/m

LLLane-Int.

Transverse Direction with 1.000m Width, thus Action on Line Load will like a Concentrated Load having Magnitude = 14.600*1000/1000kN. 4 Calculations of Respective Events for Design of Flexural And Axial Force Effects, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.6.3) : i) Stress in Prestressing Steel at Nominal Flexural Resistance for Flexural Members, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.1): a) In Components having Bonded Prestressing Tendon in One Axis, the Average Stress in Prestressing Steel fps = fpu(1-k*c/dp) 0.5* fpu In which, i) k = 2.00*(1.04-fps/fpu) ii) For T-Section behavior of Components, the value of c = (Apsfps+Asfy -A/f/y -0.85b1f/c(b-bw)hf)/(0.85f/cb1bw+kApsfpu/dp) fps N/mm2

k cT-Secton mm

iii) For Rectangular Section behavior of Components, cRec-Secton / / / the value of c = (Apsfps+Asfy -A f y)/(0.85f cb1b+kApsfpu/dp) Where, iv) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 As 2 v) Aps = Steel Area of Prestressing Steel mm Aps vi) A/s = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Compression Reinforcement in mm2 A/s vii) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. fy viii) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. f/y ix) fpy = Yeiled Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. fpy x) b = Width of Compression Flange in mm. b xi) bw = Width of Web in mm. bw xii) hf = Height of Compression Flange in mm. hf xiii) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid dp in mm. xix) c = Distance of Neutral Axis from Compression Face of Component in mm. c xx) b1 = Compression Stress Block Factor in mm. b1 ii) Factored Flexural Resistance for Prestressed or RCC Elements (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.1): a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor for Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr Mn f

mm

b) The Nominal Resistance for a Flanged Section subject to One Axis Stress as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.2 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) + 0.85f/c(b-bw)b1hf(a/2-hf/2). Where; mm2 i) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 As mm2 ii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 Aps mm2 iii) A/s = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Compression Reinforcement in mm2 A/s

iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. vi) f/y = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. vii) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. viii) b = Width of Compression Flange in mm. ix) bw = Width of Web in mm. x) hf = Depth of Compression Flange for I or T Member in mm. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm. xiii) d/s = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Compression Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm. xix) b1 = Compression Stress Block Factor in mm. xx) a = cb1; Depth of Equivalent Stress Block in mm.

mm

c) For Nonprestressing Element of Structure the corresponding values against Aps,fps,dp all are = 0,. Whereas for Singly Reinforced Structural Elements the Respective values of f/y & d/s = 0. Thus Equation for Nominal Resistance of I or T Member with having Flenge & Web Components Stand at Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) + 0.85f/c(b-bw)b1hf(a/2-hf/2) d) For Nonprestressing Element of Structure having only Rectangular Component b = bw & hf = 0. Thus Equation for Nominal Resistance of Singly Reinforced Structural Member Stand at Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) 5 Limits For Maximum & Minimum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3) : i) Limits For Maximum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1) : . a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for a Section c/de 0.42 in which; i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy), where ; ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm. b) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps, fps & dp are = 0. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds . ii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.2) : As Aps fy fps dp ds mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm

c/de

a) For Section of a Flexural Component having Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements or only with Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.2*Mcr or 1.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1-Table-3.4.1-1, which one is less. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) - Mdnc(Sc/Snc - 1) Scfr where; i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to effective Prestress Forces only at Extreme Fiber where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance for all Prestressing Losses in MPa. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in N-mm. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in RCC in Mpa,(AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements, Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0, thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Computed value of Mcr = 1.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces Mcr fcpe N-mm N/mm2

Mdnc

N-mm

Sc

mm3

Snc

mm3

fr Mcr

2 2.887 N/mm

N-mm

6 Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4) : a) The Tensial Reinforcement of all Concrete Elements under Service Limit State Load according to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1-Table-3.4.1-1 (Except Deck Slab Design under AASHTO-LRFD-9.7.2), fsa =Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, Where; i) dc = Depth of Concrete Extrime Tension Face from the Center of the Closest Tension Bar considering the Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. For a Particular Section of the Component dc = fBar/2 + CCover-Bot. (Max. 50mm) ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculted by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both sideded by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensial Reinforcement (The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm.) Thus, A = 2*(CCover-Bot.(Max.= 50mm) + (NB-Layers+ sBar-Vert)/2)/NBar fsa N/mm2

dc

mm

mm2

iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. Other then Cast in Place Box Culvert;

Max. value of Crack Width Parameter for Moderate Exposure Components Max. value of Crack Width Parameter for Severe Exposure Components Max. value of Crack Width Parameter for Buried Components

iv) In Transverse Design of Segmental Concrete Box-Girder the Max. value of ZBox-Gir-Trans. Crack Parameter, Z 23000N/mm for any Loads Applied prior to attainment of the full Nominal Concrete Strength. v) In Cast in Place RCC Box Culvert the Crack Parameter Z 27500/b , in which; b = (1+dc/0.7d), where, d = Distance from Compression Face to Centriod of Tension Reinforcement. Thus value of 27500/b b) In Bonded Prestressed Concrete, Equation fsa =Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, is applicable for the Locations beyond Decompression State & the Prestressing Steel are in Crack Section. c) If Tension prevailes in Flanges of RCC T-Girder & Box Girder, under Service Limit State Design, Flexural Tension Reinforcement also should be Provided on Flange for the Width of lesser value as Mentioned; i) On the Effective Flange Width as according to AASHTO-LRFD-4.6.2.6 ii) On the Width Equal to 1/10 of Average Length of Adjacent Spans between Bearings. d) For Effective Flange Width Greater than 1/10 of Average Length of Adjacent Spans between Bearings, Additional Longitudinal Reinforcement should Provide on Excess Width Portion of Flange. These Additional Longitudinal Reinforcement should be At least 0.40 % of the X-Sectional Area of the Excess Width Portion. ZBox-Culvert b d 27500/b

N/mm mm

e) If the value of dc of Nonprestrssed or Partially Prestressed Concrete Member Exceeds 900 mm, than Uniformly Distributed Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement would be required on both Side Faces of the Component over a Distance of dc/2 from the nearest Flexural Tension Reinforcement. i) Required Steel Area of Skein Reinforcement, Ask 0.0001(dc - 760) As +Aps) ; where, ii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm 2 iii) As = Area of Tensile Reinforcement iv) Total Area Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement should be <= 1/3rd of (Aps + As) v) The Max. Spacing of Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement should be less than either dc/6 or 300 mm. Ask Aps As mm2 mm2 mm2

mm-Wd.

1 Sketch of Bridge Deck Section: 10.250

225

75

75

1.475

175*175

1.250

0.300 0.200

150x150

0.950

1.650

1.650

1.650

1.650

0.950

0.350

1.125

2.000

2.000

2.000

2.000

1.125

2 Structural Data : i) Type of Bridge Structure ii) Type of Deck Slab : : Single Span Simple Supported RCC Girder Bridge. RCC Deck Slab having Over Hanging Cantilever on both Side. RCC Side Walk with RCC Pedestrian Type Railing & Railing Posts.

iv) Dimensions of Superstructure Components of Bridge Deck & Girder: Description a) Span Length of Bridge (C/C Distance between Bearings) b) Carriageway width of Bridge Deck, c) Width of Side Walk on both of Bridge Deck d) Height of Railing Post e) Longitudinal Width of Railing Post Notation Dimensions Strength WC-way WSidewalk. HR-Post. WPost-Long. Unit.

f) Transverse Width of Railing Post g) Interval Railing Post. h) Number of Rails on Each Side Walk. i) Vertical Depth of Railing j) Horizontal Width of Railings k) Height of Curb/Wheel-Guard/Riling Post Base l) Width of Curb/Wheel-Guard & Riling Post Base m) Total width of Bridge Deck Slab, n) Thickness of Bridge Deck Slab, o) Thickness of Wearing Course q) Thickness of Side Walk Slab, r) No's of Girders k) C/C Distance between Main Girders l) Width of Main Girder m) Depth of Main Girder including Slab Thickness n) Length of Cantilever Slab from Exterior Girder Center o) Clear Distance in between Two Main Girder Faces, p) Distance of Cantilever Slab Edge from Exterior Girder Face, q) Depth of Main Girder Fillet r) Width of Main Girder Fillet t) Distance between Outer Edge of Deck & Inner Edge of Curb u) Transverse Width of Utility/Fluid Space = WEdge-to-Curb. -2*bCurb/Guard v) Depth of Utility/Fluid Space = hCurb/Guard - tSlab-SW w) Distance of Wheel Guard Inner Edge up to Inner Face of Exterior Girder

WPost-Trans.. Int.Post NRails. hRailing. bRailing. hCurb/Guard bCurb/Guard WDeck tSlab tWC tSlab-SW NGir LC/C-Gir. bGir-Main hGir-Main LExt.-Gir-to-Cant. LGir.-Face. LCant-Ext. hFillet. bFillet. WEdge-to-Curb. WFluid. hFluid. LCurb-inner-Ext.

0.255 m 2.000 m 3.000 nos. 0.175 m 0.175 m 0.300 m 0.275 m 10.250 m. 0.200 m. 0.075 m. 0.075 m. 5.000 nos. 2.000 m. 0.350 m. 2.000 m 1.125 m. 1.650 m. 0.950 m 0.150 m 0.150 m. 1.475 m 0.925 m 0.225 m 0.175 m

= WEdge-to-Curb. - LExt.-Gir-to-Cant. - bGir-Main/2 x) Distance of Wheel Guard Inner Edge up to Outer Face of Exterior Girder = LCurb-inner-Ext.. + bGir-Main y) Distance of Wheel Guard Outer Edge up to Outer Face of Exterior Girder = bGir.-Main - (bCurb/Guard - LCurb.-inner) v) Computation of Effective Flange Width for T-Girder RCC Bridge : a) Under Provision of AASHTO LRFD-4.6.2.6 (4.6.2.6.1) the Flange Width of T-Girder will be the least Dimension of : i) One-quarter of Effective Span Length = 1/4*SLength = ii) 12.0 times average Depth of Slab + Greater Thickness of Web = 12*tSlab + bGi = iii) One-half the Width of Girder Top Flange (It is not req. as there is no Addl. Top Flange) iv) The average Spacing of Adjacent Beams/Girders = LC/C-Gir. = b) Since Average Spacing of Adjacent Beams/Girders is the Least one, thus the Flange Width of Interior Girders, bFla-Gir = 2.000m 3 Design Criterion, Type of Loading & Design Related Data : i) Design Criterion : a) AASHTO Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). b) Type of Loads : Combined Application of AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading & Lane Loading.

3 ii) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitational Acceleration, g =

LCurb-Outer-Ext.

0.525 m

LCurb-Outer.

0.250 m

bFl-Gir.

2.000 m

2 9.807 m/sec )

a) b) c) d) e)

Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compacted Clay/Sand/Silt)

a) b) c) d) e)

Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compacted Clay/Sand/Silt)

iv) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTO-LRFD-2004) :

a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength, f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, Ec = 0.043gc1.50f/c = 0.043*24^(1.50)*21^(1/2) Mpa, (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.4). d) Poisson's Ration = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2), subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.5). e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete, fr = 0.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). f) Steel Ultimate strength, fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement, Es for fy = 410 MPa

f/c fc Ec

fr fy fs ES

v) Design Data for Resistance Factors for Conventional Construction (AASHTO LRFD-5.5.4.2.1). : (Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f or b value) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete For Axil Compression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme Limit State (Zone 3 & 4). For Bearing on Concrete For Compression in Strut-and-Tie Modes For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones For resistance during Pile Driving Value of b 1 for Flexural Compression in Reinforced Concrete (AASHTO LRFD-5.7.2..2.) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete fFlx-Rin. fFlx-Pres. fShear. fSpir/Tie/Seim. fBearig. fStrut&Tie. fAnc-Copm-Conc. fAnc-Ten-Steel. fPile-Resistanc. b1 b 0.900 1.000 0.900 0.750 0.700 0.700 0.800 1.000 1.000 0.850 0.850

vi) Other Design Related Data : a) Velocity of Wind Load in Normal Condition b) Velocity of Wind Load in Special Condition c) Velocity of Water/Stream Current Causing Water/Stream Load VWL-Nor. VWL-Spe. VWA 90.000 260.000 4.200 km/hr km/hr m/s

5 Factors Applicable for Design of Different Structural Components under Strength Limit State (USD): i) Formula for Load Factors & Selection of Load Combination : a) Formula for Load Factors Q = igiQi f Rn = Rr; (AASHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-1 & 3.4.1-1) Where, i is Load Modifier having values i = D R I 0.95 in which for Loads a Maximum value of gi Applicable; (AASHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-2), & i = 1/(D R I ) 1.00 in which for Loads a Minimum value of gi Applicable; (AASHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-3) Here: gi = Load Factor; a statistically based multiplier Applied to Force Effect, f = Resistance Factor; a statistically based multiplier Applied to Nominal Resistance,

i = Load Modifier; a Factor related to Ductility, Redundancy and Operational Functions, For Strength Limit State; D i = D = 1.00 for Conventional Design related to Ductility, i = R = 1.00 for Conventional Levels of Redundancy , i = I = 1.00 for Typical Bridges related to Operational Functions, Qi = Force Effect, Rn = Nominal Resistance, Ri = Factored Resistance = fRn. R l

ii) Selection of Load Multiplying Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : a) The Bridge will have to face Cyclonic Storms with very high Intensity of Wind Load (Wind Velocity = 260km/hr), but those would be occasional. Thus the respective Multiplier Factors of Limit State STRENGTH I (Bridge used by Normal Vehicle without wind load) for normal operation, Limit State of STRENGTH-III (Wind Velocity exceeding 90km/hr) for wind load during cyclonic storm condition and Limit State of STRENGTH-IV (Having Wind Velocity of 90 km/hr) for normal wind load only are selected as CRITICAL conditions for bridge structure. iii) Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.250

gDW

1.500

gEH

1.500

gEV

1.350

gES

1.500

iv) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (AASHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load Allowance-IM as per Provision of AASHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; m 1.000

gLL-Truck IM

1.750 1.330

(Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking Force-BR. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV STRENGTH - III STRENGTH - V gLL-Lane gLL-PL. gLL-CE. gLL-BR. gLL-LS. gLL-WA. gLL-WS. gLL-WL gLL-FR. gLL-TU. 1.750 1.750 1.750 1.750 1.750 1.000 1.400 1.000 1.000 1.000

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

gLL-TG.

1.000

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

6 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD-3.4.1 ; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value gDC 1.000

of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDW 1.000

gEH

1.000

gEV

1.000

gES

1.000

ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (AASHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load Allowance-IM as per Provision of AASHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; SERVICE - I (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). SERVICE - IV SERVICE - II SERVICE - II SERVICE - II m 1.000

gLL-Truck IM

1.000 1.000

gLL-Lane gLL-PL. gLL-CE. gLL-BR. gLL-LS. gLL-WA. gLL-WS. gLL-WL gLL-FR. gLL-TU.

1.000 1.000 1.300 1.300 1.000 1.000 0.700 1.300 1.000 1.000

m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV 7 Philosophy in Flexural Design of Bridge Deck Slab :

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

gLL-TG.

1.000

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

a) The Bridge Deck is that Structural Component which directly carries the Live Loads (LL) of Vehicular Traffic, Lane Loading, Tandem Loadings, Pedestrian Loads etc. for whom the Bridge Structure are being build. In addition Dead Loads (DL) due to Self Weight & Deck Furniture's (Riling & Riling Posts, Wheel Guard & Curb, Medians & Side Walk Slab) including Utilities if there be any. b) Since Casting of Deck Slab RCC Bridge would be Monolithic with closely placed Longitudinal Main Girders, thus the Deck is absolutely a One-way Continuous Slab with Overhanging Cantilever Parts on both Sides. In addition of Self Weight Dead Load (DL) the Cantilevers would also carry the Dead Loads (DL) from Railing & Railing Post, Side Walk, Conduit with Utility, Wheel Guard & Curb etc. More over the Cantilevers will also carry the Pedestrian Live Loads (LL). Self Weight & Imposed Wearing Course are the Dead Load (DL) Constituents of Central Deck Portion. The Main Live Loads (LL) for the Central Portion is either Concentrated Wheel Loads of Design Truck or Similar but of Different Magnitude Tandem Loads. A Uniformly Distributed Lane Load also Constituent of Live Load (LL) for the Central Portion of Deck. b) For the Design Purpose & Calculation of Imposed Loads (DL & LL) and Computation of respective Shearing Force & Moments, the Deck Slab is to be considered as Constituents of Transverse Stripes having 1.000m width. c) For the Purpose of Design, Computations of Shearing Forces & Moments will be done in Four Different Sections. i) Section 1-1 on Outer Face of Exterior Girder is for Design of Cantilever Portion. Whereas, ii) Section 2-2 on Inner Face of Exterior Girder; iii) Section 3-3 on Middle in between Two Girders & iv) Section 4-4 of Face of Interior Girder for Design of Interior Slab Spans. d) Sketch Diagram Showing the Sections for Design Calculations : 1

225

1030

1250

200 150x150

300

0.950

1.650

1.650

0.350

1 1.125

2 2.000

3 2.000

8 Selection of Effective Span Length for Deck Slab & Other Dimensions under AASHTO-LRFD-2004 : i) Effective Span Length for RCC Girder Bridge (AASHTO-LRFD-9.7.2.3): a) For Slabs Monolithic with RCC Girders, the Effective Span Length of Deck Slab in between the Interior Girders is the Face to Face Distance. Thus Span Length of Interior Deck Slab = LC/C-Gir. - bGir-Main b) For Slabs Monolithic with RCC Girders, Effective Span Length of Cantilever Deck Slab is the Distance from Face of Exterior Girder up to Edge of the Cantilever. Thus Span Length of Cantilever Deck Slab; = LExt.-Gir-to-Cant. - bGir-Main/2 SInter. 1.650 m

75

75

SCant.

0.950 m

ii) Effective Span Length for PC or Steel Girder Bridge (AASHTO-LRFD-9.7.2.3): a) For Slab supported on Concrete (PC) or Steel Girder, the Effective Span Length of Interior Deck Slab is the Distance between Flange Tips Plus the Flange Overhanging Length taken as Distance from Extreme Flange Tip to the Face of Web, disregarding any Fillets. b) Slab supported on Concrete PC Girder or Steel Girder, the Effective Span Length of Cantilever Deck Slab is the Distance between Web Face up to the Cantilever Edge, disregarding any Fillets. SInter. m

SCant.

iii) Required Slab Thickness for RCC Bridge Deck Slab According to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-2004 : a) According to AASHTO-LRFD-2.5.2.6.3;Table-2.5.2.6.3-1 for a Continuous tSlab-req-1. 155.000 mm Span, the Thickness of Deck Slab should be = (S + 3000)/30 165mm <165 For the Case of Main Reinforcement Parallel to Traffic. Here S is Calculated Effective Length of Interior Span = 1550mm Since the Main Reinforcement is Perpendicular Traffic & tSlab-req-1 < 165m, thus the case is not Applicable. b) According to AASHTO-LRFD-9.7.1.1 Depth/Thickness of a Concrete Deck tSlab-req-2. 175.000 mm

should not be Less than 175 mm. c) The Provided Depth/Thickness for the Simple Supported T-Girder Bridge = 200mm which is Greater than tSlab-req-2. iv) Provision of Clear Cover for Deck Slab : a) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.12.3; Table.5.12.3-1 for Structures on Costal Area , the Clear Covers both on Top & Bottom Surface of Slab should be 75 mm from Face of main Reinforcement. Since the Top Surface of Deck Slab will have 75 mm Thick Wearing Course, thus on this Surface may Provide with 38 mm Clear Cover. Accordingly by using Ante-Chlorine Admixtures for Concrete, on Bottom Surface 25 mm Clear cover may Provide. 9 Selection/Computation of Applied Loads/Forces (DL & LL) for Flexural Design of Deck Slab: i) Computation of Different Dead Loads (DL) Applicable for the Interior & Cantilever Span of Deck Slab : a) For Computation of Loads Let Consider Strip in Transverse Direction having Width in Longitudinal = 1.000m b) Intensity of Uniformly Distributed Dead Load (DL) due to Self Weight of Slab for per Meter Span Length & 1.000 m Wide Strip = wC*tSlab*bStrip c) Intensity of Uniformly Distributed Dead Load (DL) due to Wearing Course for per Meter Span Length & 1.000 m Wide Strip = wWC*tWC*bStrip. d) Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge on 1.000m Wide Strip From Railings as Concentrated Load (Computed from Load Analysis Sheet). e) Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge on 1.000m Wide Strip From Railing Post as Concentrated Load (Computed from Load Analysis Sheet). f) Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge on 1.000m Wide Strip From Railing Post Base as Concentrated Load = wC*hCurb/Guard*bCurb/Guard./bStrim g) Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part on 1.000m Wide Strip From Curb as Concentrated Load = wC*hCurb/Guard*bCurb/Guard. h) Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part on 1.000m Wide Strip From Side Walk Slab as Uniformly Distributed Load = wC*tSlab-SW*bStrip i) Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part on 1.000m Wide Strip From Fluid for Utility Load as Concentrated Load (Computed from Load Analysis Sheet). bStrip. 1.000 m tSlab-pro. 200.000 mm tslab-pro.>tslab-req. OK.

WDL-Self.

2 4.800 kN/m /m

WDL-WC.

2 1.725 kN/m /m

WDL-Railing.

2.205 kN.

WDL-Rail-Post.

0.650 kN.

WDL-Post-Base.

1.980 kN.

WDL-Curb.

1.980 kN.

WDL-S-Walk.

2 1.800 kN/m /m

WDL-Utility.

2.081 kN

ii) Computation of Different Live Loads (LL) Applicable for the Interior & Cantilever Span of Deck Slab : a) Since the Design Strip is 1.000m Wide over which on any Span only One Wheel of Design Truck or Tandem can take Position due to their Longitudinal & Transverse Spacing, thus One Rear or Middle Wheel of Design Truck PLL-Truck. 72.500 kN

having the Highest Magnitude of Loading should be Considered as Wheel Live Load (LL). (AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.1.2.2) b) Since the Design Lane Load is a Uniformly Distributed Live Load (LL) having Magnitude of 9.300 N/mm in Longitudinal Direction with Action in Transverse Direction over 3.000m Width & the Design Strip is in Transverse Direction of 1.000m Width. Thus Magnitude of Lane Load over the 1.000 m 2 area of Deck = ((9.300*1000)/3.000)/1000 kN/m 2 (AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.1.2.4) c) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.1.3.4 Bridges having Overhanging Deck Slab Span not Exceeding 1800 mm from Center of Exterior Girder & where Exists a Structurally Continuous Concrete Railing, there will be a Longitudinal & Uniformly Distributed Line Live Load (LL) of Magnitude of 14.600N/mm. Action of Line Load will be at Distance 300mm from the Face of Railing & it would Replace the Outside Row of Wheel Load. Since the Design Strip is in Transverse Direction with 1.000m Width, thus Action on Line Load will like a Concentrated Load having Magnitude = 14.600*1000/1000kN. d) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.1.6 on the Sidewalk Surface a Uniformly Distributed Pedestrian Live Load (LL) will act having Intensity 3.6*10-3 Mpa for the Cases where Sidewalk Width is Greater than 600mm. Since Provided Sidewalk Width is 1.250m & the Design Strip is in Transverse Direction with 1.000m Width, thus Pedestrian Live Load per m 2 of Sidewalk Surface = (3.600/10^3)*10^6/10^3kN/m2. PLL-Lane.

2 3.100 kN/m

PLL-Line.

14.600 kN/m

PLL-Pedst.

2 3.600 kN/m

10 Computation of Factored Loads (DL & LL) in respect of Flexural Design of Deck Slab under Provisions for Strength Limit State of Design (USD) & Service Limit State of Design (WSD) : i) Computation of Factored Dead Loads (DL) Applicable for the Strength Limit State of Design (USD) under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1 : a) Intensity of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Load (DL) due to Self Weight of Slab = gDC*WDL-Self b) Intensity of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Load (DL) due to Wearing Course = gDW*WDL-WC c) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge From Railings as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDL-Railing d) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge From Railing Post as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDL-Rail-Post. e) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge From Railing Post Base as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDL-Postp-Base. WDL-Self.-USD

2 6.000 kN/m /m

WDL-WC.-USD

2 2.588 kN/m /m

WDL-Railing.-USD

2.756 kN.

WDL-Rail-Post.-USD

0.813 kN.

WDL-Post-Base.-USD

2.475 kN.

f) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part From Curb as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDL-Curb.

WDL-Curb.-USD

2.475 kN.

g) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part From Side Walk Slab as Uniformly Distributed Load = gDC*WDL-S-Walk. h) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part From Fluid for Utility Load as Concentrated Load = gDW*WDL-Utility.

WDL-S-Walk.-USD

2 2.250 kN/m /m

WDL-Utility.-USD

3.122 kN

ii) Computation of Factored Dead Loads (DL) Applicable for the Service Limit State of Design (WSD) under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1 : a) Intensity of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Load (DL) due to Self Weight of Slab = gDC*WDL-Self b) Intensity of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Load (DL) due to Wearing Course = gDW*WDL-WC c) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge From Railings as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDL-Railing d) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge From Railing Post as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDL-Rail-Post. e) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge From Railing Post Base as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDL-Postp-Base. f) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part From Curb as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDL-Curb. g) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part From Side Walk Slab as Uniformly Distributed Load = gDC*WDL-S-Walk. h) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part From Fluid for Utility Load as Concentrated Load = gDW*WDL-Utility. WDL-Self.-WSD

2 4.800 kN/m /m

WDL-WC.-WSD

2 1.725 kN/m /m

WDL-Railing.WSD

2.205 kN.

WDL-Rail-Post.-WSD

0.650 kN.

WDL-Post-Base.-WSD

1.980 kN.

WDL-Curb.-WSD

1.980 kN.

WDL-S-Walk.-WSD

2 1.800 kN/m /m

WDL-Utility.-WSD

2.081 kN

iii) Computation of Factored Live Loads (LL) Applicable for the Strength Limit State of Design (USD) under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1 : a) Factored Design Truck Wheel Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck = m*gLL-Truck*IM*PLL-Truck. b) Factored Design Lane Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck = m*gLL-Lane*PLL-Lane. c) Factored Design Line Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck = m*gLL-Lane*PLL-LIne. d) Factored Design Pedestrian Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck PLL-Truck.-USD 168.744 kN

PLL-Lane.-USD

2 5.425 kN/m /m

PLL-Line.-USD

25.550 kN/m

PLL-Pedst.-USD

2 6.300 kN/m /m

= m*gLL-Lane*PLL-PL. iv) Computation of Factored Live Loads (LL) Applicable for the Service Limit State of Design (WSD) under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1 : a) Factored Design Truck Wheel Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck = m*gLL-Truck*IM*PLL-Truck. b) Factored Design Lane Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck = m*gLL-Lane*PLL-Lane. c) Factored Design Line Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck = m*gLL-Lane*PLL-Lane. d) Factored Design Pedestrian Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck = m*gLL-Lane*PLL-PL. PLL-Truck.-WSD 72.500 kN

PLL-Lane.-WSD

2 3.100 kN/m /m

PLL-Line.-WSD

14.600 kN/m

PLL-Pedst.-WSD

2 3.600 kN/m /m

11 Adopted Methods of Analysis in Flexural Design of Deck Slab under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-2004 : i) Approximate Method of Analysis for Direct Calculation of Moments under AASHTO-LRFD-4.6.2.1.8 : a) According to Article 4.6.2.1.8; Live Load Force Effects for Fully & Partially Filled Grids & for Unfilled Grid Decks Composite with Reinforced Concrete Slab can consider for Determination of Live Load Moments due to Vehicular Load either from Design Truck or Design Tandem. b) Under Provision of Article 4.6.2.1.8; Deck Slab having Main Reinforcements Perpendicular to Traffic, the Moments both for (+) ve & (-) ve values on Interior Spans are being Expressed by the Equations-4.6.2.1.8-1 & 4.6.2.1.8-2. c) According to Equ.- 4.6.2.1.8-1; For Center-to-Center Distance of Supports, L 3000mm the Transverse Moments for Deck Slab; MTransverse = 1260D0.197L0.459C in N-mm/mm d) According to Equ.4.6.2.1.8-2; For Center-to-Center Distance of Supports, L > 3000mm the Transverse Moments for Deck Slab; MTransverse = (5300D0.188(L1.35-20400)/L)*(C) in N-mm/mm Here for both Equ. e) C is Continuity Factor having value for Simple Support Span = 1.00 & for the Continuous Span = 0.80 f) D is Ratio of Flexural Rigidity-DX of Deck Slab in Main Bar Direction with Flexural Regidity - DY of Deck Slab Perpendicular to Main Bar Direction. CSimple CContinous D 1.000 0.800 0.606

g) The Flexural Rigidity of Deck Slab in Main Bar Direction & Perpendicular to Main Bar Direction are Expressed by, DX = EIX in N-mm2/mm & DY = EIY in N-mm2/mm where, E is Modulus of Elasticity, IX & IY are Moment of Inertia in Respective Directions. h) Considering Design Strip in Transverse Direction, Strip Width = 1000mm. i) Effective Span Length for Deck between Interior Girders = 1650 mm bStrip SInter. 1,000 mm 1,650 mm

j) Provided Slab Thickness = 200mm k) Value on Moment of Inertia for Main Reinforcement Direction; IX = bStrip(tSlab)3/12 in mm4 l) Value on Moment of Inertia Perpendicular to Main Reinforcement Direction; IX = SInter,(tSlab)3/12 in mm4 m) Flexural Rigidity of Deck Slab in Main Bar Direction, DX = EIX

tSlab. IX

200 mm

4 6.667E+08 mm 4 0.001 m 4 1.100E+09 mm 4 1.100E-03 m

IY

DX

1.590E+13 N-mm/mm 1.590E+04 kN-m/m 2.624E+13 N-mm/mm 2.624E+04 kN-m/m 29908.110 N-mm/mm 29.908 kN-m/m

n) Flexural Rigidity of Deck Slab Perpendicular to Main Bar Direction, DY= EIY

DY

(+) MTransverse o) Since the Center-to-Center Distance between Girders, LC/C-Gir. = L = 2000mm < 3000mm thus Equ.- 4.6.2.1.8-1 is applicable for (+) ve Moment value Calculation on Interior Span as Continuous Span having C = 0.80. p) The (-) ve Moment value can Calculate considering Simple Span with value of C = 0.800 (-) MTransverse

i-i) Factored Moments for Strength Limit State of Design (USD) under Approximate Method of Analysis : a) Factored (+) ve Moment for Interior Span under Strength Limit State (USD) = mgLL-TruckIM*MTrans-UF b) Factored (-) ve Moment for Interior Span under Strength Limit State (USD) = mgLL-TruckIM*MTrans-UF (+) MTrans-USD 69611.125 N-mm/mm 69.611 kN-m/m 87013.906 N-mm/mm 87.014 kN-m/m

(-) MTrans-USD

i-ii) Factored Moments for Service Limit State of Design (WSD) under to Approximate Method of Analysis : a) Factored (+) ve Moment for Interior Span under Service Limit State (WSD) = mgLL-TruckIM*MTrans-UF b) Factored (-) ve Moment for Interior Span under Service Limit State (WSD) = mgLL-TruckIM*MTrans-WSD (+)MTrans-WSD 29,908.110 N-mm/mm 29.908 kN-m/m 37,385.137 N-mm/mm 37.385 kN-m/m

(-) MTrans-WSD

ii) Distribution Factor Method for Analysis of Moments for Interior Deck Spans under the Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-4.6.2.2.2b : a) According to Article-4.6.2.2.2b in Concrete Bridges having More than 4 Main Girders & Linked by Cross-Girders, the Live Load (Truck/Tandem) Moments for Deck Interior Spans should be based upon the Distribution Factor as mentioned in Equation of Table- 4.6.2.2.2b-1. b) The Distribution Factor for Live Loads Per Lane for Moment in Interior Beam of Multi Lane RCC T-Girder Bridge is being Expressed by gInt.-M = 0.075+ (S/2900)0.6(S/L)0.2(0.2(Kg/Lts3))0.1; where,

c) S is Effective Span Length of Interior Spans for Deck's Design Strip = SInter. d) L is Center-to-Center Distance between Supports of Main Girder = SBridge. e) Kg is Longitudinal Stiffness Parameter in mm 4 f) ts is Thickness of Bridge Deck in mm = tSlab g) According to Provision of Article - 4.6.2.2.2b in Preliminary Design the value of Kg/Lts = 1.000 h) Thus the Calculated value of Distribution Factor for Interior Span gInt.-M (Having value of S = 1550 > 1100 but < 4900; ts = 200 > 110 but < 300 ; L =24400 > 6000 but < 76000; Nb (Nos. of Girder = 5 > 4).

S L Kg ts Kg/Lts

gInt.-M

0.491

iii) Distribution Factor Method for Analysis of Moments for Deck Overhanging under the Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-4.6.2.2.2d : a) According to Article-4.6.2.2.2d in Concrete Bridges having More than 4 Main Girders & Linked by Cross-Girders, the Live Load (Truck/Tandem) Moments for Deck Overhanging Spans should be based on the Distribution Factor as mentioned in Equation of Table- 4.6.2.2.2d-1. b) The Distribution Factor for Live Loads Per Lane for Moment on Deck Overhanging on face of Exterior Longitudinal Girder of Multi Lane RCC T-Girder Bridge is being Expressed by gExt = egInt; where, c) e is Correction Factor having value = 0.77 + de/2800; Here , d) de is a Distance in mm from Exterior Face/Web of Exterior Girder up to the Interior Edge of Curb or Traffic Barrier = WEdge-to-Curb. - SCant. Since Position of Exterior Face/Web of Exterior Girder is within Inboard of Slab's Outer Edge-to-Curb, thus de is of (+) ve value. e) Thus Calculated Distribution Factor value for Overhanging gExt.-M = egInt-M (Having value of de = 575 > (-)300 but < 1700; ts = 200 > 110 but < 300 ; L =24400 > 6000 but < 76000; Nb (Nos. of Girder) = 5 > 4 ). e de 0.958 525 mm

gExt.-M

0.470

iv) Distribution Factor Method for Analysis of Shears for Interior Deck Spans According to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-4.6.2.2.3a : a) According to Article-4.6.2.2.3a in Concrete Bridges having Multi Lane with More than 4 Main Girders & Linked by Cross-Girders, the Live Load (Truck/Tandem) Shear for Deck Interior Spans should be based upon the Distribution Factor as mentioned in Equation of Table- 4.6.2.2.3a-1. b) The Distribution Factor for Live Loads Per Lane for Shear in Interior Beam of Multi Lane RCC T-Girder Bridge is being Expressed by gInt.-V = 0.20 + S/3600 - (S/10700)2.00; where, c) S is Effective Span Length of Interior Spans for Deck's Design Strip = SInter. S 1,650.000 mm

d) Thus the Calculated value of Distribution Factor for Interior Span gInt.-V (Having value of S = 1550 > 1100 but < 4900; ts = 200 > 110 but < 300 ; L =24400 > 6000 but < 76000; Nb (Nos. of Girder) = 5 > 4 ).

gInt.-V

0.635

v) Distribution Factor Method for Analysis of Shear for Deck Overhanging under the Provisions of AASHTO -LRFD-4.6.2.2.3b : a) According to Article-4.6.2.2.3b in Concrete Bridges having Multi Lane with More than 4 Main Girders & Linked by Cross-Girders, the Live Load (Truck/Tandem) Shear for Deck Overhanging should be based upon the Distribution Factor as mentioned in Equation of Table- 4.6.2.2.3a-2. b) The Distribution Factor for Live Loads Per Lane for Shear on Deck Overhanging on face of Exterior Longitudinal Girder of Multi Lane RCC T-Girder Bridge is being Expressed by gExt-V = egInt-V ; where, c) e is Correction Factor having value = 0.60 + de/3000; Here , d) de is a Distance in mm from Exterior Face/Web of Exterior Girder up to the Interior Edge of Curb or Traffic Barrier = WEdge-to-Curb. - SCant. Since Position of Exterior Face/Web of Exterior Girder is within Inboard of Slab's Outer Edge-to-Curb, thus de is of (+) ve value. e) Thus Calculated value of Distribution Factor for Overhanging gExt.= egInt-V (Having value of de = 575 > (-)300 but < 1700; ts = 200 > 110 but < 300 ; L =24400 > 6000 but < 76000; Nb (Nos. of Girder) = 5 > 4 ). e de 0.775 525.000 mm

gExt.-V

0.492

vi) Computation of Equivalent Strip Width for Live Load Moment for Interior Deck According to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-4.6.2.1.3 : a) According to Article - 4.6.2.1.3 in a Concrete Bridges having More than 4 Main Girders & Linked by Cross-Girders, the Live Load (Truck/Tandem) Moments for Interior Deck Spans should be Calculated in respect of the Strip Width as mentioned in Equation of Table- 4.6.2.1.3-1. b) For Cast in Place PC-Girder Concrete Bridge with Considered Strip Perpendicular to Traffic, Equivalent Strip Width for (+) ve Moment is being Expressed by the Equation, (+)XInt. = 660 + 0.55S in mm.& that for (-) ve Moment is being Expressed by the Equation, (-)XInt. = 1220 + 0.25S in mm. Here, c) S is Spacing of Supporting Components in mm (Here PC-Girders) = LC/C-Gir. d) Thus Equivalent Strip Width for (+) ve Moment e) Thus Equivalent Strip Width for (-) ve Moment S (+)XInt. (-)XInt. 2,000.000 mm 1,760.000 mm 1,720.000 mm

vii) Computation of Equivalent Strip Width for Live Load Moment for Deck Overhanging under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-4.6.2.1.3 : a) Since the Provisions of Article-4.6.2.1.3 have Recommended to use Provisions of Article-3.6.1.3.4 for Applied Live Load & Calculation of respective Moments on Cantilever/Overhanging Portion of Deck Slab, thus Provisions of this Article is not Applicable.

12 Moment Arms for Calculation of Moments at Different Sections due to Applied Loads : i) Computation of Moment Arms for the Components Resting upon the Overhanging/Cantilever Deck Slab & Live Loads in Respect of Section 1-1 (On outer Face of Exterior Girder) : a) Moment Arm for Railing = LCant-Ext. -bRailing/2 b) Moment Arm for Railing Post = LCant-Ext. - WPost-Trans./2 c) Moment Arm for Raining Post Base = LCant-Ext. - bCurb/Guard./2 d) Moment Arm for Sidewalk Slab = WSidewalk/2 - bGir-Main - LCurb-inner-Ext. e) Moment Arm for Utility/Fluid Space = WFluid/2 - LCurb-Outer-Ext. f) Moment Arm for Pedestrian Live Load = WSidewalk/2 - LCurb-Outer-Ext. g) Moment Arm for Line Live Load = WSidewalk - LCurb-Outer-Ext. - 0.300 LRailing LR-Post LR-Post-Base LS-walk LUtility. LPedes LLine 0.863 m 0.823 m 0.813 m 0.100 m 0.213 m 0.375 m 0.700 m

ii) Computation of Moment Arms for the Components Resting upon the Deck Slab on Inner Side of Exterior Girder & Live Loads in Respect of Section 2-2 (On Inner Face of Exterior Girder) : a) Moment Arm for Curb/Wheel Guard (Part) = LCurb-inner-Ext./2 b) Moment Arm for Pedestrian Live Load on Curb = LCurb-Inner-Ext. c) Moment Arm for Wearing Course & Lane Live Load on Deck in between Exterior Girder & 1st. Interior Girder = (SInter - LCurb-Inner-Ext.)/2 + LCurb-Inner-Ext. LCurb LPedes-Curb LWC/Lane 0.088 m 0.088 m 0.913 m

13 Calculation of (-) Moments (DL & LL) of Overhanging Span at Section 1-1 (Exterior Girder Outer Face) Based Distribution Factor or Lever Rule under Provisions Strength Limit State (USD); AASHTO-LRFD-2004 : i) Since the Span is Overhanging/Cantilever, thus Moment value is of (-) ve in Nature. ii) Calculation of Factored Dead Load (DL) Moments for Overhanging/Cantilever Span at Section 1-1 (Outer Face of Exterior Girder) :

2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDL-Self.-USD*(SCanti.) /2

b) Moment due to Railing = WDL-Railing-USD*LRailing c) Moment due to Railing Post = WDL-R-Post-USD*LR-Post d) Moment due to Railing Post Base = WDL-R-Post-Base-USD*LR-Post-Base

e) Moment due to Curb/Wheel Guard, since it is Outboard of Overhanging thus calculation of Moment is not required.

f) Moment due to Sidewalk Slab = WDL-S-Walk.-USD*LS-Walk. g) Moment due to Utility = WDL-Utility.-USD*LUtility. h) Total Factored Dead Load (-) Moments at Section 1-1 for Overhanging.

iii) Calculation of Factored Live Load (LL) Moments for Overhanging/Cantilever Span at Section 1-1 (Outer Face of Exterior Girder) : a) Moment due to Pedestrian on Sidewalk = PLL-Pedst.-USD*WSidewalk*LPedes b) Moment due to Line load on Sidewalk = PLL-Line.-USD*LLine c) Total Factored Live Load (-) Moments at Section 1-1 for Overhanging. MLL-Pedst-USD MLL-Line-USD (-) MLL-Total-1-1-USD 5.513 kN-m/m 17.885 kN-m/m 23.398 kN-m/m

iv) Calculated Total Factored (-)Moments at Section 1-1 due to (-) MDL+LL-1-1-USD Applied Loads (DL + LL) on Overhanging/Cantilever Span of Deck.

31.574 kN-m/m

14 Calculation of (-) Moments (DL & LL) of Interior Span at Section 2-2 (Exterior Girder Inner Face) Based Distribution Factor or Lever Rule under Provisions Strength Limit State (USD); AASHTO-LRFD-2004 : i) For Continuous Span at Support Position Moment value is of (-) ve in Nature. ii) Calculation of Factored Dead Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 2-2 (Inner Face of Exterior Girder) :

2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDL-Self.-USD*(SInter.) /9

b) Moment due to Wearing Course = WDL-WC.-USD*(SInter)2/9 c) Moment due to Curb/Wheel Guard Portion , = WDL-Curb.-USD*LCurb. d) Total Factored Dead Load (-) Moments at Section 2-2 for Interior Span.

iii) Calculation of Factored Live Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 2-2 (Inner Face of Exterior Girder) : a) Moment due to Live Truck Wheel Load = PLL-Truck.-USD*gInt.-M b) Moment due to Live Lane load on Sidewalk = PLL-Lane.-USD*(SInter.)2/9 c) Total Factored Live Load (-)Moments at Section 2-2 for Interior Span iv) Calculated Total Factored (-) Moments at Section 2-2 due to Applied Loads (DL + LL) on Interior Span of Deck. MLL-Truck-USD MLL-Lane-USD (-)MLL-Total-2-2-USD (-)MDL+LL-2-2-USD 82.849 kN-m/m 0.938 kN-m/m 83.787 kN-m/m 86.602 kN-m/m

15 Calculation of (+) Moments (DL & LL) of Interior Span at Section 3-3 (On Middle between Interior Girders) Based Distribution Factor or Lever Rule under Provisions Strength Limit State (USD); AASHTO-LRFD-2004 : i) For Continuous Span at Middle Position the Moment value is of (+) ve in Nature. ii) Calculation of Factored Dead Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 3-3 (On Middle of Interior Girders) :

2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDL-Self.-USD*(SInter.) /14

b) Moment due to Wearing Course = WDL-WC.-USD*(SInter)2/14 c) Total Factored Dead Load (+) Moments at Section 3-3 for Interior Span.

iii) Calculation of Factored Live Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 3-3 (On Middle of Interior Girders) : a) Moment due to Live Truck Wheel Load = PLL-Truck.-USD*gInt.-M b) Moment due to Live Lane load on Sidewalk = FPLL-Lane.-USD*(SInter.)2/9 c) Total Factored Live Load (+)Moments at Section 3-3 for Interior Span. iv) Calculated Total Factored (+) Moments at Section 3-3 due to Applied Loads (DL + LL) on Interior Span of Deck. MLL-Truck-USD MLL-Lane-USD (+)MLL-Total-3-3-USD 82.849 kN-m/m 0.603 kN-m/m 83.452 kN-m/m

(+)MDL+LL-3-3-USD

85.122 kN-m/m

16 Calculation of (-) Moments (DL & LL) of Interior Span at Section 4-4 (On Face of Interior Girder) Based Distribution Factor or Lever Rule under Provisions Strength Limit State (USD); AASHTO-LRFD-2004 : i) For Continuous Span at Support Position Moment value is of (-) ve in Nature. ii) Calculation of Factored Dead Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 4-4(On Face of Interior Girder) :

2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDL-Self-USD.*(SInter.) /9

b) Moment due to Wearing Course = WDL-WC.-USD*(SInter)2/9 c) Total Factored Dead Load (-) Moments at Section 4-4 for Interior Span.

iii) Calculation of Factored Live Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 4-4 (Inner Face of Exterior Girder) : a) Moment due to Live Truck Wheel Load = PLL-Truck.-USD*gInt.-M MLL-Truck-USD 82.849 kN-m/m

b) Moment due to Live Lane load on Sidewalk = PLL-Lane.-USD*(SInter.)2/9 c) Total Factored Live Load (-)Moments at Section 4-4 for Interior Span. iv) Calculated Total Factored (-) Moments at Section 4-4 due to Applied Loads (DL + LL) on Interior Span of Deck.

MLL-Lane-USD (-)MLL-Total-4-4-USD

(-)MDL+LL-4-4-USD

86.385 kN-m/m

17 Calculated Highest (-) ve Moment value for Distribution Factor Method under Strength Limit Stalt (USD): i) Section on Which Calculated (-) Moment is Highest; ii) The Calculated value of Highest (-) ve Moment Section 2-2 is highest (-)MDL+LL-2-2-USD 86.602 kN-m/m

18 Selecton of Approprate (-) Moments & (+) Moments (DL+LL) for Flexural Design of Reinforcements of the Bridge Deck Slab from the Calculated Values of Approximate Method & Distribution Factor Method under Provisions of Strength Limit State (USD); AASHTO-LRFD-2004 : i) The Highest of Calculated (+) ve Moment Either Approximate Method or Distribution Factor Method. Distribution Factor Method Highest ii) The Highest of Calculated (-) ve Moment Either Approximate Method or Distribution Factor Method. Approximate Method Higer iii) The Calculated Values of Factored Moments according to Distribution Factor Methods for (+) ve Moments at Sections 3-3 & that for (-) ve Moments at Section 2-2 both are Heigher than the Calculated Factored Moments According to Provisions under Approximate Methods. Thus the Calculated Factored Moments According to Provisions of Distribution Factor Methods at Section 3-3 & 2-2 are the Governing Moments for Flexural Design of Deck Slab Reinforcements. iv) Total Factored Flexural Design (+) ve Moments (DL + LL) for Deck v) Total Factored Flexural Design (-) ve Moments (DL + LL) for Deck (+)MDesign-USD (-)MDesign-USD 85.122 kN-m/m 87.014 kN-m/m

18 Calculation of (+) Moments (DL & LL) of Interior Span at Section 3-3 (On Middle between Interior Girders) Based Distribution Factor or Lever Rule under Provisions Service Limit State (WSD); AASHTO-LRFD-2004 : i) For Continuous Span at Middle Position the Moment value is of (+) ve in Nature. ii) Calculation of Factored Dead Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 3-3 (On Middle of Interior Girders) :

2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDL-Self.-WSD*(SInter.) /14

b) Moment due to Wearing Course = WDL-WC.-WSD*(SInter)2/14 c) Total Factored Dead Load (+) Moments at Section 3-3 of Interior Span.

iii) Calculation of Factored Live Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 3-3 (On Middle of Interior Girders) : a) Moment due to Live Truck Wheel Load = PLL-Truck.-WSD*gInt.-M b) Moment due to Live Lane load on Sidewalk = PLL-Lane.-WSD*(SInter.)2/9 c) Total Factored Live Load (+)Moments at Section 3-3 for Interior Span. iv) Calculated Total Factored (+) Moments at Section 3-3 due to Applied Loads (DL + LL) on Interior Span of Deck. MLL-Truck-WSD MLL-Lane-WSD (+)MLL-Total-3-3-WSD 35.596 kN-m/m 0.603 kN-m/m 36.199 kN-m/m

(+)MSDL+LL-3-3-WSD

37.468 kN-m/m

19 Calculation of (-) Moments (DL & LL) of Interior Span at Section 4-4 (On Face of Interior Girder) Based Distribution Factor or Lever Rule under Provisions Service Limit State (WSD); AASHTO-LRFD-2004 : i) For Continuous Span at Support Position Moment value is of (-) ve in Nature. ii) Calculation of Factored Dead Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 4-4(On Face of Interior Girder) :

2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDL-Self.-WSD*(SInter.) /9

b) Moment due to Wearing Course = WDL-WC.*(SInter)2/9 c) Total Factored Dead Load (-) Moments at Section 4-4 for Interior Span

iii) Calculation of Factored Live Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 4-4 (Inner Face of Exterior Girder) : a) Moment due to Live Truck Wheel Load = PLL-Truck.-WSD*gInt.-M b) Moment due to Live Lane load on Sidewalk = PLL-Lane.-WSD*(SInter.)2/9 c) Total Factored Live Load (-)Moments at Section 4-4 for Interior Span. iv) Calculated Total Factored (-) Moments at Section 4-4 due to Applied Loads (DL + LL) on Interior Span of Deck. MLL-Truck-WSD MLL-Lane-WSD (-)MLL-Total-4-4-WSD 35.596 kN-m/m 0.938 kN-m/m 36.534 kN-m/m

(-)MSDL+LL-4-4-WSD

38.507 kN-m/m

20 Unfactored (+) ve & (-) ve Dead Load Moments under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-2004 : i) For Continuous Span at Middle Position the Moment value is of (+) ve & on Support is (-) ve. ii) Calculation of Unfactored Dead Load (+)Moments of Interior Continuous Span at Middle :

2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDL-Self.*(SInter.) /14

MDL-Self-UF

0.933 kN-m/m

b) Moment due to Wearing Course = WDL-WC.*(SInter)2/14 c) Total Factored Dead Load (+) Moments at Middle of Interior Span.

MDL-WC-UF (+)MDL-Total-UF

iii) Calculation of Unfactored Dead Load (-)Moments of Interior Continuous Span at Support :

2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDL-Self.*(SInter.) /9

b) Moment due to Wearing Course = WDL-WC.*(SInter)2/9 c) Total Unfactored Dead Load (-) Moments at Middle of Interior Span.

21 Calculation of Factored Shearing Forces on Interior Span Faces According to Distribution Factor & Lever Rule under Provisions Strength Limit State (USD); i) Calculation of Factored Dead Load (DL) Shearing Forces on Faces of Interior Span at Grider Faces : a) Shearing Forces due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDL-Self.-USD*SInter./2 b) Shearing Forces due to Wearing Course = WDL-WC.-USD*SInter/2 c) Total Factored Dead Load (-) Shearin Forcets at Faces of Interior Girder. VDL-Self--USD VDL-WC-USD VDL-Total-USD 4.950 kN/m 2.135 kN-m/m 7.085 kN-m/m

ii) Calculation of Factored Live Load (DL) Shearing Forces on Faces of Interior Span at Grider Faces : a) Shearing Forces due to Live Truck Wheel Load = PLL-Truck-USD.*gInt.-V b) Shearing Forces due to Live Lane Load = FSPLL-Lane.*SInter./2 c) Total Factored Live Load (-)Moments at Section 4-4 for Interior Span iii) Tatal Factored Shearing Forces On Interior Girder Feces due to Applied Loads : VLL-Truck-USD VLL-Lane-USD VLL-Total-USD VDL+LL-USD 107.077 kN/m 4.476 kN/m 111.553 kN/m 118.637 kN/m

22 Computation of Related Features required for Flexural Design of Top & Bottom Reinforcements for Deck Slab Against Calculated Design (-) ve & (+) ve Moments : i) Design Strip Width for Deck Slab in Transverse Horizontal Direction & Clear Cover on Different Faces: a) Let Consider the Design Width in Transverse Directions is = 1000mm b) Let the Clear Cover on Bottom Surface of Decl Slab, C-Cov.Bot. = 25mm, Let the Clear Cover on Top Surface of Decl Slab, C-Cov.Top = 38mm, b C-Cov-Bot. C-Cov-Top. 1.000 m 25 mm 38 mm

ii) Calculations of Limits For Maximum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1) : . a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for c/de-Max. a Section c/de 0.42 in which;

0.42

b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm. Here; i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy), where ; ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps, fps & dp are = 0. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds . iii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.2) :

c de

Variable Variable

As Aps fy fps dp ds

a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.2*Mcr or 1.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1-Table-3.4.1-1, which one is less.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1.2Mcr. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) - Mdnc(Sc/Snc -1) Scfr where; i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to Effective Prestress Forces at Extreme Fiber only where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance of all Prestressing Losses in MPa. In Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in N-mm. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic/Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. For the Rectangular RCC Section value of Snc = (b*tSlab.3/12)/(tSlab./2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in Mpa,(AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements, Mcr fcpe Variable N-mm N/mm2

Mdnc

Variable

N-mm

Sc

Variable

mm3

Snc

fr Mcr

2 2.887 N/mm

19.247 kN-m

Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0, thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces Mcr-1 Mcr-2 Mcr-3

19246817.919 N-mm

g) Table-1 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for Minimum Reinforcement of Different Surface & Direction Position Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable 1.2 Times M & Nature Unfactored Mcr-1 Cracking Mcr of Mcr Factored of Moment Dead Load As per Moment Cracking Cracking Moment on Moment Equation Value Moment Moment of Section Back MDL-UF 5.7.3.3.2-1 Sncfr (Mcr-1Sncfr) (1.2*Mcr) M Wall kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m

(-)ve Face of Girder (+)ve Mid. of Span 1.974 19.247 19.247 19.247 23.096 85.122 113.213 23.096 85.122 1.269 19.247 19.247 19.247 23.096 87.014 1.33 Times

Mr of M, Allowable Factored Min. Moment for RCC Moment 1.2Mcr (1.33*M) kN-m kN-m

115.728 23.096

87.014

iv) Calculations for Balanced Steel Ratio- pb & Max. Steel Ratio- pmax according to AASHTO-1996-8.16.2.2 : a) Balanced Steel Ratio or the Section, pb = b*b1*((f/c/fy)*(599.843/(599.843 + fy))), b) Max. Steel Ratio, pmax. = f *pb , (Here f = 0.75) pb 0.022

pmax.

0.016

23 Flexural Design of Reinforcements on Bottom Surface of Deck Slab Against Calculated (-) ve Moment on Interior Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (-) ve Moment on Interior Span Strip of (-)MDL+LL-USD 87.014 kN-m/m Deck Slab is Greater than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Calculated 87.014*10^6 N-mm/m Moment Governs the Provision of Reinforcement against (-) ve Moment Mr 23.096 kN-m/m value. For (-) ve value the required Reinforcement will be on Top Surface. 23.096*10^6 N-mm/m b) Since (-)MDL+LL-USD > Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section thus MDL+LL-USD is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Reinforcement on Top Surface of Deck Slab b) X-Sectional of 16f Bars = p*DDect-Top2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Top DDect-Top Af-16. de-pro. 16 mm

2 201.062 mm

MU

154.000 mm

Surface, dpro = (tSlab-CCov-Top. -DDect-Top/2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af-16b/As-req-Top g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 100mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 100mm,C/C = Af-16.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

areq.

35.820 mm

1,732.750 116.036

mm2/m mm,C/C

100 mm,C/C

As-pro-Top.

2,010.619

mm2/m

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Resisting Moment Mpro & Designed Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro & Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.276 n) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not) v) Checking Against Max. Shear Force on Deck Slab. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Face of Longitudinal Girder on Deck Slab Span Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. Thus Maximum Shear Force, VMax = SVDL+LL-USD = VU

Mpro>Mu p-pro<p-max

OK OK

c/de-Max. c

0.450 39.255 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.850 0.255 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

VU.

b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU - fVp)/fbvdv, (AASSHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9).Here, b-i) bv is Minimum Width of the Section, here bv = b, the Design Strip Width. a-ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9de or 0.72h in mm, which one is greater. Where; de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tSlab Thickness of Deck Slab.Thus value 0.9*de for the Section; is Whereas, value of 0.72h for the Section; b-iii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear b-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure, thus Vp = 0. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.3.3 : i) Vn-1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.- 5.8.3.3-1, or bv. dv. 1,000.000 mm 144.000

Vn-Deck

756.000 kN/m 756.000*10^3 N/m 1,095.419 kN/m 1095.419*10^3 N/m 756.000 kN/m 756.000*10^3 N/m 1,095.419 kN/m 1095.419*10^3 N/m N/m

Vn-1

Vn-2

c-i) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.083bf/cbvdv, (AASHTO-LRFD- Equ. 5.8.3.3-1); c-ii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.3.3-3) in which, For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. c-iii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.00. c-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (For RCC Structure Elements, Vp = 0. AASHTO-8.16.6.3.1.)

Vc

Vs

2.000

Vp.

d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3 have Satisfied or Not). e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section, thus the Abutment Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Back Wall on its Bottom Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement, thus Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Back Wall is OK.

vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 97.124 N-mm 97.124*10^6 kN-m 107.915 N-mm 107.915*10^6 kN-m 0.90

Mn f

b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) d) Since Deck Slab is being a Continuous Sturucture & for Design purpose it is being considered as Constituents of 1.000 m Wide Strips. The Steel Area against Factored Max. Moments on Main Girder Face will have the value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU on Face of Main Girder of Continuous Span Strip = (-) MDL+LL-USD Mn-Top 107.915 kN-m 107.915*10^6 N-mm

SMDL+LL-USD

Satisfied

f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment MU at Mid Span ( Which one is Greater, if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied)

vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fs-Dev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4. Where; b) fs-Dev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/As-prode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State at Section 4-4, which is the Highest one of (-) WSD values. fs-Dev.

2 124.364 N/mm

(-)MDL+LL-4-4-WSD

2 2,010.619 mm

ii) As-pro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, in Which;

As-pro de

154.000 mm

fsa

2 1.419 N/mm

i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCov-Top. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Back Wall, CCov-Earth = 50mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 16f ; thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus its Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. ZMax.

58.000 mm

2 11,600.000 mm

23,000.000 N/mm

0.6*fy

2 246.000 N/mm

d) Since the Calculated value of fs-Dev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Back Wall Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fs-Dve. e) Based on fs-Dve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fs-Dev.*(dcA)1/3 ZDev. 124.364 N/mm fs-Dev.< fs fsa< 0.6fy Zdev.< Zmax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy

f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fs-Dev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev.

i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Back Wall fs-Dev.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. < ZMax. Allowable Max. Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Vertical on Back Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. m) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Flexural Design of Cantilever Slab section of Bridge Deck Slab is OK.

23 Flexural Design of Reinforcements on Bottom Surface of Deck Slab Against the (+) ve Moment on its Interior Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (+ ve Moment on Interior Span Strip of Deck (+)MDL+LL-3-3 85.122 kN-m/m Slab is Greater than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Calculated 85.122*10^6 N-mm/m Moment Governs the Provision of Reinforcement against (+) ve Moment Mr 23.096 kN-m/m value. For (+) ve value the required Reinforcement will be on Bottom Surface. 23.096*10^6 N-mm/m b) Since (+)MDL+LL-3-3 > Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus SMDL+LL-3-3 is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Bottom Reinforcement on Bridge Decl Slab. b) X-Sectional of 16f Bars = p*DBottom2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Water Face, dpro = (tSlab.-CCov-Bot. -DBottom./2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af-16b/As-req-Bot. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 100mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 100mm,C/C = Af-16.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

MU

16 mm

2 201.062 mm

167.000 mm

areq.

31.532 mm

1,525.344 131.814

mm2/m mm,C/C

100 mm,C/C

As-pro-Bot.

2,010.619

mm2/m

ppro apro

0.012 46.182 mm

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Resisting Moment Mpro & Designed Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro & Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax.

Mpro

iii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.188 q) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not) v) Checking Against Max. Shear Force on Deck Slab. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Face of Longitudinal Girder on Deck Slab Span Strip which may Consider as Ultimate Shearing Force for the this Section also.Thus Maximum Shear Force, VMax = SVDL+LL-USD = VU VU. 118.637 kN/m 118.637*10^3 N/m c/de-Max. c 0.450 39.255 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.850 0.235 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU - fVp)/fbvdv, (AASSHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9).Here, b-i) bv is Minimum Width of the Section, here bv = b, the Design Strip Width. a-ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9de or 0.72h in mm, which one is greater. Where; de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tSlab Thickness of Deck Slab.Thus value 0.9*de for the Section; is Whereas, value of 0.72h for the Section; b-iii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear b-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (Sinec the Deck Slab is a RCC Structure, thus Vp = 0. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.3.3 : i) Vn-1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.- 5.8.3.3-1, or bv. dv. 1,000.000 mm 720.000

Vn-Deck

3,780.000 kN/m 3780.000*10^3 N/m 5,477.094 kN/m 5477.094*10^3 N/m 3,780.000 kN/m 3780.000*10^3 N/m 5,477.094 kN/m 5477.094*10^3 N/m

Vn-1

Vn-2

c-i) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.083bf/cbvdv, (AASHTO-LRFD- Equ. 5.8.3.3-1);

Vc

c-ii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.3.3-3) in which, For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. c-iii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.00. c-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (For RCC Structure Elements, Vp = 0. AASHTO-8.16.6.3.1.)

Vs

N/m

2.000

Vp.

d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3 have Satisfied or Not). e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section, thus the Abutment Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Back Wall on its Bottom Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement, thus Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Back Wall is OK. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 106.769 N-mm 106.769*10^6 kN-m 118.632 N-mm 118.632*10^6 kN-m 0.90

Mn f

b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) d) Since Deck Slab is being a Continuous Sturucture & for Design purpose it is being considered as Constituents of 1.000 m Wide Strips. The Steel Area against Factored Max. Moments on Main Girder Face will have the value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU on Face of Main Girder of Continuous Span Strip = (+) MDL+LL-3-3-USD Mn-Bot 118.632 kN-m 118.632*10^6 N-mm

SMDL+LL-3-3-USD

Satisfied

f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment MU at Mid Span ( Which one is Greater, if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied)

vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fs-Dev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4. Where; b) fs-Dev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/As-prode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fs-Dev.

2 111.586 N/mm

(-)MDL+LL-3-3-WSD

2 2,010.619 mm

ii) As-pro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, in Which;

As-pro de

167.000 mm

fsa

2 1.273 N/mm

i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCov-Top. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Back Wall, CCov-Earth = 50mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 16f ; thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus its Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. ZMax.

58.000 mm

2 11,600.000 mm

23,000.000 N/mm

0.6*fy

2 246.000 N/mm

d) Since the Calculated value of fs-Dev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Back Wall Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fs-Dve.

ZDev.

111.586 N/mm fs-Dev.< fs fsa< 0.6fy Zdev.< Zmax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy

f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fs-Dev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev.

i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Back Wall fs-Dev.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. < ZMax. Allowable Max. Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Vertical on Back Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 24 Provision of Distribution Reinforcement for Bridge Dack Slab According to AASHTO-LRFD-9.7.3 : i) Calculation of Distribution Reinforcements for Bridge Dack Slab: a) The Bridge Deck Slab in which Reinforcements are being Provided in Primary Direction in both of its Top & Bottom Surfaces, on its Secondary Depiction Reinforcements should arranged according to Provisions of Article -9.7.3..2 on Bottom Surface as Percentage of Primary Reinforcement against Positive Moment. b) For Primary Reinforcement Parallel to Traffic the Distribution Reinforcement will be 1750/(S) 50 Percent of the Main Reinforcemenr. c) For Primary Reinforcement Perpendicular to Traffic the Distribution Reinforcement will be 3840/(S) 67 Percent of the Main Reinforcemenr. Where for both cases S is Effective Span Length in mm as per Article-9.7.2.3 d) For Present Case Effective Span Length = 1550 mm S 1,650.000 mm

e) Since the Primary Reinforcement Perpendicular to Traffic thus Calculated Percent of Distribution Reinforcement ae per Formula - 3840/(S) f) Allowable Maximum % of Distribution Reinforcement g) Actual % of Distribution Reinforcement h) Provided Main Reinforcement Steel Area in Primary Direction on Bottom Surface of Deck Slab = As-pro-Bot. i) Required Distribution Reinforcement Steel Area for Bottom Surface Against Primary Reinforcement = As-pro-Bot-Main*DRActual*% j) Let proved 16f Bars as Distribution Reinforcement for Bottom Surface

DR

94.534 %

67.000 % 67.000 %

2 2,010.619 mm /m

As-Bot-Dist.

2 1,347.115 mm /m

DBot-Dist

16.000 mm

k) X-Sectional of 16f Bars = p*DBot-Dist.2/4 l) Spacing of Distribution Reinforcement with 16f Bars = Af-16b/As-Bot-Dist. k) Let the spacing of Distribution Reinforcement on Bottom with 16f bars, m) Provided Steel Area for Distribution Reinforcement with 16f Bars having 150 mm C/C Spacing = Af-16.b/spro n) Percentage of Provided Steel Area for Distribution Reinforcement Against Provided Main Reinforcement Steel Area = (As-Dist-pro./As-pro-Bot-Main)*100

2 201.062 mm

149.254

mm,C/C

150 mm-C/C

2 1,340.413 mm /m

DRpro.-%

66.667 % OK

Provision Satisfied

o) Since the Provided Steel Area for Distribution Reinforcement is < 67% of Provided Main Reinforcement Steel Area, thus the Provision of Distribution Reinforcement for Deck Slab is OK. 26 Provision of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements in Secondary Direction on Top Surface of Deck Slab : a) On Deck Slab Flexural Reinforcements are being provided in Primary Direction both on Top & Bottom aginest the Calculated Moments, whereas in Secondary Direction on Bottom Surface Reinforcements are being provided under provision of Distribution Reinforcement. Yet Reinforcements are required on Top Surface in Secondary Direction. On Top Surface of Deck Slab in Secondary Direction Reinforcements can Arrange under Provision of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements as Mentioned in Article-5.10.8. b) Since the Thickness of Deck Slab is less than 1200mm, thus to Calculate the Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements on both Faces in Primary & Secondary Directions a Strip is being Considered having Length of each Length of each Arm b = 1000mm. c) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8.1. Steel Area required as Shrinkage Temperature Reinforcement for Structural Components having its Thickness 1200mm or Less; As 0.11Ag/fy in both way.(Here Thickness = 200mm). d) Here Ag is Gross Area of Strip on Deck Slab Surface = LPrim.*LSec. e) Let provide 16f bars as Shrinkage & Temperature in Secondary Direction on Top Surface of Deck Slab. f) X-Sectional Area of 16f bar = pDBar-S&T-V&H2/4 g) Spacing required for 16f Bars as Shrinkage & Temperature in Secondary Direction on Top Surface of Bridge Deck Slab = Af-16*b/As-req-S&T LPrim. LSec. b 1.000 m 1.000 m 1.000 m

As-req-S&T

2 268.293 mm

Ag-Strip DTop-S&T-Sec

2 1000000 mm

16 mm

Af-16 sreq-S&T

2 201.062 mm

749.413 nos.

h) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8.1. In a Component having Less 1200mm Thickness, Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements should not Spaced further Apart than 3.00 Times the Component's Thickness or 450mm.

i) 3.00 Times of Cantilever Wing Wall Thickness = 3.00*tSlab ii) Allowable Max. Spacing for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements i) Let provide 200 mm Spacing for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements with 16f Bars in Secondary Direction on Top Surface of Bridge Deck Slab. j) The provided Steel Area with 16f Bars as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements having Spacing 200mm,C/C = Af-16.b/spro-S&T

As-pro-S&T-V&H

1,005.310

mm2/m

k) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8.1. For Components of Solid Structural Concrete Wall & Footing having Less 1200mm Thickness, the Spacing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements Bars should not Exceed 300mm in Each Direction on all Faces and Steel Area of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements need not Exceed value of Ab = 0.0015Ag. Since the Bridge Deck Slab is Continuous Concrete Structure, thus i) Allowable Max. Spacing for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements sAllow-S&T-2 300.000 mm 2 Ab = ii) Calculated value of Ab = 0.0015Ag. Ab = 1,500.000 mm /m l) Status between Provided Steel Area of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement & Allowable Max, Steel Area for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement (Whether Ab > As-pro-S&T or not. If Ab < As-pro-S&T-V&H ; then Provisions of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement have Satisfied, otherwise Not Satisfied) Ab > As-pro-S&T Satisfied m) Since Calculated Ab > As-pro-S&T-V&H. > As-req-S&T-V&H. & spro-S&T-V&H. = sAllow-S&T-V&H-2, thus Provisions for the Shrinkage & Temperature on Surfaces of Cantilever Wing Wall is OK.

F. Calculations for Load, Shear & Moments of RCC Main Girders under Strength Limit State of Design (USD) :

Description 1 Structural Data : i) Dimentions of Superstructure : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) t) u) v) w) w-i) w-ii) x) y) Span Length (Clear C/C distance between Bearings) Addl.Length of Girder beyond Bearing Center Line. Total Girder Length (a+2b) Carriageway Width Width of Side Walk on Each Side Width of Curb/Wheel Guard Width of Railing Curb/Post Guard Total Width of Bridge Deck Width & Depth of Railings Width & Breath of Railing Post Height of Railing Post Height of Wheel Guard/Curb Number of Railings on each Side C/C distance between Railing Posts Thickness of Deck Slab Thickness of Wearing Course Number of Main Girders Number of Cross Girders Depth of Main Girders (Including Slab as T-Girder) Depth of Cross Girders (Including Slab as T-Girder) Width of Main Girders Width of Cross Girders C/C Distance between Main Girders & Flange Width C/C Distance between Cross Girders in Longitudinal Direction . Distance of Slab Outer Edge to Exterior Girder Center Clear Distance Between Main Interior Girders Filets : i) Main Girder in Vertical Direction ii) Main Girder in Horizontal Direction iii) X-Girder in Vertical Direction vi) X-Girder in Horizontal Direction z) Vertical Surface Area of Superstructure's Exposed Elements SL SAddl. LGir. WCarr-Way. WS-Walk. WCurb. WR-Post. WB-Deck. RW&D. PW&B. hR-Post. hCurb. Rnos. C/CD-R-Post. tSlab. tWC NGirder. NX-Girder. hGir. hX-Girder. WGirder. WX-Girder. C/CD-Girder. C/CD-X-Girder. CD-Ext.-Girder-Edg. ClD-Int.-Girder. FM-Girder-V. FM-Girder-H. FX-Girder-V. FX-Girder-H. ASup-Vert. 24.400 m 0.300 m 25.000 m 7.300 m 1.250 m 0.350 m 0.225 m 10.250 m 0.175 m 0.225 m 1.070 m 0.300 m 3.000 nos 2.000 m 0.200 m 0.075 m 5.000 nos 5.000 nos 2.000 m 1.700 m 0.350 m 0.250 m 2.000 m 6.100 m 1.125 m 1.650 m 0.150 m 0.150 m 0.075 m 0.075 m 2 87.108 m Notation DImentions Unit.

ii) Number of Traffic Lane on Bridge Deck: a) Number of Design Traffic Lane = WCarr.-way/3600 = 7300/3600 Where WCarr.-way is Clear Carriageway Width in between Curbs in mm NLane. 2.028 2 nos nos

Page 131

(ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) 2 Design Data : i) Design Criterion : a) AASHTO Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). b) Type of Loads : Combined Application of AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading & Lane Loading. ii) Design AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Axle to Axle distance Wheel to Wheel distance Rear Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Rear Single Wheel Load Middle Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Middle Single Wheel Load Front Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Front Single Wheel Load DAxel. DWheel. LLRW-Load LLRS-Load LLMW-Load LLMS-Load LLFW-Load LLFS-Load 1.800 4.300 145.000 72.500 145.000 72.500 35.000 17.500 m m kN kN kN kN kN kN

iii) Design AASHTO Lane Loading : a) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 9.300N/mm through the Length of Bridge for 1 (One) Lane of Bridge & acting over a 3.000m Wide Dcak Strip in Transverse Direction. Thus Lane Load per meter Length of Bridge for 1 (One) Lane = (9.300*1000/1000)kN/m b) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 9.300N/mm through the Length of Gridge for Single and acting over a 3.000m Wide Strip in Transverse Direction. Thus Intensity of Lane Load per meter Length & for per meter Width = 9.300/3.000kN/m/m-Wd. iv) Design AASHTO Pedestrian Loading : a) Design Pedestrian Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 3.600*10-3MPa through the Length of Sidewalk on both side and acting over the total Wide of Sidewalk.

3 v) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration, g =

LLLane

9.300 9.300

N/mm kN/m

LLLane-Int.

LL-Pedest

2 9.807 m/sec )

a) b) c) d) e)

Page 132

a) b) c) d) e)

vii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTO-LRFD-2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength, f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Load Condition (SLC) = 0.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, Ec = 0.043gc1.50f/c = 0.043*24^(1.50)*21^(1/2) Mpa, (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.4). d) Poisson's Ration = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2), subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.5). e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete, fr = 0.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). f) Steel Ultimate strength, fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement, Es for fy = 410 MPa viii) Other Design Related Data : a) Velocity of Wind Load in Normal Condition b) Velocity of Wind Load in Special Condition c) Velocity of Water/Stream Current Causing Water/Stream Load 3 Factors Applicable for Design of Different Structural Components : i) Formula for Load Factors & Selection of Load Combination : a) Formula for Load Factors Q = igiQi f Rn = Rr; (ASSHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-1 & 3.4.1-1) Where, i is Load Modifier having values i = D R I 0.95 in which for Loads a Maximum value of gi Applicable; (ASSHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-2), & i = 1/(D R I ) 1.00 in which for Loads a Minimum value of gi Allpicable; (ASSHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-3) Here: gi = Load Factor; a statistically based multiplier Applied to Force Effect, f = Resistance Factor; a statistically based multiplier Applied to Nominal Resitance, i = Load Modifier; a Factor related to Ductility, Redundancy and Operational Functions, For Strength Limit State; D i = D = 1.00 for Conventional Design related to Ductility, 1.000 R i = R = 1.00 for Conventional Levels of Redundancy , 1.000 i = I = 1.00 for Typical Bridges related to Operational Functions, Qi = Force Effect, Rn = Nominal Resitance, l 1.000 VWL-Nor. VWL-Spe. VWA 90.000 260.000 4.200 km/hr km/hr m/s f/c fc Ec 21.000 8.400 23,855.620 2.887 fr fy ES 2.887 MPa MPa MPa MPa

Page 133

Ri = Factored Resitance = fRn. 4 Different Load Multiplying Fatcors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : a) The Bridge will have to face Cyclonic Storms with very high Intensity of Wind Load (Wind Velocity = 260km/hr), but those would be occasional. Thus the respective Multiplier Factors of Limit State STRENGTH I (Bridge used by Normal Vehicle without wind load) for normal operation, Limit State of STRENGTH-III (Wind Velocity exceeding 90km/hr) for wind load during cyclonic storm condition and Limit State of STRENGTH-IV (Wind Velocity of 90 km/hr) for normal wind load only are selected as CRITICAL conditions for bridge structure. i) Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.250

gDW

1.500

gEH

1.500

gEV

1.350

gES

1.500

ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load Allowence-IM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE m 1.000

gLL-Truck IM

1.750 1.330

Page 134

g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV STRENGTH - III STRENGTH - V

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

gLL-TG.

1.000

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

5 Load Calculations for Superstructural Components & Attachments (DL & LL) per meter Length of Girder: i) Dead Loads on 1 no. Exterior Girder from Different Components & Attachments : a) Dead Load on. Exterior Girder due to Self Wt.& Attachments (Without WC & Utilies) for per meter Length of Girder. b) Dead Load on Exterior Girder due to WC. & Utilities for per meter Length of Girder c) Concentrated Dead Load on Exterior Girder from to 1 no. Cross Girder d) Sumation of Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Exterior Girder (a + b) for per Meter Length of Girder. DLExt-Gir-Self& Atta. 34.340 kN/m

DLExt-Gir-WC+ Utility.

3.203

kN/m

DLExt-Gir-X-Gir. DLExt.U-D

8.526 37.543

kN kN/m

Page 135

ii) Dead Loads on 1 no. Interior Girder from Different Components & Attachments : a) Dead Load on.Interior Girder due to Self Wt.& Attachments (Without WC & Utilies) for per meter Length of Girder. b) Dead Load on Interior Girder from WC. for per meter Length of Girder c) Concentrated Dead Load on Interior Girder from to 1 no. Cross Girder d) Sumation of Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Interior Girder (a + b) for per Meter Length of Girder. DLIntt-GirSelf & Atta. 25.260 kN/m

kN/m kN kN/m

iii) Live Loads (LL) on 1 no. Exterior Girder due to Wheel Load, Lane Load & Pedestrian Load according Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.1.2.2, 3.6.1.2.4 & 3.6.1.6 : a) Sketch Diagram For Distribution of Wheel Load, Lane Load & Pedestrian Load on Exterior Girders : Midd. & Rear Wheel Load = Front Wheel Load = 72.500 kN 17.500 kN 1.475 0.225 7.3 0.600 1.800 1.250 0.300 1.070

9.300kN/m Lane Load on

1.125

2.000

2.000 CL

2.00

2.000

1.125

10.250 b) LL on 1 no. Exterior Girder due to Wheel Load at distance 0.600m from Wheel Guard Face; i) From Front Wheel (Sketch Diagram) = 10.06 kN LLExt-Wheel-Front. ii) From Midd. & Rear Wheel (do) = 41.69 kN LLExt-Wheel-Mid& Rear. c) LL on 1 no. Exterior Girder due to Lane Load Uniformly Distributed over Full Bridge Length with Intensity of 3.100N/m/m-Wd. on 0.650m Width from Wheel Guard Face up to Middle point between Two Girders. (From Sketch Diagram) = 2.02 kN/m d) LL on 1 no. Exterior Girder due to Pedestrian Load Uniformly Distributed over Sidewalk on Full Bridge Length with Intensity of 4.000kN/m 2 on Sidewalk on each side (From Sketch Diagram) = 4.50 kN/m LLExt-Lane.

kN kN kN/m

LLExt-Pedes.

4.500

kN/m

iv) Live Loads (LL) on 1 no. Interior Girder due to Wheel Load & Lane Load according to Provisions of

Page 136

AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.1.2.2, 3.6.1.2.4 & 3.6.1.6 : a) Sketch Diagram For Distribution of Wheel Load & Lane Load on Interior Girders : Midd. & Rear Wheel Load = Front Wheel Load = 72.500 17.500 kN kN 7.300 0.200 1.800 1.200 0.800 1.250 0.300 1.070

9.300kN/m Lane Load on 9.300kN/m Lane Load on

1.125

2.000

2.000 CL

2.000

2.000

1.125

10.250 b) LL on 1 no.Interior Girder due to Wheel Load with One Line of Wheels LLInt-Wheel-Front. upon Girder & the other Line of Wheels at Axle Distance - 1.800m LLInt-Wheel-Mid& Rear. i) Load from Front Wheel (From Sketch Diagram) = 26.250 kN ii) Load from Midd. & Rear Wheel (From Sketch Diagram) = 108.750 kN c) LL on 1 no. Interior Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Lane Load over LLInt-Lane. Full Bridge Length having Intensity of 9.300kN/m on 3.000m Width of Deck having Equally distance (1.500m) from Middle point of a Girder & action for Girder with 2.000m Width (From Sketch Diagram) = 6.200 kN/m 5 Factored Loads of Superstructure Components & Attachments (DL & LL) : i) Factored Dead Loads on 1 no. Exterior Girder from Different Components & Attachments : a) Factored Dead Load on Exterior Girder due to Self Wt.& Attachments (Without WC) for per Meter Length = gDC*DLExt-Gir-Self& Atta. = FDLExt-Gir-Self & Atta. 42.925 kN/m 42.925 kN/m 26.250 108.750 kN kN

6.200

kN/m

b) Factored Dead Load on Exterior Girder due to WC. & Utilities for FDLExt-Gir-WC+ Utility. per Merter Length = gDW*DLExt.-Gir-WC+Utility = 4.804 kN/m c) Factored Concentrated Dead Load on Exterior Girder from to 1 no. Cross Girder = gDC*DLExt-Gir-X-Gir. =. 10.658 kN d) Sumation of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Exterior Girder (a + b) for per Meter Length of Girder. FDLExt-Gir-X-Gir.

4.804

kN/m

10.658

kN

FDL-Ext.UD

47.729

kN/m

Page 137

ii) Factored Dead Loads on 1 no. Interior Girder from Different Components & Attachments : a) Factored Dead Load on Interior Girder due to Self Wt.& Attachments (Without WC) for per Meter Length = gDC*DLInt-Gir-Self& Atta. = b) Factored Dead Load on Interior Girder due to WC. & Utilities for per Merter Length = gDW*DLInt.-Gir-WC = 5.175 kN/m c) Factored Concentrated Dead Load on Interior Girder from to 1 no. Cross Girder = gDC*DLInt-Gir-X-Gir. =. 21.316 kN d) Sumation of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Interior Girder (a + b) for per Meter Length of Girder. iii) Factored Live Loads on Different Components for 1 no. Exterior Girder : i) From Front Wheel = mgLL-Truck*IM*LLExt-Wheel-Front = 23.420 kN ii) Load from Midd.& Rear Wheel=mgLL-Truck*IM*LLExt-Wheel-Mid&Rear. = 97.028 kN b) Factored LL on 1 no. Exterior Girder due to Lane Load = mgLL-Lane*LLExt-Lane. = 3.526 kN/m c) Factored LL on 1 no. Exterior Girder due to Pedestrian Load = mgLL-PL*LLExt-Pedes. = 7.875 kN/m d) Summation of Factored LL of Exterior Girder for per meter Length due to Lane Load & Pedestrian Loads iv) Factored Live Loads of Different Components for 1 no. Interior Girder : a) Factored LL on 1 no.Interior Girder due to Wheel Load i) Load from Front Wheel = mgLL-Truck*IM*LLInt-Wheel-Front = 61.097 kN ii) Load from Midd.& Rear Wheel=mgLL-Truck*IM*LLInt-Wheel-Mid&Rear. = 253.116 kN FLLInt-Wheel-Front. 61.097 kN FLLExt-Wheel-Front. FLLExt-Wheel-Mid& Rear. 23.420 97.028 kN kN FDLIntt-GirSelf & Atta. 31.575 kN/m FDLInt-Gir-WC+ Utility. 31.575 kN/m

5.175

kN/m

FDLInt-Gir-X-Gir.

21.316

kN

FDL-Int.UD

36.750

kN/m

FLLExt-Lane.

3.526

kN/m

FLLExt-Pedes.

7.875

kN/m

FLL-Ext.

11.401

kN/m

FLLInt-Wheel-Mid& Rear.

253.116

kN

b) Factored LL on 1 no. Interior Girder due to Lane Load for per meter Length = mgLL-Lane*LLInt-Lane. = 10.850 kN/m

FLLInt-Lane.

10.850

kN/m

6 Shear & Moments at different Positions of an Exterior Girder due to Factored Loads (DL& LL) from Superstructure Components & Attachments : i) Arrangement of Wheel Loads for Exteriod Girder & c.g Point : a) Sketch Diagram Showing Wheels Loads of Truck, c.g. of Wheels & Location of Mid-Wheel under the Provisions of Absulate Max. Moments:

Page 138

145.000

145.000

35.000

kN

Rear

4.300

b) Calculations for Center of Gravity (cg) Position of Truck with Wheel Load in Respect of Rear Wheel; c.g. Distance from Rear Wheel = (Wt.-Mid*4.300+Wt.-Fornt*(2*4.300))/(2*145.000+35.000)

c) Calculation Mid Wheel Position in Respect of Girder c.g. under Absulate Max. Moment Provision = (Distance beteen 2-Wheel - Distance of c.g. of Wheels from Rear Wheel)/2 dMid-Wheel 0.728 m d) Sketch Diagram of Factored Wheel Loads for Exterior Girder : 97.028 kN 2.845 c.g. 97.028 kN 23.420 kN

Rear

Middle

Front

4.300

4.300

e) Sketch Diagram of Girder with Factored Uniformly Distributed & Concentrated DL & LL, Different Locations for Shear & Moments Including Max. Reactions at Supports due to Different DL, LL-Lane Load & LL-Wheel Load : X-Girder-1 X-Girder-2 X-Girder-3 X-Girder-4 X-Girder-5 10.658 kN 10.658 kN 10.658 kN 10.658 kN 10.658 kN 0.300 6.100 m 6.100 m 6.100 m 6.100 m 0.300 m Rear Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions. m CL of Girder CL of Bearing CL of Bearing L /2 12.200 m Midd. Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions. m 3L/8 0.728 m Front Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions. L /4 9.150 2.845 4.300 0.300 L /8 6.100 m m 0.300 m 3.050 m m A

0.375

B

47.729 kN/m 11.401 kN/m

0.375

FDLExt-All = FLLExt-Lane-Ped =

Page 139

RA-DL = 596.610 kN RA-DL-X-Gir.= 26.645 kN RA-LL-L = 142.516 kN RA-LL-Wh.= 115.224 (Max. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.g. Position)

RB-DL = 596.610 kN RB-DL-X-Gir.= 26.645 kN RB-LL-L = 142.516 kN RB-LL-Wh.= 102.252 kN (Max. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.g. Position)

ii) Calculation of Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Exterior Girder Against Applied Factored Loads : a) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads from Sidewalk, Attachments, Utilities, WC, Slab, Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLExt-All & FDLExt-Gir-X-Gir.): Table-6-ii-a-1. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Exterior Girder. Location From Support-A Shearing Forces in kN

On Support 582.291

0.375m

564.393

L/8

436.718

L/4

291.146

3L/8

145.573

c.g.

-34.732

L/2

0.000

Table-6-ii-a-2. Factored Moments due to all Dead Loads (DL) on Exterior Girder. Location From Support-A Moments in kN-m

On Support 0.000

0.375m

220.373

L/8

1597.661

L/4

2751.326

3L/8

3460.993

c.g.

3724.446

L/2

3726.663

b) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Concentrated Dead Load from Cross Girders (FDLExt-Gir-X-Gir.): Table-6-ii-b-1. Factored Shearing Forces due to Concentrated Dead Loads of X-Girder on Exterior Girder. Location From Support-A Shearing Forces in kN

On Support 15.987

0.375m

15.987

L/8

15.987

L/4

5.329

3L/8

5.329

c.g.

-5.329

L/2

-5.329

Table-6-ii-b-2. Factored Moments due to all Dead Loads (DL) on Exterior Girder. Location From Support-A Moments in kN-m

On Support 0.000

0.375m

5.995

L/8

48.760

L/4

97.520

3L/8

113.774

c.g.

126.149

L/2

130.027

c) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads from Sidewalk, Attachments, Utilities, WC, Slab, Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLExt-All & FDLExt-Gir-X-Gir.): Table-6-ii-c-1. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Applied Dead Loads on Exterior Girder. Location From Support-A

Uniformly Distributed Load in kN

On Support 582.291 15.987 598.278

0.375m

564.393 15.987 580.380

L/8

436.718 15.987 452.705

L/4

291.146 5.329 296.475

3L/8

145.573 5.329 150.902

c.g.

-34.732 -5.329 -40.061

L/2

0.000 -5.329 -5.329

Table-6-ii-c-2. Factored Moments due to all Applied Dead Loads on Exterior Girder. Location From Support-A

On Support

0.375m

L/8

L/4

3L/8

c.g.

L/2

Page 140

d) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Live Live Load & Pedestrian Loads (FLLExt-Lane-Ped) : Table-6-ii-d-1. Factored Shearing Forces on Exterior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) . Location From Support-A Shearing Forces in kN

On Support 139.095

0.375m

134.820

L/8

104.321

L/4

69.548

3L/8

34.774

c.g.

-8.297

L/2

0.000

Table-6-ii-d-2. Factored Moments on Exterior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) . Location From Support-A Moments in kN-m

On Support

0.000

0.375m

52.642

L/8

381.643

L/4

657.225

3L/8

826.747

c.g.

993.917

L/2

890.210

e) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Girder due to Applied Live Wheel Loads (FLLExt-Wheel) : Table-6-ii-e-1. Factored Shearing Forces on Exterior Girder due to Live Wheel-Load (LL) .

Locatio From Support-A Support Positon of Rear/Midd. & Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support, AB 192.122 Rear Wheel at 0.375m, AB 188.780 Rear Wheel at L/8, A B 164.937 Rear Wheel at L/4, A B 137.753 Rear Wheel at 3L/8, A B 110.568 Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition A B 115.224 Rear Wheel at L/2, A B 83.384 Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition B A 102.252 Rear Wheel at L/2, BA 134.092 Rear Wheel at 3L/8, B A 161.276 Rear Wheel at L/4, B A 162.641 Rear Wheel at L/8, B A 84.899 Rear Wheel at 0.375m, B A 95.536 Rear Wheel at Support, B A 97.028

On Support 95.094 91.752 67.910 40.725 13.541 -78.832 -13.644 -18.196 -83.384 -56.200 -31.415 -12.128 -1.491 0.000

0.375m

L/8

L/4

3L/8

L/2

Locatio From Support-A Support Positon of Rear/Midd. & Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support, A B 192.122 Rear Wheel at 0.375m, A B 188.780 Rear Wheel at L/8, A B 164.937 Rear Wheel at L/4, A B 137.753 Rear Wheel at 3L/8, A B 110.568 Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition A B 115.224 Rear Wheel at L/2, A B 83.384

On Support 0.000 70.792 503.059 840.293 1011.702 1072.359 1017.285

0.375m

L/8

L/4

3L/8

L/2

c.g.

Page 141

Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition B A Rear Wheel at L/2, B A Rear Wheel at 3L/8, B A Rear Wheel at L/4, B A Rear Wheel at L/8, B A Rear Wheel at 0.375m, B A Rear Wheel at Support, B A

102.252 134.092 161.276 162.641 84.899 95.536 97.028 0.000 35.826 258.943 574.889 857.043

1072.359 1017.285

f) Table showing Max. Shear Forces at Different Locations of Exterior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads

(DL), Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application :

Table-6-ii-f-1. Sum. of Factored Max. Shear Forces Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Exterior Girder. Locations from Support-A Loading Type Unit a. Dead Load (FDLExt) b. Lane + Ped.(LL) (FLLExt) a. Wheel Live Load (WLLExt) Total Shears on Each Point

On Support

kN

598.278 139.095 95.094 832.468

0.375m kN

580.380 134.820 91.752 806.951

L/8 kN

452.705 104.321 67.910 624.936

L/4 kN

296.475 69.548 40.725 406.747

3L/8 kN

150.902 34.774 13.541 199.216

c.g. kN

-40.061 -8.297 1072.359 1024.001

L/2 kN

-5.329 0.000 1017.285 1011.956

e) Table showing the Max. Moments at Different Locations of Exterior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads

(DL), Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application :

Table-6-ii-e-1. Sum. of Factored Max. Moments Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Exterior Girder. Locations from Support-A Loading Type Unit a. Dead Load (FDLExt) b. Lane+Ped.(LL) (FL&PLExt) c. Wheel Live Load (FWLLExt) Total Moments on Each Point

On Support

kN-m

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.375m kN-m

226.368 52.642 70.792 106.618

L/8 kN-m

1646.421 381.643 503.059 2531.123

L/4 kN-m

2848.846 657.225 840.293 4346.364

3L/8 kN-m

3574.767 826.747 1011.702 5413.216

c.g. kN-m

3850.595 993.917 1072.359 5916.871

L/2 kN-m

3856.690 890.210 1017.285 5764.185

7 Factored Shear & Moments at different Positions of an Interior Girder due to Factored Loads (DL& LL) from Superstructure Components & Attachments : i) Arrangement of Wheel Loads for Interiod Girder & c.g Point : a) Sketch Diagram Showing Wheels Loads of Truck, c.g. of Wheels & Location of Mid-Wheel under the Provisions of Absulate Max. Moments: 145.000 kN c.g. of Wheel 2.845 m Middle 145.000 kN c.g. of Girder 0.728 m Front 35.000 kN

Rear

4.300

b) Calculations for Center of Gravity (cg) Position of Truck with Wheel Load in

Page 142

Respect of Rear Wheel; c.g. Distance from Rear Wheel = (Wt.-Mid*4.300+Wt.-Fornt*(2*4.300))/(2*145.000+35.000) c) Calculation Mid Wheel Position in Respect of Girder c.g. under Absulate Max. Moment Provision = (Distance beteen 2-Wheel - Distance of c.g. of Wheels from Rear Wheel)/2 dMid-Wheel 0.728 m d) Sketch Diagram Showing Factored Wheel Loads for Interior Girder : 253.116 kN 2.845 c.g. 253.116 kN 0.728 61.097 kN

Rear

Middle

Front

4.300

4.300

e) Sketch Diagram of Girder with Uniformly Distributed Factored DL & LL, Different Locations for Shear & Moments Including Max. Reactions at Supports due to DL, LL-Lane Load & LL-Wheel Load :

X-Girder-1 21.316 0.300 kN 6.100 CL of Bearing L /2 12.200 m L /4 0.300 m A 0.375 L /8 3.050 6.100 m m 3L/8 9.150 2.845 m m 0.728 m m X-Girder-2 21.316 kN 6.100 m CL of Girder c.g. of Wheels. Midd. Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions. Front Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions. 4.300 0.300 m X-Girder-3 21.316 kN 6.100 m X-Girder-4 21.316 kN 6.100 m X-Girder-5 21.316 kN 0.300 m CL of Bearing

m LSpan = LTotal = 24.400 25.000 m m RB-DL = 459.375 kN RB-DL-X-Gir.= 53.290 kN RB-LL-L = 135.625 kN RB-LL-Wh.= 266.744 kN (Max. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.g. Position)

RA-DL = 459.375 kN RA-DL-X-Gir.= 53.290 kN RA-LL-L = 135.625 kN RA-LL-Wh.= 300.584 (Max. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.g. Position)

ii) Calculation of Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Interior Girder Against Applied Factored Loads :

Page 143

a) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads from Sidewalk, Attachments, Utilities, WC, Slab, Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLInt-All & FDLInt-Gir-X-Gir.): Table-7-ii-a-1. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Interior Girder. Location From Support-A Shearing Forces in kN

On Support 448.350

0.375m

434.569

L/8

336.263

L/4

224.175

3L/8

112.088

c.g.

-26.743

L/2

0.000

Table-7-ii-a-2. Factored Moments due to all Dead Loads (DL) on Interior Girder. Location From Support-A Moments in kN-m

On Support 0.000

0.375m

169.682

L/8

1230.160

L/4

2118.454

3L/8

2664.880

c.g.

2867.733

L/2

2869.440

b) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Concentrated Dead Load from Cross Girders (FDLExt-Gir-X-Gir.): Table-7-ii-b-1. Factored Shearing Forces due to Concentrated Dead Loads of X-Girder on Interior Girder. Location From Support-A Shearing Forces in kN

On Support 31.974

0.375m

31.974

L/8

31.974

L/4

10.658

3L/8

10.658

c.g.

-10.658

L/2

-10.658

Table-7-ii-b-2. Factored Moments due to Concentrated Dead Loads of X-Girder on Interior Girder. Location From Support-A Moments in kN-m

On Support 0.000

0.375m

11.990

L/8

97.520

L/4

195.041

3L/8

227.548

c.g.

252.299

L/2

260.054

c) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads from Sidewalk, Attachments, Utilities, WC, Slab, Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLExt-All & FDLExt-Gir-X-Gir.): Table-7-ii-c-1. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Applied Dead Loads on Interior Girder. Location From Support-A

For Uniformly Distributed Loads

On Support 448.350 31.974 480.324

0.375m

434.569 31.974 466.543

L/8

336.263 31.974 368.236

L/4

224.175 10.658 234.833

3L/8

112.088 10.658 122.745

c.g.

-26.743 -10.658 -37.401

L/2

0.000 -10.658 -10.658

Table-7-ii-c-2. Factored Moments due to all Applied Dead Loads on Interior Girder. Location From Support-A

For Uniformly Distributed Load

On Support 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.375m

169.682 11.990 181.672

L/8

1230.160 97.520 1327.681

L/4

2118.454 195.041 2313.495

3L/8

2664.880 227.548 2892.428

c.g.

2867.733 252.299 3120.031

L/2

2869.440 260.054 3129.494

d) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Live Live Load & Pedestrian Loads (FLLInt-Lane-Ped) : Table-7-ii-d-1. Factored Shearing Forces on Interior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) .

Page 144

On Support 132.370

0.375m

128.301

L/8

99.278

L/4

66.185

3L/8

33.093

c.g.

-7.895

L/2

0.000

Table-7-ii-d-2. Factored Moments on Interior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) . Location From Support-A Moments in kN-m

On Support

0.000

0.375m

50.096

L/8

363.190

L/4

625.448

3L/8

786.774

c.g.

945.861

L/2

847.168

e) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Girder due to Applied Live Wheel Loads (FLLInt-Wheel) : Table-7-ii-e-1. Factored Shearing Forces on Interior Girder due to Live Wheel-Load (LL) .

Locatio From Support-A Support Positon of Rear/Midd. & Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support, AB 501.188 Rear Wheel at 0.375m, AB 492.468 Rear Wheel at L/8, A B 430.272 Rear Wheel at L/4, A B 359.356 Rear Wheel at 3L/8, A B 288.439 Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition A B 300.584 Rear Wheel at L/2, A B 217.523 Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition B A 266.744 Rear Wheel at L/2, BA 223.247 Rear Wheel at 3L/8, B A 420.721 Rear Wheel at L/4, B A 424.280 Rear Wheel at L/8, B A 221.476 Rear Wheel at 0.375m, B A 249.226 Rear Wheel at Support, B A 253.116

On Support 248.072 239.353 177.156 106.240 35.324 -205.648 -35.592 -47.468 -344.081 -146.607 -81.951 -31.639 -3.890 0.000

0.375m

L/8

L/4

3L/8

L/2

Locatio From Support-A Support Positon of Rear/Midd. & Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support, A B 501.188 Rear Wheel at 0.375m, A B 492.468 Rear Wheel at L/8, A B 430.272 Rear Wheel at L/4, A B 359.356 Rear Wheel at 3L/8, A B 288.439 Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition A B 300.584 Rear Wheel at L/2, A B 217.523 Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition B A 266.744 Rear Wheel at L/2, B A 223.247 Rear Wheel at 3L/8, B A 420.721 Rear Wheel at L/4, B A 424.280 Rear Wheel at L/8, B A 221.476 Rear Wheel at 0.375m, B A 249.226 Rear Wheel at Support, B A 253.116

On Support 0.000 184.676 1312.328 2192.069 2639.221 2797.457 2653.786 2797.457 1109.781 2588.380 2132.499 675.502 93.460 0.000

0.375m

L/8

L/4

3L/8

L/2

c.g.

f) Table showing Max. Shear Forces at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads

Page 145

(DL), Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application :

Table-7-ii-f-1. Sum. of Factored Max. Shear Forces Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder. Locations from Support-A Loading Type Unit a. Dead Load (FDLExt) b. Lane + Ped.(LL) (FLLExt) a. Wheel Live Load (WLLExt) Total Shears on Each Point

On Support

kN

480.324 132.370 248.072 860.766

0.375m kN

466.543 128.301 239.353 834.197

L/8 kN

368.236 99.278 177.156 644.670

L/4 kN

234.833 66.185 106.240 407.258

3L/8 kN

122.745 33.093 35.324 191.162

c.g. kN

-37.401 -7.895 -47.468 -92.764

L/2 kN

-10.658 0.000 -35.592 -46.250

e) Table showing the Max. Moments at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads

(DL), Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application :

Table-7-ii-e-1. Sum. of Factored Max. Moments Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder. Locations from Support-A Loading Type Unit a. Dead Load (FDLExt) b. Lane+Ped.(LL) (FL&PLExt) c. Wheel Live Load (FWLLExt) Total Moments on Each Point

On Support

kN-m

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.375m kN-m

181.672 50.096 184.676 278.135

L/8 kN-m

1327.681 363.190 1312.328 3003.199

L/4 kN-m

2313.495 625.448 2192.069 5131.011

3L/8 kN-m

2892.428 786.774 2639.221 6318.423

c.g. kN-m

3120.031 945.861 2797.457 6863.350

L/2 kN-m

3129.494 847.168 2653.786 6630.449

8 Factored Shear Forces at a Distance 2d from Face of Support for Interior Girder : a) d is Effective Depth of Neutral Axis of Tensial Reinforcement from the Extrm Compression Fiber of T-Girder for the Section. Here d = de = 1886.000 mm. c) Distance of 2d Loacation from Support Point (Bearing Point), L2d = 2de m d) Shear Force due to Dead Load, FDL2d = RDL-A - FDLInt*L2d -FDLInt-Gir-X-Gir. e) Shear Force due to Live Lane Load, FLLL2d = RLLL-A - FLLInt*L2d f) Shering Force due to Live Wheel Load with Rear Wheel at a Distance from Support Point, FWLLInt. = RWLL-A - Wheel-LL-Rear g) Total Factored Shear Force at a Distance 2*d from Support, FSF2d = FDL2d + FLLL2d + FWLL2d d 1.883 m

L2d

3.766

Vu-2d

608.249

kN

9 Factored Shear Forces & Moments at a Distance dv from Face of Support for Interior Girder : i) Factored Shear Forces at a Distance dv from Face of Support for Interior Girder : a) dv is Effective Shear Depth of T-Girder at a Section according to provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9 with a value dv = 1.697.000 mm for Interior Girder from Support Face. dv 1.712 m

Page 146

b) Distance of Loacation from Support Point (Bearing Point), Ldv = (L0.375+ dv) m c) Shear Force due to Dead Load, FDLdv = RDL-A - FDLInt*Ldv -FDLInt-Gir-X-Gir. d) Shear Force due to Live Lane Load, FLLLdv = RLLL-A - FLLInt*Ldv e) Shering Force due to Live Wheel Load with Rear Wheel at a Distance Ldv from Support Point, FWLLInt. = RWLL-A - Wheel-LL-Rear f) Total Factored Shear Force at a Distance dv from Support Face, FSFdv = FDLdv + FLLLdv + FWLLdv

Ldv

2.087

kN kN kN

Vu-dv

673.904

kN

ii) Moments at a Distance dv from Face of Support for Interior Girder due to Factored Forces : a) Moment due to Dead Load, = RDL-All *Ldv - FDLInt*Ldv2/2-FDLInt-Gir-X-Gir.*Ldv b) Moment due to Live Lane Load, = RLLL-A *Ldv - FLLInt*Ldv2/2 c) Moment Wheel Loads having Rear Wheel on Critica Section d) Total Factored Moment at Critical Section due to Dead & Live Lodes. Mdv-DL Mdv-LLL Mdv-LWL Mdv-DL+LL 945.329 259.398 774.875 1,979.602 kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m

10 Moments at Different Locations of Exterior Girder due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) Sketch Diagram showing required Locations of Exterior Girder for Moments including Unfactored Dead Load. X-Girder-1 X-Girder-2 8.526 kN 8.526 kN 0.300 6.100 m 6.100 m Rear Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions.

CL of Bearing

CL of Bearing

L /2 3L /8 L /4

0.300

c.g. of Wheels. Midd. Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions. Front Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions. 4.300 0.300

12.20 0.728

2.845

9.150

L /8 3.05

A

0.375

B DLExt-UDL=

37.543 kN/m

0.375

Page 147

RA-DL-X-Gir =

21.316 kN

RB-DL-X-Gir =

21.316

kN

b) Moment at Different Section of Exterior Girder due to Uniformly Distributed & Concentrated Dead Load Table- 10-b-1. Moments due to Unfactored Uniformly Distribute & Concentrated Dead Loads : Locations from Support-A Loading Type Unit Uniformlu Distribute Load Concentrated Dead Load Total Unfactored Moment

On Support

kN-m

0.000 0.000 0.000

0.375m kN-m

173.341 4.796 178.137

L/8 kN-m

1256.689 39.008 1295.697

L/4 kN-m

2164.139 78.016 2242.155

3L/8 kN-m

2722.349 91.019 2813.368

c.g. kN-m

2929.576 100.919 3030.496

L/2 kN-m

2931.320 104.022 3035.342

11 Moments at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) Sketch Diagram showing required Locations of Interior Girder for Moments including Unfactored Dead Load. X-Girder-1 X-Girder-2 17.053 kN 17.053 kN 0.300 6.100 m 6.100 m Rear Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions.

CL of Bearing

CL of Bearing

L /2 3L /8 L /4

0.300

c.g. of Wheels. Midd. Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions. Front Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions. 4.300 0.300

12.200 0.728

2.845

9.150

L /8 3.050

A

0.375

B DLInt-UDL=

28.710 kN/m

0.375

b) Moment at Different Section of Interior Girder due to Uniformly Distributed & Concentrated Dead Load Table- 11-b-1. Moments due to Unfactored Uniformly Distribute & Concentrated Dead Loads : Locations from Support-A Loading Type Unit Uniformlu Distribute Load Concentrated Dead Load Total Unfactored Moment

On Support

kN-m

0.000 0.000 0.000

0.375m kN-m

132.559 9.592 142.152

L/8 kN-m

961.031 78.016 1039.048

L/4 kN-m

1654.988 156.033 1811.021

3L/8 kN-m

2,081.870 182.038 2,263.908

c.g. kN-m

2240.343 226.657 2,467.000

L/2 kN-m

2241.677 208.044 2,449.720

Page 148

Page 149

m-Wd.

Page 150

G. Calculations for Load, Shear & Moments of RCC Main Girders under Service Limit State of Design (WSD) :

Description 1 Structural Data : i) Dimentions of Superstructure : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) t) u) v) w) w-i) w-ii) x) y) Span Length (Clear C/C distance between Bearings) Addl.Length of Girder beyond Bearing Center Line. Total Girder Length (a+2b) Carriageway Width Width of Side Walk on Each Side Width of Curb/Wheel Guard Width of Railing Curb/Post Guard Total Width of Bridge Deck Width & Depth of Railings Width & Breath of Railing Post Height of Railing Post Height of Wheel Guard/Curb Number of Railings on each Side C/C distance between Railing Posts Thickness of Deck Slab Thickness of Wearing Course Number of Main Girders Number of Cross Girders Depth of Main Girders (Including Deck Slab as Part of T-Girder) Depth of Cross Girders (Including Deck Slab) Width of Main Girders Width of Cross Girders C/C Distance between Main Girders & Flange Width C/C Distance between Cross Girders in Longitudinal Direction . Distance of Slab Outer Edge to Exterior Girder Center Clear Distance Between Main Interior Girders Filets : i) Main Girder in Vertical Direction ii) Main Girder in Horizontal Direction iii) X-Girder in Vertical Direction vi) X-Girder in Horizontal Direction z) Vertical Surface Area of Superstructure's Exposed Elements SL SAddl. LGir. WCarr-Way. WS-Walk. WCurb. WR-Post. WB-Deck. RW&D. PW&B. hR-Post. hCurb. Rnos. C/CD-R-Post. tSlab. tWC NGirder. NX-Girder. hGirder. hX-Girder. bGirder. bX-Girder. C/CD-Girder. C/CD-X-Girder. CD-Ext.-Girder-Edg. ClD-Int.-Girder. FM-Girder-V. FM-Girder-H. FX-Girder-V. FX-Girder-H. ASup-Vert. 24.400 m 0.300 m 25.000 m 7.300 m 1.250 m 0.350 m 0.225 m 10.250 m 0.175 m 0.225 m 1.070 m 0.300 m 3.000 nos 2.000 m 0.200 m 0.075 m 5.000 nos 5.000 nos 2.000 m 1.900 m 0.350 m 0.250 m 2.000 m 6.100 m 1.125 m 1.650 m 0.150 m 0.150 m 0.075 m 0.075 m 2 87.108 m Notation DImentions Unit.

ii) Number of Traffic Lane on Bridge Deck: a) Number of Design Traffic Lane = WCarr.-way/3600 = 7300/3600 Where WCarr.-way is Clear Carriageway Width in between Curbs in mm NLane. 2.028 2 nos nos

(ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) 2 Design Data : i) Design Criterion : a) AASHTO Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). b) Type of Loads : Combined Application of AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading & Lane Loading. ii) Design AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Axle to Axle distance Wheel to Wheel distance Rear Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Rear Single Wheel Load Middle Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Middle Single Wheel Load Front Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Front Single Wheel Load DAxel. DWheel. LLRW-Load LLRS-Load LLMW-Load LLMS-Load LLFW-Load LLFS-Load 1.800 4.300 145.000 72.500 145.000 72.500 35.000 17.500 m m kN kN kN kN kN kN

iii) Design AASHTO Lane Loading : a) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 9.300N/mm through the Length of Bridge for 1 (One) Lane of Bridge & acting over a 3.000m Wide Dcak Strip in Transverse Direction. Thus Lane Load per meter Length of Bridge for 1 (One) Lane = (9.300*1000/1000)kN/m b) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 9.300N/mm through the Length of Gridge for Single and acting over a 3.000m Wide Strip in Transverse Direction. Thus Intensity of Lane Load per meter Length & for per meter Width = 9.300/3.000kN/m/m-Wd. iv) Design AASHTO Pedestrian Loading : a) Design Pedestrian Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 3.600*10-3MPa through the Length of Sidewalk on both side and acting over the total Wide of Sidewalk.

3 vi) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration, g =

LLLane

9.300 9.300

N/mm kN/m

LLLane-Int.

LL-Pedest

2 9.807 m/sec )

a) b) c) d) e)

a) b) c) d) e)

viii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTO-LRFD-2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength, f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Load Condition (SLC) = 0.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, Ec = 0.043gc1.50f/c = 0.043*24^(1.50)*21^(1/2) Mpa, (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.4). d) Poisson's Ration = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2), subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.5). e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete, fr = 0.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). f) Steel Ultimate strength, fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement, Es for fy = 410 MPa ix) Other Design Related Data : a) Velocity of Wind Load in Normal Condition b) Velocity of Wind Load in Special Condition c) Velocity of Water/Stream Current Causing Water/Stream Load 3 Factors Applicable for Design of Different Structural Components : i) Formula for Load Factors & Selection of Load Combination : a) Formula for Load Factors Q = igiQi f Rn = Rr; (ASSHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-1 & 3.4.1-1) Where, i is Load Modifier having values i = D R I 0.95 in which for Loads a Maximum value of gi Applicable; (ASSHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-2), & i = 1/(D R I ) 1.00 in which for Loads a Minimum value of gi Allpicable; (ASSHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-3) Here: gi = Load Factor; a statistically based multiplier Applied to Force Effect, f = Resistance Factor; a statistically based multiplier Applied to Nominal Resitance, i = Load Modifier; a Factor related to Ductility, Redundancy and Operational Functions, For Strength Limit State; D i = D = 1.00 for Conventional Design related to Ductility, 1.000 R i = R = 1.00 for Conventional Levels of Redundancy , 1.000 i = I = 1.00 for Typical Bridges related to Operational Functions, Qi = Force Effect, Rn = Nominal Resitance, l 1.000 VWL-Nor. VWL-Spe. VWA 90.000 260.000 4.200 km/hr km/hr m/s f/c fc Ec 21.000 8.400 23,855.620 2.887 fr fy ES 2.887 MPa MPa MPa MPa

Ri = Factored Resitance = fRn. 4 Different Load Multiplying Fatcors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : a) The Bridge will have to face Cyclonic Storms with very high Intensity of Wind Load (Wind Velocity = 260km/hr), but those would be occasional. Thus the respective Multiplier Factors of Limit State SERVICE-I (Bridge used by Normal Vehicle with wind load having Wind Velocity of 90 km/hr) for normal operation & other respective Limit State SERVICE Groups are being Considered as CRITICAL conditions for Bridge Structure. i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD-3.4.1 ; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.000

gDW

1.000

gEH

1.000

gEV

1.000

gES

1.000

ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load Allowence-IM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1(SERVICE - I); (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking Force-BR . SERVICE - II SERVICE - II m 1.000

gLL-Truck IM

1.000 1.000

h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV SERVICE - IV SERVICE - II

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

gLL-TG.

1.000

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

5 Load Calculations for Superstructural Components & Attachments (DL & LL) per meter Length of Girder: i) Dead Loads on 1 no. Exterior Girder from Different Components & Attachments : a) Dead Load on. Exterior Girder due to Self Wt.& Attachments (Without WC & Utilies) for per meter Length of Girder. b) Dead Load on Exterior Girder due to WC. & Utilities for per meter Length of Girder c) Concentrated Dead Load on Exterior Girder from to 1 no. Cross Girder d) Sumation of Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Exterior Girder (a + b) for per Meter Length of Girder. DLExt-Gir-Self& Atta. 34.340 kN/m

DLExt-Gir-WC+ Utility.

3.203

kN/m

DLExt-Gir-X-Gir. DLExt.U-D

8.526 37.543

kN kN/m

ii) Dead Loads on 1 no. Interior Girder from Different Components & Attachments :

a) Dead Load on.Interior Girder due to Self Wt.& Attachments (Without WC & Utilies) for per meter Length of Girder. b) Dead Load on Interior Girder from WC. for per meter Length of Girder c) Concentrated Dead Load on Interior Girder from to 1 no. Cross Girder d) Sumation of Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Interior Girder (a + b) for

25.260

kN/m

kN/m kN kN/m

iii) Live Loads (LL) on 1 no. Exterior Girder due to Wheel Load, Lane Load & Pedestrian Load according Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.1.2.2, 3.6.1.2.4 & 3.6.1.6 : a) Sketch Diagram For Distribution of Wheel Load, Lane Load & Pedestrian Load on Exterior Girders : Midd. & Rear Wheel Load = Front Wheel Load = 72.500 kN 17.500 kN 1.475 0.225 7.300 0.600 1.800 1.250 0.300 1.070

9.300kN/m Lane Load on

1.125

2.000

2.000 CL

2.000

2.000

1.125

10.25 b) LL on 1 no. Exterior Girder due to Wheel Load at distance 0.600m from Wheel Guard Face; i) From Front Wheel (Sketch Diagram) = 10.063 kN LLExt-Wheel-Front. ii) From Midd. & Rear Wheel (do) = 41.688 kN LLExt-Wheel-Mid& Rear. c) LL on 1 no. Exterior Girder due to Lane Load Uniformly Distributed over Full Bridge Length with Intensity of 3.100N/m/m-Wd. on 0.650m Width from Wheel Guard Face up to Middle point between Two Girders. (From Sketch Diagram) = 2.015 kN/m d) LL on 1 no. Exterior Girder due to Pedestrian Load Uniformly Distributed over Sidewalk on Full Bridge Length with Intensity of 4.000kN/m 2 on Sidewalk on each side (From Sketch Diagram) = 4.500 kN/m LLExt-Lane.

kN kN kN/m

LLExt-Pedes.

4.500

kN/m

iv) Live Loads (LL) on 1 no. Interior Girder due to Wheel Load & Lane Load according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.1.2.2, 3.6.1.2.4 & 3.6.1.6 :

a) Sketch Diagram For Distribution of Wheel Load & Lane Load on Interior Girders : Midd. & Rear Wheel Load = Front Wheel Load = 72.500 17.500 kN kN 72.500 kN 17.500 kN 1.475 7.300 0.200 1.800 1.200 0.800 1.250 0.300 1.070

9.300kN/m Lane Load on 9.300kN/m Lane Load on

0.225

1.125

2.000

2.000 CL

2.000

2.000

1.125

10.250 b) LL on 1 no.Interior Girder due to Wheel Load with One Line of Wheels LLInt-Wheel-Front. upon Girder & the other Line of Wheels at Axle Distance - 1.800m LLInt-Wheel-Mid& Rear. i) Load from Front Wheel (From Sketch Diagram) = 26.250 kN ii) Load from Midd. & Rear Wheel (From Sketch Diagram) = 108.750 kN c) LL on 1 no. Interior Girder due to Lane Load Uniformly Distributed over LLInt-Lane. Full Bridge Length having Intensity of 9.300kN/m on 3.000m Width of Deck having Equally distance (1.500m) from Middle point of a Girder & action for Girder with 2.000m Width (From Sketch Diagram) = 6.200 kN/m 26.250 108.750 kN kN

6.200

kN/m

6 Factored Loads of Superstructure Components & Attachments (DL & LL) Service Limit State Design (WSD): i) Factored Dead Loads on 1 no. Exterior Girder from Different Components & Attachments : a) Factored Dead Load on Exterior Girder due to Self Wt.& Attachments (Without WC) for per Meter Length = gDC*DLExt-Gir-Self& Atta. = FDLExt-Gir-Self & Atta. 34.340 kN/m 34.340 kN/m

b) Factored Dead Load on Exterior Girder due to WC. & Utilities for FDLExt-Gir-WC+ Utility. per Merter Length = gDW*DLExt.-Gir-WC+Utility = 3.203 kN/m c) Factored Concentrated Dead Load on Exterior Girder from to 1 no. Cross Girder = gDC*DLExt-Gir-X-Gir. =. 8.526 kN d) Sumation of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Exterior Girder (a + b) for per Meter Length of Girder. FDLExt-Gir-X-Gir.

3.203

kN/m

8.526

kN

FDL-Ext.UD

37.543

kN/m

ii) Factored Dead Loads on 1 no. Interior Girder from Different Components & Attachments :

a) Factored Dead Load on Interior Girder due to Self Wt.& Attachments (Without WC) for per Meter Length = gDC*DLInt-Gir-Self& Atta. = b) Factored Dead Load on Interior Girder due to WC. & Utilities for per Merter Length = gDW*DLInt.-Gir-WC = 3.450 kN/m c) Factored Concentrated Dead Load on Interior Girder from to 1 no. Cross Girder = gDC*DLInt-Gir-X-Gir. =. 17.053 kN

25.260

kN/m

3.450

kN/m

FDLInt-Gir-X-Gir.

17.053

kN

d) Sumation of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Interior Girder (a + b) for per Meter Length of Girder. iii) Factored Live Loads of Different Components for 1 no. Exterior Girder :

FDL-Int.UD

28.710

kN/m

a) Factored LL on 1 no. Exterior Girder due to Wheel Load at distance 0.600m from Wheel Guard Face; i) From Front Wheel = mgLL-Truck*IM*LLExt-Wheel-Front FLLExt-Wheel-Front. 10.063 = 10.063 kN ii) Load from Midd.& Rear Wheel=mgLL-Truck*IM*LLExt-Wheel-Mid&Rear. FLLExt-Wheel-Mid& Rear. 41.688 = 41.688 kN b) Factored LL on 1 no. Exterior Girder due to Lane Load = mgLL-Lane*LLExt-Lane. = 2.015 kN/m c) Factored LL on 1 no. Exterior Girder due to Pedestrian Load = mgLL-PL*LLExt-Pedes. = 4.500 kN/m d) Summation of Factored LL of Exterior Girder for per meter Length due to Lane Load & Pedestrian Loads iv) Factored Live Loads of Different Components for 1 no. Interior Girder : a) Factored LL on 1 no.Interior Girder due to Wheel Load i) Load from Front Wheel = mgLL-Truck*IM*LLInt-Wheel-Front = 26.250 kN ii) Load from Midd.& Rear Wheel=mgLL-Truck*IM*LLInt-Wheel-Mid&Rear. = 108.750 kN FLLInt-Wheel-Front. 26.250 FLLExt-Lane. 2.015

kN kN

kN/m

FLLExt-Pedes.

4.500

kN/m

FLL-Ext.

6.515

kN/m

kN

FLLInt-Wheel-Mid& Rear.

108.750

kN

b) Factored LL on 1 no. Interior Girder due to Lane Load for per meter Length = mgLL-Lane*LLInt-Lane. = 6.20 kN/m

FLLInt-Lane.

6.200

kN/m

6 Shear & Moments at different Positions of an Exterior Girder due to Factored Loads (DL& LL) from Superstructure Components & Attachments : a) Sketch Diagram Showing Wheels Loads of Truck, c.g. of Wheels & Location of Mid-Wheel under the Provisions of Absulate Max. Moments: 145.000 kN 145.000 kN 35.000 kN c.g. of Wheel c.g. of Girder 2.845 m 0.728 m

Rear

Middle

Front

4.300

b) Calculations for Center of Gravity (cg) Position of Truck with Wheel Load in Respect of Rear Wheel; c.g. Distance from Rear Wheel = (Wt.-Mid*4.300+Wt.-Fornt*(2*4.300))/(2*145.000+35.000)

c) Calculation Mid Wheel Position in Respect of Girder c.g. under Absulate Max. Moment Provision = (Distance beteen 2-Wheel - Distance of c.g. of Wheels from Rear Wheel)/2 dMid-Wheel 0.728 m d) Sketch Diagram of Factored Wheel Loads for Exterior Girder : 41.688 kN 2.845 c.g. 41.688 kN 10.063 kN

Rear

Middle

Front

4.300

4.300

e) Sketch Diagram of Girder with Factored Uniformly Distributed & Concentrated DL & LL, Different Locations for Shear & Moments Including Max. Reactions at Supports due to Different DL, LL-Lane Load & LL-Wheel Load : X-Girder-1 X-Girder-2 X-Girder-3 X-Girder-4 X-Girder-5 8.526 kN 8.526 kN 8.526 kN 8.526 kN 8.526 kN 0.300 6.100 m 6.100 m 6.100 m 6.100 m 0.300 m Rear Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions. m CL of Bearing CL of Girder CL of Bearing L /2 c.g. of Wheels. 12.200 m Midd. Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions. 3L/8 0.728 m Front Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions. L /4 9.150 2.845 4.300 0.300 L /8 6.100 m m 0.300 m 3.050 m m A

0.375

B

37.543 kN/m 6.515 kN/m

0.375

m LSpan = LTotal =

FDLExt-All = FLLExt-Lane-Ped = m m

m 24.400 25.000

RA-DL = RA-DL-X-Gir.=

469.282 kN 21.316 kN

RB-DL = RB-DL-X-Gir.=

490.598 21.316

kN kN

RA-LL-L = 81.438 kN RA-LL-Wh.= 49.505 (Max. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.g. Position)

RB-LL-L = 81.438 kN RB-LL-Wh.= 43.932 kN (Max. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.g. Position)

ii) Calculation of Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Exterior Girder Against Applied Factored Loads : a) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads from Sidewalk, Attachments, Utilities, WC, Slab, Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLExt-All & FDLExt-Gir-X-Gir.): Table-6-ii-a-1. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Exterior Girder. Location From Support-A Shearing Forces in kN

On Support 458.019

0.375m

443.940

L/8

343.514

L/4

229.009

3L/8

114.505

c.g.

-27.319

L/2

0.000

Table-6-ii-a-2. Factored Moments due to all Dead Loads (DL) on Exterior Girder. Location From Support-A Moments in kN-m

On Support 0.000

0.375m

173.341

L/8

1256.689

L/4

2164.139

3L/8

2722.349

c.g.

2929.576

L/2

2931.320

b) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Concentrated Dead Load from Cross Girders (FDLExt-Gir-X-Gir.): Table-6-ii-b-1. Factored Shearing Forces due to Concentrated Dead Loads of X-Girder on Exterior Girder. Location From Support-A Shearing Forces in kN

On Support 12.790

0.375m

4.263

L/8

4.263

L/4

-4.263

3L/8

-4.263

c.g.

-12.790

L/2

-12.790

Table-6-ii-b-2. Factored Moments due to all Dead Loads (DL) on Exterior Girder. Location From Support-A Moments in kN-m

On Support 0.000

0.375m

4.796

L/8

39.008

L/4

78.016

3L/8

91.019

c.g.

100.919

L/2

104.022

c) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads from Sidewalk, Attachments, Utilities, WC, Slab, Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLExt-All & FDLExt-Gir-X-Gir.): Table-6-ii-c-1. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Applied Dead Loads on Exterior Girder. Location From Support-A

Uniformly Distributed Load in kN

On Support 458.019 12.790 470.808

0.375m

443.940 4.263 448.204

L/8

343.514 4.263 347.777

L/4

229.009 -4.263 224.746

3L/8

114.505 -4.263 110.242

c.g.

-27.319 -12.790 -40.109

L/2

0.000 -12.790 -12.790

Table-6-ii-c-2. Factored Moments due to all Applied Dead Loads on Exterior Girder. Location From Support-A

For Uniformly Distributed in kN-m

On Support 0.000 0.000

0.375m

173.341 4.796

L/8

1256.689 39.008

L/4

2164.139 78.016

3L/8

2722.349 91.019

c.g.

2929.576 100.919

L/2

2931.320 104.022

Total Monents in kN

0.000

178.137

1295.697

2242.155

2813.368

3030.496

3035.342

d) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Live Live Load & Pedestrian Loads (FLLExt-Lane-Ped) : Table-6-ii-d-1. Factored Shearing Forces on Exterior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) . Location From Support-A Shearing Forces in kN

On Support 79.483

0.375m

77.040

L/8

59.612

L/4

39.742

3L/8

19.871

c.g.

-4.741

L/2

0.000

Table-6-ii-d-2. Factored Moments on Exterior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) . Location From Support-A Moments in kN-m

On Support

0.000

0.375m

30.081

L/8

218.081

L/4

375.557

3L/8

472.427

c.g.

508.389

L/2

508.691

e) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Girder due to Applied Live Wheel Loads (FLLExt-Wheel) : Table-6-ii-e-1. Factored Shearing Forces on Exterior Girder due to Live Wheel-Load (LL) .

Locatio From Support-A Support Positon of Rear/Midd. & Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support, AB 82.544 Rear Wheel at 0.375m, AB 81.108 Rear Wheel at L/8, A B 70.865 Rear Wheel at L/4, A B 59.185 Rear Wheel at 3L/8, A B 47.505 Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition A B 49.505 Rear Wheel at L/2, A B 35.826 Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition B A 43.932 Rear Wheel at L/2, BA 36.768 Rear Wheel at 3L/8, B A 69.292 Rear Wheel at L/4, B A 69.878 Rear Wheel at L/8, B A 36.477 Rear Wheel at 0.375m, B A 41.047 Rear Wheel at Support, B A 41.688

On Support 40.857 39.421 29.177 17.497 5.818 -33.870 -5.862 -7.818 -56.669 -24.146 -13.497 -5.211 -0.641 0.000

0.375m

L/8

L/4

3L/8

L/2

Locatio From Support-A Support Positon of Rear/Midd. & Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support, A B 82.544 Rear Wheel at 0.375m, A B 81.108 Rear Wheel at L/8, A B 70.865 Rear Wheel at L/4, A B 59.185 Rear Wheel at 3L/8, A B 47.505 Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition A B 49.505 Rear Wheel at L/2, A B 35.826 Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition B A 43.932 Rear Wheel at L/2, B A 36.768

On Support 0.000 30.416 216.137 361.028 434.673 460.734 437.072 460.734 182.778

0.375m

L/8

L/4

3L/8

L/2

c.g.

Rear Wheel at 3L/8, B A Rear Wheel at L/4, B A Rear Wheel at L/8, B A Rear Wheel at 0.375m, B A Rear Wheel at Support, B A

368.225

f) Table showing Max. Shear Forces at Different Locations of Exterior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads

(DL), Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application :

Table-6-ii-f-1. Sum. of Factored Max. Shear Forces Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Exterior Girder. Locations from Support-A Loading Type Unit a. Dead Load (FDLExt) b. Lane + Ped.(LL) (FLLExt) a. Wheel Live Load (WLLExt) Total Shears on Each Point

On Support

kN

470.808 79.483 40.857 591.148

0.375m kN

448.204 77.040 39.421 564.664

L/8 kN

347.777 59.612 29.177 436.567

L/4 kN

224.746 39.742 17.497 281.985

3L/8 kN

110.242 19.871 5.818 135.930

c.g. kN

-40.109 -4.741 -7.818 -52.668

L/2 kN

-12.790 0.000 -5.862 -18.651

e) Table showing the Max. Moments at Different Locations of Exterior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads

(DL), Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application :

Table-6-ii-e-1. Sum. of Factored Max. Moments Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Exterior Girder. Locations from Support-A Loading Type Unit a. Dead Load (FDLExt) b. Lane+Ped.(LL) (FL&PLExt) c. Wheel Live Load (FWLLExt) Total Moments on Each Point

On Support

kN-m

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.375m kN-m

178.137 30.081 30.416 45.808

L/8 kN-m

1295.697 218.081 216.137 1729.916

L/4 kN-m

2242.155 375.557 361.028 2978.740

3L/8 kN-m

2813.368 472.427 434.673 3720.468

c.g. kN-m

3030.496 508.389 460.734 3999.618

L/2 kN-m

3035.342 508.691 437.072 3981.105

7 Factored Shear & Moments at different Positions of an Interior Girder due to Factored Loads (DL& LL) from Superstructure Components & Attachments : i) Arrangement of Wheel Loads for Interiod Girder & c.g Point : a) Sketch Diagram Showing Wheels Loads of Truck, c.g. of Wheels & Location of Mid-Wheel under the Provisions of Absulate Max. Moments: 145.000 kN c.g. of Wheel 2.845 m Middle 145.000 kN c.g. of Girder 0.728 m Front 35.000 kN

Rear

4.300

b) Calculations for Center of Gravity (cg) Position of Truck with Wheel Load in Respect of Rear Wheel; c.g. Distance from Rear Wheel

= (Wt.-Mid*4.300+Wt.-Fornt*(2*4.300))/(2*145.000+35.000) c) Calculation Mid Wheel Position in Respect of Girder c.g. under Absulate Max. Moment Provision = (Distance beteen 2-Wheel - Distance of c.g. of Wheels from Rear Wheel)/2 dMid-Wheel 0.728 m d) Sketch Diagram Showing Factored Wheel Loads for Interior Girder : 108.750 kN 2.845 c.g. 108.750 kN 0.728 26.250 kN

Rear

Middle

Front

4.300

4.300

e) Sketch Diagram of Girder with Uniformly Distributed Factored DL & LL, Different Locations for Shear & Moments Including Max. Reactions at Supports due to DL, LL-Lane Load & LL-Wheel Load : X-Girder-1 X-Girder-2 X-Girder-3 X-Girder-4 X-Girder-5 17.053 kN 17.053 kN 17.053 kN 17.053 kN 17.053 kN 0.300 6.100 m 6.100 m 6.100 m 6.100 m 0.300 m Rear Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions. m CL of Bearing CL of Girder CL of Bearing L /2 c.g. of Wheels. Midd. Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions. 12.200 m Front Wheel Positions under c.g Provisions. 3L/8 0.728 m L /4 9.150 1.455 4.300 0.300 L /8 6.100 m 0.300 m 3.050 m m A

0.375

B

28.710 kN/m 6.200 kN/m

0.375

m LSpan =

FDLInt-All = FLLInt-Lane-Ped = m m

m 24.400

LTotal = 25.000 RA-DL = 358.875 kN RA-DL-X-Gir.= 42.632 kN RA-LL-L = 77.500 kN RA-LL-Wh.= 129.144 (Max. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.g. Position)

RB-DL = 358.875 kN RB-DL-X-Gir.= 42.632 kN RB-LL-L = 77.500 kN RB-LL-Wh.= 114.606 kN (Max. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.g. Position)

ii) Calculation of Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Interior Girder Against Applied Factored Loads : a) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead

Loads from Sidewalk, Attachments, Utilities, WC, Slab, Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLInt-All & FDLInt-Gir-X-Gir.): Table-7-ii-a-1. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Interior Girder. Location From Support-A Shearing Forces in kN

On Support 350.262

0.375m

339.496

L/8

262.697

L/4

175.131

3L/8

87.566

c.g.

-20.892

L/2

0.000

Table-7-ii-a-2. Factored Moments due to all Dead Loads (DL) on Interior Girder. Location From Support-A Moments in kN-m

On Support 0.000

0.375m

132.559

L/8

961.031

L/4

1654.988

3L/8

2081.870

c.g.

2240.343

L/2

2241.677

b) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Concentrated Dead Load from Cross Girders (FDLExt-Gir-X-Gir.): Table-7-ii-b-1. Factored Shearing Forces due to Concentrated Dead Loads of X-Girder on Interior Girder. Location From Support-A Shearing Forces in kN

On Support 25.579

0.375m

25.579

L/8

25.579

L/4

8.526

3L/8

8.526

c.g.

-8.526

L/2

-8.526

Table-7-ii-b-2. Factored Moments due to all Dead Loads (DL) on Interior Girder. Location From Support-A Moments in kN-m

On Support 0.000

0.375m

9.592

L/8

78.016

L/4

156.033

3L/8

182.038

c.g.

201.839

L/2

208.044

c) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads from Sidewalk, Attachments, Utilities, WC, Slab, Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLExt-All & FDLExt-Gir-X-Gir.): Table-7-ii-c-1. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Applied Dead Loads on Interior Girder. Location From Support-A

Uniformly Distributed Load in kN

On Support 350.262 25.579 375.841

0.375m

339.496 25.579 365.075

L/8

262.697 25.579 288.276

L/4

175.131 8.526 183.657

3L/8

87.566 8.526 96.092

c.g.

-20.892 -8.526 -29.418

L/2

0.000 -8.526 -8.526

Table-7-ii-c-2. Factored Moments due to all Applied Dead Loads on Interior Girder. Location From Support-A

For Uniformly Distributed in kN-m

On Support 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.375m

132.559 9.592 142.152

L/8

961.031 78.016 1039.048

L/4

1654.988 156.033 1811.021

3L/8

2081.870 182.038 2263.908

c.g.

2240.343 201.839 2442.182

L/2

2241.677 208.044 2449.720

d) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Live Live Load & Pedestrian Loads (FLLInt-Lane-Ped) : Table-7-ii-d-1. Factored Shearing Forces on Interior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) . Location From Support-A

On Support

0.375m

L/8

L/4

3L/8

c.g.

L/2

Shearing Forces in kN

75.640

73.315

56.730

37.820

18.910

-4.512

0.000

Table-7-ii-d-2. Factored Moments on Interior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) . Location From Support-A Moments in kN-m

On Support

0.000

0.375m

28.627

L/8

207.537

L/4

357.399

3L/8

449.585

c.g.

483.808

L/2

484.096

e) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Girder due to Applied Live Wheel Loads (FLLInt-Wheel) : Table-7-ii-e-1. Factored Shearing Forces on Interior Girder due to Live Wheel-Load (LL) .

Locatio From Support-A Support Positon of Rear/Midd. & Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support, AB 215.333 Rear Wheel at 0.375m, AB 211.587 Rear Wheel at L/8, A B 184.864 Rear Wheel at L/4, A B 154.395 Rear Wheel at 3L/8, A B 123.927 Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition A B 129.144 Rear Wheel at L/2, A B 93.458 Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition B A 114.606 Rear Wheel at L/2, BA 150.292 Rear Wheel at 3L/8, B A 180.761 Rear Wheel at L/4, B A 182.290 Rear Wheel at L/8, B A 95.156 Rear Wheel at 0.375m, B A 107.079 Rear Wheel at Support, B A 108.750

On Support 106.583 102.837 76.114 45.645 15.177 -88.356 -15.292 -20.394 -93.458 -62.989 -35.210 -13.594 -1.671 0.000

0.375m

L/8

L/4

3L/8

L/2

Locatio From Support-A Support Positon of Rear/Midd. & Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support, A B 215.333 Rear Wheel at 0.375m, A B 211.587 Rear Wheel at L/8, A B 184.864 Rear Wheel at L/4, A B 154.395 Rear Wheel at 3L/8, A B 123.927 Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition A B 129.144 Rear Wheel at L/2, A B 93.458 Midd. Wheel on c.g. Poisition B A 114.606 Rear Wheel at L/2, B A 150.292 Rear Wheel at 3L/8, B A 180.761 Rear Wheel at L/4, B A 182.290 Rear Wheel at L/8, B A 95.156 Rear Wheel at 0.375m, B A 107.079 Rear Wheel at Support, B A 108.750

On Support 0.000 79.345 563.836 941.813 1133.930 1201.915 1140.188 1201.915 1140.188 960.586 644.344 290.227 40.154 0.000

0.375m

L/8

L/4

3L/8

L/2

c.g.

f) Table showing Max. Shear Forces at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads

(DL), Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application :

Table-7-ii-f-1. Sum. of Factored Max. Shear Forces Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder. Locations from Support-A Loading Type Unit a. Dead Load (FDLExt) b. Lane + Ped.(LL) (FLLExt) a. Wheel Live Load (WLLExt) Total Shears on Each Point

On Support

kN

375.841 75.640 106.583 558.064

0.375m kN

365.075 73.315 102.837 541.227

L/8 kN

288.276 56.730 76.114 421.120

L/4 kN

183.657 37.820 45.645 267.123

3L/8 kN

96.092 18.910 15.177 130.179

c.g. kN

-29.418 -4.512 -20.394 -54.325

L/2 kN

-8.526 0.000 -15.292 -23.818

e) Table showing the Max. Moments at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads

(DL), Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application :

Table-7-ii-e-1. Sum. of Factored Max. Moments Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder. Locations from Support-A Loading Type Unit a. Dead Load (FDLExt) b. Lane+Ped.(LL) (FL&PLExt) c. Wheel Live Load (FWLLExt) Total Moments on Each Point

On Support

kN-m

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.375m kN-m

142.152 28.627 79.345 119.500

L/8 kN-m

1039.048 207.537 563.836 1810.421

L/4 kN-m

1811.021 357.399 941.813 3110.232

3L/8 kN-m

2263.908 449.585 1133.930 3847.423

c.g. kN-m

2442.182 483.808 1201.915 4127.905

L/2 kN-m

2449.720 484.096 1140.188 4074.004

m-Wd.

H. Strength Limit State Design (USD) of Main Girder & Cross Girders Against Applied Forces :

1 Data for Flexural Design : Description i) Dimensional Data of Superstructure : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) Span Length (Clear C/C distance between Bearings) Addl.Length of Girder beyond Bearing Center Line. Total Girder Length (a+2b) Thickness of Deck Slab Thickness of Wearing Course Number of Main Girders Number of Cross Girders Depth of Main Girders (Including Slab as T-Girder) Depth of Cross Girders (Including Slab as T-Girder) Width of Web for Main Girders Width of Web for Cross Girders C/C Distance Between Main Girders Distance of Slab Outer Edge to Exterior Girder Center Clear Distance Between Main Interior Girders Filets : i) Main Girder in Vertical Direction ii) Main Girder in Horizontal Direction iii) X-Girder in Vertical Direction vi) X-Girder in Horizontal Direction SL SAddl. LGir. hSlab. hWC NGir. NX-Gir. hGir. hX-Gir. bWeb-Gir. bWeb-X-Gir. C/CD-Gir. CD-Ext.-Gir-Edg. ClD-Int.-Gir. FM-Girder-V. FM-Girder-H. FX-Girder-V. FX-Girder-H. 24.400 0.300 25.000 0.200 0.075 5 5 2.000 1.900 0.350 0.250 2.000 1.125 1.650 0.150 0.150 0.075 0.075 m m m m m nos nos m m m m m m m m m m m Notation Dimensions Unit.

2 Design Criterion, Loadings, Design Data (Materials) & Different Factors : i) Design Criterion : AASHTO Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD-USD). ii) Type of Loads : Combined Application of AASHTO HS20 Truck, Lane & Pedestrian Loadings. iii) Design AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Axle to Axle distance Wheel to Wheel distance Rear Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Rear Single Wheel Load Middle Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Middle Single Wheel Load Front Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Front Single Wheel Load DAxel. DWheel. LLRW-Load LLRSW-Load LLMW-Load LLMSW-Load LLFW-Load LLFSW-Load 1.800 4.300 145.000 72.500 145.000 72.500 35.000 17.500 m m kN kN kN kN kN kN

iv) Design AASHTO Lane Loading : a) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of LL-Lane 9.300 N/mm

Page 169

9.300N/mm through the Length of Gridge for Single and acting over a 3.000m Wide Strip in Transverse Direction. v) Design AASHTO Pedestrian Loading : a) Design Pedestrian Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 3.600*10-3MPa through the Length of Sidewalk on both side and acting over the total Wide of Sidewalk.

3 vi) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration, g =

9.300

kN/m

LL-Pedest

0.003600 3.600

N/mm^2 kN/m^2

2 9.807 m/sec )

a) b) c) d) e)

a) b) c) d) e)

viii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTO-LRFD-2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength, f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, Ec = 0.043gc1.50f/c = 0.043*24^(1.50)*21^(1/2) Mpa, (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.4). d) Poisson's Ration = 0.200, subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.5). e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete, fr = 0.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). f) Steel Ultimate strength, fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement, Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.000 8.400 23,855.620 0.200 fr fy fs ES 2.887 MPa MPa MPa MPa

ix) Conventional Resistance Factors for Ultimate Stressed Design & Construction (AASHTO LRFD-5.5.4.2.1) : (Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f or b value) a) b) c) d) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete For Axil Comression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme Limit fFlx-Rin. fFlx-Pres. fShear/Torsion. fSpir/Tie/Seim. 0.90 1.00 0.90 0.75

Page 170

e) f) g) h) i) j) h)

State (Zone 3 & 4). For Bearing on Concrete For Compression in Strut-and-Tie Modeis For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones For resistance during Pile Driving Value of b1 for Flexural Compression in Reinforced Concrete (AASHTO LRFD-5.7.2..2.) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete

viii) Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.250

gDW

1.500

gEH

1.500

gEV

1.350

gES

1.500

ix) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load Allowence-IM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE m 1.000

gLL-Truck IM

1.750 1.330

Page 171

g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV x) Design Data for Site Conditions : a) Velocity of Wind Load in Normal Condition b) Velocity of Wind Load in Cyclonic Storm Condition c) Velocity of Water/Stream Current Causing Water/Stream Load STRENGTH - III STRENGTH - V

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

gLL-TG.

1.000

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

3 Design Phenomena, Selection of T-Girder Flange Width, Girder Depth & Calculations for Monent & Shear : i) Design Phenomena : a) The Flexural of Girders will be according to AASHTO LRFD or Ultimate Strength Design (USD) Procedures. b) Since the Interior Girders of the Bridge have the Max. Moments & Shearing Forces caused by Applied Loads (DL & LL), thus it is require to conduct the Flexural Design for Reinforcements of Bridge Girders Based on Calculated

Page 172

respective Moments & Shears. Since the Bridge Deck Slab is integral Part of Girders, thus the Design of Girders will be under T-Beam if the Provisions in these Respect Satisfy, otherwise Designee will be under Provisions for the Rectangular Beam. c) The T-Girder will have to Provide Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement on Compression Face with a reasonable Steel Area, thus an Equivalent Additional Steel Area can also Provide on Tension Face against those Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement. These arrangement will provide a Higher Stiffness for the Structure within Flexural provisions. ii) Cross Sectional Sketch Diagram of Bridge Girders & Dack Slab :

1.475 0.225 7.300 1.250 0.300 1.070 0.300 0.200 0.950 0.250 1.650 1.650 1.650 1.650 0.950

1.125

2.000

2.000

2.000

2.000

1.125

CL 10.250 iii) Selection of T-Girder Effective Flange Width under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-4.6.2.6 (4.6.2.6.1) : a) Since the Bridge is a Simple Supported T-Girder Structure, thus Falnge Width will be the least Dimention of : i) One-quarter of Effective Span Length = 1/4*SL = 6.100 m ii) 12.0 times average Depth of Slab + Greater Thickness of Web = 12*hSlab + bGir. = 2.750 m iii) One-half the Width of Girder Top Flange (It is not req. as there is no Addl. Top Flange) iv) The average Spacing of Adjacent Beams/Girders = C/CD-Gir. = 2.000 m b) From Calculations, Average Spacing of Adjacent Beams/Girders is the Least one, thus the Flange Width of Interior Girders, bFla-Gir = 2.000m bFl-Gir. 2.000 m

iv) Selection of Depth (Including Slab Depth) for T-Girder under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-2.5.2.6.3 & Table 2.5.2.6.3-1 : a) Since the Bridge is a Simple Supported T-Girder Structure, thus According to Table-2.5.2.6.3-1; the Min. Required Girder Depth Including Salb Thickness is = 0.0708L; where b) L is the Span Length, the Clear Distance between Bearing Centers of Supports = SL c) Thus required Minimum Depth of T-Girder Including Salb = 0.070*SL L 24.400 m

hT-Girder.

1.732 m

Page 173

d) Considering the Clear Covering both on Top & Bottom, Let Provide a Depth for the T-Girder = 2.000m. v) Calculations for Monent at Different Location of Girder :

hGir-pro.

2.000 m

a) From Load, Shear & Moment Calcutation Tables it appares that, the Interior Girders are facing the Max. Resultant Forces (DL & LL) causing Max. Shears & Moments, thus One of Interior Girders is considered as Typical one for the Flexural Design in respect of All Applied Loads (DL & LL) and Corresponding Moments & Shears. b) Table for Max. Moments at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to Factored DL, Lane-LL & Wheel-LL : Table-1. Sum. of Max. Moments Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder. Locations from Support-A Loading Type Unit a. Dead Load (FDLInt) b. Lane Live Load (FLLInt) c. Wheel Live Load (WLLInt) Total Moments on Each Point

On Support

kN-m

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.375m kN-m

181.672 50.096 184.676 278.135

L/8 kN-m

1,327.681 363.190 1,312.328 3,003.199

L/4 kN-m

2,313.495 625.448 2,192.069 5,131.011

3L/8 kN-m

2,892.428 786.774 2,639.221 6,318.423

c.g. kN-m

3,120.031 945.861 2,797.457 6,863.350

L/2 kN-m

3,129.494 847.168 2,653.786 6,630.449

c) Moment at Sopport Position of Girder d) Moment at a Distance 0.375m from Sopport of Girder e) Moment at a Distance L/8 from Sopport of Girder f) Moment at a Distance L/4 from Sopport of Girder g) Moment at a Distance 3L/8 from Sopport of Girder h) Moment at Absolute Max. Moment Loaction (c.g. Position) of Girder i) Moment at a Distance L/2 (Middle of Span) from Sopport of Girder j) Sketch Diagram of Main Girder T-Beam : b 2.000 hf = 0.200 m

3,003.199 kN-m 5,131.011 kN-m 6,318.423 kN-m 6,863.350 kN-m 6,630.449 kN-m

d=

1.808

hGir. = m

2.000

bWeb =

0.350

Page 174

a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for a Section c/de 0.42 in which; b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm. Here; i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy), where ; ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps, fps & dp are = 0. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds . vii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.2) :

c/de-Max.

0.420

c de

Variable Variable

As Aps fy fps dp ds

a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.2*Mcr or 1.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1-Table-3.4.1-1, which one is less.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1.2Mcr. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) - Mdnc(Sc/Snc - 1) Scfr where; i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to effective Prestress Forces only at Extreme Fiber where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance for all Prestressing Losses in MPa. For Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in N-mm. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. For the Rectangular RCC Girder Section value of Snc = (bWebhGir3/12)/(hGit/2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in RCC in Mpa,(AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements, Mcr fcpe Variable N-mm N/mm2

Mdnc

2,449.720 N-mm

Sc

Variable

mm3

Snc

fr Mcr

673638627.159

Page 175

Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0, thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces Mcr-1 Mcr-2 Mcr-3

g) Table-3 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for requirment of Minimum Reinforcement at Different Sections Location of Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable 1.2 Times Section Unfactored Mcr-1 Cracking Mcr of Mcr from Dead Load As per Moment Cracking Cracking Support Moment Equation Value Moment Moment MDL-UF 5.7.3.3.2-1 Sncfr (Mcr-1Sncfr) (1.2*Mcr) kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m At Support 0.000 673.639 673.639 673.639 808.366 At L0.375m 142.152 673.639 673.639 673.639 808.366 At L/8 1039.048 673.639 673.639 673.639 808.366 At L/4 1811.021 673.639 673.639 673.639 808.366 At 3L/8 2263.908 673.639 673.639 673.639 808.366 At c.g/L/2 2449.720 673.639 673.639 673.639 808.366 1.33 Times M of M, Factored

Moment of Section Factored Moment

1.2Mcr

M kN-m

0.000 278.135 3003.199 5131.011 6318.423 6863.350

(1.33*M) kN-m

0.000 369.920 3994.255 6824.245 8403.503 9128.255

kN-m

808.366 808.366 808.366 808.366 808.366 808.366

Mu (M Mr) kN-m

808.366 808.366 3003.199 5131.011 6318.423 6863.350

viii) Flexural Design of Main Girder with Max, Moment value (At c.g. Position) : a) The Absolute Max. Moments on Interior Girder is at c.g. Point. Since it is very close to Middle Position of Span having value MU.= 6863.350*10^6 N-mm, thus this value is Considerd as the Moment at Middle Position of Span. b) Let the Clear Cover at Bottom Surface of Girder, C-Cov.Bot. = 50mm, Let the Clear Cover at Top of Girder, C-Cov.Top = 50mm, Let the Clear Cover at Vertical Faces of Girder, C-Cov.Vert. =38mm, c) Let the Main Reinforcements are 32f Bars in 4 Layers,

2 2 d) X-Sectional Area of Main Reinforcements Af = p*DBar /4mm

MU

50 mm 50 mm 38 mm 32 mm

2 804.248 mm

e) The Vertical Spacing between Reinforcement Bars, sVer. = 32 mm f) Let the Transverse/Shear Reinforcements (Stirrups) are of 12f Bars, g) Let Assume Main Tensile Reinforcements are being placed in 4 Layers each having Equal nos. of Bars, thus the Effective Depth of Reinforcements from Top of Girder up to the Centroid of Assumed Group of Reinforcements = (hGir - C-Cov-Bot -DStri -2*DBar - 1.5*sVer.) h) Balanced Steel Ratio for Grider Section according to AASHTO-1996-8.16.2.2

32 mm 12 mm 1,826.000 mm

rb.

0.022

Page 176

rb. = (0.85*0.85*(f/c/fy)*(599.843/(599.843+fy)) i) Max. Steel Ratio, rMax = 0.75*rb. (AASHTO-1996-8.16.2.1) rMax 0.0165

ix) Checking's Whether the Bridge Girder would Designed as T-Beam or Rectangular Beam Provisions : a) According to Ultimate Stressed Design Provisions a Rectangular having Flange with Reasonable Thickness on its Top should be Designed as T-Beam if Depth of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' is Less than Flange Thickness b) Let Consider the T-Girder will behave as Rectangular Beam for which the Total Flange Width-'b' will be the Width of Rectangular Beam. c) For a Rectangular Section having Assumed Effective Depth dacu; Beam Width b and the Calculated Max. Factored Ultimate Moment (Absolute Moment) MU; the value Equivalent Compression Block a = de(1 - (1 - 2MU/0.85f/cbde2)1/2) a 108.509 mm a<hFln

d) Since the Calculated value of Equivalent Compression Block a < hFln; the thickness of Girder Flange, thus Flexural Design of T-Girder will as a Rectangular Beam Provisions. 4 Flexural Design for Provisions of Tensile Reinforcements at Different Section of Bridge Girder : i) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements at Central Section at L/2 from Support (Mid Span) against Calculated Moments : a) The Calculated Factored Max. Moment at Central Section is being Considered the Factored Moment at Absolute Moment Position which is also Greater than the Required Minimum Moment Mr, thus MCent. is the Governing Moment in Flexural Designe for the Central (Mid) Section of Girder. b) Since the Calculated Factored Moment MCent. is the Governing Moment for the Flexural Design, thus it is also the Uiltimate Design Moment MU. c) With MU, Design Moment; b, Width of Rectangular Beam; dasu-L/2, Assumed Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section, the Required Tensile Steel Area for the Section; As = MU/[ffy(dasu-L/2 - a/2)] d) Number of 32f bers required = As-req-Total/Af-32 e) Let Provide 18nos 32f bars in 5 (Five) Layers having 4 nos. of Bars on each of the Bottom 4-Layers & 2 nos on Top Layer. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 20 nos. 32f bars = Nbar-pro*Af g) With provided arrangement of Reinforcement Bars & Steel Area for the Section the Actual Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement's Centroid from the Extreme Fiber of Compression Face = {4*Asf-32*(hGir - CCov-Bot -DStir.-DBar/2) MCent. Mr. 6863.350 6863.650*10^6 808.366 808.366*10^6 kN-m N-m kN-m N-m

MU

2 10,498.045 mm

As-req.-L/2

NBar-req NBar-pro.

As-pro de-pro

2 14,476.459 mm

1,808.222 mm

Page 177

+ 4*Asf-32(hGir-CCov-Botr-DStir.-DBar-sVer.-DBar/2) +4*Asf-32(hGir-CCov-Bot-DStir.-2*DBar-2*sVer.-DBar/2) + 4*Asf-32(hGir-CCov-Bot-DStir.-3*DBar-3*sVer.-DBar/2)+2*Asf-32(hGir-CCov-Bot-DStir.-4*DBar-4*sVer.-DBar/2)}/As-pro h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for Rectangular Section of Girder = As-pro*fy/(0.85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section, = As-pro*fy(de-pro - apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = As-pro./b*de-pro apro 166.256 mm a<hFln Satisfied 10239.034 kN-m Mr>Mu Satisfied 0.004 p-pro<p-max Satisfied

MResis

rpro

k) Since against Provided Steel Area; i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln, Thickness of Girder Flange; ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU, the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax. Allowable Max. Steel Ratio; thus the Provision & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Central Section is OK. ii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis & Extrime Compressive Face, having value of c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.078 f) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not) c/de-Max. c 0.420 141.318 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.078 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

iii) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements at Section 3L/4 from Support against Calculated Moments: a) The Calculated Factored Moment a Section 3L/8 from Support is being Greater than the Required Minimum Moment Mr, thus the Calculated Factored Moment. M3L/8. is the Governing Moment in Flexural Designe for the Section 3L/8. M3L/8. 6318.423 6318.423*10^6 808.366 808.366*10^6 kN-m N-m kN-m N-m

b) Since the Calculated Factored Moment M3L/8. is the Governing Moment for the Flexural Design, thus it is also the Uiltimate Design Moment MU. c) With MU, Design Moment; b, Width of Rectangular Beam; dasu-L/2, Assumed Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section L/2, the Required Tensile Steel Area for the Section at 3L/8; As = MU/[ffy(dasu-L/2 - a/2)] d) Number of 32f bers required = As-req-Total/Af-32 e) Let Provide 18nos 32f bars in 5 (Five) Layers having 4 nos. of Bars on each of

MU

2 9,664.537 mm

As-req.-3L/8

NBar-req NBar-pro.

Page 178

the Bottom 4-Layers & 2 nos on Top Layer. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 16nos. 32f bars = Nbar-pro*Af g) With provided arrangement of Reinforcement Bars & Steel Area for the Section the Actual Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement's Centroid from the Extreme Fiber of Compression Face = {4*Asf-32*(hGir - CCov-Bot -DStir.-DBar/2) As-pro de-pro

2 16,084.954 mm

1,794.000 mm

+ 4*Asf-32(hGir-CCov-Botr-DStir.-DBar-sVer.-DBar/2) +4*Asf-32(hGir-CCov-Bot-DStir.-2*DBar-2*sVer.-DBar/2) + 4*Asf-32(hGir-CCov-Bot-DStir.-3*DBar-3*sVer.-DBar/2)+2*Asf-32(hGir-CCov-Bot-DStir.-4*DBar-4*sVer.-DBar/2)}/As-pro h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for Rectangular Section of Girder = As-pro*fy/(0.85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section, = As-pro*fy(de-pro - apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = As-pro./b*de-pro apro 184.729 mm a<hFln Satisfied 11221.998 kN-m Mr>Mu Satisfied 0.004 p-pro<p-max Satisfied

MResis

rpro

k) Since against Provided Steel Area; i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln, Thickness of Girder Flange; ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU, the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax. Allowable Max. Steel Ratio; thus the Provision & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Section at 3L/8 is OK. iv) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements at Central Section at L/4 from Support against Calculated Moments : a) The Calculated Factored Moment a Section L/4 from Support is being Greater than the Required Minimum Moment Mr, thus the Calculated Factored Moment. ML/4. is the Governing Moment in Flexural Designe for the Section L/4. ML/4. 5131.011 5131.011*10^6 808.366 808.366*10^6 kN-m N-m kN-m N-m

b) Since the Calculated Factored Moment M3L/8. is the Governing Moment for the Flexural Design, thus it is also the Uiltimate Design Moment MU. c) With MU, Design Moment; b, Width of Rectangular Beam; dasu-L/2, Assumed Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section L/2, the Required Tensile Steel Area for the Section at L/4; As = MU/[ffy(dasu-L/2 - a/2)] d) Number of 32f bers required = As-req-Total/Af-32 e) Let Provide 14nos 32f bars in 4(Four) Layers having 4 nos. of Bars on each of Bottom 3-Layers & 2 nos on Top Layer. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 14nos. 32f bars = Nbar-pro*Af g) With provided arrangement of Reinforcement Bars & Steel Area for the Section the Actual Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement's Centroid from the Extreme

MU

2 7,848.29 mm

As-req.-L/4

NBar-req NBar-pro.

As-pro de-pro

2 11,259.468 mm

1,851.714 mm

Page 179

Fiber of Compression Face = {4*Asf-32*(hGir - CCov-Bot -DStir.-DBar/2) + 4*Asf-32(hGir-CCov-Botr-DStir.-DBar-sVer.-DBar/2) +4*Asf-32(hGir-CCov-Bot-DStir.-2*DBar-2*sVer.-DBar/2) + 2*Asf-32(hGir-CCov-Bot-DStir.-3*DBar-3*sVer.-DBar/2))}/As-pro h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for Rectangular Section of Girder = As-pro*fy/(0.85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section, = As-pro*fy(de-pro - apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = As-pro./b*de-pro apro 21.266 mm a<hFln Satisfied 8499.134 kN-m Mr>Mu Satisfied 0.003 p-pro<p-max Satisfied

MResis

rpro

k) Since against Provided Steel Area; i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln, Thickness of Girder Flange; ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU, the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax. Allowable Max. Steel Ratio; thus the Provision & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Section at L/4 is OK. v) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements at Section L/8 from Support against Calculated Moments : a) The Calculated Factored Moment a Section L/8 from Support is being Less than the Required Minimum Moment Mr, thus the Required Minimum Momen Mr. is the Governing Moment in Flexural Designe for the Section L/8. ML/8 3003.199 3003.199*10^6 808.366 808.366*10^6 kN-m N-m kN-m N-m

b) Since the Calculated Factored Moment M3L/8. is the Governing Moment for the Flexural Design, thus it is also the Uiltimate Design Moment MU. c) With MU, Design Moment; b, Width of Rectangular Beam; dasu-L/2, Assumed Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section L/2, the Required Tensile Steel Area for the Section at L/8 ; As = MU/[ffy(dasu-L/2 - a/2)] d) Number of 32f bers required = As-req-Total/Af-32 e) Let Provide 10 nos 32f bars in 3 (Three) Layers having 4 nos. of Bars on each of the Bottom 2-Layers & 2 nos on Top Layer. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 10nos. 32f bars = Nbar-pro*Af g) With provided arrangement of Reinforcement Bars & Steel Area for the Section the Actual Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement's Centroid from the Extreme Fiber of Compression Face = {4*Asf-32*(hGir - CCov-Bot -DStir.-DBar/2) + 4*Asf-32(hGir-CCov-Botr-DStir.-DBar-sVer.-DBar/2) + 2*Asf-32(hGir-CCov-Bot-DStir.-2*DBar-2*sVer.-DBar/2))}/As-pro h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for

MU

2 4,593.635 mm

As-req.-L/8

NBar-req NBar-pro.

As-pro de-pro

2 8,042.477 mm

1,882.800 mm

apro

92.365 mm

Page 180

Rectangular Section of Girder = As-pro*fy/(0.85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section, = As-pro*fy(de-pro - apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = As-pro./b*de-pro MResis

a<hFln

Satisfied

rpro

k) Since against Provided Steel Area; i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln, Thickness of Girder Flange; ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU, the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax. Allowable Max. Steel Ratio; thus the Provision & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Section at L/8 is OK. vi) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements at Section at 0.375m from Support against Calculated Moments : a) The Calculated Factored Moment a Section 0.375m from Support is being Less than the Required Minimum Moment Mr, thus the Required Minimum Momen Mr is the Governing Moment in Flexural Designe for the Section 0.375m. M0.375m 278.135 278.135*10^6 808.366 808.366*10^6 kN-m N-m kN-m N-m

b) Since the Required Minimum Momen Mr. is the Governing Moment for the Flexural Design, thus it is also the Uiltimate Design Moment MU. c) With MU, Design Moment; b, Width of Rectangular Beam; dasu-L/2, Assumed Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section L/2, the Required Tensile Steel Area for the Section at 0.375m ; As = MU/[ffy(dasu-L/2 - a/2)] d) Number of 32f bers required = As-req-Total/Af-32 e) Let Provide 8nos 32f bars in 2 (Two) Layers having 4 nos. of Bars on each of the Layers. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 8 nos. 32f bars = Nbar-pro*Af g) With provided arrangement of Reinforcement Bars & Steel Area for the Section the Actual Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement's Centroid from the Extreme Fiber of Compression Face = {4*Asf-32*(hGir - CCov-Bot -DStir.-DBar/2) +4*Asf-32(hGir-CCov-Bot-DStir.-*DBar-*sVer.-DBar/2))}/As-pro h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for Rectangular Section of Girder = As-pro*fy/(0.85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section, = As-pro*fy(de-pro - apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = As-pro./b*de-pro

MU

2 1236.461 mm

As-req.-0.375

NBar-req NBar-pro.

As-pro de-pro

2 6,433.982 mm

1,902.000 mm

apro

73.892 mm a<hFln Satisfied 4919.887 kN-m Mr>Mu Satisfied 0.002 p-pro<p-max Satisfied

MResis

rpro

Page 181

k) Since against Provided Steel Area; i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln, Thickness of Girder Flange; ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU, the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax. Allowable Max. Steel Ratio; thus the Provision & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Section at 0.375m is OK. vii) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements at Section on Support against Calculated Moments : a) The Calculated Factored Moment at Support Position is being 0 (Zero), thus for Support Section the Required Minimum Moment Mr, is the Governing Governing Moment in Flexural Designe for the Section. MSupp. 0.000 000*10^6 808.366 808.366*10^6 kN-m N-m kN-m N-m

b) Since the Required Minimum Momen Mr. is the Governing Moment for the Flexural Design, thus it is also the Uiltimate Design Moment MU. c) With MU, Design Moment; b, Width of Rectangular Beam; dasu-L/2, Assumed Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section L/2, the Required Tensile Steel Area for the Section at Support ; As = MU/[ffy(dasu-L/2 - a/2)] d) Number of 32f bers required = As-req-Total/Af-32 e) Let Provide 8nos 32f bars in 2 (Two) Layers having 4 nos. of Bars on each of the Layers. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 16nos. 32f bars = Nbar-pro*Af g) With provided arrangement of Reinforcement Bars & Steel Area for the Section the Actual Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement's Centroid from the Extreme Fiber of Compression Face = {4*Asf-32*(hGir - CCov-Bot -DStir.-DBar/2) +4*Asf-32(hGir-CCov-Bot-DStir.-*DBar-*sVer.-DBar/2))}/As-pro h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for Rectangular Section of Girder = As-pro*fy/(0.85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section, = As-pro*fy(de-pro - apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = As-pro./b*de-pro

MU

2 1,236.46 mm

As-req.-Supp.

NBar-req NBar-pro.

As-pro de-pro

2 6,433.982 mm

1,902.000 mm

apro

73.892 mm a<hFln Satisfied 4919.887 kN-m Mr>Mu Satisfied 0.002 p-pro<p-max Satisfied

MResis

rpro

k) Since against Provided Steel Area; i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln, Thickness of Girder Flange; ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU, the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax. Allowable Max. Steel Ratio; thus the Provision & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Section at Support is OK. viii) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2:

Page 182

Mr

i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor for Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.

Mn f

b) The Nominal Resistance for a Flanged Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.2 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) + 0.85f/c(b-bw)b1hf(a/2-hf/2). c) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Either of I or T Section with Flenge & Web Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) + 0.85f/c(b-bw)b1hf(a/2-hf/2) d) For Simple Supported & Single Reinforced T-Girder Beam the with Provided Steel Area against Factored Max. Moments at its Mid Span will have value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) + 0.85f/c(b-bw)b1hf(a/2-hf/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Absulate Max. Moment at c.g. of T-Girder Span). Mn-Mid-Span 10,146.878 kN-m 10146.878*10^6 N-mm

MU-Mid-Span-USD

f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment MU at Mid Span ( Which one is Greater, if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied)

ix) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fs-Dev. of a Concrete Elements, should not exceed fsa the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4. Where; b) fs-Dev. is Developed Tinsel Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/As-prode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State of Loads fs-Dev.

2 157.694 N/mm

MWSD.

2 14,476.459 mm

ii) As-pro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, in Which; i) dc = Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Bottom/Top Clear Cover & Radius of the

As-pro de

1,808.222 mm

fsa

2 291.299 N/mm

dc

66.000 mm

Page 183

Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. For a Section of T-Girder Component, dc = DBar/2 + CCov-Bot. Since Clear Cover at Bottom of T-Girder, CCover-Bot = 50mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 32f ; thus dc = (32/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having 50mm.Max. Clear Cover. The Girder is being Provided with 50mm Clear Cover at Bottom, 18nos. 32f Bars Tension Bar in 5 Layers on Mid Span having 4 nos. Bars on Botton 4 Layers & 2nos. on Top Layer. Though the Vertical Spacing among the Layers of Tension Reinforcement are 32mm but due to dissimilarity of Bar arrangement the Centroid of Bars does not Coincide with the Center of Vertical Spacings. Thus, based on actual Cintroid of Bars value of A = bWeb{2*(hGir. - de-pro)}/NBar-pro. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus its Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. ZMax.

2 7,458.025 mm

23,000.000 N/mm

0.6*fy

2 246.000 N/mm

d) Since the Calculated value of fs-Dev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the T-Girder Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fs-Dve. e) Based on fs-Dve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fs-Dev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fs-Dev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev. fsa > 0.6fy ZDev. 12,451.016 N/mm fs-Dev.< fsa Satisfied

i) Since the Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of T-Girder fs-Dev.< fsa the Computed Tensile Stress with Alloable Max. Crack Width Parimeter ZMax.; the Developed Crack Width Parimeter ZDev. < ZMax. thus Provision of Main Tensial Reinforcement for T-Girder in respect of Control of Cracking by Distribution of Reinforcement are OK j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestrssed one, but value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any additional Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. x) Since, i) The Value of Resisting Moment > Design Moment; ii) The Calculated value of c/de 0.42; iii) The Provided Stee Ratio for Rectangular Section of T-Girder, rRec-pro < rMax. Balance Steel Ratio; iv) The Computed Factored Flexural Resistance M r > Mu the Actual Factored Moment at Mid Span (Absulate Max. Moment at c.g. Point);

Page 184

v) The Provided Main Reinforcements are anough in respect of Control of Cracking by Distribution of Reinforcement; Thus Flexural Design of Reinforcements for the T-Girder Span is OK. 5 Design of Longitudinal Reinforcement on Top & Vertical Surfaces of Girder : i) Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement in Longitudinal Direction on Top Surface of Girder : a) Since the Girders are Simply Supported Structure & at Middle Location the Moments are with (+) ve. value, thus the Top Surface of Girder will be under Compression. Under Single Reinforced Flexural Design Provision Top Surface of Girder does not require any Longitudinal Reinforcement. Yet for Safe Guard & provide the Web/Shear Reinforcements in the form of Stirrups, this Surface is also require Longitudinal Reinforcement, which can arrange under the Provision of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8. b) Let consider 1 (One) meter Strip Length of Girder for Calculation of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement in Longitudinal Direction on Top Surface of Girder, c) Let consider the Width of Girder is the Web Width of T-Girder = 0.450m d) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8.1. Steel Area required as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement for Structural Components with Thickness Less than 1200mm; As 0.11Ag/fy . (Width of Girder is its thicknes, b = 4500mm < 1200mm). e) Here Ag is Gross Area of Girder Top Surface = LGirder*bWeb f) Let provide 32f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Top Girder. g) X-Sectional Area of 32f bar = pDBar2/4 h) Let provide 2 nos. 32f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Top Surface of Girder. i) Provide Steel Area for Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Top Surface of Girder = NBar-S&T-Top*Af-32 j) Spacing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements will less of 3-times the Component thickness = 4*bWeb = 1,400.00 mm or = 450 mm k) Spacing in between 2 nos. 32f Longitudinal bars on Top Surface = (b - 2.*CCover-Side - 2*DStir. - 2*DBar) l) Whether Provision of Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement have Satisfied or not. m) Whether Provision of Spacing have Satisfied or not. LGirder. 1.000 m 1,000.000 mm 0.350 m 350.000 mm 2 93.902 mm

bWeb. As-req-Top.

2 350000.000 mm

32.000 mm

2 804.248 mm

2.000 nos.

As-pro-S&T.

2 1,608.495 mm

s-req-Top.

450 mm

s-pro-Top.

186 mm

Page 185

n) Since As-pro-Top. > As-req-Top & spro-Top < s-req-Top, thus the provision of Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Top Surface of Girde is OK. ii) Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement in Longitudinal Direction on Vertical Faces of Girder : a) Girders are Simply Supported Structure having the Longitudinal Flexural Reinforcements due to Moments on Bottom Surface & also on Top Surface (In case of Doubly Reinforced or under Shrinkage & Temperature Provision). There will be also Lateral & Vertical Reinforcements on Bottom, Top & Vertiocal Surfaces under the provisiona of Shear & Web Reinforcement. It also requires Longitudinal Reinforcement on its Vertical Faces, those can provide under Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement Provisions according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8. b) Let consider 1 (One) meter Strip Length of Girder for Calculation of Shrinkage LGirder. & Temperature Reinforcement in Longitudinal Direction on Vertical Faces of Girder. c) Let consider the Depth of T-Girder as Height of Girder, h = 2.00m hGirder. 1.000 m 1,000.000 mm 2.000 m 2,000.000 mm

2 536.585 mm

d) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8.1. Steel Area required as Shrinkage As-req-S&T.-Hori. & Temperature Reinforcement for Structural Components with Thickness Less than 1200mm; As 0.11Ag/fy . e) Here Ag is Gross Area of Girder's Each Vertical Face = LGirder*hGirder f) Let provide 16f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces of Girder. g) X-Sectional Area of 16f bar = pDBar2/4 h) Spacing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements is less of 3-times the Component thickness = 3*bWeb = 1,050 mm or = 450 mm i) Number of 16f bars required against Calculated Steel Area as Horizontal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements on Vertical Surface of Girder = As-req-Long./Af-16 Ag-Vert. DBar.

2 2000000.000 mm

16 mm

Af-16 s-req-S&T.-Hori.

2 201.062 mm

450 mm

NBar-req-S&T-Hori.

2.669 nos.

j) Spacing of 16f bars at Support Position as Horizontal Shrinkage & sCal-req-S&T-Hori. Temperature Reinforcementon Vertical Faces of Girder for Calculated Steel Area = (hGir -2*Ccov -2.669*DBar-32 - sVer- 2*DStri)/NBar-req-S&T-Hor. k) Let Provide 5 nos. 16f as Longitudinal bars as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement. NBar-pro-S&T-Hori.

374.096 mm

5 nos

l) Spacing of 16f bars at Support Position as Horizontal Shrinkage & spro-S&T-Hori. Temperature Reinforcementon Vertical Faces of Girder for Calculated Steel Area = (hGir -2*Ccov -5*DBar-32 - sVer- 2*DStri)/NBar-req-S&T-Hor. m) Steel Area against Provided Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement on Vertical Surfaces of Girder = Af-16*Barpro-S&T-Hori. As-pro-S&T-Hori.

232.857 mm

2 1,005.310 mm

Page 186

n) Whether Provision of Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement have Satisfied or not. o) Whether Provision of Spacing have Satisfied or not.

Satisfied

spro-S&T-Hori..<s-req-S&T.-Hori

Satisfied p) Since As-pro-S&T-Hori. > As-req-Long & spro-S&T-Hori.< s-req-S&T-Hori. thus the provisions of Longitudinal Reinforcement as Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces of Girder is OK. 4 Checking for Development Length & Splices of Reinforcements under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.11 : i) Provisions Article 5.11.1.1.1 : a) The Calculated Force effects in Reinforcement at each Section shall be Developed on each side of that Section by Embedment of Length of Reinforcement, Hooks or any Mechanical Device or a Combination of all together. These are especially required for Tension Zones. ii) Provisions Flexural Reinforcement (Article 5.11.1.2.1) : a) In Flexural Members the Critical Sections are, i) The Points of Maximum Stress; ii) The Points within the Span where Adjacent Reinforcement Terminates or Bands. b) Except at Supports of Simple Spans and at the Free Ends of Cantilevers, Reinforcements shall be extended further beyond the Point where they are no longer requred to resist the Flexural for a Distance as mentioned below: i) Not less than the Effective Depth of Component; ii) Not Less than the Nominal Diameter of Bar proposed, and iii) Not Less than 1/20 of Clear Span. c) In Continuing Reinforcements the Extended Length shall not be Less than the Development Length ld, beyond the Point of Bent or Tarminated Tension Reinforcenenta are no longer requred. The value of Development Length Id will be according to Provisions as mentioned in Article 5.11.2. d) In no case Termination of more than 50% of Reinforcement at any Section is permitted & Termination of adjusecent Bars on the same Section is restricted. f) For Bent of Tension Reinforcements Across the Web to the Compression Face, in that case a Development Length ld should Provide on Compression Face for Termination of Bars. Otherwise Continuity of Bended Bars would remain on the Compression Face of the Component. g) Components of i) Sloped, Stepped or Tapered Footings; ii) Brackets; iii) Deep Flexural Members; & iv) Unparallel Tension & Compression Reinforcements and the Reinfocement Forces are not Directly Proportional to the Factored Moments, those Provide with Supplementary Ancorages for Flexural Tension Reinforcements. iii) Provisins of Development Length le under Article 5.11.2 : a) According to Article 5.11.2.1.1 the Tension Development Length le should not be less than the product of the Basic Development Length ldb & the Modification Factors as Specified in Articles 5.11.2.1.2 & 5.11.2.1.3. Whereas the Basic Tension Development Length in mm for Different Size of Deformed Bars & Wires are;

Page 187

b) For bar No-36 & below, ldb = 0.02Abfy/f/c 0.06dbfy; c) For bar No-43 & below, ldb = 25fy/f/c; d) For bar No-57, ldb = 34fy/f/c; e) For Deformed Wire, ldb = 0.36dbfy/f/c. Where f) Ab is Cross-sectional Area of Deform Ber/Wire in mm2. g) fy is Yield Strength of deform Ber/Wire in MPa. h) Abfy/f/c is the Specified Compressive Strength of Concrete in MPa. i) db is Diameter of Bar/Wire in mm. iv) Provisins of Article 5.11.2.2 in respect of Positive Moment Reinforcement & the Provided Reinforcement: a) In Simple Supported Span at-least One-third or 33% of Positive Moment Reinforcement should be Extended beyond the Centerline of Support and would continue not Less than 150mm. Whereas in Continuous Spans that will be at least One-fourth or 25% of Positive Moment Reinforcement on the same Face. b) Provided Steel (Reinforcement) Area against Maximum Positive moment for the T-Girder Span = As-pro-L/2 c) Provided Steel (Reinforcement) Area on Support Position of T-Girder Span both on Bottom & Top Surface = As-pro-Supp d) Percentage of Provided Reinforcement on Support of T-Girder in respect of the Maximum Positive Moment Reinforcement = 100*As-pro-Supp/As-pro-L/2 As-pro-L/2

2 14,476.459 mm

As-pro-Supp

2 6,433.982 mm

%As-pro-Supp

44.444 %

e) Since the Provided Reinforcement on Support is 44.444% of the Provided at Max. Positive Moment Reinforcement, thus According Article 5.11.2.2 in respect of Positive Moment Reinforcement the Design is OK. v) Computed value of Development Length le & Basic Development Length ldb for T-Girder Beam : a) Provided bar Diameter for Main T-Girder of Simple Supported Bridge b) Maximum Number of Main Bars on Each Layer = NBar c) Clear Cover at Bottom of Main Girder = C-Cov-Bot e) Clear Cover at Top of Main Girder = C-Cov-Top f) Clear Cover on both Sides of Main Girder = C-Cov-Side DBar NBar C-Cov-Bot C-Cov-Top C-Cov-Side 32 mm 4 50 mm 50 mm 38 mm

Page 188

g) Provided bar Diameter for Transverse/Shear Reinforcements (Stirrups) h) Lateral Spacing of Main Bars = (bWeb-2*C-Cov-Side.-2*DStri-NBar*DBar)/(NBar-1) i) Cross-sectional Area of Provided Main Deform Ber = pDBar2/4 j) Depth of Concrete below the Top Horizontal Bar = hGir- C-Cov-Top.-DStri-DBar k) Modification Factor for Basic Development Length ldb (Since Depth below the Top Horizontal Bars is greater than 300mm, thus Factor is for Increase of ldb). l) Calculated Basic Development Length ldb for 32 No. Main Longitudinal Bar of T-Girder = MFactor*0.02Af-32fy/f/c m) Calculated value of 0.06DBarfy;

/ n) Computed value of Development Length, lb = 0.02Af-32fy/f c 0.06DBarfy;

12 mm 40.667 mm

2 804.248 mm

1,906.000 mm 1.400

ldb-Cal

2,014.754 mm

o) Let Provide the Development Length for 32 No. Main Bars = 2025mm

p) Since the Provided Development Length for Main Reinforcement is greater than the required Development Length, thus the Design is OK in respect of Development Length for Main Reinforcement of Girder. 5 Design of Shear Reinforcement & Checking of RCC Girder against Shearing Forces at Different Locations : i) Calculated Factored Shearing Forces (Vu) at Different Locations due to Applied Loads (DL & LL): a) Table for Max. Shear Forces at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to Factored DL, Lane-LL & Wheel-LL : Table-2. Sum. of Max. Shear Forces Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder. Locations from Support-A Loading Type Unit a. Dead Load (FDLInt) b. Lane Live Load (FLLInt) a. Wheel Live Load (WLLInt) Total Shears on Each Point

On Support

kN

480.324 132.370 248.072 860.766

0.375m kN

466.543 128.301 239.353 834.197

L/8 kN

368.236 99.278 177.156 644.670

L/4 kN

234.833 66.185 106.240 407.258

3L/8 kN

122.745 33.093 35.324 191.162

c.g. kN

-37.401 -7.895 -47.468 -92.764

L/2 kN

-10.658 0.000 -35.592 -46.250

b) Shearing Forces at Sopport Position of Girder c) Shearing Forces at Loaction 0.375m from Sopport of Girder d) Shearing Forces at Loaction L/8 from Sopport of Girder e) Shearing Forces at Loaction L/4 from Sopport of Girder f) Shearing Forces at Loaction 3L/8 from Sopport of Girder

860.766 kN

Page 189

g) Shearing Forces at Absolute Max. Moment Loaction (c.g. Position) of Girder h) Shearing Forces at Loaction L/2 (Middle of Span) from Sopport of Girder ii) Factored Shearing Stress & Shearing Depth at Different Locations :

Vu-c.g. Vu-L/2.

(92.764) kN (46.250) kN

a) The Shearing Steress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force. vu = (Vu - fVp)/fbvdv, = Vu/fbvdv ; Since Vp = 0; (AASSHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9).Here, b) Vp is Component of Prestressing applied Forces. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component the value of Vp = 0 c) bv is Width of T-Girder Web = bWeb. mm, d) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having the greater value of either of 0.9de or 0.72h in mm. Here, i) de is Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement for the Section in mm ii) h is Depth of T-Girder, hGir = 2000 mm, e) f is Resistance Factor for Shear = 0.90 (AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2). Vp Mpa

bv dv 0.9de 0.72h de h f

2,000 mm 0.90

f) Table for Computation of values of vu, de, bv, 0.9de , 0.72h & dv at different Section of Girder. Table-3 Values of vu, de, bv, 0.9de , 0.72h & dv at different Section of Girder.

Location of Section from Support Length of Segment from the Earlier Section Width of T-Girder Web

Depth of T-Girder

(bv)

mm 350.000 350.000 350.000 350.000 350.000 350.000

mm At Support

0.000 375.000 3050.000 3050.000 3050.000 3050.000

(h) mm

2000.000 2000.000 2000.000 2000.000 2000.000 2000.000

(de)

mm 1902.000 1902.000 1882.800 1851.714 1794.000 1808.222 mm 1711.800 1711.800 1694.520 1666.543 1614.600 1627.400 mm 1440.000 1440.000 1440.000 1440.000 1440.000 1440.000

(dv)

mm 1711.800 1711.800 1694.520 1666.543 1614.600 1627.400

(vu)

N/mm2 1.596 1.547 1.208 0.776 0.376 -0.090

g) Shearing Stress due to Applied Factored Shearing Forces at Different Sections of Girder : i) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at Support Position of Girder = Vu-Supp/fbvdv N/mm2 ii) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at a distance 0.375m from vu-Supp.

2 1.596 N/mm

vu-0.375m.

2 1.547 N/mm

Page 190

Support = Vu-0.375/fbvdv N/mm2 iii) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at a distance L/8 from Support = Vu-L/8/fbvdv N/mm2 iv) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at a distance L/4 from Support = Vu-L/4/fbvdv N/mm2 v) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at a distance 3L/8 from Support = Vu-3L/8/fbvdv N/mm2 vi) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at a distance L/2 from Support = Vu-L/2/fbvdv N/mm2 . (The (-) ve. velue is not applicable.) vu-L/2.

2 (0.090) N/mm

vu-L/8.

2 1.208 N/mm

vu-L/4.

2 0.776 N/mm

vC-3L/8.

2 0.376 N/mm

iii) Factored Shearing Resistance for a Section under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.1-(Equ-5.8.2.1-2) : a) The Factored Shear Resitance at any Section of Component is Expressed by the Equation-5.8.2.1-2. Having the value, Vr = fVn in which; b) Vr is the Factored Shear Resitance at a Section in N c) Vn is Nominal Shear Resitance in N according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3. d) f is Resistance Factor according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2. Vr. Vn. f 0.90 N N

iv) Computation of values of q & b to Calculate the Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Locations due to Factored Shear Forces under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.4 : a) The Nominal Shear Resistance Vn at any Section of Girder is the Lesser value Computed by the Equations i) Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-1) & ii) Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp, (Equ. 5.8.3.3-2) in which, b) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N having value = 0.083bf/cbvdv, (Equ. 5.8.3.3-1); c) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s (Equ. 5.8.3.3-3) in which, d) s is Spacing of Stirrups in mm; e) b a is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4;

0 f) q is Angle of Inclenation of Digonal Compressive Stress in ( ) as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4; 0 g) a is Angle of Inclenation of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement to Longitudinal Bars in ( ); AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4. For Vertical Transverse/Shear Reinforcement the Angle of Inclenation, a = 900 a 90 0

Page 191

i) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Vp = 0.

Vp.

v) Computation of Value b & q at different Locations of Girder as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4: a) Calculation of Longitudinal Strain in Web Reinforcement s in mm/mm on the Flexural Tension side of Girder with Equations ; b) ex = (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu -Vp)cotq - Apsfpo)/2(EsAs + EpAps); (Equ-5.8.3.4.2-1 for the Case with at Least the Min.Shear Reinforcement). c) ex = (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu -Vp)cotq - Apsfpo)/(EsAs + EpAps); (Equ-5.8.3.4.2-2 for the Case with Less then the Min.Shear Reinforcement); d) ex= (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu -Vp)cotq - Apsfpo)/(2(EsAs + EpAps); (Equ-5.8.3.4.2-3 for the Cases when value of es is (-) ve.in Equ.5.8.3.4.2-1& Equ.5.8.3.4.2-2). Where, e) Ac is Area of Concerte on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2 having value Ac = bWeb* hGir,/2 mm2 f) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2. For RCC Structure, the value of Aps = 0 g) As is Area of Non-Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder for the in mm2 under Consideration having respective values of Steel Area. i) On Support Position value of Provided Steel Area in mm2 ii) At Distance 0.375m from Support, Provided Steel Area in mm2 iii) At Distance L/8 from Support, Provided Steel Area in mm2 iv) At Distance L/4 from Support, Provided Steel Area in mm2 v) At Distance 3L/8 from Support, Provided Steel Area in mm2 vi) At Distance L/2 from Support, Provided Steel Area in mm2 h) fpo is a Parameter for Modulus of Elasticity of Prestressing Tendons which is multiplied by Locked-in differencein Strain between the Prestressing Tendons and Surrounding Concrete (Mpa). For the usal level of Prestressing, the value recommended = 0.7fpu for both Pretensioned & Post-tensioned Case. For Nonprestressed RCC Structural Component, the value of fpo = 0. i) Nu is Factored Axil Force in N, Value will be (+) ve for the case of Tensile & (-) for the case of Compressive due to Prestressing. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Nu = 0. j) Mu is Factored (+) ve Moment quantity of the Section in N-mm but not less then Vudv. k) Vu is Factored Shear Force (Only (+) ve values are applicable) for the Section in N. Ac

2 350,000 mm

Aps

mm2

Nu

Page 192

I) Table Showing the values of Mu, Vu, Computed value of Vudv & Effective value of Vudv. Table-4. Showing the values of M u, Vu, Computed value of Vudv & Effective value of M u-Eff Vudv.

Location of Section from Support Length of Segment from the Earlier Section Factored Moment for the Section. Factored Shear for the Section. Calculated value of Effective Shear Depth Calculated value of Effective Moment value

Vudv

MuEff

(Mu)

kN-m

0.00 278.14 3,003.20 5,131.01 6,318.42 6,630.45

mm At Support

0.000 375.000 2675.000 3050.000 3050.000 3050.000

(Vu) kN

860.766 834.197 644.670 407.258 191.162 -46.250

(dv)

mm

1711.800 1711.800 1694.520 1666.543 1614.600 1627.400

(Vudv)

kN

1473.459 1427.978 1092.406 678.713 308.650 -75.267

(MuEff)

kN-m

1473.459 1427.978 3003.199 5131.011 6318.423 6630.449

vi) Value of vc/f/c (Ratio of Shearing Stress & Concrete Compressive Strength) at Different Section of Girder :

/ / a) Value of vc/f c at Support Pisition of Girder = vc-Sup/f c / / b) Value of vc/f c at a distance 0.375m from Support = vc-0.375/f c / / c) Value of vc/f c at a distance L/8 from Support = vc-L/8/f c / / d) Value of vc/f c at a distance L/4 from Support = vc-L/4/f c / / e) Value of vc/f c at a distance 3L/8 from Support = vc-3L/8/f c / / f) Value of vc/f c at a distance L/2 from Support = vc-L/2/f c

vii) Values of esx1000 with at Least the Min. Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.5 & provisions of Equation 5.8.3.4.2-1 : a) Since for RCC Girder values of Prestressing Components Nu, Vp, Asp, fpo, Ep etc. are = 0, thus equation ex = (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu -Vp)cotq - Apsfpo)/2(EsAs + EpAps) stands to ex = (Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/2EsAs b) Considering the Initial value of ex = 0.001at Support Position & the Effective Moment Mu-Eff. From the Equation Cotq = (ex2EsAs - Mu/dv)/0.5Vu c) Having the value of cotq = 2.241, the values of exx1000 at Different Locations are ; d) At Support (Bearing Center) Position = ((Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 d) At 0.375m from Support = ((Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 ex-Suport*1000 ex-0.375*1000 1.000 0.969 cotq 3.980

Page 193

e) At a Distance L/8 from Support = ((Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 f) At a Distance L/4 from Support = ((Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 g) At a Distance 3L/8 from Support = ((Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 h) At a Distance L/2 from Support = ((Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000

i) Since at Absolute Max. Moment Position & at L/2 Distance from Support the Shear Forces are of (-) ve value, thus calculations for the values of ex-x1000 these Locations are not essential. j) Since in all Sections from Support to L/2 the values of es-x1000 1.00, thus values of q & b for the Sections can be obtain from Table-5.8.3.4.2-1 in respect of values of vc/f/c. For Sections having the es-x1000>1.00, for those Cases values of q & b can obtain in respect of value of Crack Spacing Parameter sxe, using the Equation .No.5.8.3.4.2-2, Equation No. 5.8.3.4.2-4 & Table -5.8.3.4.2-2. viii) Values of esx1000 with Less than Min. Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.5 & the provisions of Equation 5.8.3.4.2-2 : a) Since in RCC Girder the values for Prestressing Components Nu, Vp, Asp, fpo, Ep etc. are = 0, thus equation ex= (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu -Vp)cotq - Apsfpo)/(EsAs + EpAps) stands to ex = (Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/EsAs b) Considering the Initial value of ex = 0.002 at Support Position & the Effective Moment Mu-Eff. From the Equation Cotq = (exEsAs - Mu/dv)/0.5Vu c) Values of exx1000 at Location = (Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/EsAs ix) Computation of values of Crack Spacing Parameter, sxe for Sectiona are : a) The Crack Spacing Parameter of a Section, sxe = sx(35/(ag+16)) 2000mm, In which; b) sx = the Lesser value of either dv or the Spacing of Longitudinal Crack Control Reinforcements on Vertical Faces (as Shrinkage & Tempeture Reinforcement) having Steel Area in a Horizontal Reinforcement Layer if As > 0.003bvs. Here; i) As is Steel Area of 2nos Shrinkage & Tempeture Reinforcement Bars on Opposite Vertical Faces of T-Girder in same Horizontal Layer, = As-S&T-Hori. = 2*pDBar2/4 = 2*Af-16 ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth of Tensil Reinforcement for the Section iii) s is Spacing of Longitudinal Bars as Shrinkage & Tempeture Reinforcement on Vertical Faces of T-Girder. iv) Thus Computed value of 0.003dvs for a Section sx mm cotq 3.980

ex-*1000

0.002

As

2 402.124 mm

dv s

mm

232.857 mm

0.003dvs

mm2

Page 194

v) For Computed value of 0.003bvs at Section > As, the value of sx = dv c) ag is Max. Aggragate size for Concrete = 20mm d) Thus Computed value of sxe = sx(35/(ag+16)) for Section at L/8

0.003dvs<As ag sxe

s-Applicable 20 mm mm

f) For value of ex-*1000 > 1.00 & the value of sxe at a Sections should Computed from the Respective Tablel. x) Computation of Values of q & b from AASHTO-LRFD'sTable -5.8.3.4.2-1. & Table -5.8.3.4.2-2. against the Respective Calculated values of esx1000, Ratio vc/f/c & sxe.: a) Table for Values of q & b at Different Location of Girder. Location of Section From Support

a) At Support Position b) At L0.375mDistance of Support c) At L/8 Distance of Support d) At L/4 Distance of Support e) At 3L/8 Distance of Support f) At L/2 Distance of Support

Referece of Table

5.8.3.4.2.-1 5.8.3.4.2.-1 5.8.3.4.2.-1 5.8.3.4.2.-1 5.8.3.4.2.-1 5.8.3.4.2.-1

vc/f/c

0.076 0.076 0.058 0.037 0.018 -0.004

exx1000

1.000 0.969 0.950 0.864 0.667 0.688

sxe

NA NA NA NA NA NA

Value of q

36.40 36.40 36.40 36.40 33.70 33.70

b

2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.38 2.38

b) Value of Cotq at different Locaion of Girder : i) At Support (Bearing Center) Position value of Cotq ii) At a Distance 0.375m from Support value of Cotq iii) At a DistanceL/8 from Support value of Cotq iv) At a Distance L/4 from Support value of Cotq v) At a Distance 3L/8 from Support value of Cotq vi) At a Distance L/2m from Support value of Cotq Cotq Cotq Cotq Cotq Cotq Cotq 1.356 1.356 1.356 1.356 1.499 1.499

xi) Computation of Value for Nominal Shearing Strength of Concrete (Vc) using the Values of q & b : a) Since the Location of L/8 is next to the Critical Section at a Distance 0.375m from Support, thus Values of q & b of Section L/8 are the Governing Values for Computation of Nominal Shearing Strength of Concrete (Vc) for the Girder. b) Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete of Girder Vc = 0.083bf/cbvdv, AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3-(Equ. 5.8.3.3-1); Vc 18,452.293 kN 18452.293*10^3 N

xii) Regions Requiring Transverse or Shear/Web Reinforcements under AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.4 : a) The Transverse or Shear Reinforcements are required for those Sections where the Factored Shearing Force due to the Applied Loads (DL & LL), Vu > 0.5f (Vc + Vp); AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.4; Equ-5.8.2.4-1; Here,

Page 195

b) Vu is Factored Shearing Force due to the Applied Loads for the Selected Section in N, c) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance for the Section having value = 0.083bf/cbvdv according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3. Equation-5.8.3.3-4. d) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Vp = 0. Vp. N

e) b a is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4; f) f is Resistance Factor according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2. having value = 90 g) Thus for Nonprestressing Structure the Eqution-5.8.2.4-1 Stands to Vu > 0.5Vc h) Table showing the values of b, Vu, Vc, 0.5Vc & Relation between Vu & 0.5Vc at Different Location of Girder. Location from Girder's Bearing Center.

a) At Support (Bearing Center) Position a) At a Distance 0.375m from Support b) At a DistanceL/8 from Support c) At a Distance L/4 from Support d) At a Distance 3L/8 from Support e) At a Distance L/2m from Support

0.90

Values of

b

2.230 2.230 2.230 2.230 2.380 2.380

Vu N

860765.82 834196.637 644669.804 407257.851 191161.835 -92764.25

Vc N

48903800.52

0.5fVc N

22,006,710

Vu<0.5Vc Vu<0.5Vc Vu<0.5Vc Vu<0.5Vc Vu<0.5Vc Vu<0.5Vc Not Satisfied Not Satisfied Not Satisfied Not Satisfied Not Satisfied Not Satisfied

48903800.52 22006710.23 48410134.39 21784560.48 47610865.43 21424889.44 49229636.77 22153336.54 49619912.6 22328960.7

i) The Table indicates that non of the Sections of RCC Girder have satisfied the required provisions for Transverse/Shear Reinforcements under Equation Vu > 0.5f (Vc + Vp). AASHTO-LRFD-Equation-5.8.2.4-1. xiii) Checking of Required Max. Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement due to Applied Shearing Stress on Girder under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.7 : a) Due to applied Shearing Stress, vu < 0.125f/c, the Max. Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section is smax.-1 = 0.8dv 600mm, (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.2.7-1). b) Due to applied Shearing Stress, vu > 0.125f/c, the Max. Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section is smax.-2 = 0.4dv 300mm (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.2.7-2) c) Value of 0.125f/c in respect of Max. Spacing of Transvers/Shear Reinforcement due to Applied Shearing Stress at Defferent Section of Girder. 0.125f/c

2 2.625 N/mm

d) Table Showing values of vu, 0.8dv, 0.4dv againest the respective values of 0.125f/c : Table- ; Showing Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements in respect of Max. Spacing & Status : Segment. Value of Location dv Value of vu Value of 0.125f/c Relation between Value of 0.8dv Value of 0.4dv Relation between Relation between

Formula Status

Page 196

(Between for the 2-Section) Section mm Section at 1711.80 L0.375m Section at 1,711.80 L/8 Section at 1,694.52 L/4 Section at 1,666.54 3L/4 Section at 1,614.60 L/2

vu & 0.12f/c

Maximum

N/mm2

1.596 1.547 1.208 0.776 0.376

N/mm2

2.625 2.625 2.625 2.625 2.625

1369.440 1369.440 1355.616 1333.234 1291.680

684.720 684.720 677.808 666.617 645.840

0.8dv>600

Not Satisfy Not Satisfy Not Satisfy Not Satisfy Not Satisfy Not Satisfy Not Satisfy Not Satisfy Not Satisfy

e) The Table indicates that non of the Sections of RCC Girder have satisfied the required provisions for Spacings of the Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under Equations, For vu < 0.125f/c ; smax. = 0.8dv 600mm, (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.2.7-1). & For vu > 0.125f/c ; smax. = 0.4dv 300mm, (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ.5.8.2.7-2). xix) Chacking for Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements as Deep Beam Component (AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.1.1) : a) The Component in which a Load causing more than 1/2 of the Shear at a Distance closer than 2d from the Face of Support is Considered as a Deep Component. Deep Beam Components the Shear Reinforcements are being Provide according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.6.3 (Provisions of Strut-and-Tied Model) & AASHTO-LRFD-5.13.2.3. b) Factored Shear Force at Support of Girder, = Vu-Supp. kN. c) 1/2 of Factored Shear Force at Support of Girder, = 1/2Vu-Supp. kN. d) Factored Shear Force at a Distance 2d from Support, = Vu-2d. kN. e) Status of 1/2Vu-Supp. & Vu-2d Vu-Supp. 1/2Vu-Supp. Vu-2d. 860.766 kN 430.383 kN 608.249 kN Vu-2d>Vu-Supp.

f) Since the Factored Shear Force at a Distance 2d, Vu-2d > 1/2Vu-Supp. the Max. Shear Force at Support, thus the Girder is Deep Beam Component & under Article 5.13.2.3. Of AASHTO-LRFD its Transverse/Shear Reinforcement can Provide. xx) Detaling of Requirments for Deep Beam Component to Provide Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements for Girder under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.13.2.3 : a) To provide Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements at Different Section of Girder, it should Satisfy the Equation, Ng = f fyAs 0.83bvs (AASHTO-LRFD-5.13.2.3). Here, b) Ng is Factored Tensial Resitance of Transverse Reinforcement (Each Pair) in N. c) bv is Width of Girder Web in mm. d) fy is Yield Strength of Reinforceing Steel as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement Ng. bv. fy. N 350 mm 410.000 MPa

Page 197

e) As is Steel Area of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in mm2 having Spacing s . f) s is Spacing of Transverse /Shear Reinforcement in mm. The value of s should not excide eithe of d/4 or 300mm

AS s-Max

mm2 300 mm

g) The Vertical Spacing, sVetrt. for Crack Control Longitudinal Reinforcement on both sVert.-Max Vertical Faces of Girder should not Excide either d/3 or 300 mm. xxi) Computation of Spacing for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at Different Section of Girder : a) Value of d/4 for the Section under cosideration having d = hGir. (Girder Depth). b) Allowable Max. Spacing for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement c) Let Provide 2-Leged 12f bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in the form of Vertical Stirrups. d) X-Sectional Area of 2-Leged 12f Bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement; = 2*pDStir.2/4 mm2 d) Let Provide the 175mm Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement from Outer Face of Girder up to Support Face at Section at L0.375m Distance. e) Let Provide the 175mm Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement in between Support Face Section at L0.375m & Section at L/8 Distance i) Let Provide the 200mm Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement in between Section at L/8 & Section at L/4 Distance j) Let Provide the 200mm Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement in between Section at L/4 & Section at 3L/4 Distance j) Let Provide the 200mm Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement in between Section at 3L/4 & Section at L/2 Distance d/4 s-Max DStir.

300 mm

500 mm 300 mm 12 mm

Av

2 226.195 mm

s-0.375m.

175 mm

s-L/8

175 mm

s-L/4

200 mm

s-3L/8

200 mm

sL/2

200 mm

xxi) Checking for Requirements of Minimum Transverse Reinforcement for Different Section of Girder: a) Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section, Av 0.083f/c(bvs/fy), AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.5. Where, s is Length of Girder Segment under consideration for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement. b) Table for Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at Different Section of Girder.

Location from Bearing Center of Girder.

a)Between outer Face to Support Face b)From Support Face to L/8 of Girder c) From L/8 to L/4 of Girder Length

Length of Segment mm

300.000 3050.000 3050.000

350.000 350.000 350.000

175.000 175.000 200.000

56.821 56.821 64.938

Av-pro

Status of

226.195 226.195 226.195 Av-pro> Av Av-pro> Av Av-pro> Av

Page 198

d) From L/4 to 3L/4 of Girder Length e) From 3L/4 to L/2 of Girder Length

3050.000 3050.000

350.000 350.000

200.000 200.000

64.938 64.938

226.195 226.195

Av-pro> Av Av-pro> Av

xxii) Computation of Values of Vs,the Shear Resistance against Provided Shear Reinforcement & Spacings at Different Sections according to Vs = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.3.3-3) : a) With Vertical Shear Reinforcement the value of a = 900 & the Equation Vs = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s stands to Vs = Avfydvcotq /s, b) At Support Position (Bearing Center) of Girder Vs= Avfydv-Supp.Cotq/sL0.375m VS-Supp. 1,230.434 kN 1230.434*10^3 N 1,230.434 kN 1230.434*10^3 N 1,230.434 kN 1230.434*10^3 N 1,065.762 kN 1065.762*10^3 N 1,158.726 kN 1158.726*10^3 N 1,122.611 kN 1122.611*10^3 N

VS-L0.375m

VS-L/8

VS-L/4

VS-3L/8

VS-L/2

xxii) Computation of values for Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Girder under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3 against Equation Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-2) : a) The Nominal Shear Resistanceat any Section of Girder is Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-1) b) For RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0, thus Equation stands to Vn-1 = Vc + Vs c) At Support Position (Bearing Center) of Girder Vn= Vc-Supp + Vs-Supp. Vn-Supp.-1 50,134.235 kN 50134.235*10^3 N Vn-L0.375m-1 50,134.235 kN 50134.235*10^3 N Vn-L/8-1 49,640.569 kN 49640.569*10^3 N 48,676.627 kN 48676.627*10^3 N 50,388.363 kN 50778.639*10^3 N

Vn-L/4-1

Vn-3L/8-1

Page 199

Vn-L/2-1

50,742.524 kN 50742.524*10^3 N

xxiii) Computation of values for Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Girder under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3 against Equation Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-2) : a) According to Equ. 5.8.3.3-1 the Nominal Shear Resistanceat any Section of Girder is Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp b) For RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0, thus Equation stands to Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv c) At Support Position (Bearing Center) of Girder Vn= 0.25f/c-bv-Suppdv-Supp. Vn-Sup. 3,145.433 kN 3145.433*10^3 N 3,145.433 kN 3145.433*10^3 N 3,145.433 kN 3145.433*10^3 N 3,113.681 kN 3113.681*10^6 N 3,062.273 kN 3062.273*10^3 N 2,966.828 kN 2966.828*10^3 N

Vn-L0.375m-2

Vn-L/8-2

Vn-L/4-2

Vn-3L/8-2

Vn-L/2-2

xxix) Accepted Nominal Shear Resistance-Vn & Factored Shearing Resistance-Vr at Different Section of Girder Computed accordting Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3 & AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.1 : a) Nominal Shear Resistance, Vn at any Section of Component is the Lesser value of of the Equqtions as mentioned below ; b) Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-1; AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3) c) Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-2; AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3) : d) For RCC Girder, Vp = 0. e) The Factored Shear Resitance at any Section of Component is Expressed by the Equation-5.8.2.1-2. Having the value, Vr = fVn in which; f) Vr is the Factored Shear Resitance at a Section in N g) f is Resistance Factor according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2. Vr. f 0.90 N

Page 200

h) The Acceptable Nominal Shear Resistance, Vn, Respective Factored Shear Resitance-Vr at Different Section of T-Girder, the Staus between the vaues of Vn Computed under Equ. 5.8.3.3-1 & Equ. 5.8.3.3-2 are shown in Table below :. i) Table-; Accepted Nominal Shear Resistance-Vn & Factored Shear Resitance-Vr at Different Section :

Section Location from Center of Bearing. At Support At L0.375m At L/8 At L/4 At 3L/4 At L/2 Calculated Factored Shear Force-Vu kN 860.766 834.197 644.670 407.258 191.162 -46.250 Vn-1 As per Equation. 5.8.3.3-1 kN 50134.235 50134.235 49640.569 48676.627 50388.363 50742.524 kN 3145.433 3145.433 3145.433 3113.681 3062.273 2966.828 Vn-2 As per Equ. 5.8.3.3-2 Relation between Values of Vn-1 & Vn-2 Vn-1 > Vn-2 Vn-1> Vn-2 Vn-1> Vn-2 Vn-1> Vn-2 Vn-1> Vn-2 Vn-1> Vn-2 Vn-1> Vn-2 kN 3145.433 3145.433 3145.433 3113.681 3062.273 2966.828 Accepted Value of Vn Factored Shear Resitance Relation between Values of Status If Vr > Vu, the Structure is

Vr

kN 2,830.889 2,830.889 2,830.889 2,802.312 2,756.045 2,670.145

Vr& VU Safe otherwise Vr> VU No Safe. Vr> Vu Structure Safe Vr> Vu Structure Safe Vr> Vu Structure Safe Vr> Vu Structure Safe Vr> Vu Structure Safe Vr> Vu Structure Safe

xxx) Relation between Factored Shearing Force (Vu) & the Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Girder, Computed under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3 : a) The Relation between Factored Shearing Force, Vu & the Nominal Shear Resistance Vn at Different Section of Girder are shown in the Table blow : Table-; Showing between Factored Shearing Force, Vu & the Nominal Shear Resistance Vn : Location of Section from Bearing

Center of Girder.

kN 860.766 834.197 644.670 407.258 191.162 -92.764 kN 3145.433 3145.433 3145.433 3113.681 3062.273 2966.828 Vu & Vn

Vu< Vn Vu< Vn Vu< Vn Vu< Vn Vu< Vn Vu< Vn

a) At Support (Bearing Point) Position b) At Distance L0.375m from Support. c) At Distance L/8 from Support. d) At Distance L/4 from Support. e) At Distance 3L/4 from Support. f) At Distance L/2from Support.

b) Since the Factored Shearing Forces Vu < Vn < Vr, the Computed Nominal Shear Resistance, thus the Girder is Safe in respect of Applied Shearing Forces caused by Dead Load & Live Loads to the Bridge Structure. xxxi) Checking of T-Girder Web Width (bWeb) in respect of Nominal Shearing Resistance (Vn) at Critical Section : a) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.2 the Critical Section for Shearing Forces Prevails at a Distance dv from Face of Support. b) Since In-between Support & the Section at L/4 the value of dv is same, thus on Critial Section value of dv = 1697.400mm c) Distance of Critical Section from Support/Bearing Point, LCrit = (0.375 + dv ) dv 1,711.800 mm

LCrit.

2.087 m

Page 201

e) Since the Nominal Shearing Resistance Vn for Girder In-between Support & the Section at L/4 have same values, thus at Critical Section Vn will have same value. f) Since the T-Girders are being provided equal Web Width through the Length, thus Web Width for Critical Section, bWeb = 350 mm which is the Effective Web Width bv for the Section. g) According to Equ. 5.8.3.3-2, at any Section of Girder the Effective Web Width, bv = (Vn - Vp)/0.25*f/cdv. In a RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0. and the Equation Stands to, bv = Vn/0.25*f/cdv. from which value of bv-Crit can Calculate.

Vn-Crit.

bv-Crit.

bv-Crit-Cal.

350 mm

h) Since the Calculated value of Effective Web Width for Critical Section bv-Crit = bWeb the Provided Web Width, thus Design of Critical Section is OK. xxxii) Checking in respect of Longitudinal Reinforcements (Tensile Reinforcements) Provided for Girder under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.5 : a) At each Section the Tensial Capacity of Longitudinal Reinforcement on Flexural Tension side of the Member shall be proportationed to Satisfy Equation, Asfy + Apsfps Mu/dvff + 0.5Nu/fc + (Vu/fv - 0.5Vs -Vp)Cotq. (Equ-5.8.3.5-1). Where; b) As is Area of Nonprestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2 c) fy is Yield Strength of Nonprestressing Reinforceing Steel in MPa. d) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure, the value of Aps = 0 e) fps is Yield Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure, the value of fps = 0 f) Mu is Factored Moment of the Section due to Dead & Live Loads Loads on Structure. in N-mm but not less then Vudv. g) Nu is Factored Axil Force in N, Value will be (+) ve for the case of Tensile & (-) for the case of Compressive due to Prestressing. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Nu = 0. h) dv is Effective Shear Depth of Tensil Reinforcement for the Section in mm. i) Vu is Factored Shear Force for the Section in N. j) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N for the Section. k) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Vp = 0. As fy Aps Variable mm2

fps

MPa

Mu

Variable

N-mm

Nu

dv Vu Vs Vp.

mm N N N

Page 202

Variable

m) ff is Resistance Factor for Flexural Tension of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2. n) fv is Resistance Factor for Shearing Force of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2, o) fc is Resistance Factor for Compression due to Prestressing according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2.

ff

0.90

fv

0.90

fc

0.80

p) Since for Nonprestressing RCC Structural Components the Items Aps, fps, Nu & Vp have Values = 0, thus mentioned Equ-5.8.3.5-1. Stands to, Asfy Mu/dvff + (Vu/fv - 0.5Vs)Cotq. q) Table- Showing Evalution of Equation-5.8.3.5-1 at Different Section of Girder & Status of Results.

Location of Section

from Bearing Center of Girder.

As.

Mu

Vu

Vs

Provided Factored Factored Shearing Value of Tensile Moment Shearing Resistance Asfy Steel Area Force of Stirrups (L/H Part) mm2 kN-mm kN kN kN

6433.982 6433.982 8042.477 11259.468 16084.954 14476.459 1473.459 1427.978 3003.199 5131.011 6318.423 6630.449 860.766 1230.434261 834.197 1230.434261 644.670 1230.434261 407.258 1065.761789 191.162 1158.726304 -92.764 1122.611089 2637.933 2637.933 3297.416 4616.382 6594.831 5935.348

Equation kN

1,237.467 1,173.513 1,732.176 2,616.188 2,861.967 2,699.711

Status

Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied

j) Since at all Section the requirments of Equation are being Satisfied, thus provision of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements for Girder is OK. xxxiii) Checking for Factored Tensile Resistance of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements Provided for Girder: a) The provided Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements at Different Section of Girder under the Provision of Deep Beam should Satisfy the Equation, Ng = f fyAs 0.83bvs (AASHTO-LRFD-5.13.2.3; Equ-5.13.2.3-1). Here, b) Ng is Factored Tensial Resitance of Transverse Reinforcement (Each Pair) in N. c) bv is Width of Girder Web in mm. d) fy is Yield Strength of Reinforceing Steel as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement Ng. bv. fy. Variable N

2 226.195 mm

e) As is Steel Area of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in mm2 having the Spacing AS s mm. Here As = Av, the X-Sectional Area of 2-Leged the 12f Dia. Vertical Stirrups.

Page 203

f) s is Spacing of Transverse /Shear Reinforcement in mm. The value s should not Excide eithe d/4 or 300mm

Variable

mm

g) The Girders are being provided with Transverse/Shear Reinforcements in the form of Vertical Stirrups against Shear Forces caused by the Dead Load & Live Loads applied to the Bridge Structure. Due to Vertical Positioning of those Transverse/Shear Reinforcements they will also under Tensile Stress caused by the same Shearing Forces whose actions are in some extent in Vertical Direction. On these back drop mentioned Shearing Forces at different Section of Girder may be considered as Tensile Forces for Vertical Stirrups. Thus the Factored Shearing Forces at Each Section, Vu = Ng, the Factored Tensile Resistance Carried by the Pair of Transverse Reinforcement. h) The Checking for Factored Tensile Resistance of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements at Different Section of Girder are shown in the under mention Table: i) Table- Showing Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at Different Section of Girder. Location of Section from Bearing

Center of Girder. s'-Spacing As of Shear Provided Bars Steel Area mm2 mm 175.000 226.195 175.000 226.195 175.000 226.195 200.000 226.195 200.000 226.195 200.000 226.195

83465.834 83465.834 83465.834 83465.834 83465.834 83465.834

Status of

a) At Support (Bearing Point) Position b) At Distance L0.375m from Support. c) At Distance L/8 from Support. d) At Distance L/4 from Support. e) At Distance 3L/4 from Support. f) At Distance L/2from Support.

Equation Satisfied Not Satisfied 50837.50 Satisfied 50837.50 Satisfied 50837.50 Satisfied 58100.00 Satisfied 58100.00 Satisfied 58100.00 Satisfied

j) Since in all Section the requirments of Equation Equ-5.13.2.3-1, Ng = ffyAs > 0.83bvs are being Satisfyed, thus Provision of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements for Girder is OK. xxxiv) Checking the Critical Section Near Support in respect of M n the Nominal Flexural Resistance under the Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.2 : a) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.2 the Critical Section for Shearing Forces Prevails at a Distance dv from Face of Support & the Area In-between this Section & Support Face should be Designed for Shear accordingly. b) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.2 at Critical Section will have Nominal Flexural Resistance Mn= dv*(Apsfps + Asfy) in N-mm both for Top & Bottom Tension Reinforcement Bars. c) Since the position of Critical Section at a Distance dv from Support is related to Distance of the Sections fron Support to 0.375m & L/8. The Calculated Value of dv for Section at Support, at 0.375m, L/8 & L/4 are same. Thus for Critical Section the value of dv within mentioned Sections are Applicable. d) Distance of Critical Section from Support/Bearing Point, LCrit = (0.375+ dv ) e) For Nonprestrssed RCC Structure value of Aps = 0 & also fps = 0; thus for the Critical Section Equation Mn = dv(Apsfps + Asfy) stands to Mn= dvAsfy. dv-Crit 1,711.800 mm

LCrit. Mn-Crit-1.

Page 204

f) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Either of I or T Section with Flenge & Web Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) + 0.85f/c(b-bw)b1hf(a/2-hf/2) in which, g) The provided Steel Area as Tension Reinforcemen on bottom surface of Critical Section have same value that for the Sections In-between Support Point & L/8. Section. The Critical Section is being also provised same Steel Area on its Top Surface. h) The Effective Depth for Tension Reinforcement of Critical Section, de = ds is same that for the Sections In-between Support Point & L/8. i) Accordingly the Depth of Compressin Block 'a' for Critical Section have same value that for the Sections In-between Support Point & L/8. j) For Simple Supported & Single Reinforced T-Girder Beam the with Provided Steel Area against Factored Max. Moments at its Critical Section will have the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) + 0.85f/c(b-bw)b1hf(a/2-hf/2) As-Crit.

2 6,433.982 mm

ds-Crit.

1,882.800 mm

aCrit.

21.266 mm

Mn-Crit-2.

k) Since the Calculated value of Nominal Resistance based on provided Effective Shear Depth, Mn-Crit.-1 < Mn-Crit-2 the Calculated value of Nominal Resistance based on provided Effective for Tensial Reinforcement for Critical Section thus the Design of Critical Section is OK. xxxv) Checking the Critical Section Near Support in respect of Provided Shear & Tensial Reinforcements for the Section according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.2 : a) The Shearing Resistance for the provided Shearing Reinforcement In-between Support Face & Critical Section should have the value Vs = AvfydvCotq/s in N/mm2. b) The Calculated Shearing Forces at Critical Section due Factored Loads VU-Crit. 673.904 kN 673.904*10^3 N 1,979.602 kN-m 1979.602*10^3 N-mm 1,153.589 kN-m 1,979.602 kN-m 1979.602*10^3 N-mm

2 1.250 N/mm

c) The Calculated Moment at Critical Section due Factored Loads (DL & LL).

MU-Crit.

d) Calculated value of VU*dv for Critical Section e) The Effcetive Moment for Critical Section is Greater One of MU-Crit & VU*dv

VU*dv MEff.

f) The Shearing Stress at Critical Section vu = VU/fbvdv N/mm2 g) Value of vu/f/c for Critical Section h) Based on the Initial Longitudinal Straion of Tensial Reinforcement ex = 0.001, Effcetive Moment for Critical Section MEff,Effective Depth dv & value of Cotq the Computed value of ex*1000 = (MU/dv + 0.5VUcot q )/EsAs i) Based on values of ex*1000 & vu/f/c from respective Table LRFD-5.8.3.4.2-1

vu vu/f/c ex*1000

0.060 0.001

24.300

Page 205

j) Value of Cotq for Critical Section k) Provided Spacing of 2-Legged 12f Vertical Stirrups between Support & Critical Section. l) Steel Area of 2-Legged 12f Vertical Stirrups between Support & Critical Section m) Computed value of Vs = AvfydvCotq/s for the Critical Section

Cotq s

2.215 175.000 mm

Av Vs-Crit.

2 226.195 mm

n) Computation of values of Equation Asfy Mu/dvff + (Vu/fv - 0.5Vs)Cotq. for the Critical Section as LHP (Left hand Part) & RHP (Right hand Part) in respect of whether those Satisfy the Provision of Equation or Not.

LHP RHP

o) Since the Provisions of Equation Asfy Mu/dvff + (Vu/fv - 0.5Vs)Cotq. are being Satisfied by the arramgement of Shear Reinforcements as well as by the Tensial Reinforcements provided In-between Support Face & the Critical Section, thus the Flexural Design of Critical Section is OK. 6 Design of Reinforcement for Torsion & Checking against Forces due to Torsion at Different Locations : i) Design Phenomenon for Tensional Effect upon Girder & Checking in these respect : a) The Bridge Girders are being considered as T-Beam having Dead Loads due to Self Weight & Superimposed Loads from Deck Slab, W/C, Sidewalk, Curb/Wheel Guard, Railing, Rail Posts etc. whereas Live Loads from Wheel Loads of Truck, Lane Loads, Pedestrian etc. Thus the Torsional Forces at Section is the Total Shearing Forces acting on that Section. b) Bridge Interior T-Girders has a Flange Width, b = 2.000m, & Web bWeb = 0.450m. Girders are being effect by the Tensional Forces due to Eccentric Loading of both Dead Loads & Live Loads. Dead Loads of Structure & Live Lane Loads have almost equilibrium actions. Whereas Truck Live Loads have a significant effect in these respect. Wheel Position of a moving Truck may change over Bridge Deck & will have effect up to a distance of b/2 from the Center Line of Girder of each side of Interior Girders. Thus Location or Eccentricity of Torsional Force action will be consider at a distance b/4 from Girder Center Line. c) Based on the assumption-a the Factored Torsional Forces (DL + LL) will be the Factored Shearing Forces at a Section. Thus FTor. = FShear d) Based on the assumption-b of Torsional Forces (DL & LL) action Positions, the Eccentricity eTor. = b/4 from Center of Girder. d) Accordingly Factored Torsional Moment at any Section will be Tu = FTor.*eTor. FTor. 860.765820 kN 860765.820 N 500 mm

eTor.

Tu.

ii) Computation of Factored Torsional Forces (T Forces) &Torsional Moments (Tu) under assumed Provisions : a) According to assumption the Factored Forces for Torsion, FTor. due to Dead Load & Live Loads at Different Section of Girder are the respective Factored Shearing Forces FShear. Whereas the Torsional Moments, Tu are due to the

Page 206

Eccentric action of Torsional Forces FTor. The Factored Shear Forces FShear, Factored Torsional Forces, Fu & the respective Torsional Moments, Tu at different Sections of Girder are shown in under mentioned Table. b) Table-2. Factored Shear Forces, Torsional Forces & Moments at Different Sections on Interior Girder. Locations from Support Shearing Forces, FTor. (kN) Torsional Forces, FTor. (kN) Torsional Monent, Tu (kN-m)

On Support 248.07 860.77 430.383

0.375m

239.353 834.197 417.098

L/8

177.156 644.670 322.335

L/4

106.240 407.258 203.629

3L/8

35.324 191.162 95.581

L/2

-47.468 -92.764 -46.382

c) From Table - 2, it appears that, magnitude of Torsional Forces & Moments are highest at Support Positions & those gradually reduced to zero or (-) ve value towards the Center of Span. b) Since opposite direction Torsional Forces & Moments at two Support Positions with highest magnitude causes the Torsional affect on T-Girders, thus those are considered as the Governing Torsional Forces & Moments for Design. iii) Checking of Design in respect of Factored Torsional Moment (T u) at Support Position under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.1 : a) In Normal density Concrete the Factored Torsonal Moment, Tu > 0.25fTcr (Equ.-5.8.52.1-3), in which; b) Tu is Calculated Factored Torsional Moment at Support Position in N-mm. Tu 430.383 kN-m 430.383*106 N-mm 607.707 kN-m 607.707*10^6 N-mm

2 1030000.000 mm

c) Tcr is Torsional Cracking Moment of Component in N-mm. having the value, Tcr = 0.328f/c*(Acp2/Pc)(1 + fpc/0.328f/c) N-mm. where, d) Acp is Total Area Enclosed by the Outside Perimeter of the Concrete Section in mm2; Here for T-Girder Section Acp = b*hf +bWeb*(hGir. - hf) mm2 e) Pc is Length of Outside Parameter of Concrete Section in mm. Here for T-Girder Section Pc = 2*(b + hf) - bWeb + 2*(hGir - hf) + bWeb mm f) fpc is Compressive Stress in Concrete Section for Prestressing after occurrence of Prestress Losses either at the Centroid of Cross-section Resisting Transient Loads or at the Junction of Web & Flange when the Centroid Lies within Flange having unit of value in Mpa. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Components the value of fcp = 0. g) f is Resistance Factor for Torsion according to AASHT-LRFD-5.5.4.2. h) Calculated value of 0.25f Tcr for T-Girder

Tcr

Acp

Pc

8,000.000 mm

fpc

Mpa

f 0.25fTcr

i) Table-2. Status of Factored Moments (T u) in respect of Torsional Cracking Moment (T cr)at Different Section. Locations from Support Unit of Moments

On Support kN-m

0.375m kN-m

L/8 kN-m

L/4 kN-m

3L/8 kN-m

L/2 kN-m

Page 207

430.383 136.734

417.098 136.734

203.629 136.734

95.581 136.734

Tu>0.25fTcr Tu>0.25fTcr

Tu>0.25fTcr Tu<0.25fTcr

j) Since Torsional affect on Girder is mainly caused by the Torsional Moments at Support Position & the Calculated Factored Torsional Moments at Support Position, Tu > 0.25fTcr, thus the Girder is Safe in respect of Tortional affect. iv) Computation of Nominal Torsional Resistance (T n) Subject to Combined Shear & Torsion under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.6: a) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.6 the is Nominal Torsional Resistance of a Section, Tn = 2AoAtfycotq/s in N-mm. In which; b) Ao is Area enclosed by Shear Flow Path. In T-Girder Ao = bhf + bWeb(hGir-hf), Here, b = 2000 mm, hf = 200 mm, hGir. = 2000 mm & bWeb = 350 mm,

2 113.097 mm

Tn

N-mm

Ao

2 1030000 mm

c) At is X-Sectional Area of One Ledge closed Transverse Torsional Reinforcement At 2 in mm . Here At = Av/2 (Av is X-Sectional Area of 2-Leg Transverse/Shear Reinforcement).

0 d) q is Angle ( ) of Crack determined under provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4. with necessary modifactions as required for v & Vu

(O)

mm

v) Compution of Factored Shearing Force Vu & Shearing Stress vu for Combined Shear & Torsion accodring to Equ-5.8.3.6.2-2 & Equ-5.8.3.6.2-4: a) Under Combined Shear & Torsion the Factored Shearing Force at a Section is Vu-S&T = (Vu2+(0.9phTu/2Ao)2) ; Equ-5.8.3.6.2-2. b) For Normal Section vu = ((Vu - fVp)/fbvdv)2 + (Tuph/fAoh)2) ; Equ-5.8.3.6.2-2 having Vp = 0 . Where for both Equation; c) Vu is Factored Shearing Force for the Section in N due to Applied Loads. d) ph is Parimeter of the Center Line of Closed Transverse Torsion Reinforcement in mm. Here ph = 2*((hGir.-2CCov-B&T - f12) + (bWeb-2CCov-Side- f12)), in which i) hGir = iv) bv/bWeb= 2000 mm. ii) CCover-B&T = 350 mm. v) CCov-side = 50 mm,iii) f12 = 38 mm. 12 mm Vu-S&T 1,180.952 kN 1180.952*10^3 N

2 4,156.978 kN/m 2 4.156978 N/mm

vu

Vu ph

N 4,300.000 mm

e) Aoh is the Area Enclosed by Center Line of Exterior Closed Transverse Torsional Reinforcement in mm2. Here Aoh = (hGir.-2CCover-B&T - f12)*(bWeb-2CCover-Side- f12) g) Tu is Factored Torsional Moment in N-mm for the Section.

Aoh

2 494,656 mm

Tu

N-mm

Page 208

0.90

i) Table Showing the values of Mu, Vu,Tu, Vu-S&T, vu & other Items related to Torsion at different Section of Girder. Table-4. Showing the values of Mu, Vu,Tu, Vu-S&T, vu & other Items related to Torsion.

Location of Section from Support Length of Segment from the Earlier Section Factored Moment for the Section. Factored Shear for the Section. Calculated value of Effective Shear Depth Calculated value of Effective Moment value Factored Torsional Moment of Section. Calculated value of Calculated value of

Vudv

Vu-S&T

of Section.

vu

of Section.

MuEff

(Mu)

kN-m

0.00 278.14 3,003.20 5,131.01 6,318.42 6,630.45

mm At Support

0.000 375.000 2675.000 3050.000 3050.000 3050.000

(Vu) kN

860.766 834.197 644.670 407.258 191.162 -46.250

(dv)

mm

1711.800 1711.800 1694.520 1666.543 1614.600 1627.400

(Vudv)

kN

1473.459 1427.978 1092.406 678.713 308.650 -75.267

(MuEff)

kN-m

1473.459 1427.978 3003.199 5131.011 6318.423 6630.449

(Tu)

kN-m

430.383 417.098 322.335 203.629 95.581 -46.382

kN

1180.952 1144.499 884.473 558.749 262.270 98.649

N/mm2

4.157 4.029 3.113 1.967 0.923 0.448

vi) Values of esx1000 with at Least the Min. Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.5 & provisions of Equation 5.8.3.4.2-1 : a) For Nonprestressing RCC Girder values of Components Nu, Vp, Asp, fpo, Ep etc. are = 0. Substituting Vu by Vu-S-T Equation for ex = (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu -Vp)cotq - Apsfpo)/2(EsAs + EpAps) stands to ex = (Mu/dv + 0.5Vu-S&Tcotq )/2EsAs b) Considering the Initial value of ex = 0.001at Support Position & with the Effective Moment Mu-Eff. from the Equation value of Cotq = (ex2EsAs - Mu/dv)/0.5Vu cotq 2.901

c) Having cotq = 1.718, Calculated values of exx1000 at Different Locations are shown in the under mentioned Table-6: Table-6. Showing Calculated values of exx1000 at Different Locations Mu-Eff,, Vu-S&T, & other Items related to Torsion.

Location of Section from Support Length of Segment from the Earlier Section Calculated value of Effective Shear Depth Factored Moment for the Section. Provided Steel Area for Flexural Main Bars Provided Steel Area of S&T Bar on Top Face Provided Total Steel Area for the Section Calculated value of Effective Moment value Calculated value of exx1000 with Least the Min. Torsion Bar 1.000 0.969 0.950 0.864 0.667 0.728

Vu-S&T

of Section.

MuEff

(dv)

mm

1711.800 1711.800 1694.520 1666.543 1614.600 1627.400

(Mu)

kN-m

0.00 278.135 3003.199 5131.011 6318.423 6630.449

(As-Main)

mm

2

(As-S&T)

mm

2

(As-Total)

mm

2

(MuEff)

kN

1180.952 1144.499 884.473 558.749 262.270 98.649

mm At Support

0.000 375.000 2675.000 3050.000 3050.000 3050.000

kN-m

1473.459 1427.978 3003.199 5131.011 6318.423 6630.449

Page 209

i) Since at L/2 Distance from Support the Shear Forces are of (-) ve value, thus calculated value of ex-x1000 these Locations is not essential. j) Since in all Sections from Support to L/2 the values of es-x1000 1.00, thus values of q & b for the Sections can be obtain from Table-5.8.3.4.2-1 in respect of values of vc/f/c. For Sections having the es-x1000>1.00, for those Cases values of q & b can obtain in respect of value of Crack Spacing Parameter sxe, using the Equation .No.5.8.3.4.2-2, Equation No. 5.8.3.4.2-4 & Table -5.8.3.4.2-2. viii) Values of esx1000 with Less than Min. Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.5 & the provisions of Equation 5.8.3.4.2-2 : a) Since in RCC Girder the values for Prestressing Components Nu, Vp, Asp, fpo, Ep etc. are = 0, thus equation ex= (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu -Vp)cotq - Apsfpo)/(EsAs + EpAps) stands to ex = (Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/EsAs b) Considering the Initial value of ex = 0.002 at Support Position & the Effective Moment Mu-Eff. From the Equation Cotq = (exEsAs - Mu/dv)/0.5Vu c) Values of exx1000 at Location = (Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/EsAs ix) Computation of values of Crack Spacing Parameter, sxe for Section at L/8 : a) The Crack Spacing Parameter of a Section, sxe = sx(35/(ag+16)) 2000mm, In which; b) sx = the Lesser value of either dv or the Spacing of Longitudinal Crack Control Reinforcements on Vertical Faces (as Shrinkage & Tempeture Reinforcement) having Steel Area in a Horizontal Reinforcement Layer if As > 0.003bvs. Here; i) As is Steel Area of 2nos Shrinkage & Tempeture Reinforcement Bars on Opposite Vertical Faces of T-Girder in same Horizontal Layer, = As-S&T-Hori. = 2*pDBar2/4 = 2*Af-16 ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth of Tensil Reinforcement for the Section iii) s is Spacing of Longitudinal Bars as Shrinkage & Tempeture Reinforcement on Vertical Faces of T-Girder. iv) Thus Computed value of 0.003bvs for a Section v) For Computed value of 0.003bvs at Section > As, the value of sx = dv c) ag is Max. Aggragate size for Concrete = 20mm d) Thus Computed value of sxe = sx(35/(ag+16)) for a Section ag sxe 20 mm mm sx mm cotq 2.901

ex-*1000

As

2 201.062 mm

dv s

mm

232.857 mm

f) For value of ex-*1000 > 1.00 & the value of sxe at a Sections should Computed from the Respective Tablel.

Page 210

x) Computation of Values of q from AASHTO-LRFD'sTable -5.8.3.4.2-1. & Table -5.8.3.4.2-2. against the Respective Calculated values of esx1000, Ratio vc/f/c & sxe.: a) Table-7 for Values of q & Cotq at Different Location of Girder. Location of Section From Support a) At Support Position b) At L0.375mDistance of Support c) At L/8 Distance of Support d) At L/4 Distance of Support e) At 3L/8 Distance of Support f) At L/2 Distance of Support Referece of Table

5.8.3.4.2.-1 5.8.3.4.2.-1 5.8.3.4.2.-1 5.8.3.4.2.-1 5.8.3.4.2.-1 5.8.3.4.2.-2

vu/f/c

0.198 0.192 0.148 0.094 0.044 0.021

exx1000

1.000 0.969 0.950 0.864 0.667 0.728

sxe

NA NA NA NA NA NA

Value of q

36.400 36.400 36.400 36.400 33.700 33.700

Value of Cotq

1.356 1.356 1.356 1.356 1.499 1.499

xi) Computation of Nominal Torsional Resistance (T n) Subject to Combined Shear & Torsion under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.6 a) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.1 the Factored Torsional Resistance of a Section, Tr = fTn in N-mm. b) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.6 the Nominal Torsional Resistance of a Section, Tn = 2AoAtfycotq/s in N-mm. c) The Computed values for Factored Torsional Moment Tu, Factored Torsional Resistance Tr & the Nominal Torsional Resistance Tn in respect of provided Steel Area for Torsional Reinforcement Combined with Shear Reinforcement At, Spacing of Combined with Shear & Torsional Reinforcement s, Computed values of Ao the Area enclosed by Shear Flow Path & Cotq at different Section along with respective Status are shown in the under mentioned Table-8. d) Table-8. Showing the values of T u, Tr,Tn, At, Ao, Cotq , s & Status of different events related to Torsion.

Location of Section from Support Calculated value of Calculated Factored Torsional Moment Factored Torsional Resistance Calculated Nominal Torsional Resistance Calculated value of Provided Steel Area of Torsional Provided Spacing of Torsional Bars Status between Status between

Cotq

Ao

Tu &Tr

Tu &Tn

Bars

(Tu)

kN-m At Support

1.356 1.356 1.356 1.356 1.499 1.499 430.383 417.098 322.335 203.629 95.581 -46.382

(Tr) kN

666.3235 666.323 666.323 583.033 644.531 644.531

(Tn)

kN

740.359 740.359 740.359 647.815 716.146 716.146

(At)

mm

2

(s)

mm

175.000 175.000 175.000 200.000 200.000 200.000 Tu<Tr Tu<Tr Tu<Tr Tu<Tr Tu<Tr Tu<Tr Tu<Tn Tu<Tn Tu<Tn Tu<Tn Tu<Tn Tu<Tn

mm

e) At all Section the Factored Torsional Moment Tu <Tr & the Factored Torsional Resistance& also Tu < Tn, Nominal Torsional Resistance, thus the design is in respect of Combind Shear & Torsion. xii) Checking in respect of Longitudinal Reinforcements (Tensile Reinforcements) Provided for Girder under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.6.3 : a) At each Section the Tensial Capacity of Longitudinal Reinforcement on Flexural Tension side of the Member shall be

Page 211

proportationed to Satisfy Equation-5.8.3.6.3-1. (This is related to Equation-5.8.3.5-1.with some modifications). Asfy + Apsfps Mu/dvff + 0.5Nu/fc + cotq((Vu/fv - 0.5Vs -Vp)2+(0.45phTu/2Aof)2) . (Equ-5.8.3.6.3-1). Where; b) As is Area of Nonprestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2 c) fy is Yield Strength of Nonprestressing Reinforceing Steel in MPa. d) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure, the value of Aps = 0 e) fps is Yield Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure, the value of fps = 0 f) Mu is Factored Moment of the Section due to Dead & Live Loads Loads on Structure. in N-mm but not less then Vudv. g) Nu is Factored Axil Force in N, Value will be (+) ve for the case of Tensile & (-) for the case of Compressive due to Prestressing. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Nu = 0. h) dv is Effective Shear Depth of Tensil Reinforcement for the Section in mm. i) Vu is Factored Shear Force for the Section in N. j) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N for the Section. k) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Vp = 0.

0 l) q is Angle of Inclenation of Digonal Compressive Stress in ( ) according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4;

As fy Aps

Variable

mm2

fps

MPa

Mu

Variable

N-mm

Nu

dv Vu Vs Vp.

mm N N N

Variable

m) ff is Resistance Factor for Flexural Tension of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2. n) fv is Resistance Factor for Shearing Force of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2, o) fc is Resistance Factor for Compression due to Prestressing according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2. p) f is Resistance Factor for Torsional Force of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2.

ff

0.90

fv

0.90

fc f

0.80

0.90

q) Since for Nonprestressing RCC Structural Components the Items Aps, fps, Nu & Vp have Values = 0, thus mentioned Equ-5.8.3.6.3-1. Stands to, Asfy Mu/dvff + cotq((Vu/fv - 0.5Vs)2 + (0.45phTu/2Aof)2).

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r) Table- Showing Evalution of Equation-5.8.3.6.3-1 at Different Section of Girder & Status of Results.

Section from Bearing Center of Girder. a)At Support b) At L0.375m. c) At L/8. d) At L/4. e) At 3L/4. f) At L/2.

dv.

As.

Mu

Vu

Vs

Effective Provided Factored Factored Shearing Shear Steel Area Moment Shearing Resistance Depth of Section Force of Stirrups mm

1711.800 1711.800 1694.520 1666.543 1614.600 1627.400

Calculted Value of

L/H Part

Equation kN

765.090 906.719 2445.681 3783.971 4863.915 4881.476

Status of Equation Satisfy/ Does Not Satisfy Satisfyed Satisfyed Satisfyed Satisfyed Satisfyed Satisfyed

(Tu)

kN-m

430.383 417.098 322.335 203.629 95.581 163.490

Asfy

kN

3297.416 3297.416 3956.899 5275.865 7254.314 6594.831

mm

kN-m

0.000 278.135 3003.199 5131.011 6318.423 6630.449

kN

860.766 834.197 644.670 407.258 191.162 326.980

kN

1230.434 1230.434 1230.434 1065.762 1158.726 1122.611

Note ;- The (-) ve Shear & respective Torsional Moment values at Section L/2, are being cosidered as (+) ve value. j) Since at all Section the requirments of Equation are being Satisfied, thus provision of Transverse/Shear & Torsional Reinforcements for Girder is OK. 7 Checking against Deflection & Camber : i) Flexural Deformation of Components Due to Deflection & Camber, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.6.2) : a) Deformation/ Deflection of Structural Components in respect of Dead & Live Load, Creep, Shrinkage, Thermal Changes, Settlement & Prestressing should be considered according to provision of AASHTO-LRFD-2.5.2.6. b) In Calculation of Deflection & Chamber Dead Load, Live Load, Prestressing, Erection Load, Concrete Creep & Shrinkage and Steel Relaxation should be Considered. For Determining Deflection & Camber the Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-4.5.2.1; 4.5.2.2 & 5.9.5.5. are applicable. c) Computation of Instantaneous Deflection should be based on Modulus of Elasticity of Conncrete-Ec as mentioned in AASHTO-LRFD-5.4.2.4. & either the Gross Moment of Inertia-Ig or the Effective Moment of Inertia-Ie of the Component. ii) Instantaneous Deflections at Mid Span against Individual Applied Forces : a) Deflection due to Uniformely Distributed Factored Dead Loads (DL) b) Deflection due to Uniformely Distributed Factored Live Lane Loads (LL) c) Deflection due to Factored Concentrated Dead Loads (DL) for 1st & 5th Cross Girder. d) Deflection due to Factored Concentrated Dead Loads (DL) for 2nd & 4th Cross Girder. e) Deflection due to Factored Concentrated Dead Loads (DL) for 3rd Cross Girder = KCL-DL-3-X-Gir-MidMCDL-X-3.L2/EcIe. f) Deflection due to Factored Concentrated Wheel Live Load (LL) for DInst-UDL-DL DInst-UDL-LL DInst-CDL-X-1&5. 20.612 4.451 mm mm

0.000 mm

DInst-CDL-X-2&4.

2.288

mm

DInst-CDL-X-3.

0.502

mm

DInst-CLL-W-Front.

0.878

mm

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Front Wheel g) Deflection due to Factored Concentrated Wheel Live Load (LL) for Middle Wheel h) Deflection due to Factored Concentrated Wheel Live Load (LL) for Rear Wheel = KCL-LL-Wheel-Rear(X<L/2)MCLL-W-Rear.L2/EcIe. i) Total Instantaneous Deflection at Mid Span against Individual Applied Forces DInst-CLL-W-Mid. 5.725 mm

DInst-CLL-W-Rear.

6.424

mm

DInst.-Total

40.881 mm

iii) Instantaneous Deflections at Mid Span against Calculated Moments for Applied Forces under Service Limit State (WSD) : a) Instantaneous Deflection Interior Beam at Mid Span due to Dead Load (DL) b) Instantaneous Deflection Interior Beam at Mid Span due to Total of DL + LL DInst-DL-WSD DInst-Total-WSD 23.633 mm 39.823 mm

iv) Instantaneous Deflections at Mid Span against Calculated Moments for Applied Forces under Strength Limit State (USD) : a) Instantaneous Deflection Interior Beam at Mid Span due to Dead Load (DL) b) Instantaneous Deflection Interior Beam at Mid Span due to Total of DL + LL v) Calculation of Long Term Deflections : a) The Instantaneous Deflections are being Calculated Based on Ie, the Effective Moment of Inertia Computed according to Equation 5.7.3.6.2-1; Article 5.7.3.6.2. b) The Instantaneous Deflection is Based on Ie, thus Multiplying Factor l = 3.000 c) Calculated value of Long Term Deflectiom at Mid Span = lIe*DInst-Acceptable. Ie

4 0.269 m 4 2.695E+11 mm

DInst-DL-USD DInst-Total-USD

30.191 mm 66.212 mm

l-Ie. DLong.

3.000 119.469 mm

vi) Computation of Rotations at Support Position of Girder due to Different Applied Loads : a) Rotation on Support Position under Strength Limit State of Design (USD) due to Total Applied Loads (DL + LL) b) Rotation on Support Position under Service Limit State of Design (WSD) due to Total Applied Loads (DL + LL) c) Rotation on Support Position for Unfactored Live Load only under Service State of Design (WSD) due vii) Limit of Deflection & Camber under AASHTO-LRFD : a) According to AASHTO-LRFD-2.5.2.6.2 Deflection & Camber is Optional Item for RCC Bridge Structure. qGir-USD 2.449E-15 Radian.

q-Gir-WSD

1.588E-15 Radian.

q-Gir-LL

1.59E-15 Radian.

Page 214

b) Deflections can consider According to following Limit for Steel, Aluminum and/or Concrete Constructions with different Combination of Loads are the Followings : i) For general Vehicle Load, D = L (Span Length)/800 ii) For Vehicle and/or Padestrain Loads, D = L (Span Length)/1000 iii) For Vehicle Load on Cantilever, D= L (Span Length)/300 iv) For Vehicle and/or Padestrain Loads on Cantilever, D = L (Span Length)/375 L/800 L/1000 L/300 L/1000 30.500 mm 24.400 mm 81.333 mm 65.067 mm

c) Since the calculated Deflections & Rotations are more or less within the Limit, thus Structure is Safe. 8 Flexural Design of Diaphragm/Cross-Girder : i) Design Phenomena : a) The Flexural of Girders will be according to AASHTO LRFD or Ultimate Strength Design (USD) Procedures. b) The Cross-Girders at Interior Positions will have to face the Max. Moments & Shearing Forces caused by the applied Loads (DL& LL), thus it is require to conduct the Flexural Design of an Interior Cross-Girder as Typical one based on one based on applied Moments & Shears. Since the Bridge Deck Slab is integral Part of Girders, thus the Design of Girders will be under T-Beam if the Provisions in these Respect Satisfy, otherwise Designee will be under Provisions for the Rectangular Beam. c) Calculation of Effective Flange Width of T-Girder under AASHTO LRFD-4.6.2.6 (4.6.2.6.1) as least Dimention of : i) One-quarter of Effective Span Length = 1/4*SL-X-Gir = ii) 12.0 times average Depth of Slab + Greater Thickness of Web = 12*tSlab + bX-Gir. = iii) One-half the Width of Girder Top Flange (It is not req. as there is no Addl. Top Flange) iv) The average Spacing of Adjacent Beams/Girders = CD-X-Gir. = d) Since One-quarter of Effective Span Length is the Least one, thus the Flange Width of Cross-Girders, bFl-X-Gir = 1.450m ii) Dimensional Data of Cross-Girder : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) Span Length of Cross-Girder (Clear distance between Main Girder Faces) Thickness of Deck Slab Thickness of Wearing Course Number of Cross Girders Depth of Cross Girders (Including Slab as T-Girder) Width of Cross-Girder Web Width of Main-Girder Web C/C Distance Between Main Girders Flenge Width of Cross-Girder C/C Distance in between Cross-Girders in Longitudinal Direction Filets : i) X-Girder in Vertical Direction SL-X-Gir. tSlab. tWC NX-Gir. hX-Gir. bX-Web. bMain-Web. C/CD-Gir. bFln-X-Gir. CD-X-Gir. FX-Gir-V. 1.650 m 0.200 m 0.075 m 5.000 nos 1.900 m 0.250 m 0.350 m 2.000 m 0.413 m 6.250 m 0.075 m bFl-Gir. 0.41 m 2.65 m 6.25 m 0.41 m

Page 215

ii) X-Girder in Horizontal Direction iii) Sketch Diagram of Cross-Girder T-Beam : bFln-X-Gir 0.413 hf-X-Gir = 0.200 m

FX-Gir-H.

0.075

d=

0.010

hX-Gir. = m

1.900

0.250

a) Dead Load due Self Weight (Excluding Slab & W/C but including Fillets) in kN for per Meter Span Length = wc*((hX-Gir - tSlab)*bX-Web + 2*0.5*FX-Gir-V*FX-Gir-H) b) Dead Load from Slab (Within Flange Width) in kN for per Meter Span Length = gc*bFln-X-Gir.*tSlab c) Dead Load from Wearing Course (Within Flange Width) in kN for per Meter Span Length = gWC*bFln-X-Gir.*tWC d) Summation of Dead Loads of Cross-Girder for per meter Length v) Computation of Live Loads on Cross-Girders :

DLX-Gir-Self

10.335 kN/m

DLX-Gir-Slab.

1.980 kN/m

DLX-Gir-WC.

0.557 kN/m

DLX-Gir.

12.872

kN/m

a) Live Loads on Cross-Girders will be from Moving Truck due to its Wheel Loads & Lane Loads Over the Deck Slab. Truck Load will produce Max. Reaction if either of its Rear or Middle Wheel take position directly over Cross-Girder. Since the Main Girders have 2.000m C/C Spacing, thus only One no. of Wheel can took position over Cross-Girder. Whereas Lane Load will produce Uniformly Distributed Reaction for Cross-Girder having its Intensity of action within the dimensions that of Cross-Girder Span & Flange Width. b) Concentrated Live Load Reaction due to Rear/Middle Single Wheel from Truck in kN = LLRSW-Load or LLMSW-Load c) Uniformly Distributed Live Load due to Loan Load Reaction in kN per Meter Span Length = LLLane/3*bFln-X-Gir. vi) Factored Dead Load for per meter Length of Cross-Girder: a) Factored Dead Load of Cross-Girder due to Self & Slab in kN/m = gDC*(DLX-Gir-Self + DLX-GirSlab) b) Factored Dead Load of Cross-Girder due to Wearing Course in kN/m FDLX-Gir+Slab. 15.394 kN/m LLX-Gir.-Wheel. 72.500 kN

LLX-Gir-Lane.

1.279 kN/m

FDLX-Gir-WC

0.835

kN/m

Page 216

= gDW*DLX-Gir-WC c) Summation of Factored DL of Cross-Girder for per meter Length vii) Factored Live Loads of Cross-Girder : a) Factored LL of Cross-Girder due to Wheel Load in kN; = mgLL-Truck*IM*LLX-Gir-Wheel b) Factored LL of Cross-Girder due to Lane Load in kN/m = mgLL-Lane*LLX-Gir-Lane. FDLX-Gir. 16.229 kN/m

FLLX-Gir.-Wheel. FLLX-Gir-Lane.

168.744 2.238

kN kN/m

viii) Computation of Shearing Forces at Different Location due to Factored Dead Load & Live Load : a) The Cross-Girders are Structurally Integral Components of Bridge Main Girders having both side Fixed Ends and will have Shearing Forces accordingly. The Dead Loads & Lane Live Loads are Uniformly Distributed Loads over the Cross-Girder Span. Whereas Wheel Live Load is a Concentrated one having scope & attitude of changing position over the Cross-Girder Span. viii-i) Shearing Forces due to Unifomly Distributed Factored Dead Loads (FDL) : a) Shearing Forces on Cross-Girder at Faces of Main Girder due to Unifomly Distributed Factored Dead Load of Girder = FDLX-Gir. * SL-X-Gir./2. VX-Gir-DL-Face 13.389 kN

b) Shearing Forces at Middle of Cross-Girder Span due to Unifomly VX-Gir-DL-Center Distributed Factored Dead Load of Girder = VX-Gir-DL-Face - FDLX-Gir. * SL-X-Gir./2 . viii-ii) Shearing Forces due to Unifomly Distributed Factored Live Lane Loads (FLLL) : a) Shearing Forces on Cross-Girder at Faces of Main Girder due to Unifomly Distributed Factored Live Lane Load on Girder = FLLX-Gir-Lane.* SL-X-Gir./2. VX-Gir-Lane-Face

kN

1.846 kN

b) Shearing Forces at Middle of Cross-Girder Span due to Unifomly VX-Gir-Lane-Center Distributed Factored Live Lane Load on Girder = VX-Gir-X-Gir-Lane. - FLLX-Gir.-Lane. * SL-X-Gir./2 .

kN

viii-iii) Shearing Forces due to Factored Concentrated Wheel Loads Posioned at Mid of Span(FLWL-Mid) : a) Shearing Forces on Cross-Girder at Faces of Main Girder due to Factored Live Wheel Load (Concentrated) having its position at Center of Span will be = FLLX-Gir-Wheel. /2 b) Shearing Forces on Cross-Girder at Center of Cross Girder due to Factored Live Wheel Load (Concentrated) having its position at Center of Span will be = FLLX-Gir-Wheel. /2 (The (+) ve. value only). VX-Gir-Face-Wheel-Mid 84.372 kN

VX-Gir-Center-Wheel-Mid

84.372 kN

viii-iv) Shearing Forces due to Factored Concentrated Wheel Loads Posioned at Face of Span (FLWL-Mid) : a) Shearing Forces on Cross-Girder at Faces of Main Girder due to VX-Gir-Face-Wheel-Face 168.744 kN

Page 217

Factored Live Wheel Load (Concentrated) having its position at one Face of Span will be = FLLX-Gir-Wheel. b) Shearing Forces on Cross-Girder at Center of Cross Girder due to VX-Gir-Center-Wheel-Face Factored Live Wheel Load (Concentrated) having its position at one Face of Span will be = 1/2*FLLX-Gir-Wheel. 84.372 kN

h) Table-1 Showing the Shearing Forces at different Locations of Cross-Girder due to Dead & Live Loads : Sl. No. Type of Loading Unit i). ii). iii). iv).

Uniformly Distributed Dead Load (DL) Uniformly Distributed Live Lane Load (LL) Concentrated Wheel Live Load (LL) Concentrated Wheel Live Load (LL)

Loactions/ Position of Load Application At Main Girder Face At Cross Girder Mid.

Throught the Span Length Throught the Span Length At Center of the Cross-Girder Span At Main Girder Face

ix) Computation of Moments at Different Location due to Unfactored Dead Load, Factored Dead Load & Live Loads : a) The Cross-Girders are Structurally Integral Components of Bridge Main Girders having both side Fixed Ends and will have Moments due to Loads accordingly. The Dead Loads & Lane Live Loads are Uniformly Distributed Loads over the Cross-Girder Span. Whereas Wheel Live Load is a Concentrated one having scope & attitude of changing position over the Cross-Girder Span. b) (+) ve. Moment at Center of Cross-Girder Span due to Uniformly Distributed Unfactored Dead Load (DL), M = DLX-Gir. * SL-X-Gir.2/14. c) (-) ve. Moment at Face of Main-Girder Span due to Uniformly Distributed Unfactored Dead Load (DL); M = DLX-Gir. * SL-X-Gir.2/12. d) (+) ve. Moment at Center of Cross-Girder Span due to Uniformly Distributed Factored Dead Load (FDL), M = FDLX-Gir. * SL-X-Gir.2/14. e) (-) ve. Moment at Face of Main-Girder Span due to Uniformly Distributed Factored Dead Load (FDL); M = FDLX-Gir. * SL-X-Gir.2/12. f) (+) ve. Moment at Center of Cross-Girder Span due to Uniformly Distributed Factored Live Lane Load (FLLL); M = DLX-Gir.-lane * SL-X-Gir.2/14. g) (-) v. Moment at Face of Main-Girder Span due to Uniformly Distributed Factored Live Lane Load (FLLL); M = DLX-Gir.-Lane * SL-X-Gir.2/12. (+) MUF-DL 2.503 kN-m

(-) MUF-DL

2.920 kN-m

(+) MF-DL

3.156 kN-m

(-) MF-DL

3.682 kN-m

(+) MF-LLL

0.435 kN-m

(-) MF-LLL

0.508 kN-m

Page 218

h) (+) ve. Moment at Cross-Girder Center due to Concentrated Factored Live Wheel Load (FWLL) having its position at Center of Span will be M = FLLX-Gir-Wheel. *SL-X-Gir./8 i) (-) ve. Moment at Main-Girder Face due to Concentrated Factored Live Wheel Load (FWLL) having its position at Center of Span will be M = FLLX-Gir-Wheel. *SL-X-Gir./8 j) (+) ve. Moment at Cross-Girder Center due to Concentrated Factored Live Wheel Load (FWLL) having its position at Face of Main Girder will be M = FLLX-Gir-Wheel.*SL-X-Gir./2

(+)MF-Wheel-Mid

34.803 kN-m

(-)MF-Wheel-Mid

34.803 kN

(+)MF-Wheel-Face

139.214 kN-m

k) (-) ve. Moment at Main-Girder Face due to the Concentrated Factored Live (-)MF-Wheel-Face Wheel Load (FWLL) having its position at a Distance a = bMain-Web/2 from the Face of Main Girder will be M = a*(a-1)2*FLLX-Gir-Wheel.*SL-X-Gir. Here bMain-Web is Width of Main-Girder Web; thus a = 0.175 m

33.163 kN-m

l) Table-2 Showing the Moments at different Locations of Cross-Girder due to Factored Dead & Live Loads : Type of Load Application Position . Location of Load i). Uniformly Distributed Throught the Span Dead Load (DL) Length ii). Uniformly Distributed Throught the Span Live Lane Load (LL) Length iii). Concentrated Wheel At Center of the Live Load (LL) Cross-Girder Span iv). Concentrated Wheel At Main Girder Face Live Load (LL) Total Moments due to applied Loadsat different Loactions of Cross-Girder. Sl. No. (+) Moments at Cross-Girder Center 0.435 kN-m 0.435 34.803 139.214 174.887 kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m (-) Moments at Main Girder Face 3.682 kN-m 0.508 34.803 33.163 72.156 kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m

x) Factored Flexural Resistance for Prestressed or RCC Structural Components (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.1): a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor for Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr Mn f N-mm N-mm

b) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component either of I or T Section having Flenge & Web Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) + 0.85f/c(b-bw)b1hf(a/2-hf/2) c) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component of Rectangular Elements having Singly Reinforced, , at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(de-a/2) xi) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.2) :

Page 219

a) For Section of a Flexural Component having Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements or only with Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.2*Mcr or 1.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1-Table-3.4.1-1, which one is less. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) - Mdnc(Sc/Snc - 1) Scfr where; i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to effective Prestress Forces only at Extreme Fiber where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance for all Prestressing Losses in MPa. For Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in N-mm. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. Mcr fcpe N-mm N/mm2

Mdnc

N-mm

Sc

mm3

iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic or Noncomposite Snc 3 Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm . For the Rectangular RCC Girder Section value of Snc = (bX-WebhX-Gir3/12)/(hX-Git/2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in RCC in Mpa,(AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements, Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0, thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces fr Mcr

150,416,666.667

mm3

434.256 kN-m

434256329.29 N-mm

g) Table-3 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for requirment of Minimum Reinforcement at Different Sections Location of Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable 1.2 Times Factored 1.33 Times Allowable Min. Section Unfactored Mcr-1 Cracking Cracking of Cracking Moment as of Factored Resisting from Dead Load As per Moment Moment Moment per Art.-3.4.1 Moment Moment Support Moment Equation Value Mcr Mcr (Tab-3.4.1-1) M-1 Mr MDL-UF 5.7.3.3.2-1 Sncfr (Mcr-1Sncfr) (1.2*Mcr) M (1.33*M) (1.2Mcr1.33M) kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m At Middle 2.503 434.256 434.256 434.256 521.108 174.887 232.600 232.600 of Span At Fcae 2.920 434.256 434.256 434.256 521.108 72.156 95.968 95.968 of Span

Maximum Flexurak Moment

Mu (M Mr) kN-m

232.600 95.968

xii) Flexural Design of Cross-Girder with (+) ve. Moment value at Middle of Span for Reiforcement on Bottom :

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a) The Calculated (+)ve Moment values at Middle Positions of Cross Girder (+)MX-Gir-Mid-USD MX-Gir-Mid-USD < Mr, the Required Minimum Flexural Strength Moment.For (+) ve Moment value Reinforcement will be on Bottom Surface of Cross Girder. Mr

b) Since MX-Gir-Mid-USD< Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. c) Let the Clear Cover at Bottom Surface of Cross-Girder, C-Cov.Bot. = 50mm, Let the Clear Cover at Top of Cross-Girder, C-Cov.Top = 50mm, d) Let the Main Reinforcements are 20f Bars in 1 Layer,

2 2 e) X-Sectional Area of Main Reinforcements Af = p*DBar /4mm

Mu

2 314.159 mm

f) The Vertical Spacing between Reinforcement Bars, sVer. = 32 mm g) Let Provide 2-Leged 10f bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in the form of Vertical Stirrups. h) Thus Effective Depth of Reinforcements from Top of X-Girder up to Center of the Provided Reinforcements de = (hX-Gir - C-Cov-Top -DStri- 0.5DBar) h) Balanced Steel Ratio for Grider Section according to AASHTO-1996-8.16.2.2 rb.= 0.85*0.85*(f/c/fy)*{599.843/(599.843+fy)) i) Max. Steel Ratio, rMax = 0.75*rb. (AASHTO-1996-8.16.2.1)

32 mm 10 mm

de-pro-Top

1,830.000 mm

rb.

0.022

rMax

0.016

xiii) Checking's Whether the Cross Girder would Designed as T-Beam or Rectangular Beam Provisions : a) According to Ultimate Stressed Design Provisions a Rectangular having Flange with Reasonable Thickness on its Top should be Designed as T-Beam if Depth of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' is Greater than Flange Thickness b) Let Consider the T-Girder will behave as Rectangular Beam for which the Total Flange Width-'b' will be the Width of Rectangular Beam. c) For Rectangular Section having Provided Effective Depth de-pro-Bot; Beam Width b and the Calculated Max. Factored Ultimate Moment (Positive Moment) MU; the value Equivalent Compression Block a = de(1 - (1 - 2MU/0.85f/cbde2)1/2) a 17.344 mm a<hFln

d) Since the Calculated value of Equivalent Compression Block a < hFln; the thickness of X-Girder Flange, thus the Flexural Design of T-Girder will according to Provisions of Rectangular Beam. xix) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements on Bottom Surface against Calculated Positive Moments : a) With MU, Design Moment; b, Width of Rectangular Beam; de-pro-Bot, Provided Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section, the Required Tensile Steel Area for As-req.Bot

2 474,737.910 mm

Page 221

the Section; As = MU/[ffy(dasu-Bot - a/2)] d) Number of 20f bers required = As-req-Bot/Af-20 e) Let Provide 4nos 20f bars in One Layer as Bottom Reinforcment of X-Girder. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 4nos.20f bars = Nbar-pro*Af-20 h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for Rectangular Section of X-Girder = As-pro*fy/(0.85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section, = As-pro*fy(de-pro - apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = As-pro./b*de-pro NBar-req NBar-pro. As-pro apro 1,511.138 nos. 4 nos

2 1,256.637 mm

69.973 mm a<hFln Satisfied 924.829 kN-m Mr>Mu Satisfied 0.002 p-pro<p-max Satisfied

MResis

rpro

k) Since against Provided Steel Area; i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln, Thickness of Cross Girder Flange; ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU, the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax. The Allowable Max. Steel Ratio; thus Provisions & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Bottom Surface is OK. xx) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b 1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.033 e) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not) c/de-Max. c 0.450 59.477 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.033 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

xix) Flexural Design of Cross-Girder with (-) ve. Moment value at Faces of Span for Reiforcement on Top : a) The Calculated (-)ve Moment values at Support Positions of Cross Girder (-)MX-Gir-Sup-USD MX-Gir-Sup-USD < Mr, the Required Minimum Flexural Strength Moment.For (-) ve Moment value Reinforcement will be on Top Surface of Cross Girder. Mr 72.156 72.156*10^6 95.968 95.968*10^6 kN-m/m N-mm/m kN-m/m N-mm

b) Since MX-Gir-Sup-USD< Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. c) Let the Clear Cover at Bottom Surface of Cross-Girder, C-Cov.Bot. = 50mm, Let the Clear Cover at Top of Cross-Girder, C-Cov.Top = 50mm,

Mu

C-Cov-Bot. C-Cov-Top.

Page 222

2 2 e) X-Sectional Area of Main Reinforcements Af = p*DBar /4mm

20 mm

2 314.159 mm

f) The Vertical Spacing between Reinforcement Bars, sVer. = 32 mm g) Let Provide 2-Leged 10f bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in the form of Vertical Stirrups. h) Thus Effective Depth of Reinforcements from Top of X-Girder up to Center of the Provided Reinforcements de = (hX-Gir - C-Cov-Top -DStri- 0.5DBar)

32 mm 10 mm

de-pro-Top

1,830.000 mm

j) Since it being already found that the Calculated value of Equivalent Compression Block a < hFln; the thickness of XGirder Flange, thus the Flexural Design of T-Girder will according to Provisions of Rectangular Beam. xx) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements on Top Surface against Calculated Negative Moments : a) With MU, Design Moment; b, Width of Rectangular Beam; de-pro-Top, Provided Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section, the Required Tensile Steel Area for the Section; As = MU/[ffy(de-pro-Top - a/2)] d) Number of 20f bers required = As-req-Bot/Af-20 e) Let Provide 4nos 20f bars in One Layer as Top Reinforcment of X-Girder. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 4nos.20f bars = Nbar-pro*Af-20 h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for Rectangular Section of X-Girder = As-pro*fy/(0.85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section, = As-pro*fy(de-pro - apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = As-pro./b*de-pro As-req.Bot

2 474,737.910 mm

2 1,256.637 mm

69.973 mm a<hFln Satisfied 924.829 kN-m Mr>Mu Satisfied 0.002 p-pro<J2486 Satisfied

MResis

rpro

k) Since against Provided Steel Area; i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln, Thickness of Cross Girder Flange; ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU, the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax. The Allowable Max. Steel Ratio; thus Provision & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Top Surface is OK. xxi) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b 1apro, in mm. c/de-Max. c 0.450 59.477 mm

Page 223

c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.032 e) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not)

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.033 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

xxii) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.1: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; Mr 803.493 kN-m 400.069*10^6 N-mm 892.770 kN-m 892.770*10^6 N-mm 0.90

b) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm c) f is Resistance Factor for Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.

Mn f

d) The Nominal Resistance for a Flanged Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.2 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) + 0.85f/c(b-bw)b1hf(a/2-hf/2). e) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Either of I or T Section with Flenge & Web Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) + 0.85f/c(b-bw)b1hf(a/2-hf/2) f) For Fixed Supported & Single Reinforced T-Cross-Girder the with Provided Mn-Mid-Span 892.770 kN-m Steel Area against Factored (+) ve.Max. Moments at its Mid Span will have value of 892.770*10^6 N-mm Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) + 0.85f/c(b-bw)b1hf(a/2-hf/2) g) Calculated Factored (+) ve. Moment MU at Mid Span Maximum for T-Section of Cross-Girder. h) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment MU at Mid Span ( Which one is Greater, if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) (+) MU 174.887 kN-m 174.887*10^6 N-mm Mr>Mu Satisfied

xxiii) Since, i) The Value of Resisting Moment > Design Moment; ii) The Calculated value of c/de 0.42 & iii) the Provided Stee Ratio for Rectangular Section of T-Girder, rRec-pro < rMax. Balance Steel Ratio, iii) The Computed Factored Flexural Resistance M r > Mu the Actual Factored Moment at Mid Span (Absulate Max. Moment at c.g. Point); Thus Flexural Design of Reinforcements for the T-Girder Span is OK. 9 Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement in Longitudinal Direction on Vertical Faces of Cross-Girders : a) Girders are Simply Supported Structure having the Longitudinal Flexural Reinforcements due to Moments on Bottom Surface & also on Top Surface (In case of Doubly Reinforced or under Shrinkage & Temperature Provision). There will be also Lateral & Vertical Reinforcements on Bottom, Top & Vertiocal Surfaces under the provisiona of Shear & Web Reinforcement. It also requires Longitudinal Reinforcement on its Vertical Faces, those can provide under Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement Provisions according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8.

Page 224

b) Let consider 1 (One) meter Strip Length of Girder for Calculation of Shrinkage LGirder. & Temperature Reinforcement in Longitudinal Direction on Vertical Faces of Girder. c) Let consider the Depth of Gross-Girder as Height = hX-Gir m hX-Gir.

2 509.76 mm

d) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8.1. Steel Area required as Shrinkage As-req-S&T.-Hori. & Temperature Reinforcement for Structural Components with Thickness Less than 1200mm; As 0.11Ag/fy . e) Here Ag is Gross Area of Girder's Each Vertical Face = LGirder*hX-Gir. f) Let provide 16f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces of Girder. g) X-Sectional Area of 16f bar = pDBar2/4 h) Spacing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements is less of 3-times the Component thickness = 3*bWeb = 0.75 mm or = 450 mm i) Number of 16f bars required against Calculated Steel Area as Horizontal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements on Vertical Surface of Girder = As-req-Long./Af-16 j) Spacing of 16f bars as Horizontal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcementon Vertical Faces of Girder for Calculated Steel Area = Af-16. *hX-Gir/As-req-Long. k) Let Provide 5 nos. 16f as Longitudinal bars as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement. l) Spacing for provided 4 nos.16f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces of Girder = hX-Gir/(NBar-ro-S&T-Hori. +2) Ag-Vert. DBar.

2 1900000.000 mm

16 mm

Af-16 s-req-S&T.-Hori.

2 201.062 mm

0.75 mm

NBar-req-S&T-Hori.

2.535 nos.

sCal-req-S&T-Hori.

749.413 mm

NBar-pro-S&T-Hori.

4 nos

spro-S&T-Hori.

316.667 mm

m) Steel Area against Provided 4 nos. 16f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & As-pro-S&T-Hori. Temperature Reinforcement on Vertical Surfaces of Girder = Af-16*NBar-pro-S&T-Hori.

2 804.248 mm

n) Since As-pro-S&T-Hori. > As-req-Long & spro-S&T-Hori.> s-req-S&T-Hori. thus the provisions of Longitudinal Reinforcement as Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces of Cross-Girders on both Faces are OK. 10 Design of Shear Reinforcement for Cross-Girder against Shearing Forces & Checking: i) Calculated Factored Shearing Forces (Vu) at Different Locations due to Applied Loads (DL & LL): a) Table for Max. Shear Forces at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to Factored DL, Lane-LL & Wheel-LL : Table-2. Sum. of Max. Shear Forces Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder.

Page 225

At 2d

Distance from Face kN

kN

268.351

168.744

b) Shearing Forces at Sopport Position of Girder c) Shearing Forces at Middle of Girder. ii) Factored Shearing Stress & Shearing Depth at Different Locations :

Vu-Face. Vu-Mid.

268.351 kN 168.744 kN

a) The Shearing Steress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force. vu = (Vu - fVp)/fbvdv, = Vu/fbvdv ; Since Vp = 0; (AASSHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9).Here, b) Vp is Component of Prestressing applied Forces. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component the value of Vp = 0 c) bv is Width of T-Girder Web = bX-Web. mm, d) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having the greater value of either of 0.9de or 0.72h in mm. Here, i) de is Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement for the Section in mm ii) h is Depth of T-Cross-Girder = hX-Gir mm, e) f is Resistance Factor for Shear = 0.90 (AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2). Vp Mpa

bv dv 0.9de 0.72h de h f

1.900 mm 0.90

f) Table for Computation of values of vu, de, bv, 0.9de , 0.72h & dv at different Section of Girder. Table-3 Values of vu, de, bv, 0.9de , 0.72h & dv at different Section of Girder.

Location of Section from Support Length of Segment from the Earlier Section Width of T-Girder Web

Depth of T-Girder

(bv)

mm 250.00

At Faces

mm 1.65

On Middle

0.83

250.00

(de)

mm 1830.00 mm 1647.00 mm 1.368

(dv)

mm 1647.00

(vu)

N/mm2 0.724 0.455

1830.00

1647.00

1.368

1647.00

g) Shearing Stress due to Applied Factored Shearing Forces at Different Sections of Girder : i) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at Support Position of Girder = Vu-Face/fbvdv N/mm2 vC-Face.

2 0.724 N/mm

Page 226

ii) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at Middle of Cross-Girder Span SpanMid. v 2 = Vu-Mid/fbvdv N/mm

2 0.455 N/mm

iii) Factored Shearing Resistance for a Section under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.1-(Equ-5.8.2.1-2) : a) The Factored Shear Resitance at any Section of Component is Expressed by the Equation-5.8.2.1-2. Having the value, Vr = fVn in which; b) Vr is the Factored Shear Resitance at a Section in N c) Vn is Nominal Shear Resitance in N according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3. d) f is Resistance Factor according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2. Vr. Vn. f 0.90 N N

iv) Computation of values of q & b to Calculate the Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Locations due to Factored Shear Forces under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.4 : a) The Nominal Shear Resistance Vn at any Section of Girder is the Lesser value Computed by the Equations i) Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-1) & ii) Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp, (Equ. 5.8.3.3-2) in which, b) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N having value = 0.083bf/cbvdv, (Equ. 5.8.3.3-1); c) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s (Equ. 5.8.3.3-3) in which, d) s is Spacing of Stirrups in mm; e) b a is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4;

0 f) q is Angle of Inclenation of Digonal Compressive Stress in ( ) as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4; 0 g) a is Angle of Inclenation of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement to Longitudinal Bars in ( ); AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4. 0 For Vertical Transverse/Shear Reinforcement the Angle of Inclenation, a = 90 a 90 0

h) Av is Area of Shear Reinforcement within a distance s in mm; i) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Vp = 0. Vp. N

v) Computation of Value b & q at different Locations of Girder as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4: a) Calculation of Longitudinal Strain in Web Reinforcement s in mm/mm on the Flexural Tension side of Girder with Equations ; b) ex = (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu -Vp)cotq - Apsfpo)/2(EsAs + EpAps); (Equ-5.8.3.4.2-1 for the Case with at Least the Min.Shear Reinforcement).

Page 227

c) ex = (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu -Vp)cotq - Apsfpo)/(EsAs + EpAps); (Equ-5.8.3.4.2-2 for the Case with Less then the Min.Shear Reinforcement); d) ex= (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu -Vp)cotq - Apsfpo)/(2(EsAs + EpAps); (Equ-5.8.3.4.2-3 for the Cases when value of es is (-) ve.in Equ.5.8.3.4.2-1& Equ.5.8.3.4.2-2). Where, e) Ac is Area of Concerte on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2 having value Ac = bX-Web* hX-Gir,/2 mm2 f) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2. For RCC Structure, the value of Aps = 0 g) As is Area of Non-Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder for the in mm2 under Consideration having respective values of Steel Area. i) On Faces of Main Girder Position value of Provided Steel Area in mm2 ii) At Midle of Cross-Girder the Provided Steel Area in mm2 h) fpo is a Parameter for Modulus of Elasticity of Prestressing Tendons which is multiplied by Locked-in differencein Strain between the Prestressing Tendons and Surrounding Concrete (Mpa). For the usal level of Prestressing, the value recommended = 0.7fpu for both Pretensioned & Post-tensioned Case. For Nonprestressed RCC Structural Component, the value of fpo = 0. i) Nu is Factored Axil Force in N, Value will be (+) ve for the case of Tensile & (-) for the case of Compressive due to Prestressing. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Nu = 0. j) Mu is Factored (+) ve Moment quantity of the Section in N-mm but not less then Vudv. k) Vu is Factored Shear Force (Only (+) ve values are applicable) for the Section in N. I) Table Showing the values of Mu, Vu, Computed value of Vudv & Effective value of Vudv. Table-4. Showing the values of M u, Vu, Computed value of Vudv & Effective value of M u-Eff Vudv.

Location of Section from Support Length of Segment from the Earlier Section Factored Moment for the Section. Factored Shear for the Section. Calculated value of Effective Shear Depth Calculated value of Effective Moment value

Ac

2 0.26 mm

Aps

mm2

2 1,256.637 mm 2 1,256.637 mm

MPa.

Nu

Vudv

MuEff

(Mu)

kN-m

72.156 174.887

mm At Faces

1.650 0.825

(Vu) kN

268.351 168.744

(dv)

mm

1647.000 1647.000

(Vudv)

kN

441.974 277.921

(MuEff)

kN-m

441.974 277.921

At Middle

vi) Value of vc/f/c (Ratio of Shearing Stress & Concrete Compressive Strength) at Different Section of Girder :

Page 228

/ / a) Value of vc/f c at Face Pisition of Main Girder = vc-Face/f c / / b) Value of vc/f c at Middle of Cross-Girder = vcMid./f c

vc-Face/f/c vcMid./f/c

0.034 0.022

vii) Values of esx1000 with at Least the Min. Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.5 & provisions of Equation 5.8.3.4.2-1 : a) Since for RCC Girder values of Prestressing Components Nu, Vp, Asp, fpo, Ep etc. are = 0, thus equation ex = (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu -Vp)cotq - Apsfpo)/2(EsAs + EpAps) stands to ex = (Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/2EsAs b) Considering the Initial value of ex = 0.001at Support Position & the Effective Moment Mu-Eff. From the Equation Cotq = (ex2EsAs - Mu/dv)/0.5Vu c) Having the value of cotq = 1.763, the values of exx1000 at Different Locations are ; d) At Faces of Main Girder Position = ((Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 d) At Middle of Cross-Girder Span = ((Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 ex-Face*1000 ex-MId*1000 1.000 0.629 cotq 1.746

j) Since both ae Faces & Mid of Cross-Girder Span values of es-x1000 > 0.75 1.00 , thus values of q & b for these Sections can obtain from Table -5.8.3.4.2-1 in respect of values of vc/f/c. viii) Computation of Values of q & b from AASHTO-LRFD'sTable -5.8.3.4.2-1. against the Respective Calculated values of esx1000, Ratio vc/f/c : a) Table for Values of q & b at Different Location of Girder. Location of Section From Referece Support of Table a) At Faces of Main Girder 5.8.3.4.2.-1 b) At Middle if Cross-Girder Span 5.8.3.4.2.-1 b) Value of Cotq at different Locaion of Girder : i) At Faces of Maingirder value of Cotq ii) At Middle of Cross-Girder Span value of Cotq Cotq Cotq 1.356 1.499 vc/f/c 0.034 0.022 exx1000 1.000 0.629 Value of q b 36.40 2.23 33.70 2.38

ix) Computation of Value for Nominal Shearing Strength of Concrete (Vc) using the Values of q & b : a) Since the Critical Section is at the Faces of Main Girder, thus Values of q & b of that Section are Governing Values for Computation of Nominal Shearing Strength of Concrete (Vc) for the Girder. b) Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete of Girder Vc = 0.083bf/cbvdv, AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3-(Equ. 5.8.3.3-1); Vc 33,608.966 kN 33608.966*10^3 N

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x) Regions Requiring Transverse or Shear/Web Reinforcements under AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.4 : a) The Transverse or Shear Reinforcements are required for those Sections where the Factored Shearing Force due to the Applied Loads (DL & LL), Vu > 0.5f (Vc + Vp); AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.4; Equ-5.8.2.4-1; Here, b) Vu is Factored Shearing Force due to the Applied Loads for the Selected Section in N, c) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance for the Section having value = 0.083bf/cbvdv according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3. Equation-5.8.3.3-4. d) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Vp = 0. Vp. N

e) b a is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4; f) f is Resistance Factor according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2. having value 0.90 g) Thus for Nonprestressing Structure the Eqution-5.8.2.4-1 Stands to Vu > 0.5Vc h) Table showing the values of b, Vu, Vc, 0.5Vc & Relation between Vu & 0.5Vc at Different Location of Girder. Location from Girder's Bearing Center.

a) At Support (Bearing Center) Position a) At a Distance 0.150m from Support

0.90

Values of

b

2.230 2.380

Vu N

268350.80 168743.750

Vc N

33,608.97 5,739.15

0.5fVc N

15124.035 2582.615

Vu>0.5Vc Vu>0.5Vc Satisfied Satisfied

i) The Table indicates that all the Sections of RCC Girder have satisfied the required provisions for Transverse/Shear Reinforcements under Equation Vu > 0.5f (Vc + Vp). AASHTO-LRFD-Equation-5.8.2.4-1. xi) Checking of Required Max. Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement due to Applied Shearing Stress on Girder under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.7 : a) Due to applied Shearing Stress, vu < 0.125f/c, the Max. Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section is smax.-1 = 0.8dv 600mm, (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.2.7-1). b) Due to applied Shearing Stress, vu > 0.125f/c, the Max. Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section is smax.-2 = 0.4dv 300mm (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.2.7-2) c) Value of 0.125f/c in respect of Max. Spacing of Transvers/Shear Reinforcement due to Applied Shearing Stress at Defferent Section of Girder. 0.125f/c

2 2.625 N/mm

d) Table Showing values of vu, 0.8dv, 0.4dv againest the respective values of 0.125f/c : Table- ; Showing Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements in respect of Max. Spacing & Status : Segment. Value of Value of Value of Relation Value of Value of Relation Relation

Formula

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Location dv (Between for the 2-Section) Section mm Section at 1647.00 Faces Section at 1,647.00 Middle

vu

Maximum

0.125f/c

between

vu & 0.125f/c

N/mm2

0.724 0.455

N/mm2 vu<=>0.125f/c

2.625 2.625 vu<0.1.25f/c vu<0.1.25f/c

1317.600 1317.600

658.800 658.800

0.8dv>600

Status

Whether Satisfy or Not Satisfy Not Satisfy

e) The Table indicates that non of the Sections of Cross-Girder have satisfied the required provisions for Spacings of the Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under Equations, For vu < 0.125f/c ; smax. = 0.8dv 600mm, (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.2.7-1). & For vu > 0.125f/c ; smax. = 0.4dv 300mm, (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ.5.8.2.7-2). xii) Chacking for Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements as Deep Beam Component (AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.1.1) : a) The Component in which a Load causing more than 1/2 of the Shear at a Distance closer than 2d from the Face of Support is Considered as a Deep Component. Deep Beam Components the Shear Reinforcements are being Provide according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.6.3 (Provisions of Strut-and-Tied Model) & AASHTO-LRFD-5.13.2.3. b) Factored Shear Force at Face of Main Girder, Vu-Face.= c) Value of 1/2 of Factored Shear Force at Face = 268.3508 kN. 134.18 kN 168.744 kN. Vu-Face. 1/2Vu-Face. Vu-Mid 268.351 kN 134.175 kN 168.744 kN

d) Factored Shear Force at Middle of Cros-Girder Vu-Mid = e) Status in between the values of 1/2Vu-Supp. & Vu-Mid

Vu-Mid >1/2Vu-Face.

f) Since the Distance 2d from Face of Main Girder is beyond the Cross-Girder Span & value of Shearing Force at Mid Span is greater than 1/2Vu-Face, thus the Cross-Girder can consider as a Deep Beam Component. Accordingly its Transverse/Shear Reinforcementsb can provide under Article 5.13.2.3. Of AASHTO-LRFD. xiii) Detaling of Requirments for Deep Beam Component to Provide Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements for Girder under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.13.2.3 : a) To provide Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements at Different Section of Girder, it should Satisfy the Equation, Ng = f fyAs 0.83bvs (AASHTO-LRFD-5.13.2.3). Here, b) Ng is Factored Tensial Resitance of Transverse Reinforcement (Each Pair) in N. c) bv is Width of Girder Web in mm. d) fy is Yield Strength of Reinforceing Steel as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement e) As is Steel Area of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in mm2 having Spacing s . f) s is Spacing of Transverse /Shear Reinforcement in mm. The value of s should not excide eithe of d/4 or 300mm Ng. bv. fy. AS s-Max N 250 mm 410.00 MPa mm2 300 mm

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g) The Vertical Spacing, sVetrt. for Crack Control Longitudinal Reinforcement on both Vertical Faces of Girder should not Excide either d/3 or 300 mm.

sVert.-Max

300 mm

xxi) Computation of Spacing for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at Different Section of Girder : a) Value of d/4 for the Section under cosideration having d = hGir. (Girder Depth). b) Allowable Max. Spacing for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement c) Let Provide 2-Leged 10f bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in the form of Vertical Stirrups. d) X-Sectional Area of 2-Leged 10f Bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement; = 2*pDStir.2/4 mm2 d) Let Provide the 175mm Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcements for total Length of Cross-Girder. d/4 s-Max DStir. 475 mm 300 mm 10 mm

Av

2 157.080 mm

s-X-Gir.

175 mm

xxi) Checking for Requirements of Minimum Transverse Reinforcements for Cross-Girder: a) Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section, Av 0.083f/c(bvs/fy), AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.5. Where, s is Length of Girder Segment under consideration for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement. b) Table for Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at Different Section of Girder.

Location from Bearing Center of Girder.

Total Length of Cross-Girder.

Length of Segment mm

1650.000

250.000

s-Web-Bar Spacing mm

175.000

40.587

Av-pro

Status of

157.080 Av-pro> Av

xxii) Computation of Values of Vs,the Shear Resistance against Provided Shear Reinforcement & Spacings at Different Sections according to Vs = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.3.3-3) : a) With Vertical Shear Reinforcement the value of a = 900 & the Equation Vs = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s stands to Vs = Avfydvcotq /s, b) At Faces of Main Girder Vs= Avfydv-Face.Cotq/sX-Gir. VS-Face 822.122 kN 822.122*10^3 N 908.840 kN 913.806*10^3 N

VSMid.

xxiii) Computation of values for Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Girder under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3 against Equation Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-2) : a) The Nominal Shear Resistanceat any Section of Girder is Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-1) b) For RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0, thus Equation stands to Vn-1 = Vc + Vs

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Vn-Vace-1

Vn-Mid-1

xxiv) Computation of values for Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Girder under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3 against Equation Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-2) : a) According to Equ. 5.8.3.3-1 the Nominal Shear Resistanceat any Section of Girder is Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp b) For RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0, thus Equation stands to Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv c) At Faces of Main Girderr Vn= 0.25f/c-bv-Facedv-Face. Vn-Face.-2 2,161.688 kN 2161.688*10^3 N 2,161.688 kN 2161.688*10^3 N

Vn-Mid-2

xxv) Accepted Nominal Shear Resistance-Vn & Factored Shearing Resistance-Vr at Different Section of Girder Computed accordting Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3 & AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.1 : a) Nominal Shear Resistance, Vn at any Section of Component is the Lesser value of of the Equqtions as mentioned below ; b) Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-1; AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3) c) Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-2; AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3) : d) For RCC Girder, Vp = 0. e) The Factored Shear Resitance at any Section of Component is Expressed by the Equation-5.8.2.1-2. Having the value, Vr = fVn in which; f) Vr is the Factored Shear Resitance at a Section in N g) f is Resistance Factor according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2. Vr. f 0.90 N

h) The Acceptable Nominal Shear Resistance, Vn, Respective Factored Shear Resitance-Vr at Different Section of T-Girder, the Staus between the vaues of Vn Computed under Equ. 5.8.3.3-1 & Equ. 5.8.3.3-2 are shown in Table below :. i) Table-; Accepted Nominal Shear Resistance-Vn & Factored Shear Resitance-Vr at Different Section :

Section Location from Center of Bearing. Calculated Factored Shear Force-Vu Vn-1 As per Equation. 5.8.3.3-1 Vn-2 As per Equ. 5.8.3.3-2 Relation between Values of Vn-1 & Vn-2 Accepted Value of Vn Factored Shear Resitance Relation between Values of Status If Vr > Vu, the Structure is Safe otherwise

Vr

Vr& VU

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kN 855.731 914.579

kN 2161.688 2161.688

kN 855.731 914.579

kN 770.16 823.12

xxx) Relation between Factored Shearing Force (Vu) & the Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Girder, Computed under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3 : a) The Relation between Factored Shearing Force, Vu & the Nominal Shear Resistance Vn at Different Section of Girder are shown in the Table blow : Table-; Showing between Factored Shearing Force, Vu & the Nominal Shear Resistance Vn : Location of Section from Bearing

Center of Girder.

kN 268.351 168.744 kN 855.731 914.579 Vu & Vn

Vu< Vn Vu< Vn

b) Since the Factored Shearing Forces Vu < Vn < Vr, the Computed Nominal Shear Resistance, thus the Girder is Safe in respect of Applied Shearing Forces caused by Dead Load & Live Loads to the Bridge Structure. xxxi) Checking of T-Girder Web Width (bWeb) in respect of Nominal Shearing Resistance (Vn) at Critical Section : a) Against Applied Loads (DL & LL) the Critical Section for Shearing Forces Prevails at the Face of Support, which is at a Distance 0.150m from Girder's Bearing Center (AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.2). b) Calculated Nominal Shearing Resistance for Girder on Face of Main Girder, Vn = 860.408*10^3 N. c) Provided Girder Width (Web Width of T-Girder) = bX-Web mm. e) In RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0, thus according to Equ. 5.8.3.3-2, the Width of cross-Girder, bv = Vn/0.25*f/cdv, where dv is Calculated Effective Shear Depth for the Critical Section. Vn 855.731 kN 855.731*10^3 N 250 mm 105.771 mm

bX-Web bv-Cal.

f) Since the Calculated value of Girder width bv-Cal = bv the Provided Girder Width, thus Design Critical Section is OK. xxxii) Checking in respect of Longitudinal Reinforcements (Tensile Reinforcements) Provided for Girder under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.5 : a) At each Section the Tensial Capacity of Longitudinal Reinforcement on Flexural Tension side of the Member shall be proportationed to Satisfy Equation, Asfy + Apsfps Mu/dvff + 0.5Nu/fc + (Vu/fv - 0.5Vs -Vp)Cotq. (Equ-5.8.3.5-1). Where; b) As is Area of Nonprestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2 c) fy is Yield Strength of Nonprestressing Reinforceing Steel in MPa. As fy Variable mm2

410.00 MPa

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d) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure, the value of Aps = 0 e) fps is Yield Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure, the value of fps = 0 f) Mu is Factored Moment of the Section due to Dead & Live Loads Loads on Structure. in N-mm but not less then Vudv. g) Nu is Factored Axil Force in N, Value will be (+) ve for the case of Tensile & (-) for the case of Compressive due to Prestressing. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Nu = 0. h) dv is Effective Shear Depth of Tensil Reinforcement for the Section in mm. i) Vu is Factored Shear Force for the Section in N. j) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N for the Section. k) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Vp = 0.

0 l) q is Angle of Inclenation of Digonal Compressive Stress in ( ) according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4;

Aps

mm2

fps

MPa

Mu

Variable

N-mm

Nu

dv Vu Vs Vp.

mm N N N

Variable

m) ff is Resistance Factor for Flexural Tension of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2. n) fv is Resistance Factor for Shearing Force of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2, o) fc is Resistance Factor for Compression due to Prestressing according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2.

ff

0.90

fv

0.90

fc

1.00

p) Since for Nonprestressing RCC Structural Components the Items Aps, fps, Nu & Vp have Values = 0, thus mentioned Equ-5.8.3.5-1. Stands to, Asfy Mu/dvff + (Vu/fv - 0.5Vs)Cotq. q) Table- Showing Evalution of Equation-5.8.3.5-1 at Different Section of Girder & Status of Results.

Location of Section

from Bearing Center of Girder.

Tensile Steel Area mm2

1256.637 1256.637

As.

Moment kN-mm

441.974 277.921

Calculted Calculted Status Value of R/H Part of the Shearing Resistance Asfy of the Equation Force of Stirrups (L/H Part) Equation Satisfied kN kN kN kN Not Satisfied

268.351 822.1224362 168.744 908.8400011 515.221 515.221 88.390 (248.371)

Vs Shearing

Satisfied Satisfied

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j) Since at all Section the requirments of Equation are being Satisfied, thus provision of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements for Girder is OK. xxxiii) Checking for Factored Tensile Resistance of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements Provided for Girder: a) The provided Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements at Different Section of Girder under the Provision of Deep Beam should Satisfy the Equation, Ng = f fyAs 0.83bvs (AASHTO-LRFD-5.13.2.3; Equ-5.13.2.3-1). Here, b) Ng is Factored Tensial Resitance of Transverse Reinforcement (Each Pair) in N. c) bv is Width of Girder Web in mm. d) fy is Yield Strength of Reinforceing Steel as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement Ng. bv. fy. Variable N

2 157.080 mm

e) As is Steel Area of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in mm2 having the Spacing AS s mm. Here As = Av, the X-Sectional Area of 2-Leged the 10f Dia. Vertical Stirrups. f) s is Spacing of Transverse /Shear Reinforcement in mm. The value s should not Excide eithe d/4 or 300mm s

Variable

mm

g) The Girders are being provided with Transverse/Shear Reinforcements in the form of Vertical Stirrups against Shear Forces caused by the Dead Load & Live Loads applied to the Bridge Structure. Due to Vertical Positioning of those Transverse/Shear Reinforcements they will also under Tensile Stress caused by the same Shearing Forces whose actions are in some extent in Vertical Direction. On these back drop mentioned Shearing Forces at different Section of Girder may be considered as Tensile Forces for Vertical Stirrups. Thus the Factored Shearing Forces at Each Section, Vu = Ng, the Factored Tensile Resistance Carried by the Pair of Transverse Reinforcement. h) The Checking for Factored Tensile Resistance of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements at Different Section of Girder are shown in the under mention Table: i) Table- Showing Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at Different Section of Cross-Girder. Location of Section from Bearing

Center of Girder. s'-Spacing As of Shear Provided Bars Steel Area mm2 mm 175.000 157.080 175.000 157.080

57962.384 57962.384

Status of

j) Since in all Section the requirments of Equation Equ-5.13.2.3-1, Ng = ffyAs > 0.83bvs are being Satisfyed, thus Provision of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements for Cross-Girders are OK. 11 Design of Bridge Girder & Cross-Girder against Earthquake Forces including Checking: i) According to AASHTO-LRFD-4.7.4.2 for Single-Span Bridges no Seismic analysis is required regardless of Location Seismic Zone. ii) In Single-Span Bridges the Connections between Superstructure & Substructure on Abutment Cap/Seat

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& Bridge Bearings should be Designed according to provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-3.10.9 & 4.7.4.4. iii) Design of Abutment Cap/Seat & Bridge Bearings are being done in Respective Design Sheets.

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isfied

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Satisfy

Satisfy

Satisfy

Satisfy

Satisfy

Satisfy

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below :.

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Satisfy

Satisfy

Satisfy

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I. Service Limit State Design (WSD) of Main Girder & Cross Girders Against Applied Forces :

1 Data for Flexural Design : Description i) Dimensional Data of Superstructure : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) Span Length (Clear C/C distance between Bearings) Addl.Length of Girder beyond Bearing Center Line. Total Girder Length (a+2b) Thickness of Deck Slab Thickness of Wearing Course Number of Main Girders Number of Cross Girders Depth of Main Girders (Including Slab as T-Girder) Depth of Cross Girders (Excluding Slab) Width of Main Girders Width of Cross Girders C/C Distance Between Main Girders Distance of Slab Outer Edge to Exterior Girder Center Clear Distance Between Main Interior Girders Filets : i) Main Girder in Vertical Direction ii) Main Girder in Horizontal Direction iii) X-Girder in Vertical Direction vi) X-Girder in Horizontal Direction SL SAddl. LGir. hSlab. hWC NGir. NX-Gir. hGir. hX-Gir. bGir. bX-Gir. C/CD-Gir. CD-Ext.-Gir-Edg. ClD-Int.-Gir. FM-Girder-V. FM-Girder-H. FX-Girder-V. FX-Girder-H. 24.40 0.30 25.00 0.20 0.08 5 5 2.00 1.70 0.35 0.25 2.00 1.13 1.65 0.15 0.15 0.08 0.075 m m m m m nos nos m m m m m m m m m m m Notation Dimensions Unit.

ii) Design Data related to Live Loading: a) Design Criterion : AASHTO Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). b) Type of Loads : Combined Application of AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading & Lane Loading. iii) Design AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Axle to Axle distance Wheel to Wheel distance Rear Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Rear Single Wheel Load Middle Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Middle Single Wheel Load Front Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Front Single Wheel Load DAxel. DWheel. LLRW-Load LLRS-Load LLMW-Load LLMS-Load LLFW-Load LLFS-Load 1.80 4.30 145.00 72.50 145.00 72.50 35.00 17.50 m m kN kN kN kN kN kN

iv) Design AASHTO Lane Loading : a) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of LL-Lane 9.30 N/mm

9.300N/mm through the Length of Gridge for Single and acting over a 3.000m Wide Strip in Transverse Direction. v) Design AASHTO Pedestrian Loading : a) Design Pedestrian Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 3.600*10-3MPa through the Length of Sidewalk on both side and acting over the total Wide of Sidewalk.

3 vi) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration, g =

9.30

kN/m

LL-Pedest

2 9.807 m/sec )

Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt)

3 vii) Unit Weight of Materials in kN/m Related to Design Forces :

a) b) c) d) e)

viii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTO-LRFD-2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength, f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, Ec = 0.043gc1.50f/c (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.4). c) Poisson's Ration = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2), subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.5). d) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete, fr = 0.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). e) Steel Ultimate strength, fy (60 Grade Steel) f) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement, Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.00 MPa 8.40 MPa 23,855.62 MPa 2.89 fr fy ES 2.89 MPa 410.00 MPa 200000 MPa

ix) Strength Data related to Working Stress Design (WSD) under Service Limit State ( SLS ) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.1: a) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40f/c fc 8.40 MPa b) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40fy fs 164.00 MPa c) Modular Ratio, n = Es/Ec 6 n 8 d) Value of Ratio of Steel & Concrete Flexural Strength, r = fs/fc r 20 e) Value of k = n/(n + r) k 0.30

f) Value of j = 1 - k/3 g) Value of R = 0.5*(fckj) x) Design Data for Site Conditions : a) Velocity of Wind Load in Normal Condition b) Velocity of Wind Load in Cyclonic Storm Condition c) Velocity of Water/Stream Current Causing Water/Stream Load 2 Design Phenomena & Calculations for Monent & Shear : i) Design Phenomena under Service Limit State (WSD) :

j R

0.90 1.14

a) The Flexural of Girders will be according to AASHTO LRFD or Ultimate Strength Design (USD) Procedures but for Checking in respective Issues, Designing under Service Limit State (WSD) up to Certain Level would be done. b) Since the Interior Girders of the Bridge have the Max. Moments & Shearing Forces caused by Applied Loads (DL & LL), thus it is require to conduct the Flexural Design for Reinforcements of Bridge Girders Based on Calculated respective Moments & Shears. Since the Bridge Deck Slab is integral Part of Girders, thus the Design of Girders will be under T-Beam if the Provisions in these Respect Satisfy, otherwise Designee will be under Provisions for the Rectangular Beam. ii) Calculation of Flange Width for Girders : a) Cross Sectional Sketch Diagram of Bridge Girders & Dack Slab :

1.475 0.23 7.30 1.25 0.30 1.070 0.300 0.200 0.950 0.25 1.65 1.650 1.65 1.650 0.95

1.13

2.00

2.000

2.00

2.000

1.125

CL 10.25 b) Calculation of Effective Flange Width of T-Girder under AASHTO LRFD-4.6.2.6 (4.6.2.6.1) as least Dinention of : * One-quarter of Effective Span Length = 1/4*SL * 12.0 times average Depth of Slab + Greater Thickness of Web = 12*hSlab + WGir. = * One-half the Width of Girder Top Flange (It is not req. as there is no Addl. Top Flange) * The average Spacing of Adjacent Beams/Girders = C/CD-Gir. Since Average Spacing of Adjacent Beams/Girders is the Least one, = 6.10 m 2.75 m 2m

bFlan.

2.00 m

c) From Load, Shear & Moment Calcutation Tables it appares that, the Interior Girders are facing the Max. Resultant Forces (DL & LL) causing Max. Shears & Moments, thus One of Interior Girders is considered for as Typical one for Flexural Design in respect of All Applied Loads (DL + LL) and Corresponding Moments & Shears. iii) Calculations for Monent at Different Location of Girder : a) Table for Max. Moments at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to Factored DL, Lane-LL & Wheel-LL : Table-1. Sum. of Max. Moments Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder. Locations from Support-A Loading Type Unit a. Dead Load (FDLInt) b. Lane Live Load (FLLInt) c. Wheel Live Load (WLLInt) Total Moments on Each Point

On Support

kN-m

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.375m kN-m

142.152 28.627 79.345 119.500

L/8 kN-m

1039.048 207.537 563.836 1810.421

L/4 kN-m

1811.021 357.399 941.813 3110.232

3L/8 kN-m

2263.908 449.585 1133.930 3847.423

c.g. kN-m

2442.182 483.808 1201.915 4127.905

L/2 kN-m

2449.720 484.096 1140.188 4074.004

b) Moment at Sopport Position of Girder c) Moment at a Distance 0.150m from Sopport of Girder d) Moment at a Distance L/8 from Sopport of Girder e) Moment at a Distance L/4 from Sopport of Girder f) Moment at a Distance 3L/8 from Sopport of Girder g) Moment at Absolute Max. Moment Loaction (c.g. Position) of Girder h) Moment at a Distance L/2 (Middle of Span) from Sopport of Girder i) Sketch Diagram of T-Beam/Girder : bFln. 2.000 hFln. = 0.200 d= 1.826 hGir. =

0 kN-m 119.500 kN-m 1,810.421 kN-m 3,110.232 kN-m 3,847.423 kN-m 4,127.905 kN-m 4,074.004 kN-m

2.000

bWeb = 0.350 iv) Factored Flexural Resistance for Prestressed or RCC Structural Components (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.1): a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; Mr N-mm

i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor for Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.

Mn f

N-mm

b) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component either of I or T Section having Flenge & Web Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) + 0.85f/c(b-bw)b1hf(a/2-hf/2) c) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component of Rectangular Elements having Singly Reinforced, , at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(de-a/2) v) Related Features for Working Stressed Design of Main Girder with Max, Moment value (At c.g. Position) : a) The Absolute Max. Moments on Interior Girder is at c.g. Point. Since it is very close to Middle Position of Span having value MMex. = 4,127.905 kN-m, thus this value is Considerd as the Moment at Middle Position of Span. b) Let the Clear Cover at Bottom Surface of Girder, C-Cov.Bot. = 50mm, Let the Clear Cover at Top of Girder, C-Cov.Top = 50mm, Let the Clear Cover at Vertical Faces of Girder, C-Cov.Vert.. =38mm, c) Let the Main Reinforcements are 32f Bars in 4 Layers,

2 2 d) X-Sectional Area of Main Reinforcements Af = p*DBar /4mm

MMax.

50 mm 50 mm 38 mm 32 mm

2 804.25 mm

e) The Vertical Spacing between Reinforcement Bars, SVer. = 32 mm f) Let the Transverse/Shear Reinforcements (Stirrups) are of 12f Bars, g) Thus Effective Depth of Reinforcements from Top of Girder up to Center of the Provided Reinforcements d = (hGir - C-Cov-Bot - DStri -2*DBar- 1.50*SVer.) h) Flange Width of T-Girder, b = 2.000 m i) Thickness of T-Girder Flange, hf = 200mm j) According to WSD Method the Balanced-Stress Steel Ratio for Girder Section pe = n/2r(n + r)

32 mm 12 mm 1,826.00 mm

b hf pe.

vi) Checking's Whether the Bridge Girder would Designed as T-Beam or Rectangular Beam Provisions : a) According to Working Stressed Design Provisions a Rectangular having Flange with Reasonable Thickness on its Top should be Designed as T-Beam if Depth of Netural Axis 'kd' is Less than the Flange Thickness. b) Let Consider the T-Girder will behave as Rectangular Beam for which the Total Flange Width-'b' will be the Width of Rectangular Beam. c) According to WSD Provisions the depth of Neutral Axis from Compressiof Face kd 548.552 mm

is Expressed by kd.

hf<kd

T-Beam Provision

d) Since the Calculated Depth Neutral Axis kd < hf, Thickness of Flange, thus in Working Stressed Design (WSD) the Provisions for T-Beam will prevail. vii) Design of Tensile Reinforcements for Intermediate Girders against Calculated Moments : a) Under WSD for T-Girder the Required Flexural Steel Area, As = M/fs(d-hf/2) b) Number of 32f Bars required as Main Reinforcement of T-Girder, NBar-req = As-req./Af-32 c) Let Provide 18 nos. 32f Bars as Main Reinforcement for the T-Girder on ite Mid Span (L/2) since under USD the Provided number of Bars for the Section is 17 nos. 32f Bars. d) Effective Depth of Reinforcements is Same as that of USD Design. As-req. NBar-req

2 14,582.938 mm

18.132 nos.

NBar-pro

18.000 nos.

de

1,808.222 mm

1 Sketch Diagram of Back Wall:

300 700

4047

600

2147

450

300

m tW-Wall =

400

150

0.450

2 Structural Data : Description i) Dimentions of Abutment Cap & Back Wall : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) Height of Back Wall Thickness of Back Wall Thickness of Wing Wall Length of Back Wall between the Wing Walls Length of Abutment Cap between outer Faces of Wing Walls Height of Abutment Cap Rectangular Portion (Abutment Seat) Height of Abutment Cap Trapezoid Portion (Abutment Seat) Width of Abutment Cap Rectangular Portion (Abutment Seat) Width of Abutment Cap Trapezoid Portion at Bottom(Abutment Seat) Offset of Trapezoid Portion on Earth Face Offset of Trapezoid Portion on Water Face

Notation.

Value.

600

2147

350

350

hB-Wall =

2.147

Unit.

hBack-Wall tBack-Wall tWing-Wall LBack-Wall LAb-Cap hAb-Cap-Rec hAb-Cap-Tro. bAb-Cap-Rec bAb-Cap-Tro-Bot. bOffset-Earth. bOffset-Water.

2.147 0.300 0.450 9.350 10.250 0.600 0.300 1.000 0.450 0.400 0.150

m m m m m m m m m m m

3 Design Criterion, Type of Loading & Design Related Data : i) Design Criterion : a) AASHTO Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). b) Type of Loads : Combined Application of AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading & Lane Loading.

3 ii) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration, g =

2 9.807 m/sec )

a) b) c) d) e)

a) b) c) d) e)

iv) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTO-LRFD-2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength, f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, Ec = 0.043gc1.50f/c = 0.043*24^(1.50)*21^(1/2) Mpa, (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.4). d) Poisson's Ration = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2), subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.5). e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete, fr = 0.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). f) Steel Ultimate strength, fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement, Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.000 MPa 8.400 MPa 23855.620 MPa 2.887 fr fy fs ES 2.887 MPa

v) Design Data for Resistance Factors for Conventional Construction (AASHTO LRFD-5.5.4.2.1). : (Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f or b value) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete For Axil Comression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme Limit State (Zone 3 & 4). For Bearing on Concrete For Compression in Strut-and-Tie Modeis For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones For resistance during Pile Driving Value of b1 for Flexural Compression in Reinforced Concrete (AASHTO LRFD-5.7.2..2.) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete fFlx-Rin. fFlx-Pres. fShear. fSpir/Tie/Seim. fBearig. fStrut&Tie. fAnc-Copm-Conc. fAnc-Ten-Steel. fPile-Resistanc. b1 b 0.900 1.000 0.900 0.750 0.700 0.700 0.800 1.000 1.000 0.850 0.850

a) Velocity of Wind Load in Normal Condition b) Velocity of Wind Load in Special Condition c) Velocity of Water/Stream Current Causing Water/Stream Load 4 Factors Applicable for Design of Different Structural Components : i) Formula for Load Factors & Selection of Load Combination :

a) Formula for Load Factors Q = igiQi f Rn = Rr; (ASSHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-1 & 3.4.1-1) Where, i is Load Modifier having values i = D R I 0.95 in which for Loads a Maximum value of gi Applicable; (ASSHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-2), & i = 1/(D R I ) 1.00 in which for Loads a Minimum value of gi Allpicable; (ASSHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-3) Here: gi = Load Factor; a statistically based multiplier Applied to Force Effect, f = Resistance Factor; a statistically based multiplier Applied to Nominal Resitance, i = Load Modifier; a Factor related to Ductility, Redundancy and Operational Functions, For Strength Limit State; D i = D = 1.00 for Conventional Design related to Ductility, 1.000 R i = R = 1.00 for Conventional Levels of Redundancy , 1.000 i = I = 1.00 for Typical Bridges related to Operational Functions, Qi = Force Effect, Rn = Nominal Resitance, Ri = Factored Resitance = fRn. ii) Selection of Load Multiplying Fatcors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : a) The Bridge will have to face Cyclonic Storms with very high Intensity of Wind Load (Wind Velocity = 260km/hr), but those would be occasional. Thus the respective Multiplier Factors of Limit State STRENGTH I (Bridge used by Normal Vehicle without wind load) for normal operation, Limit State of STRENGTH-III (Wind Velocity exceeding 90km/hr) for wind load during cyclonic storm condition and Limit State of STRENGTH-IV (Having Wind Velocity of 90 km/hr) for normal wind load only are selected as CRITICAL conditions for bridge structure. iii) Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.250 l 1.000

gDW

1.500

gEH

1.500

d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2)

gEV

1.350

gES

1.500

iv) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load Allowence-IM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). STRENGTH - III STRENGTH - V m 1.000

gLL-Truck IM

1.750 1.330

gLL-Lane gLL-PL. gLL-CE. gLL-BR. gLL-LS. gLL-WA. gLL-WS. gLL-WL gLL-FR. gLL-TU.

1.750 1.750 1.750 1.750 1.750 1.000 1.400 1.000 1.000 1.000

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

gLL-TG.

1.000

p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

5 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD-3.4.1 ; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.000

gDW

1.000

gEH

1.000

gEV

1.000

gES

1.000

ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (AASHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load Allowance-IM as per Provision of AASHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; SERVICE - I (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE SERVICE - II m 1.000

gLL-Truck IM

1.000 1.000

g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR

SERVICE - II

SERVICE - IV SERVICE - II

l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV 6 Load Coefficients Factors & Intensity of Different Imposed Loads : i) Coefficient for Lateral Earth Pressure (EH) : a) Coefficient of Active Horizontal Earth Pressure, ko = (1-sinff ) ,Where; f is Effective Friction Angle of Soil b) For Back Filling with Clean fine sand, Silty or clayey fine to medium sand Effective Friction Angle of Soil, f = 340 .(Table 12.9, Page-138, RAINA,s Book) c) Angle of Friction with Concrete surface & Soli AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1. d) Value of Tan d (dim) for Coefficient of Friction.

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

gLL-TG.

1.000

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

ko

0.441

34.000

19 to 24

tan d

0.34 to 0.45

dim

= 0.34 to 0.45 (AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1.) ii) Dead Load Surcharge Lateral/Horizontal Pressure Intensity (ES); AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.1. : a) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Uniform Surcharge, Dp-ES = ksqs in Mpa. Where; b) ks is Coefficien of Earth Pressure due to Surcharge = ko for Active Earth Pressure, c) qs is Uniform Surcharge applied to upper surface of Active Earth Wedge(Mpa) = wE*10-3N/mm2 Dp-ES

2 7.935 kN/m 2 0.007935 N/mm

ks wE*10-3

0.441

2 0.018000 N/mm 2 18.000 kN/m

iii) Live Load Surcharge Vertical & Horizontal Pressure Intensity (LS); AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4. : a) Constant Earth Pressur both Vertical & Horizontal for Live Load Surcharge on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic), Where; Dp-LS = kgsgheq*10-9 Dp-LL-Ab<6.00m Dp-LL-Ab6.00m 0.007141 7.141 0.004761 4.761 0.0083309 8.331 0.00476052 4.761 0.441

3 1,835.424 kg/m 2 9.807 m/sec

b) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Live Load Surcharge for Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic), Where; Dp-LS = kgsgheq*10-9 ,

Dp-LL-WW<6.00m Dp-LL-WW6.00m

c) ks is Coefficien of Latreal Earth Pressure = ko for Active Earth Pressure. d) gs is Unit Weight of Soil (kg/m3)

2 e) g is Gravitational Acceleration (m/sec ), AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.1.2.

k gs g heq-Ab<6.00m. heq-Ab6.00m.

f) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm). Having, H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm ; AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4; Table-3.11.6.4-1. g) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Abutment having H < 6000mm.& H 6000mm. AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4; Table-3.11.6.4-1.

900.000 mm 600.000 mm

Weq-Ab<6.00m. Weq-Ab6.00m.

mm m mm m

h) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm). Having, H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm ; AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4; Table-3.11.6.4-2. i) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Wing Walls, Having H < 6000mm.& H 6000mm.

heq-WW<6.00m. heq-WW6.00m.

1,050.000 mm 600.000 mm

Weq-WW<6.00m. Weq-WW6.00m.

mm m mm m

7 Philosophy in Flexural Design of Back Walls of Bridge Structure : a) The Back Wall of Bridge Substructure will have to face Horizontal Dead Load (DL) & Live Load (LL) Pressures due to Earth & Surcharge on Back Faces. Under Horizontal Pressure (DL & LL) the Back Wall will behave as a Cantilever one. In Construction Phenomenon execution Back Wall works are to be done a well ahead before the Construction of Super structural Components having the total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) upon it. Thus to ensure the sustainability of Back Wall against the affect of Horizontal Loads & Forces (DL & LL) it should be Designed as a Cantilever Flexural Component. b) For the Design purpose & Calculation of Imposed Loads (DL & LL), Shearing Forces & Moments for Back Wall it is considered having 1.000m Length & Wide Strips according to sequences of Design. LH&V 1.000 m

8 Computation of Horizontal Loads on Back Wall due to Lateral Soil & Surcharge Pressure : i) Horizontal Loads at Bottom Level of Back Wall on 1 (One) meter Strip : a) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = k0*wE*hBack-Wall b) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL) on Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = Dp-ES.LH&V c) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live Load (LL) on Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic) having hBack-Wall < 6.000m. = Dp-LL-Ab.LH&V PDL-H-Soil-Bot.

2 17.035 kN/m /m

PDL-H-Sur

2 7.935 kN/m /m

PLL-H-Sur

2 7.141 kN/m /m

ii) Factored Horizontal Loads on Back Wall for 1 (One) meter Wide Strip (Strength Limit State-USD): a) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead FPDL-H-Soil-Bot.-USD Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = gEH*PDL-H-Soil-Bot b) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL) on Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = gES*PDL-H-Sur c) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live Load (LL) on Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = mgLL-LS*PLL-H-Sur-Ab d) Total Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to All Applied Loads (DL & LL) at Bottom Level of Abutment (Perpendicular to Traffic). FPDL-H-Sur-USD

2 25.553 kN/m /m

2 11.902 kN/m /m

FPLL-H-Sur-USD

2 12.496 kN/m /m

FPH-B-Wall-USD

2 49.951 kN/m /m

iii) Factored Horizontal Loads on Back Wall for 1 (One) meter Wide Strip (Service Limit State-WSD): a) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead FPDL-H-Soil-Bot-WSD Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = gEH*PDL-H-Soil-Bot b) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL) on Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = gES*PDL-H-Sur FPDL-H-Sur-WSD

2 17.035 kN/m /m

2 7.935 kN/m /m

c) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live Load (LL) on Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = mgLL-LS*PLL-H-Sur-Ab d) Total Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to All Applied Loads (DL & LL) at Bottom Level of Abutment (Perpendicular to Traffic). 9 Computation of Coefficients for Calculation of Moments on Back Walls : i) Span Ratio of Back Walls in respect of of Horizontal to Vertical Spans : a) Horizontal Span Length of Back Wall (Inner Distance) b) Vertical Height of Back Wall (From Back Wall Top upto Abutment Cap Top) c) Bach Wall Span Ratio for of Horizontal to Vertical with Unsupported on Top = LBack-Wall/hBack-Wall d) Bach Wall Span Ratio for of Vertical to Horizontal with Unsupported on Top = hBack-Wall/LBack-Wall

FPLL-H-Sur-WSD

2 7.141 kN/m /m

FPH-B-Wall-WSD

2 32.111 kN/m /m

kUnsupp.-V/H

0.230

ii) Coefficients for Calculation of Moments related to Triangular Loadings on Back Walls : (Using Table-53 of Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook UK.) a) Since k = 4.355 > 3.00, thus let k = 3.000 b) (+) ve Moment Coefficient of Back Wall for Vertical Span. c) (+) ve Moment Coefficient of Back Wall for Horizontal Span Strip. d) (-) ve Moment Coefficient of Back Wall for Vertical Span Strip on Bottom Surface at Middle Position under Triangular Loading at Bottom e) (-) ve Moment Coefficient of Back Wall for Horizontal Span Strip on Faces of Sides. k (+)cS-V-BW-T (+)cS-H-BW-T (-)cS-V-BW-T 3.000 0.000 0.000 0.003

(-)cS-H-WW-T

0.000

iii) Coefficients for Calculation of Moments related to Uniformly Loadings on Back Wall : (Using Table-4.2; 4.3 & 4.4 of Book Design of Concrete Structures- G.Winter) a) Since k = 0.230 , thus let Consider k = 0.500 a) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load (DL) on Back Wall Vertical Span Strip. b) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load (DL) on Back Wall Horizontal Span Strip. c) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Live Load (LL) on Back Wall Vertical Span k (+)cS-V-BW-U-DL 0.500 0.056

(+)cS-H-BW-U-DL

0.004

(+)cS-V-BW-U-LL

0.076

Strip. d) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Live Load (LL) on Back Wall Horizontal Span Strip. e) (-) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load & Live Load (DL + LL) on Back Wall Vertical Span Strip f) (-) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load & Live Load (DL + LL) on Back Wall Horizontal Span Strip (+)cS-H-BW-U-LL 0.005

(-)cS-V-BW-U-DL+LL

0.089

(-)cS-H-BW-U-DL+LL

0.010

10 Factored Moments due to Horizontal Loads on Back Walls Under Strength Limit State (USD): i) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Back Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-V-BW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Bot-USD*hBack-Wall2 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-V-BW-U-DL*FPDL-H-Sur-USD*hBack-Wall2 c) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cS-V-BW-U-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-USD*hBack-Wall2 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MS-V-BW-T-USD kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-BW-Sur-DL-USD

3.072 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-BW-Sur-LL-USD

4.378 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-BW-USD

7.450 kN-m/m

ii) Calculation of Factored (-) ve Moments on Back Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-V-BW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Bot.-USD*hBack-Wall2 b) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-V-BW-U-DL+LL*FPDL-H-Sur-USD*hBack-Wall2 c) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (-)cS-V-BW-U-DL+-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-USD*hBack-Wall2 d) Total (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads (-)MS-V-BW-T-USD 0.294 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-BW-Sur-DL-USD

4.883 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-BW-Sur-LL-USD

5.127 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-BW-USD

10.304 kN-m/m

iii) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Back Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-H-BW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Bot-USD*LBack-Wall2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-H-BW-U-DL*FPDL-H-Sur-USD*LBack-Wall2 (+)MS-H-BW-T-USD kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-BW-Sur-DL-USD

4.162 kN-m/m

c) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cS-H-BW-U-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-USD*LBack-Wall2 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads

(+)MS-H-BW-Sur-LL-USD

4.370 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-BW-USD

8.532 kN-m/m

iv) Calculation of Factored (-) ve Moments on Back Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-H-BW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Bot-USD*LBack-Wall2 b) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-H-BW-U-DL+LL*FPDL-H-Sur-USD*LBack-Wall2 c) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (-)cS-H-BW-U-DL-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-USD*LBack-Wall2 d) Total (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads (-)MS-H-BW-T-USD kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-BW-Sur-DL-USD

10.405 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-BW-Sur-LL-USD

10.925 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-BW-USD

21.329 kN-m/m

11 Factored Moments due to Horizontal Loads on Back Walls Under Service Limit State (WSD): i) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Back Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-V-BW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Bot-WSD*hBack-Wall2 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-V-BW-U-DL*FPDL-H-Sur-WSD*hBack-Wall2 c) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cS-V-BW-U-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-WSD*hBack-Wall2 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MS-V-BW-T-WSD kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-BW-Sur-DL-WSD

2.048 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-BW-Sur-LL-WSD

2.502 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-BW-WSD

4.550 kN-m/m

ii) Calculation of Factored (-) ve Moments on Back Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-V-BW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Bot.-WSD*hBack-Wall2 b) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-V-BW-U-DL+LL*FPDL-H-Sur-WSD*hBack-Wall2 c) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (-)cS-V-BW-U-DL+-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-WSD*hBack-Wall2 d) Total (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads (-)MS-V-BW-T-WSD 0.196 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-BW-Sur-DL-WSD

3.255 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-BW-Sur-LL-WSD

2.930 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-BW-WSD

6.381 kN-m/m

iii) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Back Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients :

a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-H-BW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Bot-WSD*LBack-Wall2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-H-BW-U-DL*FPDL-H-Sur-WSD*LBack-Wall2 c) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cS-H-BW-U-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-WSD*LBack-Wall2 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads

(+)MS-H-BW-T-WSD

kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-BW-Sur-DL-WSD

2.775 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-BW-Sur-LL-WSD

2.497 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-BW-WSD

5.272 kN-m/m

iv) Calculation of Factored (-) ve Moments on Back Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-H-BW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Bot-WSD*LBack-Wall2 b) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-H-BW-U-DL+LL*FPDL-H-Sur-USD*LBack-Wall2 c) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (-)cS-H-BW-U-DL-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-WSD*LBack-Wall2 d) Total (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads (-)MS-H-BW-T-WSD kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-BW-Sur-DL-WSD

6.937 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-BW-Sur-LL-WSD

6.243 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-BW-WSD

13.179 kN-m/m

11 Calculation of Unfactored Moments due to Horizontal Dead Loads on Back Walls : i) Calculation of (+) ve Moments on Back Wall in Vertical Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-V-BW-T*PDL-H-Soil-Bot*hBack-Wall2 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-V-BW-U-DL*PDL-H-Sur-Bot.*hBack-Wall2 c) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads (+)MS-V-BW-T-UF kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-BW-Sur-DL-UF

2.048 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-BW-UF

2.048 kN-m/m

ii) Calculation of (-) ve Moments on Back-Wall in Vertical Span due to Unfactored dead Loads : a) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-V-BW-T*PDL-H-Soil-Bot*hBack-Wall2 b) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-V-BW-U-DL+LL*PDL-H-Sur-BW*hBack-Wall2 c) Total (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads (-)MS-V-BW-T-UF 0.196 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-BW-Sur-DL-UF

3.255 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-BW-UF

3.451 kN-m/m

iii) Calculation of (+) ve Moments on Back-Wall in Horizontal Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-H-BW-T*PDL-H-Soil-Bot.*LBack-Wall2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-H-BW-U-DL*PDL-H-Sur-BW*LBack-Wall2 c) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads (+)MS-H-BW-T-UF kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-Ab-Sur-DL-UF

2.775 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-BW-UF

2.775 kN-m/m

iv) Calculation of (-) ve Moments on Back-Wall in Horizontal Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-H-BW-T*PDL-H-Soil-Bot*LBack-Wall2 b) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-H-BW-U-DL+LL*PDL-H-Sur-BW*LBack-Wall2 c) Total (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads 12 Computation of Factored Horizontal Shearing Forces on Back Walls : i) Coefficients for Calculation of Shearing Froces on Back Walls Vertical & Horizontal Faces : (Using Table-4.5 of Book Design of Concrete Structures- G.Winter) a) Since k = 0.230 , thus let Consider k = 0.500 b) Coefficiant of Shearing Forces for Vetical Span Strip having Shearing Forces Bottom Edge of Back Wall c) Coefficiant of Shearing Forces for Horizontal Span Strip having Shearing Forces on Back Wall Vertical Faces k cShear-V-BW 0.500 0.330 (-)MS-H-WB-T-UF kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-BW-Sur-DL-UF

10.405 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-BW-UF

10.405 kN-m/m

cShear-H-BW

0.670

ii) Shearing Froces on Back Walls Vertical & Horizontal Faces Under Strength Limit State (USD): a) Total Factored Horizontal Load on Back Wall for 1.000m Wide Strip on its FPH&V-BW-USD Bottom Level = (0.5*FPDL-H-Soil-Bot-USD + FPDL-H-Sur-BW-USD + FPDL-H-Sur-BW-USD)*hBack-Wall*LH&V b) Shearing Forces on Back Wall on its Bottom Level for Vertical Span Strip = cShear-V-BW*FPH&V-BW-USD d) Shearing Forces on Back Wall on its Bottom Level for Horizontal Span Strip on Vertical Faces = cShear-H-BW*FPH&V-BW-USD VS-V-BW-USD 79.814 kN/m

26.339 kN/m

VS-H-BW-USD

53.475 kN/m

12 Computation of Related Features required for Flexural Design of Vertical & Horizontal Reinforcements of Back Wall : i) Design Strip Width for Back Wall in Vertical & Horizontal Direction & Clear Cover on different Faces;

a) Let Consider the Design Width in both Vertical & Horizontal directions are = 1000mm b) Let the Clear Cover on Earth Face of C-Cov.Earth. = 50mm, Let the Clear Cover on Open Face of Abutment Wall, C-Cov.Open = 50mm,

b C-Cov-Earth. C-Cov-Open

ii) Calculations of Limits For Maximum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1) : . a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for c/de-Max. a Section c/de 0.42 in which; b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm. Here; i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy), where ; ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps, fps & dp are = 0. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds . iii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.2) : c de

0.420

Variable Variable

As Aps fy fps dp ds

a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.2*Mcr or 1.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1-Table-3.4.1-1, which one is less.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1.2Mcr. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) - Mdnc(Sc/Snc -1) Scfr where; i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to Effective Prestress Forces at Extreme Fiber only where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance of all Prestressing Losses in MPa. In Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in N-mm. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section Mcr fcpe Variable N-mm N/mm2

Mdnc

Variable

N-mm

Sc

Variable

mm3

where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic/Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. For the Rectangular RCC Section value of Snc = (b*tBack-Wall.3/12)/(tBack-Wall./2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in Mpa,(AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements, Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0, thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces Snc

3 0.015 m 3 15.000/10^3 m 3 15.000*10^6 mm

fr Mcr

2 2.887 N/mm

43305340.317 N-mm 43.305 kN-m Variable Variable Variable N-mm N-mm N-mm

g) Table-1 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for Minimum Reinforcement of Different Surface & Direction Position Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable 1.2 Times & Nature Unfactored Mcr-1 Cracking Mcr of Mcr of Moment Dead Load As per Moment Cracking Cracking on Moment Equation Value Moment Moment Back MDL-UF 5.7.3.3.2-1 Sncfr (Mcr-1Sncfr) (1.2*Mcr) Wall kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m

(+)ve Strip Vertical (-)ve Strip Vertical (+)ve Strip Horizontal (-)ve Strip Horizontal 3.451 2.775 10.405 43.305 43.305 43.305 43.305 43.305 43.305 43.305 43.305 43.305 51.966 51.966 51.966 10.304 8.532 21.329 13.704 11.347 28.368 51.966 51.966 51.966 51.966 51.966 51.966 2.048 43.305 43.305 43.305 51.966

7.450

1.33 Times

9.909

Mr Maximum Allowable Flexural Min. Moment Moment for RCC Mu 1.2Mcr (M Mr) kN-m kN-m

51.966 51.966

iv) Calculations for Balanced Steel Ratio- pb & Max. Steel Ratio- pmax according to AASHTO-1996-8.16.2.2 : a) Balanced Steel Ratio or the Section, pb = b*b1*((f/c/fy)*(599.843/(599.843 + fy))), b) Max. Steel Ratio, pmax. = f *pb , (Here f = 0.75) pb 0.022

pmax.

0.016

13 Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcements on Earth Face of Back Wall against the (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (-) ve Moment in Vetrical Span Strip of Back Wall (-)MS-V-BW-USD 10.304 kN-m/m

Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (-) ve Moment value. For (-) ve value the required Reinforcement will be on Earth Face of Back Wall. b) Since (-)MS-V-BW-USD> Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 12f Bars as Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Back Wall b) X-Sectional of 12f Bars = p*DBW-Earth-V2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face, dpro = (tBack-Wall-CCov-Earth. -DBW-Earth-V./2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 12f bars = Af-12b/As-req-BW-Earth-V. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 12f bars for the Section spro = 125mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 12f bars having Spacing 150mm,C/C = Af-162.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

Mr

10.304*10^6 N-mm/m 51.966 kN-m/m 51.966*10^6 N-mm/m 51.966 kN-m/m 51.966*10^6 N-mm/m

MU

12.000 mm

2 113.097 mm

244.000 mm

areq.

12.238 mm

As-pro-BW-Earth-V.

904.779

mm2/m

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6

d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro and Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Status of Provided Steel Ration rpro in respect of Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, c/de-Max. c

Mpro>Mu pmax>ppro

OK OK

0.450 17.665 mm

having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio of c/de = 0.072 b1 c/de-pro 0.85 0.072 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

v) Checking Against Max. Shear Force on Back Wall in Vetrical Strip at Bottom Level. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Botton Level of Back Wall on its Vertical Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. Thus Maximum Shear Force, VMax = VS-V-Ab-USD.= VU VU. 26.339 kN/m 26.339*10^3 N/m

b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU - fVp)/fbvdv, (AASSHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9).Here, b-i) bv is Minimum Width of the Section, here bv = b, the Design Strip Width. a-ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9de or 0.72h in mm, which one is greater. Where; de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tBack-Wall Depth of Well Cap.Thus value 0.9*de for the Section; is Whereas, value of 0.72h for the Section; b-iii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear b-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure, thus Vp = 0. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.3.3 : i) Vn-1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.- 5.8.3.3-1, or bv. dv. 1,000.000 mm 219.600

Vn-BW-Bot

709.968 kN/m 709.968*10^3 N/m 709.968 kN/m 709.968*10^3 N/m 1,152.900 kN/m 1152.900*10^3 N/m 709.968 kN/m 709.968*10^3 N/m N/m

Vn-1

Vn-2

c-i) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.083bf/cbvdv, (AASHTO-LRFD- Equ. 5.8.3.3-1); c-ii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.3.3-3) in which, For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0.

Vc

Vs

c-iii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.00. c-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (For RCC Structure Elements, Vp = 0. AASHTO-8.16.6.3.1.)

2.000

Vp.

d) Relation between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3 have Satisfied or Not). e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section, thus the Abutment Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Back Wall on its Bottom Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement, thus Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Back Wall is OK. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 77.993 N-mm 77.993*10^6 kN-m 86.659 N-mm 86.659*10^6 kN-m 0.90

Mn f

b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) d) Since Back Wall in Vertical Direction is being considered as a Cantilever Mn-V-BW Beam having 1.000 m Wide Strips. The Steel Area against Factored Max. Moments at its Bottom will have value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment M at Bottom of assumed Cantilever Beam in Vertcal on Earth Face = (-)MS-V-BW-USD (-)MS-V-BW-USD 86.659 kN-m 86.659*10^6 N-mm

f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment M at Mid Span ( Which one is Greater, if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied)

Mr>Ms-v-bw-usd Satisfied

vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fs-Dev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4. Where;

b) fs-Dev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/As-prode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State

fs-Dev.

2 28.904 N/mm

(-)MS-V-BW-WSD

2 904.779 mm

ii) As-pro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, in Which; i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCov-Earth. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Back Wall, CCov-Earth = 50mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 12f ; thus dc = (12/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus its Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element.

As-pro de

244.000 mm

fsa

2 249.434 N/mm

dc

56.000 mm

2 14,000.000 mm

ZMax.

23,000.000 N/mm

0.6*fy

2 246.000 N/mm

d) Since the Calculated value of fs-Dev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Back Wall Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fs-Dve. e) Based on fs-Dve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fs-Dev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fs-Dev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs ZDev. 2,665.210 N/mm fs-Dev.< fs Satisfy

g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev.

i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Back Wall fs-Dev.< fs Allowable Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. < ZMax. Allowable Max. Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Vertical on Back Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 14 Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcements on Open Face of Back Wall against the (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (+) ve Moment in Vetrical Span Strip of Back (+)MS-V-BW-USD Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (+)ve Moment value. For (+)ve Mr value the required Reinforcement will be on Open Face of Back Wall. b) Since (+)MS-V-BW-USD< Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 12f Bars as Vertical Reinforcement on Open Face of Back Wall. b) X-Sectional of 12f Bars = p*DBW-Open-V2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Water Face, dpro = (tBackWall.-CCov-Open. -DBW-Open-V./2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 12f bars = Af-12b/As-req-BW-Open-V. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 12f bars for the Section spro = 125mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 12f bars having Spacing 150mm,C/C = Af-12.b/spro DBW-Open-V. 12 mm MU 7.450 7.450*10^6 51.966 51.966*10^6 kN-m/m N-mm/m kN-m/m N-mm/m

Af-12. de-pro.

2 113.097 mm

244.000 mm

areq.

12.238 mm

592.021 191.036

mm2/m mm,C/C

125 mm,C/C

As-pro-BW-Open-V.

904.779

mm2/m

iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro and Designed Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio of c/de = 0.072

Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax

OK OK

c/de-Max. c

0.450 17.665 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.072 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

iv) Since Checking have been done for Provision of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Back Wall against Max. Moment due to Imposed Loads & found Satisfactory in all respect thus it does not require further Checking against Provision of Vertical Reinforcement on Open Face of Back Wall. 15 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Earth Face of Back Wall against the (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (-) ve Moment in Horizontal Span Strip of Back (-)MS-H-BW-USD Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (-)ve Moment value. For (-)ve Mr value the required Reinforcement will be on Earth Face of Back Wall. b) Since (-)MS-H-BW-USD < Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 12f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Back Wall. DBW-Earth-H. 12 mm MU 21.329 21.329*10^6 51.966 51.966*10^6 kN-m/m N-mm/m kN-m/m N-mm/m

b) X-Sectional of 12f Bars = p*DBW-Earth-H2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face, dpro = (tBack-Wall.-CCov-Earth. - DBW-Earth-V- DBW-Earth-H./2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af-12b/As-req-BW-Earth-H. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 12f bars for the Section spro = 150mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 12f bars having Spacing 150mm,C/C = Af-12.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

Af-12. de-pro.

2 113.097 mm

232.000 mm

areq.

12.908 mm

624.397 181.130

mm2/m mm,C/C

150 mm,C/C

As-pro-BW-Earth-H.

753.982

mm2/m

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro and Designed Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio of c/de = 0.063

Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax

OK OK

c/de-Max. c

0.450 14.721 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.063 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

v) Checking Against Max. Shear Force on Back Wall in Horizontal Strip at Bottom Level.

a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Botton Level of Back Wall on its Horizontal Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. Thus Maximum Shear Force, VMax = VS-H-BW.= VU

VU.

b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU - fVp)/fbvdv, (AASSHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9).Here, b-i) bv is Minimum Width of the Section, here bv = b, the Design Strip Width. a-ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9de or 0.72h in mm, which one is greater. Where; de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tBack-Wall Depth of Well Cap.Thus value 0.9*de for the Section; is Whereas, value of 0.72h for the Section; b-iii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear b-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure, thus Vp = 0. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.3.3 : i) Vn-1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.- 5.8.3.3-1, or bv. dv. 1,000.000 mm 216.000

Vn-BW-H

1,134.000 kN/m 1134.000*10^3 N/m 1,643.128 kN/m 1643.128*10^3 N/m 1,134.000 kN/m 1134.000*10^3 N/m 1,643.128 kN/m 1643.128*10^3 N/m N/m

Vn-1

Vn-2

c-i) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.083bf/cbvdv, (AASHTO-LRFD- Equ. 5.8.3.3-1); c-ii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.3.3-3) in which, For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. c-iii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.00. c-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (For RCC Structure Elements, Vp = 0. AASHTO-8.16.6.3.1.)

Vc

Vs

2.000

Vp.

d) Relation between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3 have Satisfied or Not). e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section, thus the Abutment Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement.

f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Back Wall on its Bottom Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement, thus Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face ofBack Wall is OK. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 62.138 N-mm 62.138*10^6 kN-m 69.042 N-mm 69.042*10^6 kN-m 0.90

Mn f

b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) d) Since Back Wall in Horizontal Direction is being considered as Fixed End Mn-H-BW Beam having 1.000 m Wide Strips. The Steel Area against Factored Max. Moments at its Fixed Ends will have value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Fixed Ends of assumed Rectangular Beam in Horizontal on Earth Face = (-)MS-H-BW-USD (-)MS-H-BW-USD 69.042 kN-m 69.042*10^6 N-mm

f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>Ms-h-bw-usd Satisfied Factored Moment M at Bottom of Vertical Span Strip ( Which one is Greater, if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied). vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fs-Dev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4. Where; b) fs-Dev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/As-prode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fs-Dev.

2 75.343 N/mm

(-)MS-H-BW-WSD

2 753.982 mm

ii) As-pro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section.

As-pro de

232.000 mm

c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, in Which; i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCov-Earth. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Abutment Wall, CCov-Earth = 75mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 16f ; thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm.In Backt Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus its Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element.

fsa

2 234.726 N/mm

dc

56.000 mm

2 16,800.000 mm

ZMax.

23,000.000 N/mm

0.6*fy

2 246.000 N/mm

d) Since the Calculated value of fs-Dev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Abutment Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fs-Dve. e) Based on fs-Dve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fs-Dev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fs-Dev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev. ZDev. 7,382.546 N/mm fs-Dev.< fs fsa< 0.6fy Satisfy Satisfy

i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Back Wall, fs-Dev.< fs Allowable Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. < ZMax. Allowable Max. Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Horizontal on Back Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement.

16 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Open Face of Back Wall against the (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (+) ve Moment in Horizontal Span Strip of Back (+)MS-H-BW-USD Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (+)ve Moment value. For (+)ve Mr value the required Reinforcement will be on Open Face of Back Wall. b) Since (+)MS-H-BW-USD< Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 12f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Open Face of Back Wall. b) X-Sectional of 12f Bars = p*DAb-Open-V2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Open Face, dpro = (tBack-Wall.-CCov-Open. -DBW-Open-V - DBW-Open-H./2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 12f bars = Af-12b/As-req-BW-Open-H. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 12f bars for the Section spro = 150mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 12f bars having Spacing 150mm,C/C = Af-12.b/spro i) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ j) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

MU

DBW-Open-H.

12 mm

Af-12. de-pro.

2 113.097 mm

244.000 mm

areq.

12.238 mm

592.021 191.036

mm2/m mm,C/C

150 mm,C/C

As-pro-BW-Open-H.

753.982

mm2/m

k) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6 l) Status of Provided Resisting Moment Mpro in respect of Designed Moment MU. m) Status of Provided Steel Ration rpro in respect of Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax.

Mpro>Mu pmax>ppro

OK OK

iii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.063 q) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not) c/de-Max. c 0.450 14.721 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.060 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

iv) Since Checking have been done for Provision of Horizontal Reinforcement on Back Wall Earth Face against Max. Moment due to Imposed Loads & found Satisfactory in all respect thus it does not require further Checking against Provision of Horizontal Reinforcement on Open Face of Back Wall.

ximum

isfied

Satisfy

isfied

300 2147

700

450

450

3047

600

2147

675

2000

2000

2000

2000

675

450

300

L1 = 9.350m

400

150 200

10250

250

2 Structural Data : Description i) Dimentions of Superstructure : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) Span Length (Clear C/C distance between Bearings) Addl.Length of Girder beyond Bearing Center Line. Total Girder Length (a+2b) Carriageway Width Width of Side Walk on Each Side Width of Curb/Wheel Guard Width of Railing Curb/Post Guard Total Width of Bridge Deck Width & Depth of Railings Width & Breath of Railing Post Height of Railing Post Height of Wheel Guard/Curb Number of Railings on each Side C/C distance between Railing Posts Thickness of Deck Slab Thickness of Wearing Course Number of Main Girders Number of Cross Girders

1200

Notation.

Value.

Unit.

SL SAddl. LGir. WCarr-Way. WS-Walk. WCurb. WR-Post. WB-Deck. RW&D. PW&B. hR-Post. hCurb. Rnos. C/CD-R-Post. tSlab. tWC NGirder. NX-Girder.

24.400 0.300 25.000 7.300 1.250 0.350 0.225 10.250 0.175 0.225 1.070 0.300 3.000 2.000 0.200 0.075 5.000 5.000

600

2147

350

350

s) t) u) v) w)

Depth of Main Girders (Including Slab as T-Girder) Depth of Cross Girders (Including Slab as T-Girder) Width of Main Girders Width of Cross Girders C/C Distance between Main Girders & Flange Width

m m m m m

ii) Dimentions of Abutment Cap & Back Wall : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) Height of Back Wall Thickness of Back Wall Thickness of Wing Wall Length of Back Wall between the Wing Walls Length of Abutment Cap between outer Faces of Wing Walls Height of Abutment Cap Rectangular Portion (Abutment Seat) Height of Abutment Cap Trapezoid Portion (Abutment Seat) Width of Abutment Cap Rectangular Portion (Abutment Seat) Width of Abutment Cap Trapezoid Portion at Bottom(Abutment Seat) Offset of Trapezoid Portion on Earth Face Offset of Trapezoid Portion on Water Face Span Length between Two Adjacent Bearings Span Length between Exterior Bearing Center to Edge of Abutment Wall hBack-Wall tBack-Wall tWing-Wall LBack-Wall LAb-Cap hAb-Cap-Rec hAb-Cap-Tro. bAb-Cap-Rec bAb-Cap-Tro-Bot. bOffset-Earth. bOffset-Water. LInt-Ab-Cap. LExt-Ab-Cap 2.147 0.300 0.450 9.350 10.250 0.600 0.300 1.000 0.450 0.400 0.150 2.000 1.125 m m m m m m m m m m m m m

2 Design Data : i) Design Criterion : a) AASHTO Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). b) Type of Loads : Combined Application of AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading & Lane Loading.

3 vi) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration, g =

2 9.807 m/sec )

a) b) c) d) e)

a) b) c) d) e)

viii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTO-LRFD-2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength, f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, Ec = 0.043gc1.50f/c = 0.043*24^(1.50)*21^(1/2) Mpa, (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.4). d) Poisson's Ration = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2), subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.5). e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete, fr = 0.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). f) Steel Ultimate strength, fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement, Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.000 8.400 23,855.620 2.887 fr fy fs ES 2.887 MPa MPa MPa MPa

ix) Design Data for Resistance Factors for Conventional Construction (AASHTO LRFD-5.5.4.2.1). : (Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f or b value) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete For Axil Comression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme Limit State (Zone 3 & 4). For Bearing on Concrete For Compression in Strut-and-Tie Modeis For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones For resistance during Pile Driving Value of b1 for Flexural Compression in Reinforced Concrete (AASHTO LRFD-5.7.2..2.) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete fFlx-Rin. fFlx-Pres. fShear. fSpir/Tie/Seim. fBearig. fStrut&Tie. fAnc-Copm-Conc. fAnc-Ten-Steel. fPile-Resistanc. b1 b 0.90 1.00 0.90 0.75 0.70 0.70 0.80 1.00 1.00 0.85 0.85

x) Other Design Related Data : a) Velocity of Wind Load in Normal Condition b) Velocity of Wind Load in Special Condition c) Velocity of Water/Stream Current Causing Water/Stream Load 3 Factors Applicable for Design of Different Structural Components : i) Formula for Load Factors & Selection of Load Combination : a) Formula for Load Factors Q = igiQi f Rn = Rr; (ASSHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-1 & 3.4.1-1) Where, i is Load Modifier having values i = D R I 0.95 in which for Loads a Maximum value of gi Applicable; (ASSHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-2), & i = 1/(D R I ) 1.00 in which for Loads a Minimum value of gi Allpicable; (ASSHTO LRFD-1.3.2.1-3) VWL-Nor. VWL-Spe. VWA 90.000 260.000 4.200 km/hr km/hr m/s

Here: gi = Load Factor; a statistically based multiplier Applied to Force Effect, f = Resistance Factor; a statistically based multiplier Applied to Nominal Resitance, i = Load Modifier; a Factor related to Ductility, Redundancy and Operational Functions, For Strength Limit State; D i = D = 1.00 for Conventional Design related to Ductility, i = R = 1.00 for Conventional Levels of Redundancy , i = I = 1.00 for Typical Bridges related to Operational Functions, Qi = Force Effect, Rn = Nominal Resitance, Ri = Factored Resitance = fRn. R l

4 Different Load Multiplying Fatcors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : a) The Bridge will have to face Cyclonic Storms with very high Intensity of Wind Load (Wind Velocity = 260km/hr), but those would be occasional. Thus the respective Multiplier Factors of Limit State STRENGTH I (Bridge used by Normal Vehicle without wind load) for normal operation, Limit State of STRENGTH-III (Wind Velocity exceeding 90km/hr) for wind load during cyclonic storm condition and Limit State of STRENGTH-IV (Having Wind Velocity of 90 km/hr) for normal wind load only are selected as CRITICAL conditions for bridge structure. i) Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.250

gDW

1.500

gEH

1.500

gEV

1.350

gES

1.500

ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . m 1.000

gLL-Truck

1.750

c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load Allowence-IM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV STRENGTH - III STRENGTH - V

IM

1.330

gLL-Lane gLL-PL. gLL-CE. gLL-BR. gLL-LS. gLL-WA. gLL-WS. gLL-WL gLL-FR. gLL-TU.

1.750 1.750 1.750 1.750 1.750 1.000 1.400 1.000 1.000 1.000

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

gLL-TG.

1.000

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

5 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD-3.4.1 ; Table 3.4.1-1&2 :

a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2)

gDC

1.000

gDW

1.000

gEH

1.000

gEV

1.000

gES

1.000

ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (AASHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load Allowance-IM as per Provision of AASHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; SERVICE - I (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR SERVICE - IV SERVICE - II SERVICE - II SERVICE - II m 1.000

gLL-Truck IM

1.000 1.000

l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV 6 Computation of Imposed Load (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap :

gLL-TU.

1.000

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

gLL-TG.

1.000

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

i) Philosophy of Flexural Design & Computation of different Loads (DL & LL) upon Well Cap: a) Since the Abutment Cap will have to receive all Vertical Loads both from Live Load Elements & Dead Loads from the Superstructure and its Self Weight, thus computation of these Loads should done accordingly. b) Loads from Superstructure (DL & LL) will act upon Abutment Cap through the Girder Bearings as Concentrated Reactions. The Abutment Cap will also have to carry Dead Loads (DL) due to its Self Weight & Back Wall. These total Loads (DL & LL)will ultimately transmit to the Abutment Wall & those will behave as an Uniformly Distributed Upward Reaction against the Imposed Downward Loads (DL & LL) from Superstructure, Self Weight of Abutment Cap & Back Wall. Based on the mentioned assumptions of Uniformly Distributed Laod Reactions, Abutment Cap will be a Inverted Continuous Rectangular Beam having Girders as Reaction/Supports. Thus eacg Girder will have enhance Reaction Values according their Position in respect of Calculated Uniformely Distributed Load Reaction upon the Abutment Wall. c) Accordingly the Abutment Cap will be Designed as a Continuous Beam Having Uniformly Distributed Load upon it. ii) Unfactored Dead Load Reactions from 1 no. Exteriod Girder : ii) Unfactored Dead Load Reactions from 1 no. Exteriod Girder : a) Super-structural Dead Load without Wearing Course & Utilities b) Wearing Course & Utilities c) Total Dead Load for 1 no. Exterior Girder DLExt-Self & Sup-Imp.-UF DLExt-WC&Uti-UF DLExt-Total-UF 450.566 kN 40.031 kN 490.598 kN

iii) Unfactored Dead Load Reactions from 1 no. Interiod Girder : a) Super-structural Dead Load without Wearing Course & Utilities b) Wearing Course & Utilities c) Total Dead Load for 1 no. Interior Girder iv) Unfactored Live Load Reactions from 1 no. Exteriod Girder : a) Live Load due to HS20-44 Truck on Exterior Girder. b) Truck Live Load with Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) under Strength Limit State = IM*LLExt-Truck. c) Truck Live Load with Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) under Service Limit State = IM*LLExt-Truck. d) Live Load due to Lane Load on Deck e) Live Load due to Pedistrian on Exterior Girder f) Total Live Load for 1 no. Exterior Girder with Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) under Strength Limit State. v) Unfactored Live Load Reactions from 1 no. Interiod Girder : a) Live Load due to HS20-44 Truck on Interior Girder. b) Truck Live Load with Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) under Strength Limit State = IM*LLInt-Truck. c) Truck Live Load with Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) under Service Limit State = IM*LLExt-Truck. d) Live Load due to Lane Load on Deck e) Total Leve Load for 1 no. Interior Girder with Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) under Strength Limit State. LLInt-Truck.-UF LLInt-Truck+IM-UF 0.000 kN 0.000 kN LLExt-Truck.-UF LLExt-Truck+IM-UF 82.544 kN 109.784 kN DLInt-Self & Sup-Imp.-UF DLInt.-WC&Uti-UF DLInt.-Total-UF 358.382 kN 43.125 kN 401.507 kN

LLSExt-Truck.-IM-UF

82.544 kN

LLSInt-Truck.-IM-UF

0.000 kN

LLInt-Lane.-UF LLInt.-Total-UF

77.500 kN 77.500 kN

vi) Factored Dead Load Reactions from 1 no. Exteriod Girder under Strength Limit State Design (USD): a) Self Weight & Superimposed but without Wearing Course & Utilities = gDC*DLExt-Self & Sup-Imp. b) Wearing Course & Utilities = gDW*DLExt-WC&Uti FDLExt-Self & Sup-Imp.-USD 563.208 kN

FDLExt-WC&Uti-USD

60.047 kN

c) Total Factored Factored (USD) Dead Load (DL) for 1 no. Exterior Girder

FDLExt-Total-USD

623.255 kN

vii) Factored Dead Load Reactions from 1 no. Interiod Girder under Strength Limit State Design (USD) : a) Self Weight & Superimposed but without Wearing Course & Utilities = gDC*DLInt-Self & Sup-Imp. b) Wearing Course & Utilities = gDW*DLInt-WC&Uti c) Total Factored Dead Load (DL) for 1 no. Interior Girder FDLInt-Self & Sup-Imp.-USD 447.977 kN

FDLInt.-WC&Uti-USD

64.688 kN

FDLInt.-Total-USD

512.665 kN

viii) Factored Live Load Reactions from 1 no. Exteriod Girder under Strength Limit State Design (USD) : a) Live Load due to HS20-44 Truck on Exterior Girder + IM. = m*IM*gLL-Truck*LLExt-Truck+IM. b) Live Load due to Lane Load on Deck = mgLL-Lane*LLExt-Lane. c) Live Load due to Pedistrian on Exterior Girder = mgLL-PL.*LLExt-Ped. d) Total Factored (USD) Leve Load (LL) for 1 no. Exterior Girder FLLExt-Truck+IM.-USD 192.122 kN

FLLExt-Lane.-USD

44.078 kN

FLLExt-Ped.-USD

98.438 kN

FLLExt.-Total-USD

334.638 kN

ix) Factored Live Load Reactions from 1 no. Interiod Girder under Strength Limit State Design (USD) : a) Live Load due to HS20-44 Truck on Interior Girder. = m*IM*gLL-Truck*LLInt-Truck+IM. b) Live Load due to Lane Load on Deck = mgLL-Lane*LLInt-Lane. c) Total Factored ((USD) Leve Load (LL)for 1 no. Interior Girder FLLInt-Truck.+IM-USD 0.000 kN

FLLInt-Lane.-USD

135.625 kN

FLLInt.-Total-USD

135.625 kN

x) Factored Dead Load Reactions from 1 no. Exteriod Girder under Service Limit State Design (WSD): a) Self Weight & Superimposed but without Wearing Course & Utilities = gDC*DLExt-Self & Sup-Imp. b) Wearing Course & Utilities = gDW*DLExt-WC&Uti c) Total Factored (WSD) Dead Load (DL) for 1 no. Exterior Girder FDLExt-Self & Sup-Imp.-WSD 450.566 kN

FDLExt-WC&Uti-WSD

40.031 kN

FDLExt-Total-WSD

490.598 kN

xi) Factored Dead Load Reactions from 1 no. Interiod Girder under Service Limit State Design (WSD) : a) Self Weight & Superimposed but without Wearing Course & FDLInt-Self & Sup-Imp.-WSD 358.382 kN

Utilities = gDC*DLInt-Self & Sup-Imp. b) Wearing Course & Utilities = gDW*DLInt-WC&Uti c) Total Factored (WSD) Dead Load (DL) for 1 no. Interior Girder FDLInt.-WC&Uti-WSD 43.125 kN

FDLInt.-Total-WSD

401.507 kN

xii) Factored Live Load Reactions from 1 no. Exteriod Girder under Service Limit State Design (WSD) : a) Live Load due to HS20-44 Truck on Exterior Girder + IM. = m*IM*gLL-Truck*LLExt-Truck b) Live Load due to Lane Load on Deck = mgLL-Lane*LLExt-Lane. c) Live Load due to Pedistrian on Exterior Girder = mgLL-PL.*LLExt-Ped. d) Total Factored (WSD) Leve Load (LL) for 1 no. Exterior Girder FLLExt-Truck+IM.-WSD 82.544 kN

FLLExt-Lane.-WSD

25.188 kN

FLLExt-Ped.-WSD

56.250 kN

FLLExt.-Total-WSD

163.982 kN

xiii) Factored Live Load Reactions from 1 no. Interiod Girder under Service Limit State Design (WSD) : a) Live Load due to HS20-44 Truck on Interior Girder. = m*IM*gLL-Truck*LLInt-Truck b) Live Load due to Lane Load on Deck = mgLL-Lane*LLInt-Lane. c) Total Factored (WSD) Leve Load (LL)for 1 no. Interior Girder FLLSInt-Truck.+IM 0.000 kN

FLLSInt-Lane.

77.500 kN

FLLInt.-Total-WSD

77.500 kN

xix) Loads due to Self Weight of Back Wall & Abutment Cap on Abutment Wall for per Meter Length (Considering Weight of Back Wall & Abutment Cap is Acting as Uniformly Distributed Loads.) : a) Dead Load due to Back Wall, = tBack-Wall*hBack-Wall*wc b) Dead Load due to Self Weight of Abutment Cap Rectangular Portion = bAb-Cap-Rec*hAb-Cap-Rec.*wc c) Total Unfactored Uniformly Distributed Load per meter on Abutment Wall due to Back Wall & Abutment Cap. d) Total Factored Dead Load due to Back Wall & Abutment Cap under Strength Limit State Design (USD) = gDC*(DLBack+Ab.-Cap) e) Total Factored Dead Load due to Back Wall & Abutment Cap under Service Limit State Design (WSD) = gDC*(DLBack+Ab.-Cap) DLBack-Wall DLAb.-Cap-Rec. 15.458 kN/m 14.400 kN/m

DLBack+Ab.Cap.

29.858 kN/m

FDLBack+Ab.Cap.-USD

37.323 kN/m

FDLBack+Ab.Cap.WSD

29.858 kN/m

xx) Total Factored Load Reactions (DL + LL) from 1 no. Exterior & 1 no. Interiod Girder under Strength Limit

State Design (USD) : a) Total Factored Load Reactions (DL + LL) from 1 no. Exterior Girder = FDLExt-Total-USD + FLLExt.-Total-USD b) Total Factored Load Reactions (DL + LL) from 1 no. Interior Girder = FDLInt-Total-USD + FLLInt.-Total-USD FLExt.-Total(DL+LL)-USD 957.892 kN

FLInt.-Total(DL+LL)-USD

648.290 kN

xxi) Total Factored Load Reactions (DL + LL) from 1 no. Exterior & 1 no. Interiod Girder under Service Limit State Design (WSD) : a) Total Factored Load Reactions (DL + LL) from 1 no. Exterior Girder = FDLExt-Total-WSD + FLLExt.-Total-WSD b) Total Factored Load Reactions (DL + LL) from 1 no. Interior Girder = FDLInt-Total-WSD + FLLInt.-Total-WSD FLExt.-Total(DL+LL)-WSD 654.579 kN

FLInt.-Total(DL+LL)-WSD

565.489 kN

6 Sketch Diagram of Actual Imposed Factored Loads (DL & LL) from Girder. Abutment Cap & Back Wall Under Strength Limit State (USD) :

RGir.-Ext

957.892

RGir.-Int

648.29 kN 2 m

RGir.-Int

648.289844 kN 2 m

RGir.-Int

648.29 kN 2.00 m

RGir.-Ext.

957.892 kN 1.125 m 450

450

kN 2.00 m

hBack-Wall =

2.147 m

1.125 m

hAb-Cap-Recl = hAb-Cap-Tro =

0.600 m 0.300 m

FDLBack+Ab.Cap.=

37.323 kN/m

LAb-Cap =

300 700

10.250

3047

2747

A D

400 450 150 300

B C

600

7 Computation of Unfactored Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads for Abutment Cap and Resultant Reactions on Girder Points :

i) Computation of Uniformity Distributed Dead Loads upon Abutment Cap : a) Unfactored Imposed Dead Loads (DL) from 2nos. Exterior Girders upon Abutment Cap = 2*DLExt.-Total-UF b) Unfactored Imposed Dead Loads (DL) from 3nos. Interior Girders upon Abutment Cap = 3*DLInt.-Total-UF c) Total Unfactored Dead Loads (DL) upon Abutment Cap from Superstructure = (UFLExt.-Gir, + UFLInt.-Gir.) UFDL-Ext.-Gir. 981.195 kN

UFDL-Int.-Gir.

1204.521 kN

UFDL-Super.

2185.716 kN

d) Uniformly Distributed Unfactored Dead Loads (DL) upon Abutment Cap for wDL-Super.-UF its per Meter Length due to Imposed Loads from Superstructure through Girders = UFDL-Super,/ LAb-Cap. e) Uniformly Distributed Unfactored Dead Loads (DL) upon Abutment Cap for its Self Weight & Back Wall = DLBack+Ab.Cap. wDL-Back+Ab.Cap.-UF

213.241 kN/m

29.858 kN/m

f) Total Uniformly Distributed Unfactored Dead Loads (DL) upon Abutment wDL-Ab-Cap.-UF Cap for its per Meter Length due to Imposed Loads from Superstructure through Girders, its Self Weight & Back Wall = (wDL-Super,-UF + wDL-Back+Ab.Cap-UF.) ii) Resultant Reaction on Girders against Computed of Uniformity Distributed Dead Loads : a) Reaction on Each Exterior Girder = wDL-Ab-Cap.*(LExt-Ab-Cap + LInt-Ab-Cap./2) b) Reaction on Each Interior Girder = wDL-Ab-Cap.*LInt-Ab-Cap. RDL-Ext RDL-Int

243.099 kN/m

516.585 kN 486.198 kN

8 Computation of Uniformty Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL) on Abutment Cap & Resultant Reactions for the Girder Points Under Strength Limit State (USD) : i) Computation of Uniformty Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap : a) Factored Imosed Loads (DL & LL)from 2nos. Exterior Girders upon Abutment Cap = 2*(FDLExt.-Total-USD + FLLExt.-Total-USD) b) Factored Imosed Loads (DL & LL)from 3nos. Interior Girders upon Abutment Cap = 3*(FDLInt.-Total-USD + FLLInt.-Total-USD) c) Total Factored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap from Superstructure = (FLExt.-Gir,-USD + FLInt.-Gir-USD.) d) Uniformty Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap for its per Meter Length due to Imposed Loads from Superstructure through Girders = FLSuper,-USD/ LAb-Cap. e) Uniformty Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap FLExt.-Gir.-USD 1915.784 kN

FLInt.-Gir.-USD

1944.870 kN

FLSuper.-USD

3860.654 kN

wSuper.-USD

376.649 kN/m

wBack+Ab.Cap.-USD

37.323 kN/m

for its Self Weight & Back Wall = FDLBack+Ab.Cap-USD f) Total Uniformty Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap for its per Meter Length due to Imposed Loads from Superstructure through Girders, its Self Weight & Back Wall = (wSuper,-USD + wBack+Ab.Cap.-USD) wAb-Cap.-USD 413.972 kN/m

ii) Resultant Reaction on Girders against Computed of Uniformity Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL): a) Reaction on Each Exterior Girder = wAb-Cap.-USD*(LExt-Ab-Cap. + LInt-Ab-Cap./2) b) Reaction on Each Interior Girder = wAb-Cap.-USD*LInt-Ab-Cap. RExt-USD RInt-USD 879.691 kN 827.944 kN

9 Computation of Uniformty Distributed Unfactored Loads (DL & LL) on Abutment Cap & Resultant Reactions for the Girder Points Under Service Limit State (WSD) : i) Computation of Uniformty Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap : a) Unfactored Imosed Loads (DL & LL) from 2nos. Exterior Girders upon Abutment Cap = 2*(FDLExt.-Total-WSD + FLLExt.-Total-WSD) b) Unfactored Imosed Loads (DL & LL)from 3nos. Interior Girders upon Abutment Cap = 3*(FDLInt.-Total-WSD + FLLInt.-Total-WSD) c) Total Unfactored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap from Superstructure = (FLExt.-Gir,-WSD + FLInt.-Gir.-WSD) FLExt.-Gir.-WSD 1309.159 kN

FLInt.-Gir.-WSD

1437.021 kN

FLSuper.-WSD

2746.179 kN

d) Uniformty Distributed Unfactored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap for wSuper.-WSD its per Meter Length due to Imposed Loads from Superstructure through Girders = FLSuper,-WSD/ LAb-Cap. e) Uniformty Distributed Unfactored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap for its Self Weight & Back Wall = FDLBack+Ab.Cap.-WSD wBack+Ab.Cap.-WSD

267.920 kN/m

29.858 kN/m

f) Total Uniformty Distributed Unfactored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap for its per Meter Length due to Imposed Loads from Superstructure through Girders, its Self Weight & Back Wall = (wSuper-WSD, + wBack+Ab.Cap-WSD.)

wAb-Cap.-WSD

297.778 kN/m

ii) Resultant Reaction on Girders against Computed of Uniformity Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL): a) Reaction on Each Exterior Girder = wAb-Cap.-WSD*(LExt-Ab-Cap. + LInt-Ab-Cap./2) b) Reaction on Each Interior Girder = wAb-Cap.-WSD*LInt-Ab-Cap. RExt-WSD RInt-WSD 632.779 kN 595.557 kN

10 Sketch Diagram of Computed Factored Loads (DL & LL) on Abutment Cap & Resultant Reactions :

RExt-USD.

879.691

RInt-USD..

827.94 kN

RInt-USD.

827.944329 kN

RInt.-USD.

827.94 kN

RExt-USD.

879.691 kN 450

450

kN

450

450

hBack-Wall =

2.000 m 2.000 m 2.000 m 413.972 kN/m 2.000 m 1.125 m

2.147 m

1.125 m

hAb-Cap-Recl = hAb-Cap-Tro =

0.600 m 0.300 m

wF-Ab-Cap.-USD =

LAb-Cap =

300 700

10.250

3047

2747

A D

400 450 150 300

B C

600

11 Calculations for Moments under different obstions of Computed Loads from Superstructure, Self Weight of Abutment Cap & Back Wall on Abutment Cap Section 'ABCD' : i) Calculations for Factored Moments at different Reaction Positions Under Strength Limit State (USD): a) (-) ve Moments on Outer Face of Exterior Girder Reaction Position, = wAb-Cap.-USD*LExt-Ab-Cap.2/2 b) (-) ve Moments at Inner Face of Exterior Girder Reaction Position, = wAb-Cap-USD.*LInt-Ab-Cap.2/10 c) (-) ve Moments at Face of Interior Girder Reaction Position, = wAb-Cap.USD*LInt-Ab-Cap.2/9 d) (+) ve Moments at Middle Position in-between Two Reactions, = wAb-Cap.-USD*LInt-Ab-Cap.2/8 (-) MExtr-Out-USD 261.967 kN-m

(-) MExtr-Inner-USD

165.589 kN-m

(-) MInte-Face-USD

183.988 kN-m

(+) MMid-USD

206.986 kN-m

ii) Calculations for Factored Moments at different Reaction Positions Under Service Limit State (WSD): a) (-) ve Moments on Outer Face of Exterior Girder Reaction Position, = wAb-Cap.-WSD*LExt-Ab-Cap.2/2 b) (-) ve Moments at Inner Face of Exterior Girder Reaction Position, = wAb-Cap.-WSD*LInt-Ab-Cap.2/10 (-) MExt-Out-WSD 188.438 kN-m

(-) MExt-Int-WSD

119.111 kN-m

c) (-) ve Moments at Face of Interior Girder Reaction Position, = wAb-Cap.-WSD*LBearing2/9 d) (+) ve Moments at Middle Position in-between Two Reactions, = wAb-Cap.-WSD*LInt-Ab-Cap.2/8 iii) Calculations for Dead Load (DL) Moments at different Reaction Positions: a) (-) ve Moments on Outer Face of Exterior Girder Reaction Position, = wDL-Ab-Cap.*LExt-Ab-Cap.2/2 b) (-) ve Moments at Inner Face of Exterior Girder Reaction Position, = wDL-Ab-Cap.*LInt-Ab-Cap.2/10 c) (-) ve Moments at Face of Interior Girder Reaction Position, = wDL-Ab-Cap.*LInt-Ab-Cap.2/9 d) (+) ve Moments at Middle Position in-between Two Reactions, = wDL-Ab-Cap.*LInt-Ab-Cap.2/8

(-) MInt-WSD

132.346 kN-m

(+) MMid-WSD

148.889 kN-m

(-) MDL-Extr-Out

153.836 kN-m

(-) MDL-Extr-Inner

97.240 kN-m

(-) MDL-Interior

108.044 kN-m

(+) MDL-Middle

121.549 kN-m

11 Calculations for Shearing Forces under different options of Computed Loads from Superstructure, Self Weight of Abutment Cap & Back Wall on Abutment Cap Section 'ABCD' : i) Factored Shearing Forces at different Reaction Positions Under Strength Limit State (USD): a) Shear Forces on Exterior Girder Reaction Position Outer Face, = wAb-Cap.-USD.*LExt.-Ab-Cap. b) Shear Forces on Exterior Girder Reaction Position Inner Face, = RExt.-USD. - VR-Ext.-Out-USD. c) Shear Forces on Interior Girder Reaction Position of Both Faces, = RInt.-USD. - wAb-Cap.-USD.*LInt-Ab-Cap./2 d) Shear Forces on Mid between Interior Girder Reaction Positions = VR-Int-Int.-USD. - wAb-Cap.-USD.*LInt-Ab-Cap./2 (-)VR-Extr-Out-USD. 465.719 kN

VR-Extr-Inn-USD.

413.972 kN

VR-Int-Int-USD.

413.972 kN

VMid-of-Int-USD.

0.000 kN

ii) Factored Shearing Forces at different Reaction Positions Under Service Limit State (WSD): a) Shear Forces at Exterior Girder Reaction Position Outer Face, = wAb-Cap.-WSD*LExt.-Ab-Cap. b) Shear Forces at Exterior Girder Reaction Position Inner Face, = RExt.-WSD - VR-Extr-Out-WSD c) Shear Forces at Interior Girder Reaction Position of Both Faces, (-)VR-Extr-Out-WSD 335.001 kN

VR-Extr-Inn.-WSD

297.778 kN

VR-Int-Int.-WSD

297.778 kN

= RInt.-WSD - wAb-Cap.-WSD*LInt-Ab-Cap./2 d) Shear Forces on Mid between Interior Girder Reaction Positions = VR-Int-Int-WSD - wAb-Cap.-WSD*LInt-Ab-Cap./2 VMid-of-Int.-WSD 0.000 kN

iii) Calculations for Dead Load Shearing Forces at different Reaction Positions: a) Shear Forces at Exterior Girder Reaction Position Outer Face, = wDL-Ab-Cap.*LExt.-Ab-Cap. b) Shear Forces at Exterior Girder Reaction Position Inner Face, = RDL.Ext. - DLVR-Extr-Out. c) Shear Forces at Interior Girder Reaction Position of Both Faces, = RDL.Int. - wDL-Ab-Cap.*LInt-Ab-Cap./2 d) Shear Forces on Mid between Interior Girder Reaction Positions = DLVR-Int-Int.. - wUF-Ab-Cap.*LInt-Ab-Cap./2 (-)DLVR-Extr-Out 273.486 kN

DLVR-Extr-Inn.

273.486 kN

DLVR-Int-Int.

243.099 kN

DLVMid-of-Int.

0.000 kN

11 Computation of Related Features required for Flexural Design of Main Reinforcements for Abutment Cap Against the Calculated Bending Moments on its Different Sections : i) Provisions for Reinforcements, Design Width-Depth & Clear Cover on different Faces of Abutment Cap : a) Against (-) ve Moment values the Abutment Cap Requires the Reinforcements on its Top Surface, whereas for the (+) ve Moment values the Reinforcements will on its Bottom Surface. b) Height on Rectangular Portion of Abutment Cap is Design Depth = hAb-Cap-Rec c) Height on Rectangular Portion of Abutment Cap is Design Width = bAb-Cap-Rec d) e) f) g) Let the Clear Cover on Earth Face of Abutment Cap = 75mm, Let the Clear Cover on Top, Face of Abutment Cap = 50mm, Let the Clear Cover on Bottom Face of Abutment Cap = 50mm, Let the Clear Cover on Water Face of Abutment Cap = 50mm, h b C-Cov-Earth. C-Cov-Top C-Cov-Bot. C-Cov-Water 0.6 m 1m 75 50 50 50 mm mm mm mm

ii) Calculations of Limits For Maximum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1) : . a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for c/de-Max. a Section c/de 0.42 in which; b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm. Here; i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy), where ; ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 c de

0.42

Variable Variable

As Aps

Variable Variable

mm2 mm2

iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps, fps & dp are = 0. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds . iii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.2) :

fy fps dp ds

Variable

mm

a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.2*Mcr or 1.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1-Table-3.4.1-1, which one is less.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1.2Mcr. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) - Mdnc(Sc/Snc - 1) Scfr where; i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to Effective Prestress Forces at Extreme Fiber only where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance of all Prestressing Losses in MPa. In Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in N-mm. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic/Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. For the Rectangular RCC Section value of Snc = (b*h.3/12)/(h./2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in Mpa,(AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements, Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0, thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces Mcr fcpe Variable N-mm N/mm2

Mdnc

Variable

N-mm

Sc

Variable

mm3

Snc

fr Mcr

2 2.887 N/mm

173221361.269

g) Table-1 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for Minimum Reinforcement of Different Surface & Direction Position Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable & Nature Unfactored Mcr-1 Cracking Mcr of Moment Dead Load As per Moment Cracking on Moment Equation Value Moment Abutment MDL-UF 5.7.3.3.2-1 Sncfr (Mcr-1Sncfr) Cap kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m

(-)ve on 153.836 97.240 108.044 121.549 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 1.33 Times 1.2 Times M Mr of M, of Mcr Factored Allowable Cracking Moment Factored Min. Moment for RCC Moment of Section Moment 1.2Mcr (1.2*Mcr) M (1.33*M) kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m 207.866 207.866 207.866 207.866 261.967 165.589 183.988 206.986 348.416 220.233 244.704 275.291 207.866 207.866 207.866 207.866

261.967 207.866 207.866 207.866

RExt-Outer

(-)ve on

RExt-Inner

(-)ve on

RInt-Inner

(+)ve on

RInt-Mid

iv) Calculations for Balanced Steel Ratio- pb & Max. Steel Ratio- pmax according to AASHTO-1996-8.16.2.2 : a) Balanced Steel Ratio or the Section, pb = b*b1*((f/c/fy)*(599.843/(599.843 + fy))), b) Max. Steel Ratio, pmax. = f *pb , (Here f = 0.75) pb 0.022

pmax.

0.016

12 Flexural Design of Reinforcements on Top Surface of Abutment Cap against the Max. (-) ve Moment : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Maximum Flexural (-) ve Moment occurs at Exterior Position of Abutment Cap. Against Calculated Factored (-) ve Moment value the Provision of Reinforcements will be on Top Surface of Abutment Cap. (-) MF-Extr-Out-USD Mr 261.967 261.967*10^6 207.866 207.866*10^6 kN-m/m N-mm/m kN-m/m N-mm/m

b) Since (-) MF-Extr-Out-USD > Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus (-) MF-Extr-Out-USD is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement on Top Surface of Abutment Cap : a) Let provide 25f Bars as Main Reinforcement on Top Surface of Abutment Cap. b) X-Sectional of 25f Bars = p*DAb-Cap-Top2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Top Surface, dpro = (h -CCov-Top -DAb-Cap-Top/2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Width of Cap b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2))

MU

DAb-Cap-Top

25 mm

Af-25. de-pro-Top.

2 490.874 mm

537.500 mm

areq.

28.035 mm

e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Number of 25f bars Requred for the Section= As-req-Ab-Earth-V./Af-20 g) Let the Provided 8 nos. 25f bars as Main Reinforcement on Top Surface of Abutment Cap. h) The provided Steel Area with 8 nos. 25f bars as Main Reinforcement on Top Surface of = Af-25.*NBer-pro. iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

1,356.181

mm2/m

As-pro-Ab-Cap-Top

3,926.991

mm2/m

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6

d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro and Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.143 n) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not) c/de-Max. c

Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax

OK OK

0.450 76.670 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.143 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

v) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 713.517 N-mm 713.517*10^6 kN-m 792.797 N-mm 792.797*10^6 kN-m 0.90

Mn f

b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing

AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2); here ds = dpro & a = apro. d) Since Abutment Cap is being considered as a Continous Rectangular Beam having Cantilver arm on both End. The Steel Area against Factored Max. (-) ve Moment is at its Top Surface for which the value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2). e) Calculated Factored (-) ve Moments MU at Exterior Girder Posotions are with Maximum value = (-)MF-Extr-Out-USD Mn-Top 792.797 kN-m 792.797*10^6 N-mm

(-)MF-Extr-Out-USD

Satisfied

f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>Mu Factored Moment MU on Exterior Girder Position ( Which one is Greater, if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied)

vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fs-Dev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4. Where; b) fs-Dev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/As-prode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit fs-Dev.

2 89.275 N/mm

(-)MF-Extr-Out-WSD

2 3,926.991 mm

ii) As-pro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, in Which; i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of Closest Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Top Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCov-Top. Since Clear Cover on Top Face of Abutment Cap, CCov-Top = 50mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 25f ; thus dc = (25/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear

As-pro de

537.500 mm

fsa

2 231.825 N/mm

dc

62.500 mm

2 15,625.000 mm

Cover = 50mm. In Abutment Cap the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*b/NBar-pro. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus its Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. ZMax. 23,000.000 N/mm

0.6*fy

2 246.000 N/mm

d) Since the Calculated value of fs-Dev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Abutment Wall Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fs-Dve. e) Based on fs-Dve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fs-Dev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fs-Dev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev. ZDev. 8,857.200 N/mm fs-Dev.< fs fsa< 0.6fy Zdev.< Zmax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy

i) Since Developed Tensile Stress on Abutment Cap Tension Reinforcement fs-Dev.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev.< ZMax. allowable Max.Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement on Abutment Cap Top Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 13 Flexural Design of Reinforcements on Bottom Surface of Abutment Cap against (+) ve Moment : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Maximum Flexural (+) ve Moment occurs at Middle Position of (+) MInt-Mid-USD 206.986 Abutment Cap Sections in-between Two Girders. Against Calculated Factored 206.986*10^6 (+) ve Moment values the Reinforcements will be on Bottom Surface of Mr 207.866 Abutment Cap. 207.866*10^6 b) Since (+) MInt-Mid-USD > Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus (+) MInt-Mid-USD is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement on Bottom Surface of Abutment Cap : a) Let provide 25f Bars as Main Reinforcement on Bottom Surface of Abutment Cap. DAb-Cap-Bot. 25 mm MU kN-m/m N-mm/m kN-m/m N-mm/m

b) X-Sectional of 25f Bars = p*DAb-Cap-Bot2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Bottom Surface, dpro = (h -CCov-Bot -DAb-Cap-Bot/2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Width of Cap b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Number of 25f bars Requred for the Section= As-req-Ab-Earth-V./Af-20 g) Let the Provided 6 nos. 25f bars as Main Reinforcement on Top Surface of Abutment Cap. h) The provided Steel Area with 6 nos. 25f bars as Main Reinforcement on Top Surface of = Af-25.*NBer-pro. iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

Af-25. de-pro-Bot.

2 490.874 mm

537.500 mm

areq.

22.121 mm

1,065.531

mm2/m

As-pro-Ab-Cap-Bot

3,926.991

mm2/m

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6

d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.143 n) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not) c/de-Max. c

Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax

OK OK

0.450 76.670 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.143 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.

Mr

Mn f

b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2); here ds = dpro & a = apro. d) Since Abutment Cap is being considered as a Continous Rectangular Beam having Cantilver arm on both End. The Steel Area against Factored Max. (-) ve Moment is at its Top Surface for which the value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2). e) Calculated Factored (+) ve Moments MU at Middle Posotion in-between Two Girdres have the Maximum value = MInt.-Mid.-USD Mn-Top 792.797 kN-m 792.797*10^6 N-mm

MInt.-Mid.-USD

Satisfied

f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>Mu Factored Moment MU on Exterior Girder Position ( Which one is Greater, if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied)

vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fs-Dev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4. Where; b) fs-Dev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/As-prode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State (WSD) fs-Dev.

2 70.538 N/mm

MInt.-Mid.-WSD

2 3926.990817 mm

ii) As-pro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, in Which; i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of Closest Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation of Bottom Clear Cover & Radius of the

As-pro de

537.500 mm

fsa

2 231.825 N/mm

dc

62.500 mm

Closest Bar to Tension Face with Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCov-Bot. Since Clear Cover on Bottom Face of Abutment Cap, CCov-Bot = 50mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 25f ; thus dc = (25/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In Abutment Cap the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*b/NBar-pro. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus its Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. A

2 15,625.000 mm

ZMax.

23,000.000 N/mm

0.6*fy

2 246.000 N/mm

d) Since the Calculated value of fs-Dev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Abutment Wall Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fs-Dve. e) Based on fs-Dve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fs-Dev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fs-Dev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev. ZDev. 6,998.282 N/mm fs-Dev.< fsa fsa< 0.6fy Zdev.< Zmax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy

i) Since Developed Tensile Stress on Abutment Cap Tension Reinforcement fs-Dev.< fs Allowable Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev.< ZMax. allowable Max.Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement on Abutment Cap Top Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 14 Design of Shear Reinforcement for Abutment Cap against Shearing Forces & Checkings: i) Calculated Factored Shearing Forces (Vu) at Different Locations due to Applied Loads (DL & LL): a) Table for Max. Shear Forces at Different Locations of Abutment Cap due to Applied Factored Loads (DL & LL); Table-1. For Shearing Forces at different Sections of Abutment Cap due to Factored Loads (DL & LL)

Searing On Outer On Inner On Inner Middl Force Face of Face of Face of between Locations Ext. Girder Ext. Girder Int. Girder Int. Girders Unit kN kN kN kN Shearing 465.719 413.9722 413.972 0.000 Force

b) Factored Shearing Forces on Outer Face of Exterior Girder. c) Factored Shearing Forces on Inner Face of Exterior Girder. d) Factored Shearing Forces on Inner Face of Interior Girder. d) Factored Shearing Forces on Mid of Interior Girders. ii) Factored Shearing Stress & Shearing Depth at Different Locations :

465.719 kN 413.972 kN

413.972 kN kN

a) The Shearing Steress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force. vu = (Vu - fVp)/fbvdv, = Vu/fbvdv ; Since Vp = 0; (AASSHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9).Here, b) Vp is Component of Prestressing applied Forces. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component the value of Vp = 0 c) bv is Width of Abutment Cap = bAb-Cap-Rec.. d) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having the greater value of either of 0.9de or 0.72h in mm. Here, i) de is Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement for the Section in mm ii) h is Depth of Abutment Cap Rectangular Section, hAb-Cap-Rec. e) f is Resistance Factor for Shear = 0.90 (AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2). Vp Mpa

bv dv 0.9de 0.72h de h f

0.600 mm 0.90

f) Table for Computation of values of vu, de, bv, 0.9de , 0.72h & dv at different Section of Abutment Cap. Table-3 Values of vu, de, bv, 0.9de , 0.72h & dv at different Section of Abutment Cap.

Locations of Shearing Force Width of Abutmrnt Width (bv) Depth of Abutment Cap Rectangular Effective Depth of Section for Tensial Calculated value of 0.9de Calculated value of 0.72h Calculated value of Effective Shear Depth Calculated value of Shearing Stress

mm

On Outer Face of 1000.000

(h) mm

600.00

(de)

mm 537.50 mm 483.75 mm 432.00

(dv)

mm 483.75

(vu)

N/mm2 1.070

Ext.-Girder On Inner Face of Ext.-Girder On Inner Face of Int.-Girder On Middle between Int.-Girders

1000.000

600.00

537.50

483.75

432.00

483.75

0.951

1000.000

600.00

537.50

483.75

432.00

483.75

0.951

1000.000

600.00

537.50

483.75

432.00

483.75

0.000

g) Shearing Stress due to Applied Factored Shearing Forces at Different Sections of Abutment Cap : i) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force on Outer Face of Exterior Girder = VExt.-Outer/fbvdv N/mm2 ii) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force on Inner Face of Exterior Girder = VExt.-Inner/fbvdv N/mm2 iii) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force on Inner Face of Interior Girder = VInt.-Inner/fbvdv N/mm2 iv) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force on Middle between Interior Girders = VMid-of-Inner. /fbvdv N/mm2 vExt.-Outer

2 1.070 N/mm

vExt.-Inner

2 0.951 N/mm

vInt.-Inner

2 0.951 N/mm

vMid-of-Inner.

N/mm2

iii) Factored Shearing Resistance for a Section under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.1-(Equ-5.8.2.1-2) : a) The Factored Shear Resitance at any Section of Component is Expressed by the Equation-5.8.2.1-2. Having the value, Vr = fVn in which; b) Vr is the Factored Shear Resitance at a Section in N c) Vn is Nominal Shear Resitance in N according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3. d) f is Resistance Factor according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2. Vr. Vn. f 0.90 N N

iv) Computation of values of q & b to Calculate the Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Locations due to Factored Shear Forces under Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.4 : a) The Nominal Shear Resistance Vn at any Section of Abutment Cap is the Lesser value Computed from Equations i) Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-1) & ii) Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp, (Equ. 5.8.3.3-2) in which, b) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N having value = 0.083bf/cbvdv, (Equ. 5.8.3.3-1); c) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s (Equ. 5.8.3.3-3) in which,

d) s is Spacing of Stirrups in mm; e) b a is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4;

0 f) q is Angle of Inclenation of Digonal Compressive Stress in ( ) as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4; 0 g) a is Angle of Inclenation of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement to Longitudinal Bars in ( ); AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4. For Vertical Transverse/Shear Reinforcement the Angle of Inclenation, a = 900 a 90 0

h) Av is Area of Shear Reinforcement within a distance s in mm; i) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Vp = 0. Vp. N

v) Computation of Value b & q at different Locations of Abutment Cap as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4: a) Calculation of Longitudinal Strain in Web Reinforcement s in mm/mm on the Flexural Tension side of Abutment Cap according to Equations ; b) ex = (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu -Vp)cotq - Apsfpo)/2(EsAs + EpAps); (Equ-5.8.3.4.2-1 for the Case with at Least the Min.Shear Reinforcement). c) ex = (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu -Vp)cotq - Apsfpo)/(EsAs + EpAps); (Equ-5.8.3.4.2-2 for the Case with Less then the Min.Shear Reinforcement); d) ex= (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu -Vp)cotq - Apsfpo)/(2(EsAs + EpAps); (Equ-5.8.3.4.2-3 for the Cases when value of es is (-) ve.in Equ.5.8.3.4.2-1& Equ.5.8.3.4.2-2). Where, e) Ac is Area of Concerte on Flexural Tention side of Abutment Cap in mm2 having value c A 2 Ac = bX-Web* hX-Gir,/2 mm f) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2. For RCC Structure, the value of Aps = 0 Aps -

mm2

mm2

g) As is Area of Non-Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Abutment Cap in mm2 under Consideration having respective values of Steel Area. i) On Outer Face of Exterior Girder the Provided Steel Area in mm2 As-Ext.-Outer. 2 ii) On Inner Face of Exterior Girder the Provided Steel Area in mm As-Ext.-Inner. iii) On Inner Face of Interior Girder the Provided Steel Area in mm2 As-Int.-Inner. iv) On Middle of Interior Girders the Provided Steel Area in mm2 As-Mid.-of-Inner. h) fpo is a Parameter for Modulus of Elasticity of Prestressing Tendons which is multiplied by Locked-in differencein Strain between the Prestressing Tendons and Surrounding Concrete (Mpa). For the usal level of Prestressing, the value recommended = 0.7fpu for both Pretensioned & Post-tensioned Case. For Nonprestressed RCC Structural Component, the value of fpo = 0. fpo.

2 2 2 2

MPa.

i) Nu is Factored Axil Force in N, Value will be (+) ve for the case of Tensile & (-) for the case of Compressive due to Prestressing. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Nu = 0. j) Mu is Factored Moment quantity of the Section in N-mm but not less then Vudv. k) Vu is Factored Shear Force (Only (+) ve values are applicable) for the Section in N.

Nu

I) Table Showing the values of Mu, Vu, Computed value of Vudv & Effective value of Vudv. Table-4. Showing the values of M u, Vu, Computed value of Vudv & Effective value of M u-Eff Vudv.

Locations of Shearing Force Factored Moment for the Section. Factored Shear for the Section. Calculated value of Effective Shear Depth Calculated value of Effective Moment value

Vudv

MuEff

(Mu)

kN-m On Outer Face of Ext.-Girder On Inner Face of Ext.-Girder On Inner Face of Int.-Girder On Mid. between Int.-Girders

261.967

(Vu) kN

465.719

(dv)

mm

483.750

(Vudv)

kN

225.291

(MuEff)

kN-m

261.967

165.589

413.972

483.750

200.259

200.259

183.988

413.972

483.750

200.259

200.259

275.291

0.000

483.750

0.000

275.291

vi) Value of vc/f/c (Ratio of Shearing Stress & Concrete Compressive Strength) at Different Section of Girder : a) Value of vc/f/c on Outer Face of Exterior Girder b) Value of vc/f/c on Inner Face of Exterior Girder c) Value of vc/f/c on Interior Girder Position d) Value of vc/f/c on Middle Position in-between Interior Girders vExt.-Outer/f/c vExt.-Inner/f/c vInt.-Inner/f/c vMid.of-Inner/f/c 0.051 0.045 0.045 -

vii) Values of esx1000 with at Least the Min. Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.5 & provisions of Equation 5.8.3.4.2-1 : a) Since for RCC Compoent values of Prestressing Components Nu, Vp, Asp, fpo, Ep etc. are = 0, thus equation ex = (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu -Vp)cotq - Apsfpo)/2(EsAs + EpAps) stands to ex = (Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/2EsAs

b) Considering the Initial value of ex = 0.001on Exterior Girder Outer Face & with the Effective Moment Mu-Eff. From the Equation Cotq = (ex2EsAs - Mu/dv)/0.5Vu c) Having the value of cotq = 1.763, the values of exx1000 at Different Locations are ; d) On Outer Face of Exterior Girder = ((Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 e) On Inner Face of Exterior Girder = ((Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 f) On Interior Girder Position = ((Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 g) On Mid of Interior Girders = ((Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000

cotq

4.420

j) Since at all Positions of the Abutment Cap posses values of es-x1000 > 0.50 1.00 , thus values of q & b of these Sections can obtain from Table -5.8.3.4.2-1 in respect of values of vc/f/c. viii) Computation of Values of q & b from AASHTO-LRFD'sTable -5.8.3.4.2-1. against the Respective Calculated values of esx1000, Ratio vc/f/c : a) Table for Values of q & b at Different Location of Girder.

Location of Abutment Cap Section a) On Exterior Girder Outer Face b) On Exterior Girder Outer Face c) On Interior Girder Inner Face b) On Middle of Interior Girders Referece of Table 5.8.3.4.2.-1 5.8.3.4.2.-2 5.8.3.4.2.-2 5.8.3.4.2.-2 vc/f/c 0.051 0.045 0.045 0.000 exx1000 1.000 0.800 0.825 0.362 Value of q b 36.40 2.23 36.40 2.23 36.40 2.23 30.50 2.59

b) Value of Cotq at different Locaion of Girder : i) On Outer Face of Exterior Girder value of Cotq ii) On Inner Face of Exterior Girder value of Cotq iii) On Interior Girder Position value of Cotq iv) On Mid of Interior Girders value of Cotq Cotq Cotq Cotq Cotq 1.356 1.356 1.356 1.698

ix) Computation of Value for Nominal Shearing Strength of Concrete (Vc) using the Values of q & b : a) Since Critical Section is at the Outer Face of Exterior Girder, thus Values of q & b of that Section are Governing for Computation of Nominal Shearing Strength of Concrete (Vc) for the Abutment Cap. b) Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete of Girder Vc = 0.083bf/cbvdv, AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3-(Equ. 5.8.3.3-1); Vc 39,485.944 kN 39485.944*10^3 N

a) The Transverse or Shear Reinforcements are required for those Sections where the Factored Shearing Force due to the Applied Loads (DL & LL), Vu > 0.5f (Vc + Vp); AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.4; Equ-5.8.2.4-1; Here, b) Vu is Factored Shearing Force due to the Applied Loads for the Selected Section in N, c) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance for the Section having value = 0.083bf/cbvdv according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3. Equation-5.8.3.3-4. d) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Vp = 0. Vp. N

e) b a is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4; f) f is Resistance Factor as per to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2. having value 0.90 g) Thus for Nonprestressing Structure the Eqution-5.8.2.4-1 Stands to Vu > 0.5Vc h) Table showing the values of b, Vu, Vc, 0.5Vc & Relation between Vu & 0.5Vc at Different Location of Girder.

Location of Abutment Cap Section a) On Exterior Girder Outer Face b) On Exterior Girder Outer Face c) On Interior Girder Inner Face b) On Middle of Interior Girders Values of

0.90

b

2.230 2.230 2.230 2.590

Vu N

465718.685 413972.164 413972.164 0.000

Vc N

39,485.944 39,485.944 39,485.944 45,860.356

0.5fVc N

17768.675 17768.675 17768.675 20637.160

Vu>0.5Vc Vu>0.5Vc Vu>0.5Vc Vu<0.5Vc Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied

i) The Table indicates that all the Sections of RCC Abutment Cap have satisfied the required provisions for Transverse/ Shear Reinforcements under Equation Vu > 0.5f (Vc + Vp). AASHTO-LRFD-Equation-5.8.2.4-1. Other than that on Middle in-between Girders. Thus the Abutment Cap requires Transverse or Shear/Web Reinforcements. xi) Computation of Values of Vs,the Shear Resistance against Provided Shear Reinforcement & Spacings at Different Sections according to Vs = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.3.3-3) : a) With Vertical Shear Reinforcement the value of a = 900 & the Equation Vs = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s stands to Vs = Avfydvcotq /s, b) On Outer Faces of Exterior Girder, Vs= Avfydv-Ext-Gir-OuterCotq/spro. VS-Ext-Gir-Outer 405.670 kN 405.670*10^3 N 405.670 kN 405.670*10^3 N 405.670 kN 405.670*10^3 N

VS-Ext-Gir-Inner

VS-On-Inner-Gir

xii) Computation of values for Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Abutment Cap under the

Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3 against Equation Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-2) : a) The Nominal Shear Resistanceat any Section of Girder is Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-1) b) For RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0, thus Equation stands to Vn-1 = Vc + Vs c) On Outer Faces of Exterior Girder Vn= Vc-Ext-Outer. + Vs-Ext-Outer. Vn-Ext-Outer 445.156 kN 445.156*10^3 N 445.156 kN 445.156*10^3 N 405.670 kN 405.670*10^3 N

Vn-Ext-Gir-Inner

Vn-On-Inner-Gir

xiii) Computation of values for Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Abutment Cap under the Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3 against Equation Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-2) : a) According to Equ. 5.8.3.3-1 the Nominal Shear Resistanceat any Section of Girder is Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp b) For RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0, thus Equation stands to Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv c) On Outer Faces of Exterior Girder Vn= 0.25f/c-bv-Ext-Gir-Outer.dv-Ext-Gir-Outer. Vn-Ext-Gir-Outer. 2,539.688 kN 2539.688*10^3 N Vn-Ext-Gir-Inner 2,539.688 kN 2539.688*10^3 N Vn-On-Inner-Gir 2,539.688 kN 2539.688*10^3 N

xiv) Chacking for requirment of Shear Reinforcement based on Computed Nominal Shear Resistance-V n & the Factored Shearing Resistance-Vr of Abutment Cap Accordting to the Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3 & AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.1: a) Nominal Shear Resistance, Vn at any Section of Component is the Lesser value of of the Equqtions as mentioned below ; b) Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-1; AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3) c) Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.3-2; AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.3) : d) For RCC Component, Vp = 0. e) The Factored Shear Resitance at any Section of Component is Expressed by the Equation-5.8.2.1-2. Having the value, Vr = fVn in which; f) Vr is the Factored Shear Resitance at a Section in N Vr. N

0.90

h) Checking for requirment of Shear Reinforcement in respect of Acceptable Nominal Shear Resistance, Vn, Respective Factored Shear Resitance-Vr on Different Section of the Abutment Cap Computed under provision of Equ. 5.8.3.3-1 & Equ. 5.8.3.3-2 are shown in the Table below :. i) Table :- Checking for Requirement of Shear Reinforcement in respect of Computed values of Vn & Vr :

Location of Abutment Cap Section On Outer Face of Ext.-Girder On Inner Face of Ext.-Girder On Int.-Girder Position 413.972 405.670 2,539.69 Vn-1< Vn-2 405.670 365.10 Vu> Vr Require SR 413.972 445.156 2539.688 Vn-1< Vn-2 445.156 400.64 Vu> Vr Require SR Calculated Factored Shear Force-Vu kN 465.719 Vn-1 As per Equation. 5.8.3.3-1 kN 445.156 Vn-2 As per Equation 5.8.3.3-2 kN 2539.688 Relation between Values of Vn-1 & Vn-2 Vn-1 > Vn-2 Vn-1< Vn-2 kN 445.156 Accepted Value of Vn Factored Shear Resitance Relation between Values of Vu& Vr Vu> Vr Vu> Vr If VU > Vr Shear Rein (SR) Requires otherwise SR Not Require. Require SR

Vr

kN 400.64

xv) Checking of Required Max. Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement due to Applied Shearing Stress on Abutment Cap under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.7 : a) Due to applied Shearing Stress, vu < 0.125f/c, the Max. Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section is smax.-1 = 0.8dv 600mm, (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.2.7-1). b) Due to applied Shearing Stress, vu > 0.125f/c, the Max. Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section is smax.-2 = 0.4dv 300mm (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.2.7-2) c) Value of 0.125f/c in respect of Max. Spacing of Transvers/Shear Reinforcement due to Applied Shearing Stress at Defferent Section of Girder. 0.125f/c

2 2.63 N/mm

d) Table Showing values of vu, 0.8dv, 0.4dv againest the respective values of 0.125f/c : Table- ; Showing Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements in respect of Max. Spacing & Status :

Segment. Between Abutment Cap Sections End Edge Ext.-Girder Face

483.750

Maximum

Value of vu N/mm2

1.070

Value of 0.125f/c

Relation between

vu & 0.12f/c

N/mm2

2.625

vu<=>0.12f/c vu<0.1.25f/c

387.000

193.500

0.8dv<600

Formula Status

Whether Satisfy or Not Satisfy Satisfy

0.4dv<300

Satisfy

Ext.-Girder to Int.-Girder

483.750

0.951

2.625

vu<0.1.25f/c

387.000

193.500

0.8dv<600 0.4dv<300

Satisfy Satisfy

e) The Table indicates that all Sections of Abutment Cap have satisfied the required provisions for Spacings of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under both the Equations, v u < 0.125f/c ; smax. = 0.8dv 600mm, (Equ. 5.8.2.7-1). & vu > 0.125f/c ; smax. = 0.4dv 300mm, (Equ.-5.8.2.7-2). f) Since under Equation 5.8.2.7-2 (smax. = 0.4dv 300mm) the Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement is Minimum, thus it will Govern in Provision of same for Abutment Cap. xvi) Computation of Spacing for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement for Abutment Cap : a) Let Provide 2-Leged 12f Bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement for the Full Length of Abutment Cap. b) X-Sectional Area of 2-Leged 12f Bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement; = 2*pDStir.2/4 mm2 c) Allowable Max. Spacing for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement d) The required Spacing for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement according to the Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.5;Equ.-5.8.2.5-1; Av 0.083f/c(bvs/fy) having s = Avfy/0.083f/cbv f) Let Provide the 150mm Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcements for total Length of Abutment Cap. DShear. 12.000 mm

Av sMax sreq.

2 226.195 mm

300.000 mm 243.825 mm

s-pro.

150.000 mm

xvii) Checking against Requirements of Minimum Transverse Reinforcements for Abument Cap : a) Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section, Av 0.083f/c(bvs/fy), AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.5. Where, s is Length of Girder Segment under consideration for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement. b) Table for Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement for Abutment Cap.

Locations of Abutmen Web Width Provided Required Cap for Chacking Girder. for the Spacing of Minimum Section Shear Rein Steel Area bv spro Av-req. mm2 mm mm Ext. Girder OuterFace Ext. Girder OuterFace Position of Ent. Girder 1000.000 1000.000 1000.000 150.000 150.000 150.000 139.154 139.154 139.154 Provided Status of Whether Shearing Provided & the Equation Steel Area Required have Av-pro Steel Area Satisfied or mm2 Av-pro>Av-req. Not Satiosfied 226.195 Av-pro> Av Satisfied 226.195 Av-pro> Av Satisfied 226.195 Av-pro> Av Satisfied

xviii) Checking for Width (b) of Abutment Cap in respect of Nominal Shearing Resistance (Vn) at Critical Section : a) Against Applied Loads (DL & LL) the Critical Section for Shearing Forces Prevails at Inner Face of Exterior Girder. b) Computed Nominal Shearing Resistance According to Provisions of AASHTOVn 445.156 kN

LRFD--5.8.3.3 for the Section is Vn = 308.504*10^3N c) Provided width of Abutment Cap, b = 1000 mm. e) In RCC Component the value of Vp = 0, thus according to Equ. 5.8.3.3-2, the Width of Abutment Cap, bv = Vn/0.25*f/cdv, where dv is Calculated Effective Shear Depth for the Critical Section. bv-pro bv-Cal.

f) Since the Calculated value of Girder width bv-Cal = bv-pro the Provided Girder Width, thus Design Critical Section is OK. xix) Checking in respect of Longitudinal Reinforcements (Tensile Reinforcements) Provided for Abutment Cap under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.5 : a) At each Section the Tensial Capacity of Longitudinal Reinforcement on Flexural Tension side of the Member shall be proportationed to Satisfy Equation, Asfy + Apsfps Mu/dvff + 0.5Nu/fc + (Vu/fv - 0.5Vs -Vp)Cotq. (Equ-5.8.3.5-1). Where; b) As is Area of Nonprestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side in mm2 c) fy is Yield Strength of Nonprestressing Reinforceing Steel in MPa. d) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure, the value of Aps = 0 e) fps is Yield Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure, the value of fps = 0 f) Mu is Factored Moment of the Section due to Dead & Live Loads Loads on Structure. in N-mm but not less then Vudv. g) Nu is Factored Axil Force in N, Value will be (+) ve for the case of Tensile & (-) for the case of Compressive due to Prestressing. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Nu = 0. h) dv is Effective Shear Depth of Tensil Reinforcement for the Section in mm. i) Vu is Factored Shear Force for the Section in N. j) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N for the Section. k) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Vp = 0.

0 l) q is Angle of Inclenation of Digonal Compressive Stress in ( ) according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4;

As fy Aps

Variable -

fps

MPa

Mu

Variable

N-mm

Nu

dv Vu Vs Vp.

mm N N N

Variable

ff

0.90

n) fv is Resistance Factor for Shearing Force of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2, o) fc is Resistance Factor for Compression due to Prestressing according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.5.4.2.

fv

0.90

fc

0.80

p) Since for Nonprestressing RCC Structural Components the Items Aps, fps, Nu & Vp have Values = 0, thus mentioned Equ-5.8.3.5-1. Stands to, Asfy Mu/dvff + (Vu/fv - 0.5Vs)Cotq. q) Table- Showing Evalution of Equation-5.8.3.5-1 at Different Section of Abutment Cap & Status of Results.

As.

Provided Tensile Steel Area mm2

3926.991 3926.991 3926.991 3926.991

Mu Vu Factored Factored

Moment kN-mm

261.967 165.589 183.988 206.986

Vs Calculted Calculted Status of Shearing Value of R/H Part Equation Shearing Resistance Asfy of the Wheter Force of Stirrups (L/H Part) Equation Satisfied or kN kN kN kN Not Satisfied

465.719 413.972 413.972 0.000 405.670 405.670 405.670 405.670 1610.066 1610.066 1610.066 1610.066 914.13 656.84 691.07 40.74

Ext. Girder OuterFace Ext. Girder OuterFace Position of Ent. Girder In-between Girders

j) Since at all Section the requirments of Equation are being Satisfied, thus provision of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements for Abutment Cap is OK. 14 Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement on Vertical & Inclined Faces of Abutment Cap : a) The Abutment Cap is being Flexural Designed having Longitudinal Reinforcements both on Top & Bottom Faces against Calculated respective Moments. It has also been Provided with Transverse/Shear Reinforcements against the Calculated Shearing Forces having their Position Perpendicular to Main Reinforcement both on Horizontal and Vertical Faces. Now it requires to Provide Horizontal Reinforcement on Vertical & Inclined Faces under Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement Provisions according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8. i) Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement on Vertica Faces ( Perpendicular to Traffic) : a) Let consider 1 (One) meter Strip Length of Abutmebt Cap for Calculation of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement in Perpendicular to Traffic Direction on its Vertical Faces. b) Depth of Vertical Face of Abutment Cap, hAb-Cap-Rec = 0.600 m c) Width of Abutment Cap, bAb-Cap = 1.000m c) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8.1. Compoent having Less Than 1200mm Thicness will require a Steel Area, As 0.11Ag/fy as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement; Here, d) Ag is Gross Area of Girder's Each Vertical Face = LStrip*hAb-Cap-Rec LStrip. 1.000 m 1,000.000 mm

2 160.976 mm

Ag-Hori.

2 600000.000 mm

e) Let provide 16f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces of Girder. f) X-Sectional Area of 16f bar = pDBar2/4 g) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16.b/As-req-S&T.Ab-Cap.

DBar.

16 mm

Af-16 sreq-1

2 201.062 mm

749.413

mm,C/C

h) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8.2 the Max. Spacing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements should be the Less vale of 3-times of Component thickness = 3*bAb-Cap or = 450 mm. i) Value of Max. Spacing with 3 Times of Component Thickness = 3*bAb-Cap j) Value of Max. Spacing = 450mm k) Allowable Maximum Spacing for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8.2 Vertical Faces of Abutment Cap h) Number of 16f bars required against Allowable Max. Spacing = hAb-Cap/sallow j) Let Provide 4 nos. 16f Bars as Shrinkage & Temperature on all Vertical Faces (Earth, Water & Sides) of Abutment Cap. k) Spacing for provided 4 nos.16f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces = hAb-Cap/(NBar-pro-VF. - 1) l) Steel Area against Provided 4 nos. 16f bars as Horizontal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement on Vertical Surfaces of Abutment Cap = Af-16*NBar-pro-VF. sreq-2 sreq-3 sallow. 3,000.000 mm 450.000 mm 450.000 mm

NBar-req NBar-pro-VF

spro-S&T-VF

200.000 mm

As-pro-S&T-VF

2 804.248 mm

m) Based on above Calculations Let Provide on Inclined Water Face 1 (One) no. 16f Bar & on Inclined Earth Face 2 (Two) nos. 16f Bars as Horizontal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement. m) Since Provided S&T Steel Area As-pro-S&T-VF. > As-req-S&T-VF. & Provided Spacing of S&T spro-S&T-VF..> s-req-S&T-VF. thus the provision of Horizontal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement on Vertical Faces of Abutment Cap on Surfaces is Faces are OK.

15 Checking Against Punhing Shear Force on Abutment Cap due to Vertical Loads from Superstruture (DL& LL) & Also Loads from Abutment Cap & Back Wall : a) The Abutment Cap is affect by One Way Action of Loading, and According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.13.3.6 its Critical Section should be considered under the Provision of Article 5.8.3.2. According to which the Critacal Section is at a Distance dv (The Effective Shear Depth of Abutment Cap) from the Earthen Face of Abutment Stem. b) Since the Calculated Effective Shear Depth of Abutment Cap, dv = 483.750 mm and the Distance of Abutment Cap Earthen Edge from Stem Face = 400mm, which less than dv, thus it is not required to any Checking in respect of Punching Shear Force on Abutment Cap. More over the Abutment Cap is being Provided with Transverse & Shear

Reinforcements both on Horizontal (Perpendicular to Abutment Cap on Top & Bottom) & Vertical Faces against the Calculated Factored Shearing Forces, which will meet the requirements if any.

Part-I :- Structural Dimensions, Multiplying Factors & Computation of Different Load Intensities. 1 Sketch Diagram of Abutment Wall & Wing Walls :

12750 3000 600 3450 600 3450 600 3450 600 2000 5225 2100 2147 600 450 300 H1 = 4947 H = 6147 1900 3000 450 RL-2.20m 1775 750 2525 1200 C 600 4300 5500 600 C 300 700

600

RL-5.00m

2525

5500

1775

3000

3450 450

3450

450

1200

1447

450

2750

1500

450 300

2750

2 Structural Type, Design Criteria & Dimentions of Structure : i) Type of Abutment ii) Type of Wing-walls : : Wall Type Abutment. Wall Type Wing Walls Integrated with Abutment Wall having Counterforts over Well & Cantilever Wings beyond Well. Strength Limit State (USD) Design According to AASHTO-LRFD-2004.

iv) Dimensions of Substructural Components : Description a) Height of Abutment Wall from Bottom of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall, b) Height of Abutment Wall from Top of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall, c) Height of Abutment Well Cap, Notation Dimensions H H1 hWell-Cap. Unit.

6350

d) Height of Abutment Steam e) Height of Back Wall f) Height of Wing Wall g) Length of Wing Walls upon Well cap h) Width of Abutment Well Cap (Longitudinal Length), i) Length of Abutment Well Cap (Transverse Length), j) Transverse Length of Abutment Wall (Outer Face to Outer Face) in X-X Direction. k) Inner Distance in between Wing Walls (Transverse), l) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Bottom m) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Top n) Thickness of Counterfort Wall (For Wing Wall) o) Number of Wing-Wall Counterforts (on each side) p) Clear Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall at Bottom q) Average Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall = (tAB-Wall-Bot + tAb-Wall-Top)/2+SClear-Count& Ab-Bot. r) Effective Span of Wing Wall Counterfort = SAver-Count + tWW-Countf s) Thickness of Wing Walls within Well Cap, t) Thickness of Cantilever Wing Walls u) Length of Cantilever Wing Walls v) Height of Rectangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls w) Height of Triangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls x) Longitudinal Length of Well Cap on Toe Side from Abutment Wall Outer Face. y) Average Length (Longitudinal) of Well Cap on Heel Side from Abutment Wall Face.= SAver.-Count.& Ab. + tWW-Count.

12.750 m 10.250 m

9.350 m 0.750 m

L-W-Cap-Heel-Aver.

2.825 m

3 Design Data in Respect of Unit Weight, Strength of Materials & Load Multiplier Factors :

3 i) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration, g =

2 9.807 m/sec )

a) b) c) d) e)

a) b) c) d) e)

iii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTO-LRFD-2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength, f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, Ec = 0.043gc1.50f/c (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.4). d) Poisson's Ration = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2), subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.5). e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete, fr = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2)Mpa (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). f) Steel Ultimate strength, fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement, Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.000 8.400 23,855.620 2.89 fr fy fs ES 2.89 410.000 164.000 200,000.000 MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa

iv) Strength Data related to Working Stress Design & Service Load Condition ( WSD & AASHTO-SLS ) : a) b) c) d) e) Modular Ratio, n = Es/Ec 6 8.384 Value of Ratio of Steel & Concrete Flexural Strength, r = fs/fc Value of k = n/(n + r) Value of j = 1 - k/3 Value of R = 0.5*(fckj) n r k j R 8 20 0.29 0.90 1.10

v) Design Data for Resistance Factors for Conventional Construction (AASHTO LRFD-5.5.4.2.1). : (Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f or b value) a) b) c) d) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete For Axil Comression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme fFlx-Rin. fFlx-Pres. fShear. fSpir/Tie/Seim. 0.90 1.00 0.90 0.75

e) f) g) h) i) j)

Limit State (Zone 3 & 4). For Bearing on Concrete For Compression in Strut-and-Tie Modeis For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones For resistance during Pile Driving Value of b 1 for Flexural Compression in Reinforced Concrete (AASHTO LRFD-5.7.2..2.) k) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete

4 Different Load Multiplying Fatcors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : a) The Bridge will have to face Cyclonic Storms with very high Intensity of Wind Load (Wind Velocity = 260km/hr), but those would be occasional. Thus the respective Multiplier Factors of Limit State STRENGTH I (Bridge used by Normal Vehicle without wind load) for normal operation, Limit State of STRENGTH-III (Wind Velocity exceeding 90km/hr) for wind load during cyclonic storm condition and Limit State of STRENGTH-IV (Having Wind Velocity of 90 km/hr) for normal wind load only are selected as CRITICAL conditions for bridge structure. i) Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.250

gDW

1.500

gEH

1.500

gEV

1.350

gES

1.500

ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load Allowence-IM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) m 1.000

gLL-Truck IM

1.750 1.330

d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV STRENGTH - III STRENGTH - V

gLL-Lane gLL-PL. gLL-CE. gLL-BR. gLL-LS. gLL-WA. gLL-WS. gLL-WL gLL-FR. gLL-TU.

1.750 1.750 1.750 1.750 1.750 1.000 1.400 1.000 1.000 1.000

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

gLL-TG.

1.000

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

5 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD-3.4.1 ; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , gDC 1.000

gDW

1.000

(Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gEH 1.000

gEV

1.000

gES

1.000

ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (AASHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load Allowance-IM as per Provision of AASHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; SERVICE - II (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH SERVICE - IV SERVICE - II SERVICE - II SERVICE - II m 1.000

gLL-Truck IM

1.000 1.300

gLL-Lane gLL-PL. gLL-CE. gLL-BR. gLL-LS. gLL-WA. gLL-WS. gLL-WL gLL-FR. gLL-TU.

1.000 1.000 1.300 1.300 1.000 1.000 0.700 1.300 1.000 1.000

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

(With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV 6 Load Coefficients Factors & Intensity of Different Imposed Loads : i) Coefficient for Lateral Earth Pressure (EH) : a) Coefficient of Active Horizontal Earth Pressure, ko = (1-sinff ) ,Where; f is Effective Friction Angle of Soil b) For Back Filling with Clean fine sand, Silty or clayey fine to medium sand Effective Friction Angle of Soil, f = 340 .(Table 12.9, Page-138, RAINA,s Book) c) Angle of Friction with Concrete surface & Soli AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1. d) Value of Tan d (dim) for Coefficient of Friction. = 0.34 to 0.45 (AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1.) ko 0.441 gLL-TG. 1.000

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

34.000

19 to 24

tan d

0.34 to 0.45

dim

ii) Dead Load Surcharge Lateral/Horizontal Pressure Intensity (ES); AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.1. : a) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Uniform Surcharge, Dp-ES = ksqs in Mpa. Where; b) ks is Coefficien of Earth Pressure due to Surcharge = ko for Active Earth Pressure, c) qs is Uniform Surcharge applied to upper surface of Active Earth Wedge(Mpa) = wE*10-3N/mm2 Dp-ES

2 7.935 kN/m 2 0.008 N/mm

ks wE*10-3

0.441

2 0.018 N/mm 2 18.000 kN/m

iii) Live Load Surcharge Vertical & Horizontal Pressure Intensity (LS); AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4. : a) Constant Earth Pressur both Vertical & Horizontal for Live Load Surcharge on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic), Where; Dp-LS = kgEgheq*10-9 Dp-LL-Ab<6.00m Dp-LL-Ab6.00m 0.007141 7.141 0.004761 4.761 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2

b) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Live Load Surcharge for Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic), Where;

Dp-LL-WW<6.00m

Dp-LS = kgsgheq*10-9 ,

Dp-LL-WW6.00m

c) ks is Coefficien of Latreal Earth Pressure = ko for Active Earth Pressure. d) gs is Unit Weight of Soil (kg/m3)

2 e) g is Gravitational Acceleration (m/sec ), AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.1.2.

k gs g heq-Ab<6.00m. heq-Ab6.00m.

0.441

3 1,835.424 kg/m 2 9.807 m/sec

f) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm). Having, H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm ; AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4; Table-3.11.6.4-1. g) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Abutment having H < 6000mm.& H 6000mm. AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4; Table-3.11.6.4-1.

900.000 mm 600.000 mm

Weq-Ab<6.00m. Weq-Ab6.00m.

mm m mm m

h) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm). Having, H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm ; AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4; Table-3.11.6.4-2. i) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Wing Walls, Having H < 6000mm.& H 6000mm.

heq-WW<6.00m. heq-WW6.00m.

1,050.000 mm 600.000 mm

Weq-WW<6.00m. Weq-WW6.00m.

mm m mm m

Part-II :- Computation of Different Load Events, Respective Moments & Shear. 1 Philosophy in Flexural Design of Abutment Walls & Wing Walls of Bridge Structure : a) The Abutment Walls of Bridge Substructure will have to face both Vertical Dead Loads (DL) & Live Loads (LL) from the Superstructure and Horizontal Dead Load (DL) & Live Load (LL) Pressures due to Earth & Surcharge on their Back Faces. Under Vertical Loads (DL & LL) Abutment Wall will behave as Compression Component, whereas it will be a Cantilever one under Horizontal Pressure (DL & LL). The action of Vertical Loads from the Superstructure will reduce the affect of Horizontal Pressure a great extent. But in Construction Phenomenon execution Abutment Wall works are to be done a well ahead before Construction of Super structural Components having the total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) upon it. Thus to ensure the sustainability of Abutment Wall against the affect of Horizontal Loads & Forces (DL & LL) it should be Designed as a Cantilever Flexural Component. b) The Wing Walls will not have any Vertical Loads but those will have to face similar Horizontal Dead Load (DL) & Live Load (LL) Pressures caused by Earth & Surcharge Loads. Thus Wing Walls are also have to Designed as Cantilever Flexural Components against Horizontal Loads & Forces (DL & LL) upon those. c) For the Design purpose & Calculation of Imposed Loads (DL & LL), Shearing Forces & Moments both Abutment & Wing Wall it is considered having 1.000m Length & Wide Strips according to sequences of Design. LH&V 1.000 m

2 Computation of Horizontal Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls due to Lateral Soil & Surcharge Pressure :

i) Horizontal Loads at Bottom Level of Abutment Wall on 1 (One) meter Strip : a) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = k0*wE*H1 b) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL) on Abutmen Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = Dp-ES.LH&V c) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live Load (LL) on Abutmen Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic) having H1 < 6.000m. = Dp-LL-Ab.LH&V d) Total Dead Load (DL) Horizontal Pressure Intensity on Abutment Wall = PDL-H-Soil-WW + PDL-H-Sur-WW ii) Horizontal Loads at Bottom Level of Wing Walls on 1 (One) meter Strip : a) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic). = k0*wEH1 b) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL) on Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic). = Dp-ES.LH&V c) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live Load (LL) on Wing Wall (Parallel to Traffic) having H1 < 6.000m. = Dp-LL-WW.LH&V d) Total Dead Load (DL) Horizontal Pressure Intensity on Wing Wall = PDL-H-Soil-WW + PDL-H-Sur-WW PDL-H-Soil-WW

2 39.252 kN/m /m

PDL-H-Soil-Ab

2 39.252 kN/m /m

PDL-H-Sur-Ab

2 7.935 kN/m /m

PLL-H-Sur-Ab

2 7.141 kN/m /m

pDL-H-Total-Ab

2 47.187 kN/m /m

PDL-H-Sur-WW

2 7.935 kN/m /m

pLL-H-Sur-WW

2 8.331 kN/m /m

pDL-H-Total-WW

2 47.187 kN/m /m

3 Factored Horizontal Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls under Strength Limit State (USD): i) Factored Horizontal Loads on Abutment Wall for 1 (One) meter Wide Strip : a) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead FPDL-H-Soil-Ab-USD Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = gEH*PDL-H-Soil-Ab b) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL)on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = gES*PDL-H-Sur-Ab FPDL-H-Sur-Ab-USD

2 58.878 kN/m /m

2 11.902 kN/m /m

c) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live FPLL-H-Sur-Ab-USD Load (LL) on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = mgLL-LS*PLL-H-Sur-Ab d) Total Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to All Applied Loads (DL & LL) at Bottom Level of Abutment (Perpendicular to Traffic). FPH-Ab-USD

2 12.496 kN/m /m

2 83.276 kN/m /m

ii) Factored Horizontal Loads at Bottom Level of Wing Walls on 1 (One) meter Wide Strip : a) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead FPDL-H-Soil-WW-USD Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic). = gEH*PDL-H-Soil-WW

2 58.878 kN/m /m

b) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL) on Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic). = gES*PDL-H-Sur-WW c) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live Load (LL) on Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic). = mgLL-LS*PLL-H-Sur-WW d) Total Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to All Applied Loads (DL & LL) at Bottom Level of Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic)..

FPDL-H-Sur-WW-USD

2 11.902 kN/m /m

FPLL-H-Sur-WW-USD

2 14.579 kN/m /m

FPH-WW-USD

2 85.359 kN/m /m

4 Factored Horizontal Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls under Service Limit State (WSD): i) Factored Horizontal Loads on Abutment Wall for 1 (One) meter Wide Strip : a) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead FPDL-H-Soil-Ab-WSD Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = gEH*PDL-H-Soil-Ab b) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL)on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = gES*PDL-H-Sur-Ab FPDL-H-Sur-Ab-WSD

2 39.252 kN/m /m

2 7.935 kN/m /m

c) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live FPLL-H-Sur-Ab-WSD Load (LL) on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = mgLL-LS*PLL-H-Sur-Ab d) Total Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to All Applied Loads (DL & LL) at Bottom Level of Abutment (Perpendicular to Traffic). FPH-Ab-WSD

2 7.141 kN/m /m

2 54.327 kN/m /m

ii) Factored Horizontal Loads at Bottom Level of Wing Walls on 1 (One) meter Wide Strip : a) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead FPDL-H-Soil-WW-WSD Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic). = gEH*PDL-H-Soil-WW b) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL) on Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic). = gES*PDL-H-Sur-WW c) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live Load (LL) on Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic). = mgLL-LS*PLL-H-Sur-WW d) Total Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to All Applied Loads (DL & LL) at Bottom Level of Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic).. FPDL-H-Sur-WW-WSD

2 39.252 kN/m /m

2 7.935 kN/m /m

FPLL-H-Sur-WW-WSD

2 8.331 kN/m /m

FPH-WW-WSD

2 55.518 kN/m /m

5 Computation of Coefficients for Calculation of Moments on Abutment Wall & Wing Walls: i) Span Ratio of Abutment & Wing Walls in respect of Horizontal to Vertical Spans : a) Horizontal Span Length of Abutment Wall (Inner Distance) b) Horizontal Span of Length of Wing Walls (Inner Distance between Abutment Wall & Wing Wall Counterfort). LAb-T-Inner SAver-Count&Ab. 9.350 m 2.375 m

c) Total Vertical Depth of Abutment Wall/Wing Walls (From Back Wall Top upto Well Cap Top) d) Abutment Span Ratio for Horizontal to Vertical with Freely Supported on Top = LAb-T-Inner/H1 e) Wing Wall Span Ratio for Horizontal to Vertical with Un-supported on Top = SAver-Count&Ab./H1. g) Abutment Span Ratio for Vertical to Horizontal with Freely Supported on Top = H1/LAb-T-Inner h) Wing Wall Span Ratio for Vertical to Horizontal with Un-supported on Top = H1/SAver-Count&Ab.

H1

4.947 m

kAb-Supp.-H/V

1.890

kWW-Un-Supp.-H/V

0.480

kAb-Supp.-V/H

0.529

kWW-Un-Supp.-V/H

2.083

ii) Coefficients for Calculation of Moments for Freely Supported Triangular Loadings on Abutment Walls : (Using Table-53 of Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook UK.) a) k = 1.890 b) (+) ve Moment Coefficient of Abutment Wall for Vertical Span Strip c) (+) ve Moment Coefficient of Abutment Wall for Horizontal Span Strip d) (-) ve Moment Coefficient on Bottom Surface of Abutment Wall for Vertical Span Strip at Middle Position under Triangular Loading e) (-) ve Moment Coefficient of Abutment Wall for Horizontal Span Strip on Face of Vertical Edge k (+)cS-V-Ab-T (+)cS-H-Ab-T (-)cS-V-Ab-T 1.890 0.033 0.005 0.055

(-)cS-H-Ab-T

0.003

iii) Coefficients for Calculation of Moments for Unsupported Triangular Loadings on Wing Walls : (Using Table-53 of Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook UK.) a) k = 0.480 b) (+) ve Moment Coefficient of Wing Wall for Vertical Span Strip. c) (+) ve Moment Coefficient of Wing Wall for Horizontal Span Strip. (-) ve Moment Coefficient of Wing Wall for Vertical Span Strip at Middle d) Position on Bottom Surface. e) (-) ve Moment Coefficient at of Wing Wall for Horizontal Span Strip on Face of Vertical Edge k (+)cS-V-WW-T (+)cS-H-WW-T (-)cS-V-WW-T 0.480 0.038 0.009

(-)cS-H-WW-T

0.058

iv) Coefficients for Calculation of Moments related to Uniformly Loadings on Abutment Walls : (Using Table-4.2; 4.3 & 4.4 of Book Design of Concrete Structures- G.Winter. Seventh Edition) a) Since k = 0.529 > 0.500, Let Consider k = 0.550 k 0.550

b) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load (DL) on Abutment Vertical Span Strip. c) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load (DL) on Abutment Horizontal Span Strip. d) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Live Load (LL) on Abutment Vertical Span Strip. e) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Live Load (LL) on Abutment Horizontal Span Strip. f) (-) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load & Live Load (DL + LL) on Abutment Vertical Span Strip g) (-) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load & Live Load (DL + LL) on Abutment Horizontal Span Strip

(+)cS-V-Ab-U-DL

0.052

(+)cS-H-Ab-U-DL

0.005

(+)cS-V-Ab-U-LL

0.070

(+)cS-H-Ab-U-LL

0.007

(-)cS-V-Ab-U-DL+LL

0.085

(-)cS-H-Ab-U-DL+LL

0.014

v) Coefficients for Calculation of Moments related to Uniformly Loadings on Wing Walls : (Using Table-4.2; 4.3 & 4.4 of Book Design of Concrete Structures- G.Winter. Seventh Edition) a) Since k > 2.083, Let Consider k = 1.000. b) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load (DL) on Wing Wall Vertical Span Strip. c) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load (DL) on Wing Wall Horizontal Span Strip. d) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Live Load (LL) on Wing Wall Vertical Span Strip. e) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Live Load (LL) on Wing Wall Horizontal Span Strip. g) (-) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load & Live Load (DL + LL) on Wing Wall Vertical Span Strip h) (-) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load & Live Load (DL + LL) on Wing Wall Horizontal Span Strip k (+)cS-V-WW-U-DL 1.000 0.020

(+)cS-H-WW-U-DL

0.023

(+)cS-V-WW-U-LL

0.028

(+)cS-H-WW-U-LL

0.030

(-)cS-V-WW-U-DL+LL

0.033

(-)cS-H-WW-U-DL+LL

0.061

6 Factored Moments due to Horizontal Loads on Abutment under Strength Limit State (USD): i) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-V-Ab-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Ab-USD*H12 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-V-Ab-U-DL*FPDL-H-Sur-Ab-USD*H12 (+)MS-V-Ab-T-USD 47.550 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-Ab-Sur-DL-USD

15.146 kN-m/m

c) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cS-V-Ab-U-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-Ab-USD*H12 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads

(+)MS-V-Ab-Sur-LL-USD

21.407 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-Ab-USD

84.104 kN-m/m

ii) Calculation of Factored (-) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-V-Ab-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Ab-USD*H12 b) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-V-Ab-U-DL+LL*FPDL-H-Sur-Ab-USD*H12 c) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live = (-)cS-V-Ab-U-DL-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-Ab-USD*H12 d) Total (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads (-)MS-V-Ab-T-USD 79.250 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-Ab-Sur-DL-USD

24.758 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-Ab-Sur-LL-USD

25.995 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-Ab-USD

130.003 kN-m/m

iii) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-H-Ab-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Ab-USD*LAb-T-Inner2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-H-Ab-U-DL*FPDL-H-Sur-Ab-USD*LAb-T-Inne2 c) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cS-H-Ab-U-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-Ab-USD*LAb-T-Inne2 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MS-H-Ab-T-USD 25.736 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-Ab-Sur-DL-USD

5.202 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-Ab-Sur-LL-USD

4.370 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-Ab-USD

35.309 kN-m/m

iv) Calculation of Factored (-) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-H-Ab-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Ab-USD*LAb-T-Inne2 b) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-H-Ab-U-DL+LL*FPDL-H-Sur-Ab-USD*LAb-T-Inne2 c) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (-)cS-H-Ab-U-DL-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-Ab-USD*LAb-T-Inne2 d) Total (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads (-)MS-H-Ab-T-USD 10.295 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-Ab-Sur-DL-USD

14.567 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-Ab-Sur-LL-USD

15.294 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-Ab-USD

40.156 kN-m/m

7 Factored Moments due to Horizontal Loads on Wing Walls under Strength Limit State (USD): i) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients :

a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-V-WW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-WW-USD*H12 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-V-WW-U-DL*FPDL-H-Sur-WW-USD*H12 c) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cS-V-WW-U-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-WW-USD*H12 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads

(+)MS-V-WW-T-USD

0.000 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-WW-Sur-DL-USD

5.825 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-WW-Sur-LL-USD

9.990 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-WW-USD

15.816 kN-m/m

ii) Calculation of Factored (-) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-V-WW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-WW-USD*H12 b) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-V-WW-U-DL+LL*FPDL-H-Sur-WW-USD*H12 c) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (-)cS-V-WW-U-DL-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-WW-USD*H12 d) Total (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads (-)MS-V-WW-T-USD 12.968 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-WW-Sur-DL-USD

9.612 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-WW-Sur-LL-USD

11.774 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-WW-USD

34.354 kN-m/m

iii) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-H-WW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-WW-USD*SAver-Count&Ab2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-H-WW-U-DL*FPDL-H-Sur-Ab-USD*SAver-Count&Ab2 c) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cS-H-WW-U-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-WW-USD*SAver-Count&Ab2 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MS-H-WW-T-USD 12.620 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-WW-Sur-DL-USD

1.544 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-WW-Sur-LL-USD

2.714 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-WW-USD

16.878 kN-m/m

iv) Calculation of Factored (-) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-H-WW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-WW-USD*SAver-Count&Ab2 b) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-H-WW-U-DL+LL*FPDL-H-Sur-WW-USD*SAver-Count&Ab2 c) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (-)cS-H-WW-U-DL-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-WW-USD*SAver-Count&Ab2 (-)MS-H-WW-T-USD 19.262 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-WW-Sur-DL-USD

4.095 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-WW-Sur-LL-USD

5.016 kN-m/m

d) Total (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads

(-)MS-H-WW-USD

28.374 kN-m/m

8 Factored Moments due to Horizontal Loads on Abutment under Service Limit State (WSD): i) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-V-Ab-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Ab-WSD*H12 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-V-Ab-U-DL*FPDL-H-Sur-Ab-WSD*H12 c) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cS-V-Ab-U-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-Ab-WSD*H12 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MS-V-Ab-T-WSD 31.700 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-Ab-Sur-DL-WSD

10.097 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-Ab-Sur-LL-WSD

12.233 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-Ab-WSD

54.030 kN-m/m

ii) Calculation of Factored (-) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-V-Ab-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Ab-WSD*H12 b) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-V-Ab-U-DL+LL*FPDL-H-Sur-Ab-WSD*H12 c) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live = (-)cS-V-Ab-U-DL-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-Ab-WSD*H12 d) Total (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads (-)MS-V-Ab-T-WSD 52.834 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-Ab-Sur-DL-WSD

16.505 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-Ab-Sur-LL-WSD

14.854 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-Ab-WSD

84.193 kN-m/m

iii) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-H-Ab-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Ab-WSD*LAb-T-Inner2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-H-Ab-U-DL*FPDL-H-Sur-Ab-WSD*LAb-T-Inne2 c) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cS-H-Ab-U-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-Ab-USD*LAb-T-Inne2 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MS-H-Ab-T-WSD 17.158 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-Ab-Sur-DL-WSD

3.468 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-Ab-Sur-LL-WSD

4.370 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-Ab-WSD

24.996 kN-m/m

iv) Calculation of Factored (-) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-H-Ab-T*FPDL-H-Soil-Ab-WSD*LAb-T-Inne2 (-)MS-H-Ab-T-WSD 10.295 kN-m/m

b) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-H-Ab-U-DL+LL*FPDL-H-Sur-Ab-WSD*LAb-T-Inne2 c) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (-)cS-H-Ab-U-DL-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-Ab-USD*LAb-T-Inne2 d) Total (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads

(-)MS-H-Ab-Sur-DL-WSD

9.711 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-Ab-Sur-LL-USD

8.740 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-Ab-WSD

28.745 kN-m/m

9 Factored Moments due to Horizontal Loads on Wing Walls under Service Limit State (WSD): i) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-V-WW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-WW-WSD*H12 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-V-WW-U-DL*FPDL-H-Sur-WW-WSD*H12 c) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cS-V-WW-U-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-WW-WSD*H12 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MS-V-WW-T-WSD 0.000 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-WW-Sur-DL-WSD

3.884 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-WW-Sur-LL-WSD

5.709 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-WW-WSD

9.592 kN-m/m

ii) Calculation of Factored (-) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-V-WW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-WW-WSD*H12 b) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-V-WW-U-DL+LL*FPDL-H-Sur-WW-USD*H12 c) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (-)cS-V-WW-U-DL-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-WW-WSD*H12 d) Total (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads (-)MS-V-WW-T-WSD 12.968 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-WW-Sur-DL-WSD

6.408 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-WW-Sur-LL-WSD

6.728 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-WW-WSD

26.104 kN-m/m

iii) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-H-WW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-WW-WSD*SAver-Count&Ab2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-H-WW-U-DL*FPDL-H-Sur-Ab-WSD*SAver-Count&Ab2 c) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cS-H-WW-U-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-WW-WSD*SAver-Count&Ab2 (+)MS-H-WW-T-WSD 8.413 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-WW-Sur-DL-WSD

1.029 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-WW-Sur-LL-WSD

1.551 kN-m/m

d) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads

(+)MS-H-WW-WSD

10.994 kN-m/m

iv) Calculation of Factored (-) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-H-WW-T*FPDL-H-Soil-WW-WSD*SAver-Count&Ab2 b) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-H-WW-U-DL+LL*FPDL-H-Sur-WW-USD*SAver-Count&Ab2 c) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (-)cS-H-WW-U-DL-LL*FPLL-H-Sur-WW-WSD*SAver-Count&Ab2 d) Total (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads (-)MS-H-WW-T-WSD 12.842 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-WW-Sur-DL-USD

2.730 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-WW-Sur-LL-WSD

2.866 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-WW-WSD

18.438 kN-m/m

10 Unfactored Moments due to Horizontal Dead Loads on Abutment Wall : i) Calculation of (+) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Vertical Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-V-Ab-T*PDL-H-Soil-Ab*H12 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-V-Ab-U-DL*PDL-H-Sur-Ab*H12 c) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads (+)MS-V-Ab-T-UF 31.700 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-Ab-Sur-DL-UF

10.097 kN-m/m

(+)MUF-S-V-Ab-UF

41.797 kN-m/m

ii) Calculation of (-) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Vertical Span due to Unfactored dead Loads : a) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-V-Ab-T*PDL-H-Soil-Ab*H12 b) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-V-Ab-U-DL+LL*PDL-H-Sur-Ab*H12 c) Total (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads (-)MS-V-Ab-T-UF 52.834 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-Ab-Sur-DL-UF

16.505 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-Ab-UF

69.339 kN-m/m

iii) Calculation of (+) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Horizontal Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-H-Ab-T*PDL-H-Soil-Ab*LAb-T-Inner2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-H-Ab-U-DL*PDL-H-Sur-Ab*LAb-T-Inne2 c) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads (+)MS-H-Ab-T-UF 17.158 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-Ab-Sur-DL-UF

3.468 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-Ab-UF

20.626 kN-m/m

iv) Calculation of (-) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Horizontal Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads :

a) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-H-Ab-T*PDL-H-Soil-Ab*LAb-T-Inne2 b) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-H-Ab-U-DL+LL*PDL-H-Sur-Ab*LAb-T-Inne2 c) Total (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads 11 Unfactored Moments due to Horizontal Dead Loads on Wing Walls :

(-)MS-H-Ab-T-UF

10.295 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-Ab-Sur-DL-UF

9.711 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-Ab-UF

20.006 kN-m/m

i) Calculation of (+) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Vertical Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-V-WW-T*PDL-H-Soil-WW*H12 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-V-WW-U-DL*PDL-H-Sur-WW*H12 c) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads (+)MS-V-WW-T-UF 0.000 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-WW-Sur-DL-UF

3.884 kN-m/m

(+)MS-V-WW-UF

3.884 kN-m/m

ii) Calculation of (-) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Vertical Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-V-WW-T*PDL-H-Soil-WW*H12 b) (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead = (-)cS-V-WW-U-DL+LL*PDL-H-Sur-WW*H12 c) Total (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads (-)MS-V-WW-T-UF 8.645 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-WW-Sur-DL-UF

6.408 kN-m/m

(-)MS-V-Ab-UF

15.053 kN-m/m

iii) Calculation of (+) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Horizontal Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cS-H-WW-T*PDL-H-Soil-WW*SAver-Count&Ab2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cS-H-WW-U-DL*PDL-H-Sur-WW*SAver-Count&Ab2 (+)MS-H-WW-T-UF 8.413 kN-m/m

(+)MS-H-WW-Sur-DL-UF

1.029 kN-m/m

c) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads

(+)MS-H-WW-UF

9.443 kN-m/m

iv) Calculation of (-) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Horizontal Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (-)cS-H-WW-T*PDL-H-Soil-WW*SAver-Count&Ab2 b) (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (-)cS-H-WW-U-DL+LL*PDL-H-Sur-WW*SAver-Count&Ab2 (-)MS-H-WW-T-UF 12.842 kN-m/m

(-)MS-H-WW-Sur-DL-UF

2.730 kN-m/m

c) Total (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads

(-)MS-H-WW-UF

15.572 kN-m/m

12 Computation of Factored Horizontal Shearing Forces on Abutment & Wing Walls (USD) : i) Coefficients for Calculation of Shearing Froces on Abutment & Wing Walls Vertical & Horizontal Faces : (Using Table-4.5 of Book Design of Concrete Structures- G.Winter. Seveth Edition.) a) Since for Abutment k = 0.529 > 0.500, Let Consider k = 0.550 b) Since Wing Walls k > 2.083, Let Consider k = 1.000. c) Coefficiant of Shearing Forces for Vetical Span Strip having Shearing Forces Bottom Edge of Abutment Wall d) Coefficiant of Shearing Forces for Horizontal Span Strip having Shearing Forces on Abutment Wall Vertical Faces e) Coefficiant of Shearing Forces for Vetical Span Strip having Shearing Forces Bottom Edge of Wing Wall f) Coefficiant of Shearing Forces for Horizontal Span Strip having Shearing Forces on Wing Wall Vertical Faces. k k cShear-V-Ab 0.550 1.000 0.850

cShear-H-Ab

0.150

cShear-V-WW

0.330

cShear-H-WW

0.670

ii) Calculation of Shearing Froces on Abutment & Wing Walls Vertical & Horizontal Faces : a) Total Factored Horizontal Load on Aburment Wall for 1.000m Wide FPH&V-Ab-USD Strip at its Bottom Level = (0.5*FPDL-H-Soil-Ab-USD + FPDL-H-Sur-Ab-USD + FPDL-H-Sur-Ab-USD)*H1*LH&V b) Total Factored Horizontal Load on Wing Wall for 1.000m Wide Strip FPH&V-WW-USD at its Bottom Level = (0.5*FPDL-H-Soil-WW-USD + FPDL-H-Sur-WW-USD + FPDL-H-Sur-WW-USD)*H1*LH&V c) Shearing Forces on Abutment Wall at its Bottom Level for Vertical Span Strip = cShear-V-Ab*FPH&V-Ab-USD d) Shearing Forces on Abutment Wall at its Bottom Level for Horizontal Span Strip on Vertical Faces= cShear-H-Ab*FPH&V-Ab-USD c) Shearing Forces on Wing Wall at its Bottom Level for Vertical Span Strip = cShear-V-WW*FPH&V-WW-USD d) Shearing Forces on Wing Wall at its Bottom Level for Horizontal Span Strip on Vertical Faces = cShear-H-WW*FPH&V-WW-USD VS-V-Ab-USD 266.333 kN/m

276.636 kN/m

226.383 kN/m

VS-H-Ab-USD

39.950 kN/m

VS-V-WW-USD

91.290 kN/m

VS-H-WW-USD

185.346 kN/m

Part-III :- Flexural Design of Abutment Wall Against Applied Loads Under Strength Limit State (USD). 1 Computation of Related Features required for Flexural Design of Vertical & Horizontal Reinforcements on Abutment Wall : i) Design Strip Width for Abutment Wall in Vertical & Horizontal Direction & Clear Cover on different Faces;

a) Let Consider the Design Width in both Vertical & Horizontal directions are = 1000mm b) Let the Clear Cover on Earth Face of C-Cov.Earth. = 75mm, Let the Clear Cover on Water Face of Abutment Wall, C-Cov.Water = 50mm,

b C-Cov-Earth. C-Cov-Water

ii) Calculations of Limits For Maximum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1) : . a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for c/de-Max. a Section c/de 0.42 in which; b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm. Here; i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy), where ; ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps, fps & dp are = 0. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds . iii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.2) : c de

0.420

Variable Variable

As Aps fy fps dp ds

a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.2*Mcr or 1.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1-Table-3.4.1-1, which one is less.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1.2Mcr. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) - Mdnc(Sc/Snc - 1) Scfr where; i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to Effective Prestress Forces at Extreme Fiber only where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance of all Prestressing Losses in MPa. In Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in N-mm. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic/Noncomposite Mcr fcpe Variable N-mm N/mm2

Mdnc

Variable

N-mm

Sc

Variable

mm3

Snc

3 0.093750 m

Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. For the Rectangular RCC Section value of Snc = (b*tAb-Wall-Bot.3/12)/(tAb-Wall-Bot../2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in Mpa,(AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements, Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0, thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces fr Mcr

3 93.750/10^3 m 3 93.750*10^6 mm

2 2.887 N/mm

270658376.983 N-mm

270.658 kN-m Mcr-1 Mcr-2 Mcr-3 Variable Variable Variable N-mm N-mm N-mm

g) Table-1 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for Minimum Reinforcement of Different Surface & Direction Position Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable 1.2 Times M & Nature Unfactored Mcr-1 Cracking Mcr of Mcr Factored of Moment Dead Load As per Moment Cracking Cracking Moment on Moment Equation Value Moment Moment of Section Abutment MDL-UF 5.7.3.3.2-1 Sncfr (Mcr-1Sncfr) (1.2*Mcr) M Wall kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m

(+)ve Strip Vertical (-)ve Strip Vertical (+)ve Strip Horizontal (-)ve Strip Horizontal 69.339 20.626 20.006 270.658 270.658 270.658 270.658 270.658 270.658 270.658 270.658 270.658 324.790 324.790 324.790 130.003 35.309 40.156 172.904 46.961 53.407 324.790 324.790 324.790 324.790 324.790 324.790 41.797 270.658 270.658 270.658 324.790 84.104 1.33 Times

111.858

1.2Mcr

kN-m

324.790

324.790

pmax.

0.016

2 Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcements on Earth Face of Abutment Wall against the (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (-) ve Moment in Vetrical Span Strip of Abutment (-)MS-V-Ab-USD Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (-) ve Moment value. For (-) ve Mr value the required Reinforcement will be on Water Face of Abutment Wall. 130.003 130.003*10^6 324.790 324.790*10^6 kN-m/m N-mm/m kN-m/m N-mm/m

b) Since (-)MS-V-Ab-USD < Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Abutment Wall. b) X-Sectional of 16f Bars = p*DAb-Earth-V2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face, dpro = (tAb-Wall-Bot.-CCov-Earth. -DAb-Earth-V./2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af-16b/As-req-Ab-Earth-V. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 125mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 250mm,C/C = Af-16.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

MU

DAb-Earth-V.

16 mm

Af-16. de-pro.

2 201.062 mm

667.000 mm

areq.

27.862 mm

1,347.774 149.181

mm2/m mm,C/C

125 mm,C/C

As-pro-Ab-Earth-V.

1,608.495

mm2/m

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6

d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design c/de-Max. c

Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax

OK OK

0.450 31.40 mm

b1

0.85

d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.047 n) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not)

c/de-pro

0.047 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

v) Checking Against Max. Shear Force on Abutment Wall in Vetrical Strip at Bottom Level. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Botton Level of Abutment Wall on its Vertical Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. Thus Maximum Shear Force, VMax = VS-V-Ab-USD.= VU VU. 226.383 kN/m 226.383*10^3 N/m

b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU - fVp)/fbvdv, (AASSHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9).Here, b-i) bv is Minimum Width of the Section, here bv = b, the Design Strip Width. a-ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9de or 0.72h in mm, which one is greater. Where; de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tAb-Wall-Bot Width of Abutment Well.Thus value 0.9*de for the Section; is Whereas, value of 0.72h for the Section; b-iii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear b-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure, thus Vp = 0. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.3.3 : i) Vn-1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.- 5.8.3.3-1, or bv. dv. 1,000.00 mm 600.30

Vn-Ab-Bot

3,151.575 kN/m 3151.575*10^3 N/m 4,566.528 kN/m 4566.528*10^3 N/m 3,151.575 kN/m 3151.575*10^3 N/m 4,566.528 kN/m 4566.528*10^3 N/m 0.000 N/m

Vn-1

Vn-2

c-i) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.083bf/cbvdv, (AASHTO-LRFD- Equ. 5.8.3.3-1); c-ii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.3.3-3) in which, For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. c-iii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.00. c-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (For RCC Structure Elements, Vp = 0. AASHTO-8.16.6.3.1.)

Vc

Vs

2.00

Vp.

0.000 N

d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces VU Vn>Vu For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3 have Satisfied or Not).

Satisfied

e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section, thus the Abutment Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Abutment Wall on its Bottom Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement, thus Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Abutment Wall is OK. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 384.923 N-mm 384.923*10^6 kN-m 427.693 N-mm 427.693*10^6 kN-m 0.90

Mn f

b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) d) Since Abutment Wall in Vertical Direction is being considered as a Cantilever Mn-V-Bot Beam having 1.000 m Wide Strips. The Steel Area against Factored Max. Moments at its Bottom will have value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment M at Bottom of assumed Cantilever Beam in Vertcal on Earth Face = (-)MS-V-Ab-USD (-)MS-V-Ab-USD 427.693 kN-m 427.693*10^6 N-mm

f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment M at Mid Span ( Which one is Greater, if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied)

Mr>Ms-v-ab-usd Satisfied

vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fs-Dev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4. Where; b) fs-Dev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/As-prode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fs-Dev.

2 78.475 N/mm

MS-V-Ab-WSD

ii) As-pro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, in Which;

As-pro de

2 1,608.495 mm

667.00 mm

fsa

2 243.67 N/mm

i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCov-Earth. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Abutment Wall, CCov-Earth = 75mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 16f ; thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus its Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. ZMax.

58.00 mm

2 14,500.00 mm

23,000.00 N/mm

0.6*fy

2 246.000 N/mm

d) Since the Calculated value of fs-Dev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Abutment Wall Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fs-Dve. e) Based on fs-Dve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fs-Dev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fs-Dev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev. ZDev. 7,407.341 N/mm fs-Dev.< fs fsa< 0.6fy Zdev.< Zmax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy

i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Abutment Wall fs-Dev.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. < ZMax. Allowable Max. Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Vertical on Abutment Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK.

j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 3 Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcements on Water Face of Abutment Wall against the (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (+) ve Moment in Vetrical Span Strip of (+)MS-V-Ab-USD Abutment Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (+) ve Moment Mr value. For (+) ve value the required Reinforcement will be on Water Face of Abutment Wall. b) Since (+)MS-V-Ab-USD< Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Vertical Reinforcement on Water Face of Abutment Wall. b) X-Sectional of 16f Bars = p*DAb-Water-V2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Water Face, dpro = (tAb-Wall-Bot.-CCov-Water. -DAb-Water-V./2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af-16b/As-req-Ab-Water-V. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 125mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 125mm,C/C = Af-16.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

MU

DAb-Water-V.

16 mm

Af-16. de-pro.

2 201.062 mm

692.000 mm

areq.

26.814 mm

1,297.080 155.011

mm2/m mm,C/C

125 mm,C/C

As-pro-Ab-Water-V.

1,608.495

mm2/m

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6

d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro and Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.045 q) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not) c/de-Max. c

Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax

OK OK

0.450 31.404 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.045 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

iv) Since Checking have been done for Provision of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Abutment Wall against Max. Moment due to Imposed Loads & found Satisfactory in all respect thus it does not require further Checking against Provision of Vertical Reinforcement on Water Face of Abutment Wall. 4 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Earth Face of Abutment Wall against the (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (-) ve Moment in Horizontal Span Strip of (-)MS-H-Ab-USD Abutment Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (-) ve Moment value. Mr For (-) ve value the required Reinforcement will be on Earth Face of Abutment Wall. b) Since (-)MS-H-Ab-USD < Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Abutment Wall. b) X-Sectional of 16f Bars = p*DAb-Earth-H2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face, dpro = (tAb-Wall-Bot.-CCov-Earth. - DAb-Earth-V - DAb-Earth-H./2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) DAb-Earth-H. 16 mm MU 40.156 40.156*10^6 324.790 324.790*10^6 kN-m/m N-mm/m kN-m/m N-mm/m

Af-16. de-pro.

2 201.062 mm

651.000 mm

areq.

28.577 mm

As-req-Ab-Earth-H.

1,382.400

mm2/m

f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af-16b/As-req-Ab-Earth-H. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 125mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 125mm,C/C = Af-16..b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

sreq spro.

145.444

mm,C/C

125 mm,C/C

As-pro-Ab-Earth-H.

1,608.495

mm2/m

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6

d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.048 n) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not) c/de-Max. c

Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax

OK OK

0.450 31.404 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.048 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

v) Checking Against Max. Shear Force on Abutment Wall in Horizontal Strip at Bottom Level. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Botton Level of Abutment Wall on its Horizontal Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. Thus Maximum Shear Force, VMax = VS-H-Ab-USD.= VU VU. 39.950 kN/m 39.950*10^3 N/m

b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU - fVp)/fbvdv, (AASSHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9).Here, b-i) bv is Minimum Width of the Section, here bv = b, the Design Strip Width. a-ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9de or 0.72h in mm, which one is greater. Where; de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & bv. dv. 1,000.000 mm 585.900

h = tAb-Wall-Bot Width of Abutment Well.Thus value 0.9*de for the Section; is Whereas, value of 0.72h for the Section; b-iii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear b-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure, thus Vp = 0. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.3.3 : i) Vn-1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.- 5.8.3.3-1, or

Vn-Ab-Bot

3,075.975 kN/m 3075.975*10^3 N/m 4,456.986 kN/m 4456.986*10^3 N/m 3,075.975 kN/m 3075.975*10^3 N/m 4,456.986 kN/m 4456.986*10^3 N/m 0.000 N/m

Vn-1

Vn-2

Vc

Vs

2.00

Vp.

0.000 N

d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces VU Vn>Vu For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3 have Satisfied or Not).

Satisfied

e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section, thus the Abutment Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Abutment Wall on its Bottom Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement, thus Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Abutment Wall is OK. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 375.427 N-mm 375.427*10^6 kN-m 417.141 N-mm 417.141*10^6 kN-m 0.90

Mn f

b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) d) Since Abutment Wall in Horizontal Direction is being considered as Fixed End Mn-H-Bot Beam having 1.000 m Wide Strips. The Steel Area against Factored Max. Moments at its Fixed Ends will have value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Fixed Ends of assumed Rectangular Beam in Horizontal on Earth Face = (-)MS-H-Ab-USD (-)MS-H-Ab-USD 417.141 kN-m 417.141*10^6 N-mm

f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>Ms-h-ab-usd Satisfied Factored Moment M at Bottom of Vertical Span Strip ( Which one is Greater, if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied). vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fs-Dev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4. Where; b) fs-Dev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/As-prode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fs-Dev.

2 27.452 N/mm

(-)MS-H-Ab-WSD

2 1,608.495 mm

As-pro de

651.000 mm

fsa

2 243.667 N/mm

i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCov-Earth. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Abutment Wall, CCov-Earth = 75mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 16f ; thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition

58.000 mm

2 14,500.000 mm

Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus its Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. ZMax. 23,000.000 N/mm

0.6*fy

2 246.000 N/mm

d) Since the Calculated value of fs-Dev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Abutment Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fs-Dve. e) Based on fs-Dve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fs-Dev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fs-Dev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev. ZDev. 2,591.196 N/mm fs-Dev.< fs fsa< 0.6fy Zdev.< Zmax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy

i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Abutment Wall, fs-Dev.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. < ZMax. Allowable Max. Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Horizontal on Abutment Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 5 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Water Face of Abutment Wall against the (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (+) ve Moment in Horizontal Span Strip of (+)MS-H-Ab-USD Abutment Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (+) ve Moment Mr value. For (+) ve value the required Reinforcement will be on Water Face of Abutment Wall. b) Since (+)MS-V-Ab-USD< Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Water Face DAb-Water-H. 16 mm MU 35.309 35.309*10^6 324.790 324.79*10^6 kN-m/m N-mm/m kN-m/m N-mm/m

ofAbutment Wall. b) X-Sectional of 16f Bars = p*DAb-Water-V2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Water Face, dpro = (tAb-Wall-Bot.-CCov-Water. -DAb-Water-V - DAb-Water-H./2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af-16b/As-req-Ab-Water-H. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 125mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 125mm,C/C = Af-16..b/spro i) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ j) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

Af-16. de-pro.

2 201.062 mm

676.000 mm

areq.

27.475 mm

1,329.065 151.281

mm2/m mm,C/C

125 mm,C/C

As-pro-Ab-Water-H.

1,608.495

mm2/m

k) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6

l) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. m) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.046 q) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not) c/de-Max. c

Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax

OK OK

0.45 31.40 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.05 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

iv) Since Checking have been done for Provision of Horizontal Reinforcement on Abutment Wall Earth Face against Max. Moment due to Imposed Loads & found Satisfactory in all respect thus it does not require further Checking against Provision of Horizontal Reinforcement on Water Face of Abutment Wall

Part-IV :- Flexural Design of Wing Walls Against Applied Loads Under Strength Limit State (USD). 1 Computation of Related Features required for Flexural Design of Vertical & Horizontal Reinforcements on Wing Walls : i) Design Strip Width for Wing Walls in Vertical & Horizontal Direction & Clear Cover on different Faces; a) Let Consider the Design Width in both Vertical & Horizontal directions are = 1000mm b) Let the Clear Cover on Earth Face of C-Cov.Earth. = 75mm, Let the Clear Cover on Water Face of Abutment Wall, C-Cov.Water = 75mm, b C-Cov-Earth. C-Cov-Water 1.00 m 75 mm 50 mm

ii) Calculations of Limits For Maximum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1) : . a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for c/de-Max. a Section c/de 0.42 in which; b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm. Here; i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy), where ; ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps, fps & dp are = 0. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds . iii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.2) : c de

0.42

Variable Variable

As Aps fy fps dp ds

a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.2*Mcr or 1.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1-Table-3.4.1-1, which one is less.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1.2Mcr. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) - Mdnc(Sc/Snc - 1) Scfr where; i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to Effective Prestress Forces at Extreme Fiber only where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance of all Prestressing Losses in MPa. In Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0. Mcr fcpe Variable N-mm N/mm2

ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in N-mm. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic/Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. For the Rectangular RCC Section value of Snc = (b*tWW.3/12)/(tWW/2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in Mpa,(AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements, Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0, thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces

Mdnc

Variable

N-mm

Sc

Variable

mm3

Snc

fr Mcr

2 2.887 N/mm

97437015.714 N-mm 97.437 kN-m Variable Variable Variable N-mm N-mm N-mm

g) Table-2 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for Minimum Reinforcement of Different Surface & Direction Position Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable 1.2 Times M & Nature Unfactored Mcr-1 Cracking Mcr of Mcr Factored of Moment Dead Load As per Moment Cracking Cracking Moment on Moment Equation Value Moment Moment of Section Wing MDL-UF 5.7.3.3.2-1 Sncfr (Mcr-1Sncfr) (1.2*Mcr) M Walls kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m

(+)ve Strip Vertical (-)ve Strip Vertical (+)ve Strip Horizontal (-)ve Strip Horizontal 69.339 9.443 15.572 97.437 97.437 97.437 97.437 97.437 97.437 97.437 97.437 97.437 116.924 116.924 116.924 34.354 16.878 28.374 45.691 22.448 37.737 116.924 116.924 116.924 116.924 116.924 116.924 41.797 97.437 97.437 97.437 116.924 15.816 1.33 Times

21.035

1.2Mcr

kN-m

116.924

116.924

pmax.

0.016

2 Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcements on Earth Face of Wing Walls against the (-) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip :

i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Maximum Flexural (-) ve Moment at Bottom Face of Wing Wall (-)MS-V-WW-USD is the Calcutated Factored Moment which is Less than Mr. For (-) ve value of Moment the Reinforcement will be on Earth Face of Wing Wall. Mr 34.354 34.354*10^6 116.924 116.924*10^6 kN-m/m N-mm/m kN-m/m N-mm/m

b) Since (-)MS-V-WW-USD < Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Abutment Wall. b) X-Sectional of 16f Bars = p*DWW-Earth-V2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face, dpro = (tWW.-CCov-Earth. -DWW-Earth-V./2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af-16b/As-req-Ab-Earth-V. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 100mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 100mm,C/C = Af-16..b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

MU

DWW-Earth

16 mm

Af-16. de-pro.

2 201.062 mm

367.000 mm

areq.

18.305 mm

885.484 227.064

mm2/m mm,C/C

150 mm,C/C

As-pro-WW-Earth-V.

1,340.413

mm2/m

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6

d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 :

Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax

OK OK

a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.107 n) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not)

c/de-Max. c

0.450 26.170 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.071 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

v) Checking Against Max. Shear Force on Wing Wall in Vetrical Strip at Bottom Level. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Botton Level of Wing Wall on its Vertical Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. Thus Maximum Shear Force, VMax = VS-V-WW-USD = VU VU. 91.290 kN/m 91.290*10^3 N/m

b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU - fVp)/fbvdv, (AASSHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9).Here, b-i) bv is Minimum Width of the Section, here bv = b, the Design Strip Width. a-ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9de or 0.72h in mm, which one is greater. Where; de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tWW Thickness of Wing Wall.Thus value 0.9*de for the Section; is Whereas, value of 0.72h for the Section; b-iii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear b-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure, thus Vp = 0. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.3.3 : i) Vn-1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.- 5.8.3.3-1, or bv. dv. 1,000.000 mm 330.300

Vn-WW-Bot

1,734.075 kN/m 1734.075*10^3 N/m 2,512.617 kN/m 2512.617*10^3 N/m 1,734.075 kN/m 1734.075*10^3 N/m 2,512.617 kN/m 2512.617*10^3 N/m 0.000 N/m

Vn-1

Vn-2

c-i) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.083bf/cbvdv, (AASHTO-LRFD- Equ. 5.8.3.3-1); c-ii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.3.3-3) in which, For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0.

Vc

Vs

c-iii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.00. c-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (For RCC Structure Elements, Vp = 0. AASHTO-8.16.6.3.1.)

2.00

Vp.

0.000 N

d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3 have Satisfied or Not). e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section, thus the Wing Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Wing Wall on its Bottom Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement, thus Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Wing Wall is OK. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 173.909 N-mm 173.909*10^6 kN-m 193.232 N-mm 193.232*10^6 kN-m 0.90

Mn f

b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) d) Since Abutment Wall in Vertical Direction is being considered as a Cantilever Mn-V-Bot Beam having 1.000 m Wide Strips. The Steel Area against Factored Max. Moments at its Bottom will have value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Bottom of assumed Cantilever Beam in Vertcal on Earth Face = MS-V-WW-USD MS-V-WW-USD 193.232 kN-m 193.232*10^6 N-mm

f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>Ms-v-ww-usd Satisfied Factored Moment M at Bottom of Vertical Span Strip (Which one is Greater, if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied). vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fs-Dev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4. Where;

b) fs-Dev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/As-prode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State

fs-Dev.

2 53.065 N/mm

(-)MS-V-WW-WSD

2 1,340.413 mm

As-pro de

367.000 mm

fsa

2 229.299 N/mm

i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCov-Earth. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Abutment Wall, CCov-Earth = 75mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 16f ; thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus its Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. ZMax.

58.000 mm

2 17,400.000 mm

23,000.000 N/mm

0.6*fy

2 246.000 N/mm

d) Since the Calculated value of fs-Dev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Wing Wall Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fs-Dve. e) Based on fs-Dve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fs-Dev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fs-Dev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev. ZDev. 5,322.702 N/mm fs-Dev.< fs fsa< 0.6fy Zdev.< Zmax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy

i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Wing Wall f s-Dev.< fsa the Computed Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. < ZMax. Allocable Max. Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Vertical on Wing Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 18 Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcements on Water Face of Wing Wall against the (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (+) ve Moment in Vetrical Span Strip of Wing Wall (+)MS-V-WW is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (+) ve Moment value. For (+) Mr ve value the required Reinforcement will be on Water Face of Wing Wall. b) Since (+)MS-V-WW< Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Vertical Reinforcement on Water Face of the Wing Wall. b) X-Sectional of 16f Bars = p*DAb-Water-V2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Water Face, dpro = (tWW.-CCov-Water. -DWW-Water-V./2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af-16b/As-req-WW-Water-V. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 25f bars for the Section spro = 175mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 175mm,C/C = Af-16..b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro ppro 0.003 DWW-Water-V. 16 mm MU 15.816 15.816*10^6 116.924 116.924*10^6 kN-m/m N-mm/m kN-m/m N-mm/m

Af-16. de-pro.

2 201.062 mm

392.000 mm

areq.

17.082 mm

826.343 243.315

mm2/m mm,C/C

175 mm,C/C

As-pro-WW-Water-V.

1,148.925

mm2/m

apro Mpro

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6

d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis & the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.057 q) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not) c/de-Max. c

Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax

OK OK

0.450 22.431 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.057 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

iv) Since Cackings have been done for Provision of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Wing Wall against Max. Moment due to Imposed Loads & found Satisfactory in all respect, thus it does not require further Checking against Provision of Vertical Reinforcement on Water Face of Wing Wall 19 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Earth Face of Wing Wall against the (-) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (-) ve Moment in Horizontal Span Strip of Wing (-)MS-H-WW-USD Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (-) ve Moment value. For (-) ve Mr value the required Reinforcement will be on Earth Face of Wing Wall. b) Since (-)MS-H-WW-USD< Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Wing Wall. b) X-Sectional of 16f Bars = p*DWW-Earth-H2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face, dpro = (tWW.-CCov-Earth. - DWW-Earth-V - DWW-Earth-H./2) DWW-Earth-H. 16 mm MU 28.374 28.374*10^6 116.924 116.924*10^6 kN-m/m N-mm/m kN-m/m N-mm/m

Af-16. de-pro.

2 201.062 mm

351.000 mm

d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af-16b/As-req-WW-Earth-H. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 175mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 175mm,C/C = Af-16..b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

areq.

19.186 mm

928.126 216.632

mm2/m mm,C/C

175 mm,C/C

As-pro-WW-Earth-H.

1,148.925

mm2/m

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6

d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.064 n) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not) c/de-Max. c

Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax

OK OK

0.450 22.431 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.064 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

v) Checking Against Max. Shear Force on Wing Wall in Horizontal Strip at Bottom Level. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Botton Level of Wing Wall on its Horizontal Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. Thus Maximum Shear Force, VMax = VS-H-WW.= VU VU. 185.346 kN/m 185.346*10^3 N/m

b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU - fVp)/fbvdv, (AASSHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9).Here,

b-i) bv is Minimum Width of the Section, here bv = b, the Design Strip Width. a-ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9de or 0.72h in mm, which one is greater. Where; de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tWW Thickness of Wing Wall.Thus value 0.9*de for the Section; is Whereas, value of 0.72h for the Section; b-iii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear b-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure, thus Vp = 0. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.3.3 : i) Vn-1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.- 5.8.3.3-1, or

bv. dv.

1,000.000 mm 324.000

Vn-Ab-Bot

1,701.000 kN/m 1701.000*10^3 N/m 2,464.693 kN/m 2464.693*10^3 N/m 1,701.000 kN/m 1701.000*10^3 N/m 2,464.693 kN/m 2464.693*10^3 N/m 0.000 N/m

Vn-1

Vn-2

Vc

Vs

2.00

Vp.

0.000 N

d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3 have Satisfied or Not). e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section, thus the Abutment Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Wing Wall on its Earth Face does not Require any Shear Reinforcement, thus Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Wing Wall is OK. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, Mr 143.214 N-mm

where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mn f

b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) d) Since Wing Wall in Horizontal Direction is being considered as Fixed End Mn-H-Bot Beam having 1.000 m Wide Strips. The Steel Area against Factored Max. Moments at its Fixed Ends will have value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Fixed Ends of assumed Rectangular Beam in Horizontal on Earth Face = MS-H-WW-USD MS-H-WW-USD 159.126 kN-m 159.126*10^6 N-mm

Satisfied

f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>Mu Factored Moment MU on Horiziontal Strip Span ( Which one is Greater, if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied)

vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fs-Dev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4. Where; b) fs-Dev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/As-prode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit fs-Dev.

2 45.721 N/mm

MS-H-WW-WSD

2 1,148.925 mm

As-pro de

351.000 mm

fsa

2 217.814 N/mm

i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCov-Earth. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Wing Wall, CCov-Earth = 75mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 16f ; thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm

58.000 mm

ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus its Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. ZMax.

2 20,300.000 mm

23,000.000 N/mm

0.6*fy

2 246.000 N/mm

d) Since the Calculated value of fs-Dev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the T-Girder Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fs-Dve. e) Based on fs-Dve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fs-Dev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fs-Dev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev. ZDev. 4,827.918 N/mm fs-Dev.< fs fsa< 0.6fy Zdev.< Zmax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy

i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Well Cap fs-Dev.< fsa the Computed Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. < ZMax. Allocable Max. Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Horizontal on Wing Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 15 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Water Face of Wing Wall against the (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (+) ve Moment in Horizontal Span Strip of Wing (+)MS-H-WW Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (+) ve Moment value. For (+) ve Mr value the required Reinforcement will be on Water Face of Wing Wall. 16.878 16.878*10^6 116.924 116.924*10^6 kN-m/m N-mm/m kN-m/m N-mm/m

b) Since (+)MS-V-WW< Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Water Face of Wing Wall. b) X-Sectional of 16f Bars = p*DWW-Water-H2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Water Face, dpro = (tWW.-CCov-Water. -DWW-Water-V - DWW-Water-H./2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af-16b/As-req-Ab-Water-H. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 25f bars for the Section spro = 175mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 175mm,C/C = Af-16..b/spro i) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ j) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

MU

DWW-Water-H.

16 mm

Af-16. de-pro.

2 201.062 mm

376.000 mm

areq.

17.845 mm

863.219 232.921

mm2/m mm,C/C

175 mm,C/C

As-pro-Ab-Water-H.

1,148.925

mm2/m

k) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6

l) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. m) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.060 c/de-Max. c

Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax

OK Not OK

0.450 22.43 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.060

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

OK

iv) Since Checking have been done for Provision of Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Wing Wall against Max. Moment due to Imposed Loads & found Satisfactory in all respect thus it does not required further Checking against Provision of Horizontal Reinforcement on Water Face of Wing Wall

ximum

ximum

1 Sketch Diagram of Abutment Wall & Wing Walls :

300

700

C 2000

RL-5.00m

600 450 300 H1 = 4947 H = 6147 1900 3000 450 RL-2.20m 1775 750 2525 1200 C 600 4300 5500 600

1200

1447

1500

2 Structural Type, Design Criteria & Dimentions of Structure : i) Type of Abutment ii) Type of Wing-walls : : Wall Type Abutment. Wall Type Wing Walls Integrated with Abutment Wall having Counterforts over Well & Cantilever Wings beyond Well. Service Limit State (WSD) Design According to AASHTO-LRFD-2004.

iv) Dimensions of Substructural Components : Description a) Height of Wing Wall from Bottom of Well Cap up to its Top, b) Height of Wing Wall from Top of Well Cap up to its Top, Notation Dimensions Unit. H H1 6.147 m 4.947 m

6350

2147

c) Height of Abutment Well Cap, d) Height of Abutment Steam f) Height of Wing Wall g) Length of Wing Walls upon Well cap l) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Bottom m) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Top n) Thickness of Counterfort Wall For Wing Wall. o) Number of Wing-Wall Counterforts (on each side) p) Length of Counterfort Base (Length at Bottom). q) Clear Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall at Bottom r) Average Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall = (tAB-Wall-Bot + tAb-Wall-Top)/2+SClear-Count& Ab-Bot. s) Effective Span of Wing Wall Counterfort = SAver-Count + tWW-Countf t) Thickness of Wing Walls within Well Cap, u) Length of Cantilever Wing Walls (On Top). v) Thickness of Cantilever Wing Walls w) Height of Rectangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls x) Height of Triangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls y) Longitudinal Length of Well Cap on Toe Side from Abutment Wall Outer Face.

hWell-Cap. hSteam. H-W-Wall LW-W-Well-Cap t.-Ab-wall-Bot. t.-Ab-wall-Top. tWW-Countf. NW-W-count LCount-Base. SClear-Count& Ab-Bot. SAver-Count&Ab.

3 Design Data in Respect of Unit Weight, Strength of Materials & USD Multiplier Factors :

3 i) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration, g =

2 9.807 m/sec )

a) b) c) d)

Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water

3 ii) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kN/m :

gs

3 1,835.424 kg/m

a) b) c) d) e)

iii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTO-LRFD-2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength, f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, Ec = 0.043gc1.50f/c (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.4). d) Poisson's Ration = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2), subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.5). e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete, fr = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2)Mpa (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). f) Steel Ultimate strength, fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement, Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.000 8.400 23,855.620 2.89 fr fy fs ES 2.89 MPa MPa MPa MPa

iv) Strength Data related to Working Stress Design & Service Load Condition ( WSD & AASHTO-SLS ) : a) b) c) d) e) Modular Ratio, n = Es/Ec 6 8.384 Value of Ratio of Steel & Concrete Flexural Strength, r = fs/fc Value of k = n/(n + r) Value of j = 1 - k/3 Value of R = 0.5*(fckj) n r k j R 8 20 0.29 0.90 1.10

4 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD-3.4.1 ; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.000

gDW

1.000

gEH

1.000

d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2)

gEV

1.000

gES

1.000

ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load Allowence-IM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; SERVICE - I (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). SERVICE - IV SERVICE - II SERVICE - II SERVICE - II m 1.000

gLL-Truck IM

1.000 1.000

gLL-Lane gLL-PL. gLL-CE. gLL-BR. gLL-LS. gLL-WA. gLL-WS. gLL-WL gLL-FR. gLL-TU.

1.000 1.000 1.300 1.300 1.000 1.000 0.700 1.300 1.000 1.000

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

gLL-TG.

1.000

p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV 5 Load Coefficients Factors & Intensity of Different Imposed Loads : i) Coefficient for Lateral Earth Pressure (EH) : a) Coefficient of Active Horizontal Earth Pressure, ko = (1-sinff ) ,Where; f is Effective Friction Angle of Soil b) For Back Filling with Clean fine sand, Silty or clayey fine to medium sand Effective Friction Angle of Soil, f = 340 .(Table 12.9, Page-138, RAINA,s Book) c) Angle of Friction with Concrete surface & Soli AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1. d) Value of Tan d (dim) for Coefficient of Friction. = 0.34 to 0.45 (AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1.)

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

ko

0.441

34

19 to 24

tan d

ii) Dead Load Surcharge Lateral/Horizontal Pressure Intensity (ES); AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.1. : a) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Uniform Surcharge, Dp-ES = ksqs in Mpa. Where; b) ks is Coefficien of Earth Pressure due to Surcharge = ko for Active Earth Pressure, c) qs is Uniform Surcharge applied to upper surface of Active Earth Wedge(Mpa) = wE*10-3N/mm2 Dp-ES

2 7.935 kN/m 2 0.007935 N/mm

ks wE*10-3

0.441

2 0.018 N/mm 2 18.000 kN/m

iii) Live Load Surcharge Vertical & Horizontal Pressure Intensity (LS); AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4. : a) Constant Earth Pressur both Vertical & Horizontal for Live Load Surcharge on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic), Where; Dp-LS = kgEgheq*10-9 Dp-LL-Ab<6.00m Dp-LL-Ab6.00m 0.007141 7.141 0.004761 4.761 0.008331 8.331 0.004761 4.761 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2

b) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Live Load Surcharge for Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic), Where; Dp-LS = kgEgheq*10-9 ,

Dp-LL-WW<6.00m Dp-LL-WW6.00m

c) ks is Coefficien of Latreal Earth Pressure = ko for Active Earth Pressure. d) gs is Unit Weight of Soil (kg/m3)

2 e) g is Gravitational Acceleration (m/sec ), AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.1.2.

k gs g heq-Ab<6.00m. heq-Ab6.00m.

0.441

3 1,835.424 kg/m 2 9.807 m/sec

f) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm). Having, H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm ; AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4; Table-3.11.6.4-1. g) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Abutment having H < 6000mm.& H 6000mm. AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4; Table-3.11.6.4-1.

900.000 mm 600.000 mm

Weq-Ab<6.00m. Weq-Ab6.00m.

mm m mm m

h) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm). Having, H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm ; AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4; Table-3.11.6.4-2. i) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Wing Walls, Having H < 6000mm.& H 6000mm.

heq-WW<6.00m. heq-WW6.00m.

1,050.000 mm 600.000 mm

Weq-WW<6.00m. Weq-WW6.00m.

mm m mm m

6 Philosophy in Flexural Design of Counterforts for Bridge substructure : a) On Extrme edge of Well Cap's Earth Side Counterforts are being proposed for Bridge Substructure as an additional Support for the Cantilever Wing Wall Components. These Counterforts will have to Face Vertical Dead Loads (DL) due to Soil & Surcharge Pressure including Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure upon an Area of Well Cap having the Dimensions with Effective Span Length of Counterfort & its Base Length. The Components will also have to Face the Horizontal Dead Load (DL ) & Live Load (LL) Pressures caused by same Forces acting upon Vertica Faces of Wing Walls having Dimensions with Effective Span Length of Counterforts & Height of Wing Wall. b) In normal cases, Counterforts would have Well Cap/Abutment Cap & Wing Wall/Abutment Wall on their both sides, but for the present case Wall Cap is existing beyond Counterfort. At the same time beyond Well Cap there exists a Cantilever Type Wing Wall at Top Level of Counterfort. Thus for Calculation of Vertical Loads (DL & LL) Effective Vertical Span would be considered from Counterfort Outer Face up to the Middle Point between Abutment Wall and the Counterfort. Whereas for Calculation of Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) the Effective Horizontal Span would be the Length from Middle Point between Abutment Wall and Counterfort + Equivelent Horizontal Length of Cantilever Wing Wall. c) Since the Counterfort posses Triangular shape & the Applied Forces are of Complex Nature, thus it is considered to adopt the Service Limit State Methodology (WSD) in Flexural Design of Counterforts for Wing Wall. d) The Main Reinforcements of Counterfort will be Against Applied Horizontal Forces upon Effective Horizontal Span of Counterfort. The Shear/Web Reinforcements would be under both Vertical & Horizontal Forces accordingly. d) To reduce the Complex in Calculation of Horizontal Loads upon the LCant-WW-Equi. 1.668 m

Trapezoid Shape Cantilever Wing Wall, keeping its Height & Vertical Surface Area same, an Equivalent Horizontal Length is being considered for the Component. Thus the Calculated Equivalent Horizontal Length of Cantilever Wing Wall = (LCant-WW.*hCant.-WW-Rec. + 0.50*LCant-WW.*hCant.-WW-Tri.)/H1 e) For Flexural Design & Calculation of Loads, Shear & Moments due to Applied 1.000m Width/Depth Strips are being considered both in Vertical & Horizontal. 7 Calculation of Loads upon Counterfort: i) Skech Diagram Showing Dimentions Related to Loads Upon Counterfort : tWW. = 0.45 m A q bStrip-V hStrip-H 1.000 m 1.000 m

G/

H=

6.147 m

H1 =

4.947 m

90o G/ B C D G q

K/ K F hWell-Cap. = E 1.2 m

LW-Cap-Toe.. =

2.525 m LCount-Base. =

3.45 m

ii) Computation of Span Lengths for Vertical & Horizontal Loads upon Counterfort : a) Clear span in between Counterfort & Abutment Wall (Average), b) Thickness of Counterfort for Wing Wall, c) Effective Span of Counterfort for Horizontal Load Calculations; = SAver-Count&Ab./2+ tWW-Countf.+ LCant-WW-Equi. d) Effective Span of Counterfort for Vertical Load Calculations; = SAver-Count&Ab./2+ tWW-Countf. SAver-Count&Ab. tWW-Countf. SEff.-Coutf-H-Load. 2.375 m 0.450 m 3.305 m

SEff.-Coutf-V-Load.

1.638 m

iii) Computation of Horizontal Loads acting upon Counterfort : a) Intensity of Horizontal Load acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to Active Horizontal Earth Dead Load Pressure upon Horizontal Effective Span Length; = ko*H1*SEff.-Coutf-H-Load.hStrip-H b) Intensity of Horizontal Load acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to the Horizontal Surcharge Dead Load Pressure upon Horizontal Effective Span Length; = Dp-ES*SEff.-Coutf-H-Load.hStrip-H c) Intensity of Horizontal Load acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to the Horizontal Surcharge Live Load Pressure for Wing Wall upon Horizontal Effective Span Length; = Dp-LL-WW*SEff.-Coutf-H-Load.hStrip-H (H1<6.000m). d) Intensity of Total Horizontal Loads acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to all Horizontal Loads/Pressure (DL & LL) upon the Horizontal Effective Span Length; = pEarth-DL-H + pSur-DL-H + pSur-LL-H iv) Computation of Factored Horizontal Loads acting upon Counterfort : a) Intensity of Factored Horizontal Load acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to Active Horizontal Earth Dead Load Pressure upon Horizontal Effective Span Length; = gDE*pEarth-DL-H b) Intensity of Factored Horizontal Load acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to the Horizontal Surcharge Dead Load Pressure upon Horizontal Effective Span Length; = gDS*pSur-DL-H c) Intensity of Horizontal Load acting upon Counterfort at its Bottom due to the Horizontal Surcharge Live Load Pressure for Wing Wall upon Horizontal Effective Span Length; = gLL-LS.*pSur-LL-H . (H1<6.000m). d) Intensity of Total Factored Horizontal Loads acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to all Horizontal Loads/Pressure (DL & LL) upon the Horizontal Effective Span Length; = FpEarth-DL-H + FpSur-DL-H + FpSur-LL-H v) Computation of Vertical Loads acting upon Counterfort : a) Intensity of Vertical Load acting upon Counterfort Bottom Level at F & G due to Active Vertical Earth Dead Load Pressure upon Vertical Effective Span Length; = wE*H1*SEff.-Coutf-V-Load.hStrip-V b) Intensity of Vertical Load acting upon Counterfort Bottom Level at F & G due to Dead Load Pressure caused by Self Weight of Well Cap upon Vertical Effective Span Length; = wC*hWell-Cap*SEff.-Coutf-V-Load.hStrip-V. c) Intensity of Vertical Load acting upon Counterfort Bottom Level at F & G due to Vertical Surcharge Live Load Pressure for Wing Wall upon Vertical pEarth-DL-V 145.813 kN/m FpEarth-DL-H 7.208 kN/m pEarth-DL-H 7.208 kN/m

pSur-DL-H

26.225 kN/m

pSur-LL-H

27.535 kN/m

pH-(DL+LL)

60.968 kN/m

FpSur-DL-H

26.225 kN/m

FpSur-LL-H

60.968 kN/m

FpH-(DL+LL)

94.400 kN/m

pSelf.-Wt.-DL-V

47.160 kN/m

pSur-LL-V

13.642 kN/m

Effective Span Length; = Dp-LL-WW*SEff.-Coutf-V-Load.hStrip-V. (H1<6.000m). d) Intensity of Total Horizontal Loads acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to all Horizontal Loads/Pressure (DL & LL) upon the Horizontal Effective Span Length; = pEarth-DL-V+ pSelf.-Wt.-DL-V + pSur-LL-V vi) Computation of Factored Vertical Loads acting upon Counterfort : a) Intensity of Factored Vertical Load acting upon Counterfort Bottom Level at F &r G due to Active Vertical Earth Dead Load Pressure upon Vertical Effective Span Length; = gDV*pEarth-DL-V b) Intensity of Factored Vertical Load acting upon Counterfort Bottom Level at F & G due to Dead Load Pressure caused by Self Weight of Well Cap upon Vertical Effective Span Length; = gDC*pSelf.-Wt.-DL-V c) Intensity of Factored Vertical Load acting upon Counterfort Bottom Level at F & G due to Vertical Surcharge Live Load Pressure for Wing Wall upon Vertical Effective Span Length; = gLL-LS.*pSur-LL-V. (H1<6000m). d) Intensity of Total Factored Vertical Loads acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level at F & G due to all Vertical Loads/Pressure (DL & LL) upon the Horizontal Effective Span Length; = FpEarth-DL-V + FpSelf.-Wt.-DL-V + FpSur-LL-V FpEarth-DL-V 145.813 kN/m pH-(DL+LL) 206.615 kN/m

FpSelf.-Wt.-DL-V

47.160 kN/m

FpSur-LL-V

13.642 kN/m

FpV-(DL+LL)

206.615 kN/m

8 Calculation of Shearing & Moments Forces acting upon Counterfort due to Applied Forces : i) Selection of Plane for Critical Section to Calculate action of Shearing Forces & Moments : a) The Critical Section of Counterfort Prevails at B, the Point on Toe Face of Wing Wall at Top Surface of Well Cap. b) Since the Counterfort is of Triangular Shape having Max. Horizontal Forces on its Bottom Level, thus to Calculate the Effective Depth of Flexural Reinforcement on Tension Face, the Perpendicular Distance from Earth Face of the Counterfort up to the Critical Point should be determined. c) From Sketch Diagram Distance between Point G & F = LCount-Base. d) From Sketch Diagram Distance between Point B & F = LCount-Base. + tWW e) Height of Wing Wall from Top of Well Cap up to its Top, GF BF H1 3.450 m 3.900 m 4.947 m

o g) Let q be the Angle formed at Top between the Earth Side Vertical Face of Wing Wall & Counterfort's Inclined Face.

-1 i) From the Calcutated value of tanq, the value of q = tan

tanq q

sinq

cosq GK

0.820 2.830 m

l) From Geometry of Sketch Diagram the Perpendicular Distance from Point G up to Inclined Face of Counterfort, GK = AG sinq = H1*sinq

/ / m) Let Consider G a Point on Wing Wall Vertical Face on a Line BK which is Parallel to GK & Drown up to Inclined Inclined Face of Counterfort. Since the Parallel Lines GK & BK/ are very colse, thus it may Consider GK = G/K/

n) Acoordingly from Geometry of Sketch Diagram Design Depth of Counterfort on its Bottom Level is BK/ = GK + tWW*cosq .

BK/

3.199 m

ii) Calculation of Shearing Forces acting upon Critical Section of Counterfort due to Applied Forces : a) The Horizontal Shearing Force on Counterfort Critical Section at B is the Total Factored Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on its Bottom Level for the Effective Horizontal Span Length = 0.50*FpEarth-DL-H*H1 + FpSur.-DL-H*H1 + FpSur-LL-H*H1 b) The Vertical Shearing Force on Counterfort Critical Section at B is the Total Factored Vertical Loads (DL & LL) on its Bottom Level for the Effective Verticla Span Length = FpV-(DL-LL)*LCount-Base. VCritical-H 614.561 kN

VCritical-V

712.821 kN

iii) Calculation of Design Moments for Provision of Reinforcements Against Applied Horizontal Forces: a) Bending Moment at B due to Factored Horizontal Dead Load Earth Pressure = 1/3*FpEarth-DL-H *H12 b) Bending Moment at B due to Factored Horizontal Dead Load Surcharge Pressure = 0.50*FpSur-DL-H *H12 c) Bending Moment at B due to Factored Horizontal Live Load Surcharge Pressure = 0.50*FpSur-LL-H*H12 d) Total Factored Bending Moment at B due to all applied Forces = MEarth-DL-H + MSur-DL-H + MSur-LL-H MEarth-DL-H 58.796 kN-m/m

MSur-DL-H

320.900 kN-m/m

MSur-LL-H

746.025 kN-m/m

9 Flexural Design of Reinforcements for Counterfort at Bottom Level against Calculated Factored Moment : i) Provisions of Different Elements for Design & Checking for Effective Depth of Counterfort on its Bottom: a) Width of Counterfort for Flexural Design, b = 450mm b) Since the all Faces of Counterfort will be Covered by Earth, thus 75mm Clear Covers are being proposed on its all Faces. c) Let Consider - Layers 25f Bars will be required as Flexural Reinforcement for the Calculated Moments at Bottom Level of Counterforts b CCover. 450 mm 75 mm

DBar-Main.

25 mm

d) X-Sectional Area of 25f Main Bars = p*DBar2/4 d) Let the Spacing between 2-Layers of Main Reinforcement Bars = 32mm e) With 2-Layers of Main Bars, Clear Cover & Bar Layer Spacing the Provided Effective Depth for Tensial Reinforcements of Counterfort on its Bottom Leval at B; = BG/ - CCover - sBer-Layers/2 - DBar f) Since the Counterfort acts as a T-Beam, thus against the Calculated Factored Moment on Bottom Level of Counterfort at B the Required Effective Depth; = (MTotal-H /Rb)1/2

2 490.874 mm

32 mm 3,082.918 mm

dreq-B.

1,506.338 mm

g) Since the Provided Effective Depth for Tensial Reinforcement dpro > dreq, the Calculated Effective Depth, thus the Ptovision of Counterfort Depth on its Bottom Level is OK. ii) Design of main Reinforcement for Counterfort against Calculated Factored Moment on its Bottom Level: a) Required Steel Area against Calculated Moment = MTotal-H/jdfs b) No's of 25f bars required = As-req/Af-25 c) As per Convention & Practice of Design, Let provide with 8 No's 25f bars as Main Reinforcements for the Counterforts in 2-Layers havin 4nos. Bars on Each Layer. d) Provided Steel Area againest Provided Main Rinforcements = Af-25*NBars-pro iii) Checking of Design for Reinforcement in respect of Shear: a) Since the Counterfort T-Beam posses variable Depth (Distance between Earth Face of Counterfort & Water Face of Wing Wall), thus Formula for the Effective Shearing Force on Bottom Level V = VTotal-H - (MTotal-H/d/)*tanq; where, b) d/ is Horizontal Effective Depth of Counterfort having value = dpro/cosq

/ c) The Shearing Stress due to calculated Shearing Force V & Effective Depth d = V/bd/

2 2,465.371 mm

As-pro-Main

2 3,926.991 mm

405.687 kN 405.687*10^3 N

d/ tv

3,758.577 mm

2 0.240 N/mm

d) Percentage of Steel Provided for the section = 100*As/bd/ e) With p = 0.147, f/C =21MPa, the Permissible Shearing Stress in concrete, Computed from Table 5.1 of Book Treasure of RCC Design (In S.I Units) of Sushik Kumar.

p tc

f) Since tv > tc thus Shear Reinforcements in the form of Vertical and Horizontal Ties are required for Counterforts to Provide Reinforcements as well as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements for Un-Reinforced Surfaces. v) Curtailment of Main Reinforcements in Counterforts:

a) Since Horizontal Earth Pressure on Counterforts reduces with reduction of Depth in upward direction and Bending Moment also reduces accordingly. For these reduction of Moments in respect of Depth (h), the requrment of Steel Area for the Section also reduces. No of Bars required for a Section h2, the Depth of Section - h. b) At Depth 1/2H1 from Top the Intensity of Factored Horizontal Earth Dead Load Pressure; = gDEko*1/2H1*SEff.-Coutf-H-Load.*hStrip-H c) At Depth 1/2H1 from Top the Intensity of Factored Horizontal Surcharge Dead Load Pressure; = gDSDp-ES*SEff.-Coutf-H-Load.*hStrip-H d) At Depth 1/2H1 from Top the Intensity of Factored Horizontal Surcharge Live Load Pressure; = gLL-LS.Dp-LL-WW*SEff.-Coutf-H-Load.*hStrip-H Fp1/2-Earth-DL-H 3.604 kN/m

Fp1/2-Sur-DL-H

26.225 kN/m

Fp1/2-Sur-LL-H

23.602 kN/m

e) Intensity of Total Factored Horizontal Loads acting upon Counterfort at Fp1/2H-(DL+LL) 1/2H1 from Top due to Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) upon the Horizontal Effective Span Length; = Fp1/2-Earth-DL-H + Fpp1/2-Sur-DL-H+ Fpp1/2-Sur-LL-H f) Factored Miment due to Horizonal Loads at a Depth 1/2H1 for Section = 0.50*Fp1/2-Earth-DL-H*1/3*(1/2H1)2 + Fp1/2-Sur-DL-H*(1/2*H1)2 -Fp1/2-Sur-LL-H*(1/2*H1)2 MH-1/2H

53.430 kN/m

308.524 kN-m/m

g) From Calculations Sl.-8-v-(f) it Appaires that the Calculated Moment at a Depth 1/2H1 is about 1/3rd of Moments at Bottom Level. On the mentioned ground 50% of Main Reiforcement from Depth 1/2H1 Depth can be Cut off. But the Wing Walls have a 3.000 m long Trapezium Shape Extended Cantilever Part at Top Level, whose Self Weight and Imposed Loads should be supported by the Counterfort. Thus it is Recommended not reduce the Number of Main Bars of Counterfort. 10 Design of Shear-Web (Tie) Reiforcements for Counterforts: i) Design of Horizontal Ties for Counterforts: a) Factored Horizontal Shearing Force at Depth H1 from Top due to Horizontal Loads/Pressure (DL & LL) acting upon Counterfort for its Horizontal Effective Span Length; = FpH-(DL+ LL) VH1-(DL+LL) 94.400 kN/m 94.400*10^3 N/m

b) Factored Horizontal Shearing Force at Depth 1/2H1 from Top due to V1/2H1-(DL+LL) 53.430 kN/m Horizontal Loads/Pressure (DL & LL) acting upon Counterfort for its Horizontal 53.430*10^3 N/m Effective Span Length; = FpH-(DL+ LL) c) Let Provide 2-Legged 10f bars as Horizontal Ties for the Counterfort,

2 d) X-Sectional of 2-Legged 10f bars as Horizontal Ties = 2*pDBar-Hor /4

10 mm

2 157.080 mm 2 575.611 mm

e) Steel Area required for Horizontal Ties against Horizontal Forces VH1-(DL+LL) at Depth H1 from Top of Wing Wall = VH1-(DL+LL)/fs f) Spacing required for 2-Legged Horizontal Ties at Depth H1 from Top of Wing

sreq.-Tie-H1

272.892 mm c/c

Wall = Af-10*hStrip-H/As.req-H1. g) Let Provide 200mm C/C spacing for 2-Legged Horizontal Ties with 10f bars for Total Depth. ii) Design of Vertical Ties for Counterforts: a) Sketck Diagram Showing Vertical Load Upon Counterfort : tWW. = 0.45 m A q spro-Tie-H1-1/2H1 200 mm c/c

H=

6.147 m

H1 =

4.947 m

90o G/ B C D G q

K/ K F hWell-Cap. = E 1.2 m

LW-Cap-Toe.. =

2.525 m LCount-Base. =

3.45 m

b) Vertically Downward Factored Shearing Force at Point F due to Earth & Self Weight of Well Cap Dead Loads (DL)and Suecharge Live Load (LL) = FpV-(DL+LL) c) Vertically Downward Factored Shearing Force at Point G due to Earth & Self Weight of Well Cap Dead Loads (DL)and Suecharge Live Load (LL) = FpV-(DL+LL)

VD-F

VD-G

d) Since the Vertically Factored Shearing Forces at Points F & G have same Magnitude, thus it requires to Provide Shearing/Web Reinforcements for its full Horizontal Length. e) Let Provide 2-Legged 12f bars as Horizontal Ties for the Counterfort, DBar-Hor. 12 mm

Af-12 As-req-V-Tie

2 226.195 mm 2 1,259.846 mm

e) Area of Steel required as Vertical Ties for Counterforts at Points F & G = VD-F&G/fs e) Spacing for 2-Legged Vertical Ties with 12f in between F & G = Af-12*hStrip-V/As-req-V-Tie f) Let Provide 150mm C/C Spacing for Vertical Ties with 2-Legged 12f bars in between Points F & G of Counterfort.

sreq-Vert.F-G

179.542 mm

spro-Virt.(F& G)

150 mm C/C

1 Sketch Diagram of Abutment Wall & Wing Walls :

300

700

C 2000

RL-5.00m

600 450 300 H1 = 4947 H = 6147 1900 3000 450 RL-2.20m 1775 750 2525 1200 C 600 4300 5500 600

1200

1447

1500

2 Structural Type, Design Criteria & Dimensions of Structure : i) Type of Abutment ii) Type of Wing-walls : : Wall Type Abutment. Wall Type Wing Walls Integrated with Abutment Wall having Counterforts over Well & Cantilever Wings beyond Well. Ultimate Stress Design (AASHTO-LRFD-2004).

iv) Dimensions of Substructure Components : Description a) Height of Abutment Wall from Bottom of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall, b) Height of Abutment Wall from Top of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall, c) Height of Abutment Well Cap, Notation Dimensions H H1 hWell-Cap. Unit.

6350

2147

Page 499

d) Height of Abutment Steam e) Height of Back Wall f) Height of Wing Wall g) Length of Wing Walls upon Well cap h) Inner Distance in between Wing Walls (Transverse), g) Thickness of Wing Wall Counterforts h) Number of Wing-Wall Counterforts (on each side) i) Thickness of Wing Walls within Well Cap, j) Thickness of Cantilever Wing Walls k) Horizontal Length of Cantilever Wing Walls l) Height of Rectangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls m) Height of Triangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls

hSteam. hBack-wall H-W-Wall LW-W-Well-Cap LAb-T-Inner tWW-Countf. NW-W-count tWW tCant-WW LCanti-WW hCanti-WW-Rec. hCanti-WW-Trian.

1.900 m 2.147 m 4.947 m 2.975 m 9.350 m 0.450 m 1.000 No's 0.450 m 0.450 m 3.000 m 2.000 m 1.500 m

3 Design Data in Respect of Unit Weight, Strength of Materials & Load Multiplier Factors :

3 i) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitational Acceleration, g =

2 9.807 m/sec )

a) b) c) d) e)

Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compacted Clay/Sand/Silt)

a) b) c) d) e)

iii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTO-LRFD-2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength, f/c (Normal Concrete) f/c 21.000 MPa

Page 500

b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Load Condition (SLC) = 0.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, Ec = 0.043gc1.50f/c (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.4). d) Poisson's Ration = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2), subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.5). e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete, fr = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2)Mpa (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). f) Steel Ultimate strength, fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Load Condition (SLC) = 0.40fy g) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement, Es for fy = 410 MPa

fc Ec

MPa MPa

fr fy fs ES

2.887

MPa

iv) Strength Data related to Working Stress Design & Service Load Condition ( WSD & AASHTO-SLS ) : a) b) c) d) e) Modular Ratio, n = Es/Ec 6 8.384 Value of Ratio of Steel & Concrete Flexural Strength, r = fs/fc Value of k = n/(n + r) Value of j = 1 - k/3 Value of R = 0.5*(fckj) n r k j R 8 20 0.29 0.90 1.10

v) Design Data for Resistance Factors for Conventional Construction (AASHTO LRFD-5.5.4.2.1). : (Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f or b value) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete For Axil Compression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme Limit State (Zone 3 & 4). For Bearing on Concrete For Compression in Strut-and-Tie Models For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones For resistance during Pile Driving Value of b1 for Flexural Compression in Reinforced Concrete (AASHTO LRFD-5.7.2..2.) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete fFlx-Rin. fFlx-Pres. fShear. fSpir/Tie/Seim. fBearig. fStrut&Tie. fAnc-Copm-Conc. fAnc-Ten-Steel. fPile-Resistanc. b1 b 0.900 1.000 0.900 0.750 0.700 0.700 0.800 1.000 1.000 0.85 0.85

4 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors under Strength Limit State Design (USD): a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.250

gDW

1.500

Page 501

c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load Allowance-IM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). STRENGTH - III STRENGTH - V

gEH

1.500

gEV

1.350

gES

1.500

1.000

gLL-Truck IM

1.750 1.330

gLL-Lane gLL-PL. gLL-CE. gLL-BR. gLL-LS. gLL-WA. gLL-WS. gLL-WL gLL-FR. gLL-TU.

1.750 1.750 1.750 1.750 1.750 1.000 1.400 1.000 1.000 1.000

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

Page 502

o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV

gLL-TG.

1.000

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

5 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD-3.4.1 ; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.000

gDW

1.000

gEH

1.000

gEV

1.000

gES

1.000

ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load Allowence-IM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; SERVICE - I (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane m 1.000

gLL-Truck IM

1.000 1.000

gLL-Lane

1.000

Page 503

e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV 6 Load Coefficients Factors & Intensity of Different Imposed Loads : i) Coefficient for Lateral Earth Pressure (EH) : a) Coefficient of Active Horizontal Earth Pressure, ko = (1-sinff ) ,Where; f is Effective Friction Angle of Soil b) For Back Filling with Clean fine sand, Silty or clayey fine to medium sand Effective Friction Angle of Soil, f = 340 .(Table 12.9, Page-138, RAINA's Book) SERVICE - IV SERVICE - II SERVICE - II SERVICE - II

gLL-CR.

1.000

gLL-SH.

1.000

gLL-TG.

1.000

gLL-SE.

1.000

1.000

ko

0.441

34.000

Page 504

c) Angle of Friction with Concrete surface & Soil AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1. d) Value of Tan d (dim) for Coefficient of Friction. = 0.34 to 0.45 (AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1.)

19 to 24

tan d

ii) Dead Load Surcharge Lateral/Horizontal Pressure Intensity (ES); AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.1. : a) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressure due to Uniform Surcharge, Dp-ES = ksqs in Mpa. Where; b) ks is Coefficient of Earth Pressure due to Surcharge = ko for Active Earth Pressure, c) qs is Uniform Surcharge applied to upper surface of Active Earth Wedge (Mpa) = wE*10-3N/mm2 Dp-ES

2 7.935 kN/m 2 0.008 N/mm

ks wE*10-3

0.441

2 0.018 N/mm 2 18.000 kN/m

iii) Live Load Surcharge Vertical & Horizontal Pressure Intensity (LS); AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4. : a) Constant Earth Pressure both Vertical & Horizontal for Live Load Surcharge on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic), Where; Dp-LS = kgsgheq*10-9 Dp-LL-Ab<6.00m Dp-LL-Ab6.00m 0.007 7.141 0.005 4.761 0.008331 8.331 0.004761 4.761 0.441

3 1,835.424 kg/m 2 9.807 m/sec

b) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressure due to Live Load Surcharge for Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic), Where; Dp-LS = kgsgheq*10-9 ,

Dp-LL-WW<6.00m Dp-LL-WW6.00m

c) ks is Coefficient of Lateral Earth Pressure = ko for Active Earth Pressure. d) gs is Unit Weight of Soil (kg/m3)

2 e) g is Gravitational Acceleration (m/sec ), AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.1.2.

k gs g heq-Ab<6.00m. heq-Ab6.00m.

900.000 mm 600.000 mm

Weq-Ab<6.00m. Weq-Ab6.00m.

mm m mm m

h) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm). Having, H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm ; AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4; Table-3.11.6.4-2.

heq-WW<6.00m. heq-WW6.00m.

1,050.000 mm 600.000 mm

Page 505

i) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Wing Walls, Having H < 6000mm.& H 6000mm.

Weq-WW<6.00m. Weq-WW6.00m.

mm m mm m

7 Philosophy in Flexural Design of Cantilever Wing Walls of Bridge Structure : a) The Wing Walls of Bridge Substructure will have to face Horizontal Dead Load (DL) & Live Load (LL) Pressures due to Earth & Surcharge upon them. Under Horizontal Pressure (DL & LL) the Wing Walls behave as Cantilever Structure having Fixed End on Bottom in Horizontal Plane. But the Cantilever Wing Walls have Vertical Fixed End due to their Trapezoidal Shape having Variable Depth. These Wing Walls also have to Face the same Horizontal Loads/Pressure (DL & LL) as that of Normal Wing Walls. Thus to ensure the sustainability of these Type of Wing Walls those should Designed as a Cantilever Flexural Component against the affect of Horizontal Loads & Forces (DL & LL) accordingly. b) Cantilever Wing Walls have Vertical Fixed End & their Depth gradually reduces with distance from Support. Load Intensity caused by Horizontal Earth Pressures (DL) & Surcharge Loads (DL & LL) are Higher at Deep Depth & those gradually reduce with reduction of Depth. But the Cumulative Horizontal Loads on Upper Strip is Higher than that of Deeper Strip due to greater Span Length. Since in Cantilever Component Max. Moment occurs on Support Edge due to Total Applied Loads, thus the Flexural Design should be done considering the Cantilever Wing Walls are of Span Strips in Horizontal Direction Each having 1.000m Depth. On Rectangular Portion Loads will the Total for Span & on Triangular Portion those will the Average of Top & Bottom Span Strips. c) For the Design purpose & Calculation of Imposed Loads (DL & LL), Shearing Forces & Moments Let considered the Cantilever Wing Walls being divided in 4 (Four) Horizontal Span Strips of whom Top 3 (Three) have 1.000m Depth & the Bottom One is of 0.500m Depth. d) Sketch Diagram of Cantilever Wing Wall & Arrangement of Design Strips : LCanti-WW = DV-Strip-1 = 1.00 m LSteip-1 = DV-Strip-2= 1.00 m LSteip-2 = DV-Strip-3 = DV-Strip-4 = 1.00 m LSteip-(Aver)-3 = 0.50 m LSteip-(Aver)-4 = 0.500 m 1.000 m 2m hCanti-WW-Trian. = 1.500 m 3m 3m hCanti-WW-Rec. = 2.000 m 3m DV-Strip-1-3 DV-Strip-4 1.000 m 0.500 m

LSteip-Top-4 =

8 Calculations of Horizontal Loads Upon Design Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall: i) Design Strips & Strip Dimensions :

Page 506

a) Let the Design Strips in Horizontal Direction with having Depth in Vertical Direction D = 1.000m for Top 3-Strips & for Bottom One D = 0.500m b) Total Number of Horizontal Strips for Design in Cantilever Wing Walls c) Horizontal Length of 1st. Strips on Wing Wall's Rectangular Portion d) Horizontal Length of 2nd Strips on Wing Wall's Rectangular Portion e) Average Horizontal Length of 3rd Strip on Wing Wall's Triangular Portion (Considering Equivalent Rectangular Shape for the Strip). f) Average Horizontal Length of 4th Strip on Wing Wall's Triangular Portion (Considering Equivalent Rectangular Shape for the Strip).

L-Strip-(Aver)-4.

0.500 m

ii) Intensity of Horizontal Earth & Surcharge Pressure (DL & LL) on Wing Wall Components : a) Intensity of Horizontal Earth Pressure at any Depth h, on Cantilever Wing Wall can Expressed by pEarth = wE*ko*h ; where wEko in kN/m3 ; Which is a Constant Factor for Site Soil Condition. b) Intensity of Surcharge Dead Load Horizontal Pressure at any Depth h, on Cantilever Wing Wall can Expressed by pSur-DL = Dp-ES in kN/m2 ; Which is a Constant Factor for Site Soil Condition. c) Intensity of Surcharge Live Load Horizontal Pressure at any Depth h, on Cantilever Wing Wall can Expressed by pSur-LL-WW = Dp-LL-WW in kN/m2 ; Which is a Constant Factor for Site Soil Condition & Depth h 6.000m . For Present Case Depth h < 6.000m. wE*ko

3 7.935 kN/m

Dp-ES

2 7.935 kN/m

Dp-LL-WW

2 8.331 kN/m

d) Sketch Diagram showing Depth of Different Levels Horizontal Strips from Top of Cantilever Wing Wall. LCanti-WW = DV-Strip-1 = 1.00 m hStrip-1-Bot. = LSteip-1 = DV-Strip-2= 1.00 m LSteip-2 = DV-Strip-3 = DV-Strip-4 = 1.00 m LSteip-(Aver)-3 = 0.50 m LSteip-(Aver)-4 = 0.500 m 2m hStrip-4-Bot. = 3.500 m 3m hStrip-3-Bot. = 3.000 m 3m hStrip-2-Bot. = 2.000 m 1.000 m 3m

Page 507

LSteip-Top-4 =

1.000 m

iii) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Earth Pressure on Different Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall : (Considering Intensity of Horizontal Earth Pressure on Bottom of Strip is Effective on full Depth). a) Total Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip-1 = wEko*hStrip-1-Bot*DV-Strip-1*LStrip-1 b) Total Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip-2 = wEko*hStrip-2-Bot*DV-Strip-2*LStrip-2 c) Total Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip-3 = wEko*hStrip-3-Bot*DV-Strip-3*LStrip-(Aver)-3 d) Total Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip-4 = wEko*hStrip-4-Bot*DV-Strip-4*LStrip-(Aver)-4 PE-Strip-1 23.804 kN

PE-Strip-2

47.607 kN

PE-Strip-3

47.607 kN

PE-Strip-4

6.943 kN

iv) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Different Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall : a) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-1 = Dp-ES*DV-Strip-1*LStrip-1 b) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-2 = Dp-ES*DV-Strip-2*LStrip-2 c) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-3 = Dp-ES*DV-Strip-3*LStrip-(Aver)-3 d) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-4 = Dp-ES*DV-Strip-4*LStrip-(Aver)-4 PSur-DL-Strip-1 23.804 kN

PSur-DL-Strip-2

23.804 kN

PSur-DL-Strip-3

15.869 kN

PSur-DL-Strip-4

1.984 kN

v) Total Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Different Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall : a) Total Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-1 = Dp-LL-WW*DV-Strip-1*LStrip-1 b) Total Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-2 = Dp-LL-WW*DV-Strip-2*LStrip-2 c) Total Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-3 = Dp-LL-WW*DV-Strip-3*LStrip-(Aver)-3 d) Total Horizontal Live Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-4 = Dp-LL-WW*DV-Strip-4*LStrip-(Aver)-4 PSur-LL-Strip-1 24.993 kN

PSur-LL-Strip-2

24.993 kN

PSur-LL-Strip-3

16.662 kN

PSur-LL-Strip-4

2.083 kN

vi) Total Horizontal Dead Loads (DL) due to Earth & Surcharge Pressure on Different Strips :

Page 508

a) Total Horizontal Dead Load due to Earth & Surcharge Pressure on Strip-1 = PE-Strip-1 + PSur-DL-Strip-1 b) Total Horizontal Dead Load due to Earth & Surcharge Pressure on Strip-2 = PE-Strip-2 + PSur-DL-Strip-2 c) Total Horizontal Dead Load due to Earth & Surcharge Pressure on Strip-3 = PE-Strip-3+ PSur-DL-Strip-3 d) Total Horizontal Dead Load due to Earth & Surcharge Pressure on Strip-4 = PE-Strip-4+ PSur-DL-Strip-4

PDL-Strip-1

47.607 kN

PDL-Strip-2

71.411 kN

PDL-Strip-3

63.476 kN

PDL-Strip-4

8.926 kN

9 Calculations of Factored Horizontal Loads Upon Design Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall under Strength Limit State Design (USD): i) Factored (USD) Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Earth Pressure on Different Strips : a) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip-1 = gEH*PE-Strip-1 b) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip-2= gEH*PE-Strip-2 c) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip-3 = gEH*PE-Strip-3 d) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip-4 = gEH*PE-Strip-4 PE-Strip-1-USD PE-Strip-2-USD PE-Strip-3-USD PE-Strip-4-USD 35.705 kN 71.411 kN 71.411 kN 10.414 kN

ii) Factored (USD) Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Different Strips : a) Factored Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-1 = gES*PSur-DL-Strip-1 b) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-2 = gES*PSur-DL-Strip-2 c) Factored Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-3 = gES*PSurDL-Strip-3 d) Factored Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-4 = gES*PSur-DL-Strip-4 PSur-DL-Strip-1-USD 35.71 kN

PSur-DL-Strip-2-USD

35.705 kN

PSur-DL-Strip-3-USD

23.804 kN

PSur-DL-Strip-4-USD

2.975 kN

iii) Factored (USD) Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Different Strips : a) Factored Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-1 = gLL-LS*PSur-LL-Strip-1 b) Factored Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-2 = gLL-LS*PSur-LL-Strip-2 PSur-LL-Strip-1-USD 43.737 kN

PSur-LL-Strip-2-USD

43.737 kN

Page 509

c) Factored Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-3 =gLL-LS*PSur-LL-Strip-3 d) Factored Horizontal Live Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-4 = gLL-LS*PSur-LL-Strip-4

PSur-LL-Strip-3-USD

29.158 kN

PSur-LL-Strip-4-USD

3.645 kN

iv) Factored (USD) Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Different Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall : a) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip-1 = PE-Strip-1-USD + PSur-DL-Strip-1-USD + PSur-LL-Strip-1-USD b) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip-2 = PE-Strip-2-USD + PSur-DL-Strip-2-USD + PSur-LL-Strip-2-USD c) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip-3 = PE-Strip-3-USD + PSur-DL-Strip-3-USD + PSur-LL-Strip-3-USD d) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip-4 = PE-Strip-4-USD + PSur-DL-Strip-4-USD + PSur-LL-Strip-4-USD PStrip-1-USD 115.148 kN

PStrip-2-USD

150.853 kN

PStrip-3-USD

124.373 kN

PStrip-4-USD

17.034 kN

10 Calculations of Factored Horizontal Loads Upon Design Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall under Service Limit State Design (WSD): i) Factored (WSD) Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Earth Pressure on Different Strips : a) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip-1 = gEH*PE-Strip-1 b) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip-2= gEH*PE-Strip-2 c) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip-3 = gEH*PE-Strip-3 d) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip-4 = gEH*PE-Strip-4 PE-Strip-1-WSD PE-Strip-2-WSD PE-Strip-3-WSD PE-Strip-4-WSD 23.804 kN 47.607 kN 47.607 kN 6.943 kN

ii) Factored (WSD) Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Different Strips : a) Factored Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-1 = gES*PSur-DL-Strip-1 b) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-2 = gES*PSur-DL-Strip-2 c) Factored Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-3 = gES*PSurDL-Strip-3 d) Factored Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-4 = gES*PSur-DL-Strip-4 PSur-DL-Strip-1-WSD 23.804 kN

PSur-DL-Strip-2-WSD

23.804 kN

PSur-DL-Strip-3-WSD

15.869 kN

PSur-DL-Strip-4-WSD

1.984 kN

iii) Factored (WSD) Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Different Strips :

Page 510

a) Factored Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-1 = gLL-LS*PSur-LL-Strip-1 b) Factored Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-2 = gLL-LS*PSur-LL-Strip-2 c) Factored Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-3 =gLL-LS*PSur-LL-Strip-3 d) Factored Horizontal Live Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip-4 = gLL-LS*PSur-LL-Strip-4

PSur-LL-Strip-1-WSD

24.993 kN

PSur-LL-Strip-2-WSD

24.993 kN

PSur-LL-Strip-3-WSD

16.662 kN

PSur-LL-Strip-4-WSD

2.083 kN

iv) Factored (WSD) Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Different Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall : a) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip-1 = PE-Strip-1-WSD + PSur-DL-Strip-1-WSD + PSur-LL-Strip-1-WSD b) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip-2 = PE-Strip-1-WSD + PSur-DL-Strip-1-WSD + PSur-LL-Strip-1-WSD c) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip-3 = PE-Strip-3-WSD + PSur-DL-Strip-3-WSD + PSur-LL-Strip-3-WSD d) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip-4 = PE-Strip-4-WSD + PSur-DL-Strip-4-WSD + PSur-LL-Strip-4-WSD PStrip-1-WSD 72.600 kN

PStrip-2-WSD

96.403 kN

PStrip-3-WSD

80.138 kN

PStrip-4-WSD

11.009 kN

11 Calculation of Moments on Different Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall at Counterfort Face ; i) Moments on Different Strips at Counterfort Face due Factored Loads under Strength Limit Stale (USD) : a) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip-1 = PStrip-1-USD*LStrip-1/2 b) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip-2 = PStrip-2-USD*LStrip-2/2 c) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip-3 = PStrip-3-USD*LStrip-(Aver)-3/2 d) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip-4 = PStrip-4-USD*LStrip-(Aver)-4/2 MStrip-1-USD 172.722 kN-m 172.722*10^6 N-mm 226.280 kN-m 226.280*10^6 N-mm 124.373 kN-m 124.373*10^6 N-mm 4.259 kN-m 4.259*10^6 N-mm

MStrip-2-USD

MStrip-3-USD

MStrip-4-USD

ii) Moments on Different Strips at Counterfort Face due Factored Loads under Service Limit Stale (WSD) : a) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip-1 = PStrip-1-WSD*LStrip-1/2 MStrip-1-WSD 108.900 kN-m 108.900*10^6 N-mm

Page 511

b) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip-2 = PStrip-2-WSD*LStrip-2/2 c) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip-3 = PStrip-3-WSD*LStrip-(Aver)-3/2 d) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip-4 = PStrip-4-WSD*LStrip-(Aver)-4/2

MStrip-2-WSD

144.605 kN-m 144.605*10^6 N-mm 80.138 kN-m 80.138*10^6 N-mm 2.752 kN-m 2.752*10^6 N-mm

MStrip-3-WSD

MStrip-4-WSD

iii) Moments on Different Strips at Counterfort Face due Unfactored Dead Loads : a) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip-1 = PDL-Strip-1*LStrip-1/2 b) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip-2 = PDL-Strip-2*LStrip-2/2 c) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip-3 = PDL-Srip-3*LStrip-(Aver)-3/2 d) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip-4 = PDL-Strip-4*LStrip-(Aver)-4/2 MDL-Strip-1-UF 71.411 kN-m 71.411*10^6 N-mm 107.116 kN-m 107116*10^6 N-mm 63.476 kN-m 63.476*10^6 N-mm 2.232 kN-m 2.232*10^6 N-mm

MDL-Strip-2-UF

MDL-Strip-3-UF

MDL-Strip-4-UF

12 Computation of Related Features required for Flexural Design of Main Reinforcements (Horizontal) for Cantilever Wing Walls : i) Design Strip Width for Cantilever Wing Walls in Vertical Direction & Clear Cover on different Faces; a) Let Consider the Design Width in Vertical direction for Strip-1 = 1000mm Strip-2 = 1000mm Strip-3 = 1000mm Strip-4 = 500mm b) Let the Clear Cover on Earth Face of C-Cov.Earth. = 75mm, Let the Clear Cover on Water Face, C-Cov.Water = 50mm, b-1 b-2 b-3 b-4 C-Cov-Earth. C-Cov-Water 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 75 50 m m m m mm mm

ii) Calculations of Limits For Maximum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1) : . a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for c/de-Max. a Section c/de 0.42 in which; b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm. Here; i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy), where ; ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 c de

0.42

Variable Variable

As Aps

Variable Variable

mm2 mm2

Page 512

iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps, fps & dp are = 0. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds . iii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.2) :

fy fps dp ds

N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm

a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.2*Mcr or 1.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1-Table-3.4.1-1, which one is less.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1.2Mcr. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) - Mdnc(Sc/Snc -1) Scfr where; i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to Effective Prestress Forces at Extreme Fiber only where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance of all Prestressing Losses in MPa. In Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in N-mm. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic/Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. For the Rectangular RCC Section value of Snc = (b*tCant-WW.3/12)/(tCant-WW./2). (For Strip-1, Strip-2 & Strip-3). v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in Mpa,(AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements, Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0, thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr (For Strip-1, Strip-2 & Strip-3). d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces Mcr fcpe Variable N-mm N/mm2

Mdnc

Variable

N-mm

Sc

Variable

mm3

Snc

fr Mcr-Strip-1,2,3

2 2.887 N/mm

97437015.714

Page 513

Snc

Mcr-Strip-4

48718507.857

g) Table-1 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for Minimum Reinforcement of Strips Direction Strip No. Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable 1.2 Times M for Unfactored Mcr-1 Cracking Mcr of Mcr Factored Moments Dead Load As per Moment Cracking Cracking Moment on Cant. Moment Equation Value Moment Moment of Section Wing MDL-UF 5.7.3.3.2-1 Sncfr (Mcr-1Sncfr) (1.2*Mcr) M Wall kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m kN-m

Strip-1 Strip-2 Strip-3 Strip-4 71.411 107.116 63.476 2.232 97.437 97.437 97.437 48.719 97.437 97.437 97.437 48.719 97.437 97.437 97.437 48.719 116.924 116.924 116.924 58.462 172.722 226.280 124.373 4.259 1.33 Times

229.720 300.953 165.415 5.664

Mr Maximum Allowable Flexural Min. Moment Moment for RCC Mu 1.2Mcr (M Mr) kN-m kN-m

116.924 116.924 116.924 58.462 172.722 226.280 124.373 58.462

pmax.

0.016

13 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall against Calculated the Moments on Strips-1 : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) Calculated Flexural Moment in Horizontal Span Strip-1 of Cantilever Wing Wall is Greater than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus MStrip-1 is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against Moment value. Since the Strip is facing Earth Loads, thus requird Reinforcements will be on Earth Side. b) Since MStrip-1-USD> Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus MStrip-1 is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Strip-1. b) X-Sectional of 16f Bars = p*DStrip-12/4 DStrip-1 Af-16. 16 mm

2 201.062 mm

MStrip-1-USD Mr

MU

Page 514

c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face, dpro = (tCant.-WW -CCov-Earth. -DStrip-1/2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af-16b/As-req-Strip-1-Earth g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 125mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 125mm,C/C = Af-16.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

de-pro.

367.000 mm

areq.

27.388 mm

1,324.861 151.761

mm2/m mm,C/C

100 mm,C/C

As-pro-Strip-1-Earth

2,010.619

mm2/m

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6

d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.107 n) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not) c/de-Max. c

Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax

OK OK

0.450 39.255 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.107 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

v) Checking Against Calculated Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-1 : a) The Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-1 is the Total Factored Load on the Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. Thus Shear Force, VStrip-1 = PStrip-1-USD = VU VU. 115.148 kN/m 115.148*10^3 N/m

Page 515

b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU - fVp)/fbvdv, (AASSHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9).Here, b-i) bv is Minimum Width of the Section, here bv = b, the Design Strip Width. a-ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9de or 0.72h in mm, which one is greater. Where; de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tCant-WW Thickness of Cant. Wing Wall.Thus value 0.9*de for the Section; Whereas, value of 0.72h for the Section; b-iii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear b-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure, thus Vp = 0. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.3.3 : i) Vn-1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.- 5.8.3.3-1, or bv. dv. 1,000.000 mm 330.300

Vn-Strip-1

1,734.075 kN/m 1734.075*10^3 N/m 2,512.617 kN/m 2152.617*10^3 N/m 1,734.075 kN/m 1734.075*10^3 N/m 2,512.617 kN/m 2152.617*10^3 N/m 0.000 N/m

Vn-1

Vn-2

Vc

Vs

2.00

Vp.

0.000 N

d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3 have Satisfied or Not). e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section, thus the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-1 does not require any Shear Reinforcement. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-1 Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement, thus Flexural Design for Provisio of Horizontal

Page 516

Reinforcement on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-1 is OK. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 255.152 N-mm 256.152*10^6 kN-m 283.503 N-mm 283.503*10^6 kN-m 0.90

Mn f

b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) d) Since Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-1 is being considered as a Cantilever Mn-Strip-1 283.503 kN-m Beam having 1.000 m Wide Strips. The Steel Area against Factored Max. Moments 283.503*10^6 N-mm at its Support Face will have value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Support Face of Cantilever Beam is on its Earth Face = MStrip-1-USD MStrip-1-USD 172.722 kN-m 172.722*10^6 N-mm

f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment M at Support Face ( Which one is Greater, if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied)

Mr>MStrip-1-USD Satisfied

vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fs-Dev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4. Where; b) fs-Dev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/As-prode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit fs-Dev.

2 147.581 N/mm

MStrip-1-WSD

2 2,010.619 mm

As-pro de

367.000 mm

fsa

2 262.482 N/mm

Page 517

i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCov-Earth. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Back Wall, CCov-Earth = 75mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 16f ; thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus its Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. ZMax.

58.000 mm

2 11,600.000 mm

23,000.000 N/mm

0.6*fy

2 246.000 N/mm

d) Since the Calculated value of fs-Dev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Cant. Wing Wall Structure, thus value of Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fs-Dve. e) Based on fs-Dve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fs-Dev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fs-Dev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev. ZDev. 12,931.833 N/mm fs-Dev.< fs Satisfy

i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Cant. Wing Wall fs-Dev.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress; though Computed Tensile Stress fsa>0.6fy; but Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev.<ZMax. Allowable Max.Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Cant. Wing Wall Strip-1 Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 14 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall against Calculated the Moments on Strips-2 :

Page 518

i) Design Moment for the Section : a) Calculated Flexural Moment in Horizontal Span Strip-2 of Cantilever Wing Wall is Greater than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus MStrip-2 is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against Moment value. Since the Strip is facing Earth Loads, thus requird Reinforcements will be on . Earth Side b) Since MStrip-2-USD > Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus MStrip-2-USD is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Strip-2. b) X-Sectional of 16f Bars = p*DStrip-22/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face, dpro = (tCant.-WW -CCov-Earth. -DStrip-2/2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af-16b/As-req-Strip-2. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 100mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 100mm,C/C = Af-16.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

MStrip-2-USD Mr

MU

16 mm

2 201.062 mm

367.000 mm

areq.

36.341 mm

1,757.951 114.373

mm2/m mm,C/C

75 mm,C/C

As-pro-Strip-2-Earth

2,680.826

mm2/m

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6

d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 :

Mpro>Mu pmax>ppro

OK OK

Page 519

a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.143 n) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not)

c/de-Max. c

0.450 52.340 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.143 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

v) Checking Against Calculated Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-2 : a) The Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-2 is the Total Factored Load on the Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. Thus Shear Force, VStrip-2 = PStrip-2-USD = VU VU. 150.853 kN/m 150.853*10^3 N/m

b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU - fVp)/fbvdv, (AASSHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9).Here, b-i) bv is Minimum Width of the Section, here bv = b, the Design Strip Width. a-ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9de or 0.72h in mm, which one is greater. Where; de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tCant-WW Thickness of Cant. Wing Wall.Thus value 0.9*de for the Section; Whereas, value of 0.72h for the Section; b-iii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear b-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure, thus Vp = 0. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.3.3 : i) Vn-1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.- 5.8.3.3-1, or bv. dv. 1,000.000 mm 330.300

Vn-Strip-1

1,734.075 kN/m 1734.075*10^3 N/m 2,512.617 kN/m 2152.617*10^3 N/m 1,734.075 kN/m 1734.075*10^3 N/m 2,512.617 kN/m 2152.617*10^3 N/m 0.000 N/m

Vn-1

Vn-2

c-i) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.083bf/cbvdv, (AASHTO-LRFD- Equ. 5.8.3.3-1); c-ii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value

Vc

Vs

Page 520

= Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. (AASHTO-LRFD-Equ. 5.8.3.3-3) in which, For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. c-iii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3.4. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.00. c-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (For RCC Structure Elements, Vp = 0. AASHTO-8.16.6.3.1.) b 2.00

Vp.

0.000 N

d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3 have Satisfied or Not). e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section, thus the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-2 does not require any Shear Reinforcement. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-2 Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement, thus Flexural Design for Provisio of Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-2 is OK. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 332.589 N-mm 255.152*10^6 kN-m 369.543 N-mm 283.503*10^6 kN-m 0.90

Mn f

b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) d) Since Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-2 is being considered as a Cantilever Mn-Strip-2 369.543 kN-m Beam having 1.000 m Wide Strips. The Steel Area against Factored Max. Moments 283.503*10^6 N-mm at its Support Face will have value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Support Face of Cantilever Beam is on its Earth Face = MStrip-2-USD MStrip-2-USD 226.280 kN-m 226.280*10^6 N-mm

f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment M at Support Face ( Which one is Greater, if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied)

Mr>MStrip-2-USD Satisfied

Page 521

a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fs-Dev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4. Where; b) fs-Dev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/As-prode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fs-Dev.

2 146.98 N/mm

MStrip-2-WSD

2 2,680.826 mm

As-pro de

367.000 mm

fsa

2 288.899 N/mm

i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCov-Earth. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Back Wall, CCov-Earth = 75mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 16f ; thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus its Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. ZMax.

58.000 mm

2 8,700.000 mm

23,000.000 N/mm

0.6*fy

2 246.000 N/mm

d) Since the Calculated value of fs-Dev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Cant. Wing Wall Structure, thus value of Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fs-Dve. e) Based on fs-Dve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fs-Dev.*(dcA)1/3 ZDev. 11,701.238 N/mm

Page 522

f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fs-Dev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev.

fs-Dev.< fs

Satisfy

i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Cant. Wing Wall fs-Dev.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress; though Computed Tensile Stress fsa>0.6fy;but Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev.<ZMax. Allowable Max.Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Cant. Wing Wall Strip-2 Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 15 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall against Calculated the Moments on Strips-3 : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) Calculated Flexural Moment in Horizontal Span Strip-3 of Cantilever Wing Wall is Greater than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus MStrip-3 is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against Moment value. Since the Strip is facing Earth Loads, thus requird Reinforcements will be on Earth Side. b) Since MStrip-3-USD> Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus MStrip-3 is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Strip-3. b) X-Sectional of 16f Bars = p*DStrip-32/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face, dpro = (tCant.-WW -CCov-Earth. -DStrip-3/2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af-16b/As-req-Strip-3 g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 175mm,C/C DStrip-3 Af-16. de-pro. 16.000 mm

2 201.062 mm

MStrip-3-USD Mr

MU

367.000 mm

areq.

19.504 mm

943.470 213.109

mm2/m mm,C/C

175 mm,C/C

Page 523

h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 175mm,C/C = Af-16.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

As-pro-Strip-3-Earth

1,148.925

mm2/m

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6

d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.061 n) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not) c/de-Max. c

Mpro>Mu pmax>ppro

OK OK

0.450 22.431 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.061 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

v) Checking Against Calculated Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-3 : a) The Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-3 is the Total Factored Load on the Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. Thus Shear Force, VStrip-3= PStrip-3-USD = VU VU. 124.373 kN/m 124.373*10^3 N/m

b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU - fVp)/fbvdv, (AASSHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9).Here, b-i) bv is Minimum Width of the Section, here bv = b, the Design Strip Width. a-ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9de or 0.72h in mm, which one is greater. Where; de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tCant-WW Thickness of Cant. Wing Wall.Thus value 0.9*de for the Section; Whereas, value of 0.72h for the Section; bv. dv. 1,000.000 mm 330.300

0.9*de. 0.72h

330.300 mm 324.000 mm

Page 524

b-iii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear b-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure, thus Vp = 0. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.3.3 : i) Vn-1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.- 5.8.3.3-1, or

f Vp.

0.90 N

Vn-Strip-1

1,734.075 kN/m 1734.075*10^3N/m 2,512.617 kN/m 2152.617*10^3 N/m 1,734.075 kN/m 1734.075*10^3 N/m 2,512.617 kN/m 2152.617*10^3 N/m 0.000 N/m

Vn-1

Vn-2

Vc

Vs

2.000

Vp.

0.000 N

d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3 have Satisfied or Not). e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section, thus the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-3 does not require any Shear Reinforcement. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-3 Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement, thus Flexural Design for Provisio of Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-3 is OK. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 149.997 N-mm 173.909*10^6 kN-m 166.663 N-mm 193.232*10^6 kN-m 0.90

Mn f

Page 525

b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) d) Since Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-2 is being considered as a Cantilever Mn-Strip-3 Beam having 1.000 m Wide Strips. The Steel Area against Factored Max. Moments at its Support Face will have value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Support Face of Cantilever Beam is on its Earth Face = MStrip-3-USD MStrip-3-USD 166.663 kN-m 193.232*10^6 N-mm

Satisfied

f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>MStrip-3-USD Factored Moment MStrip-2-USD at Support Face ( Which one is Greater, if Mr MStrip-2-USD the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied)

vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fs-Dev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4. Where; b) fs-Dev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/As-prode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State of Loads fs-Dev.

2 190.056 N/mm

MStrip-3-WSD

2 1,148.925 mm

As-pro de

367.000 mm

fsa

2 217.814 N/mm

i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCov-Earth. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Back Wall, CCov-Earth = 75mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 16f ; thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear A

58.00 mm

2 20,300.000 mm

Page 526

Cover = 50mm.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus its Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. ZMax. 23,000.000 N/mm

0.6*fy

2 246 N/mm

d) Since the Calculated value of fs-Dev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Cant. Wing Wall Structure, thus value of Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fs-Dve. e) Based on fs-Dve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fs-Dev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fs-Dev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev. ZDev. 20,068.839 N/mm fs-Dev.< fs fsa< 0.6fy Zdev.< Zmax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy

i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Cant. Wing Wall fs-Dev.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. < ZMax. Allowable Max.Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Cant. Wing Wall Strip-3 Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 16 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall against Calculated the Moments on Strips-4 : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) Calculated Flexural Moment in Horizontal Span Strip-4 of Cantilever Wing Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against Moment value. Since the Strip is facing Earth Loads, thus requird Reinforcements will be on Earth Side. b) Since MStrip-4 -USD < Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section,thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : MStrip-4-USD Mr 4.259 4.259*10^6 58.462 58.462*10^6 kN-m/m N-mm/m kN-m/m N-mm/m

MU

Page 527

a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Strip-4. b) X-Sectional of 16f Bars = p*DStrip-42/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face, dpro = (tCant.-WW -CCov-Earth. -DStrip-4/2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1 - (1 - (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, As-req. = MU/(ffy(dpro - a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af-16b/As-req-Strip-4 g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 175mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 175mm,C/C = Af-16.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = As-pro/bdpro

/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = As-pro*fy/(b1*f c*b)

16 mm

2 201.062 mm

367.000 mm

areq.

18.305 mm

442.742 227.064

mm2/m mm,C/C

175 mm,C/C

As-pro-Strip-4-Earth

574.463

mm2/m

c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = As-pro*fy(d - apro/2)/10^6

d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTO-LRFD-.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.061 n) Relation between c/de-Max. & c/de-pro (Whether c/de-pro< c/de-Max. or Not) c/de-Max. c

Mpro>Mu pmax>ppro

OK OK

0.450 22.431 mm

b1 c/de-pro

0.85 0.061 OK

c/de-pro<c/de-max.

Page 528

v) Checking Against Calculated Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-4 : a) The Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-4 is the Total Factored Load on the Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. Thus Shear Force, VStrip-4 = FPStrip-4 -USD = VU VU. 17.03 kN/m 17.034*10^3 N/m

b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU - fVp)/fbvdv, (AASSHTO-LRFD-5.8.2.9).Here, b-i) bv is Minimum Width of the Section, here bv = b, the Design Strip Width. a-ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9de or 0.72h in mm, which one is greater. Where; de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tCant-WW Thickness of Cant. Wing Wall.Thus value 0.9*de for the Section; Whereas, value of 0.72h for the Section; b-iii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear b-iv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure, thus Vp = 0. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.3.3 : i) Vn-1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.- 5.8.3.3-1, or bv. dv. 500.000 mm 330.300

Vn-Strip-4

867.038 kN/m 867.038*10^3 N/m 1,256.309 kN/m 1256.309*10^3 N/m 867.038 kN/m 867.038*10^3 N/m 1,256.309 kN/m 1256.309*10^3 N/m 0.000 N/m

Vn-1

Vn-2

Vc

Vs

2.000

Vp.

0.000 N

d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTO-LRFD-5.8.3 have Satisfied or Not).

Page 529

e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section, thus the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-4 does not require any Shear Reinforcement. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-4 Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement, thus Flexural Design for Provisio of Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-4 is OK. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in N-mm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 74.998 N-mm 74.998*10^6 kN-m 83.332 N-mm 83.332*10^6 kN-m 0.90

Mn f

b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dp-a/2) + Asfy(ds-a/2) - A/sf/y(d/s-a/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) d) Since Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip-4 is being considered as a Cantilever Mn-Strip-4 Beam having 0.500 m Wide Strips. The Steel Area against Factored Max. Moments at its Support Face will have value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(ds-a/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Support Face of Cantilever Beam is on its Earth Face = MStrip-4-USD MStrip-4-USD 83.332 kN-m 83.332*10^6 N-mm

Satisfied

f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>MStrip-4-USD Factored Moment MStrip-4-USD at Support Face ( Which one is Greater, if Mr MStrip-4-USD the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied)

vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fs-Dev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTO-LRFD-5.7.3.4. Where; b) fs-Dev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/As-prode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State of Loads fs-Dev.

2 13.055 N/mm

MStrip-4-WSD

2 574.463 mm

ii) As-pro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation.

As-pro

Page 530

iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, in Which;

de

367.000 mm

fsa

2 217.814 N/mm

i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCov-Earth. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Back Wall, CCov-Earth = 75mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 16f ; thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus its Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. ZMax.

58.00 mm

2 20,300.000 mm

23,000.000 N/mm

0.6*fy

2 246 N/mm

d) Since the Calculated value of fs-Dev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Cant. Wing Wall Structure, thus value of Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fs-Dve. e) Based on fs-Dve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fs-Dev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fs-Dev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev. ZDev. 1,378.492 N/mm fs-Dev.< fs fsa< 0.6fy Zdev.< Zmax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy

i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Cant. Wing Wall fs-Dev.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. < ZMax. Allowable Max.Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Cant. Wing Wall Strip-4 Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. 17 Provision of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements both on Earth & Water Faces of Cantilever Wing

Page 531

Walls in Vertical & Horizontal Directions : i) Requiment of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements for Cantilever Wing Walls : a) The Flexural Design of Cantilever Wing Walls are being done Considering the Structure as Constituents of Multiple Cantilever Beam Strips having Span Length in Longitudinal, Width in Vertical & Depth in Transverse Direction. Since the Cantilever Wing Walls are Subject to Horizontal Earth & Surcharge Pressures, thus under Concept of Flexural Design the Longitudinal Reinforcements are on Earth Face in Vertical Plane. According to Principle of RCC Design all Concrete Surfaces should have Reinforcements in both Directions either under Flexural Tension/Compression or under Flexural Shear/Web/Torsion. The Surfaces where there is no such type of Reinforcements on that surface Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements should arrange according to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8.1. Provisions. b) On Earth Surface Cantilever Wing Walls the Main Reinforcements are in Horizontal Direction, thus on Earth Face Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements are required in Vertical Direction. Whereas on Water Face Provision of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements are required both in Vertical & Horizontal Directions. ii) Provision of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements on Earth Face in Vertical and for Wate Face both in Vertical & Horizontal Direction : a) Since the Thickness/Depth of Cantilever Wing Walls is less than1200mm, thus to Calculate the Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements on both Faces in Vertical & Horizontal Directions a Strip is being Considered having Length of each Arm b = 1000mm. c) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8.1. Steel Area required as Shrinkage Temperature Reinforcement for Structural Components having its Thickness 1200mm or Less; As 0.11Ag/fy in both way.(Here Thickness = 450mm). d) Here Ag is Gross Area of Strip on Vertical Surface = LHor.*hVer. e) Let provide 16f bars as Shrinkage & Temperature in Vertical Direction on Earth Face Both in Vertical & Horizontal Direction on Water Face. f) X-Sectional Area of 16f bar = pDBar-S&T-V&H2/4 g) Spacings required for 16f Bars as Shrinkage & Temperature in Vertical Direction on Earth Face Both Vertical & Horizontal Direction on Water Face. = Af-16*b/As-req-S&T-V&H LHor. hVer. b 1.000 m 1.000 m 1.000 m

As-req-S&T

2 268.293 mm

Ag-Strip DBar-S&T-V&H

2 1000000.000 mm

16 mm

Af-16 sreq-S&T-V&H

2 201.062 mm

749.413 nos.

h) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8.1. In a Component having Less 1200mm Thickness, Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements should not Spaced further Apart than 3.00 Times the Component's Thickness or 450mm. i) 3.00 Times of Cantilever Wing Wall Thickness = 3.00*tCont.-WW ii) Allowable Max. Spacing for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements i) Let provide 300 mm Spacing for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements with 16f Bars in Vertical Direction on Earth Face, Both in Vertical & Horizontal Direction on Water Face. 3.00*tCont.-WW sAllow-S&T-V&H-1 spro-S&T-V&H 1,350.000 mm 450.000 mm 300 mm

Page 532

j) The provided Steel Area with 16f Bars as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements having Spacing 300mm,C/C = Af-16.b/spro-S&T-V&H

As-pro-S&T-V&H

670.206

mm2/m

k) According to AASHTO-LRFD-5.10.8.1. For Components of Solid Structural Concrete Wall & Footing having Less 1200mm Thickness, the Spacing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements Bars should not Exceed 300mm in Each Direction on all Faces and Steel Area of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements need not Exceed value of Ab = 0.0015Ag. Since the Cantilever Wing Walls are Concrete Wall Structure, thus i) Allowable Max. Spacing for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements sAllow-S&T-V&H-2 300.000 mm 2 Ab = ii) Calculated value of Ab = 0.0015Ag. Ab = 1,500.000 mm /m i) Status between Provided Steel Area of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement & Allowable Max, Steel Area for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement (Whether Ab > As-pro-S&T-V&H or not. If Ab < As-pro-S&T-V&H ; then Provisions of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement have Satisfied, otherwise Not Satisfied) Ab > As-pro-S&T Satisfied l) Since Calculated Ab > As-pro-S&T-V&H. > As-req-S&T-V&H. & spro-S&T-V&H. = sAllow-S&T-V&H-2, thus Provisions for the Shrinkage & Temperature on Surfaces of Cantilever Wing Wall is OK.

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Satisfy

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Satisfy

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1 Sketch Diagram of Abutment & Wing wall:

12750 3000 600 3450 600 3450 600 3450 600 600 C 2000 5225 2100 300 700

2525

2150

5500

600 2150

1447

450

2750

3000

3000

450

3450 450

3450

450

1200

600

4300 5500

600

2 Dimension of Different Sub-Structural Components & RCC Well for Foundation: Description i) Dimensions of Sub-Structure. a) Height of Abutment Wall from Bottom of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall, b) Height of Abutment Wall from Top of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall, c) Height of Abutment Well Cap, d) Height of Abutment Steam e) Height of Back Wall f) Height of Wing Wall H H1 hWell-Cap. hSteam. hb-wall H-W-Wall 6.147 m 4.947 m 1.200 m 1.900 m 2.147 m 4.947 m Notation Dimensions Unit.

6350

H1 = 4947

1775

H = 6147

1500

450 300

2750

1900

2147

g) Width of Wall Cap on Heel Side (From Abutment Wall Face). h) Width (Longitudinal Length) of Abutment Well Cap, i) Length (Transverse Length) of Abutment Well Cap, j) Transverse Length of Abutment Wall (Outer Face to Outer Face) in X-X Direction. k) Inner Length of Abutment Wall in between Wing Walls (Transverse), l) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Bottom m) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Top n) Thickness of Counterfort Wall (For Wing Wall) o) Number of Wing-Wall Counterforts (on each side) p) Clear Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall at Bottom q) Average Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall = (tAB-Wall-Bot + tAb-Wall-Top)/2+SClear-Count& Ab-Bot. r) Effective Span of Wing Wall Counterfort = SAver-Count + tWW-Countf s) Thickness of Wing Walls within Well Cap, t) Thickness of Cantilever Wing Walls u) Length of Cantilever Wing Walls v) Height of Rectangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls w) Height of Triangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls x) Longitudinal Length of Well Cap on Toe Side from Abutment Wall Outer Face. y) Average Length (Longitudinal) of Well Cap on Heel Side from Abutment Wall Face.= SAver.-Count.& Ab. + tWW-Count. z) Surface Area of Well Cap ii) Dimensions of RCC Well for Foundation. a) Width of Well in Y-Y Direction (In Longitudinal Direction)

2.975 m 5.500 m

12.750 m 10.250 m

9.350 m 0.750 m

L-W-Cap-Heel-Aver.

2.825 m

AWell-Cap.

2 66.879 m

WWell-Y-Y

5.500 m

b) Length of Well in X-X Direction (In Transverse Direction) c) Depth of Well from Bottom of Well Cap up to Bottom of Well Curb d) Wall thickness of Well, f) Thickness of Partition Walls of Well, g) Diameter of Outer Circle, h) Diameter of Inner Circle = DOuter - 2* tWall i) Transverse Length of Rectangular Portion of Well Cap =LWell-X-X - DOuter j) Length of Partition Walls = DOuter - 2*tWall k) Number of Pockets within Well l) Distance between Inner Faces of Pockets in Y-Y Direction (Longitudinal Span Length). m) Distance between Inner Faces of Outer Pockets in X-X Direction (Transverse Span Length). n) Distance between Inner Faces of Central Pocket in X-X Direction (Transverse Span Length). o) Effective Span Length in Y-Y Direction (C/C Distance between Well Walls.) = SPock-Y-Y. + tWall p) Effective Span Length in X-X Direction (C/C Distance between Well Walls.) = SPock-X-X-Central/Outer + tWall(tWall-Perti) 3 Information about Soil, Foundation, Abutment & Wing-walls: a) Type of Sub-soil :

LWell-X-X HWell-pro. tWell. tWall-Perti DOuter. DInner. LRect. LParti. NPock. SPock-Y-Y.

12.750 m 6.325 m 0.600 m 0.600 m 5.500 m 4.300 m 7.250 m 4.300 m 3.000 Nos 4.300 m

SPock-X-X-Outer.

3.450 m

SPocket-X-X-Central.

3.450 m

SEff-Y-Y.

4.900 m

SEff-X-X

4.050 m

a) At Borehole No-BH07 (Cox's Bazar End), from GL (GL is - 2.25m from Road Top Level) up to 2.50m depth Sub-soil posses Loss gray fine Silty sand having SPT Value ranging 7 to 12. Whereas in next 0.75m from depth 2.50m to 3.75m there exists Medium dense gray fine sand with SPT value ranging from 12 to 40. From depth about 3.75m there exists Bed-rock (Gray Shale) having 50 and over SPT values . b) At Borehole No-BH08 (Teknuf End), from GL (GL is - 2.25m from Road Top Level) upto 2.75m depth Sub-soil posses Medium dency gray sandy silt having SPT Value renging 12 to 37. In next 2.15m (About depth 2.75m to 4.80m) there exists Medum densey gray fine sand with SPT value renging from 37 to 50. From depth about 4.80m there exists Bed rock (Gray Shale) having SPT value 50 over.

b) Type of Foundation

Due to its Geographical position, Marin Drive Road have every risk to effected by Wave action & Cyclonic Strom from Sea. More over the Slain Water is also an important factor for RCC Construction Works in these area. In Designing of any Permanent Bridge/Structure on this Road, specially in Foundation Design all the prevalling adverse situations should be considered for their Survival and Durability. Though as per Soil Investigation Report there exist Loss to Medium dency gray sandy silt on Seashore Sub-soil, but due to ground their formation those posses a very poor Mechanical bonding among it contitutent.But there exites Bed-rock at a considerably short depth (About 3.75m to 4.80m) from the Ground Level.Presence of Bed-rock is an important for the Foundation of any Structue on this Road. To encounter all mentioned adverse situations Provision of RCC Caissons embedded into the Bed-rock will be best one as Foundation of Bridges on this Road. RCC Caissons embedded into the Bed-rock will be a Solid mass to save guard the Structure against Errosion, Sliding, Overturning etc. which caused by the Wave action & Cyclonic Strom. More over against Salinity effect necessary meassary can provide for RCC Caissions. Thus it is recommended to Provide RCC Caissions embedded into the Bed-rock at least 1.50m into Bed-rock as Foundation of Delpara Bridge. Wall Type Abutment. Wall Type Wing Walls Integrated with Abutment Wall having Counterforts over Well & Cantilever Wings beyond Well. Strength Limit State of Design (USD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-2004.

: :

e) Design Criteria

4 Design Data in Respect of Unit Weight, Flexural Multiplier Factors, Material Strength & Soil Pressure:

3 i) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration, g =

2 9.807 m/sec )

a) b) c) d) e)

a) b) c) d) e)

iii) Design Data for Resistance Factors for Conventional Construction (AASHTO LRFD-5.5.4.2.1). : (Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f or b value)

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k)

For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete For Axil Comression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme Limit State (Zone 3 & 4). For Bearing on Concrete For Compression in Strut-and-Tie Modeis For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones For resistance during Pile Driving Value of b 1 for Flexural Compression in Reinforced Concrete (AASHTO LRFD-5.7.2..2.) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete

0.90 1.00 0.90 0.75 0.70 0.70 0.80 1.00 1.00 0.85 0.85

vi) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTO-LRFD-2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength, f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, Ec = 0.043gc1.50f/c (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.4). d) Poisson's Ration = 0.63f/c = 0.63*21^(1/2), subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.5). e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete, fr = 0.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD-5.4.2.6). f) Steel Ultimate strength, fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement, Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.000 8.400 23,855.620 2.887 fr fy fs ES 2.887 MPa MPa MPa MPa

v) Strength Data related to Working Stress Design & Service Load Condition ( WSD & AASHTO-SLS ) : a) b) c) d) e) Modular Ratio, n = Es/Ec 6 8.384 Value of Ratio of Steel & Concrete Flexural Strength, r = fs/fc Value of k = n/(n + r) = 9.000/(9.000 + 20) Value of j = 1 - k/3 = 1 - 0.307/3 Value of R = 0.5*(fckj) n r k j R 8 19.524 0.291 0.903 1.102 kN/m3 N N/ p 50 Over 33

2 770 kN/m

vi) Sub-soil Investigation Report & Side Codition Data: a) SPT Value as per Soil Boring Test Report, / b) Corrected SPT Value for N>15, N = 15 + 1/2(N - 15) = 15 + 1/2(50 - 15) = 15 + 1/2(50 - 15) = 32.5 . Say N/ = 33 c) Recommended Allowable Bearing Capacity of Soil as per Soil Investigation Report witht SPT Value 50 over, p = 7.2 Ton/ft2. = 770kN/m2 5 Intensity of Different Imposed Loads, Load Coefficients & Multiplier Factors : i) Coefficient for Lateral Earth Pressure (EH) :

a) Coefficient of Active Horizontal Earth Pressure, ko = (1-sinff ) ,Where; f is Effective Friction Angle of Soil b) For Back Filling with Clean fine sand, Silty or clayey fine to medium sand Effective Friction Angle of Soil, f = 340 .(Table 12.9, Page-138, RAINA,s Book) c) Angle of Friction with Concrete surface & Soli AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1. d) Value of Tan d (dim) for Coefficient of Friction. = 0.34 to 0.45 (AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.5.3 ;Table 3.11.5.3-1.)

ko f

0.441

34

19 to 24

Tan d

ii) Dead Load Surcharge Lateral/Horizontal Pressure Intensity (ES); AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.1. : a) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Uniform Surcharge, Dp-ES = ksqs in Mpa. Where; b) ks is Coefficien of Earth Pressure due to Surcharge = ko for Active Earth Pressure, c) qs is Uniform Surcharge applied to upper surface of Active Earth Wedge(Mpa) = wE*10-3N/mm2 iii) Live Load Surcharge Vertical & Horizontal Pressure Intensity (LS); AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4. : a) Constant Earth Pressur both Vertical & Horizontal for Live Load Surcharge on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic), Where; Dp-LS = kgsgheq*10-9 Dp-LL-Ab<6.00m Dp-LL-Ab6.00m Dp-LL-WW<6.00m Dp-LL-WW6.00m 0.007141 7.141 0.004761 4.761 0.00833 8.331 0.004761 4.761 0.441

3 1,835.424 kg/m 2 9.807 m/sec

Dp-ES

ks wE*10-3

0.441

2 0.018 N/mm

b) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Live Load Surcharge for Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic), Where; Dp-LS = kgsgheq*10-9 ,

c) ks is Coefficien of Latreal Earth Pressure = ko for Active Earth Pressure. d) gsis Unit Weight of Soil (kg/m3)

2 e) g is Gravitational Acceleration (m/sec ), AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.1.2.

k gs g heq-Ab<6.00m. heq-Ab6.00m.

900.000 mm 600.000 mm

Weq-Ab<6.00m. Weq-Ab6.00m.

0.600 m i) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm). Having, H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm ; AASHTO-LRFD-3.11.6.4; Table-3.11.6.4-2. j) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Wing Walls, Having H < 6000mm.& H 6000mm. heq-WW<6.00m. heq-WW6.00m. 1,050.000 mm 600.000 mm

Weq-WW<6.00m. Weq-WW6.00m.

mm m mm m

iv) Wind Load Intensity on Superstructure Elements (WS) : a) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Superstructure Elements in Lateral Direction of Wind Flow (Parallel to Traffic). AASHTO-LRFD-3.8.1.2.2; Table-3.8.1.2.2-1. b) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Superstructure Elements in Longitudinal Direction of Wind Flow (Perpendicular to Traffic). v) Wind Load Intensity on Substructure Elements (WS) : a) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Substructure Elements in Lateral Direction (Parallel to Traffic). = 0.0019*cos600 Mpa, Considering 600 Skew Angle of Main Force; (AASHTO-LRFD-3.8.1.2.3). b) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Substructure Elements in Longitudinal Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic). = 0.0019*sin600 Mpa; Considering 600 Skew Angle of Main Force; (AASHTO-LRFD-3.8.1.2.3). vi) Wind Load Intensity on Live Load (WL) : a) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Live Load upon Superstructure in Longitudinal Direction (Parallel to Traffic). = 0.550 N/mm, having action at 1800mm above Deck & Considering 600 Skew Angle of Force; for Two Lane Bridge. (AASHTO-LRFD-3.8.1.3; Table- 3.8.1.3-1). b) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Live Load upon Superstructure in Lateral Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic) = 0.500N/mm having action at 1800mm above Deck & Considering 600 Skew Angle of Main Force; for Two Lane Bridge.(AASHTO-LRFD-3.8.1.3; Table- 3.8.1.3-1). vii) Intensity on Breaking Force (BR) : a) Intensity of Horizontal Breaking on Superstructure is the Greater value of pLL-Sup-Break. i) 25% of the Axle Weight of Design Truck/Design Tendem, or pLL-25%-Truck. ii) 5% of Design (Truck + Lane Load) or (Design Tendem + Lane Load) pLL-5%-(Tru+Lane.) Breaking Force is for Two Lane Bridge & its Action at 1800mm above Deck. (AASHTO-LRFD-3.6.4). 162.500 kN 162.500 kN 55.750 kN pWind-LL-Sup-Let. 0.550 N/mm 0.550 kN/m pWind-Sub-Let. 0.000950 Mpa 2 0.950 kN/m pWind-Sup-Let. 0.0008 Mpa 2 0.800 kN/m

pWind-Sup-Long.

pWind-Sub-Long.

pWind-LL-Sup-Long.

6 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors under Limit State (USD) according to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1: a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.250

gDW gEH

1.500

1.500

gEV gES

1.350

1.500

ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors under Limit State (USD) according to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1: a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m (ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load Allowence-IM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; (Applicable for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading only) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL STRENGTH - III STRENGTH - V m gLL-Truck IM 1.000

1.750 1.330

k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV

1.000 1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

7 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Service Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD-3.4.1 ; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & Attachments-DC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities- DW , (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EH ; Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-EV ; Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of Bridge-ES ; Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls, (Max. value of Table 3.4.1-2) gDC 1.000

gDW gEH

1.000

1.000

gEV gES

1.000

1.000

ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTO-LRFD-3.4.1; Table 3.4.1-1&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)-m m 1.000

(ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.1.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)-LL-Truck . c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load Allowence-IM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD-3.6.2.1, Table 3.6.2.1-1; SERVICE - I (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane Loading-LL-Lane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian Loading-PL. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal Force-CE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking Force-BR . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load Surcharge-LS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-WA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Structure-WS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live Load-WL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream Pressure-FR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change -TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on Concrete-CR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of Concrete-SH (With Elastomeric Bearing). o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature Gradient-TG (With Elastomeric Bearing). p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of Concrete-SE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake -EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision Force-CT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision Force-CV SERVICE - IV SERVICE - II SERVICE - II SERVICE - II gLL-Truck IM 1.000 1.000

gLL-Lane gLL-PL. gLL-CE. gLL-BR. gLL-LS. gLL-WA. gLL-WS gLL-W gLL-FR gLL-TU. gLL-CR. gLL-SH. gLL-TG. gLL-SE. gLL-EQ gLL-CT. gLL-CV.

1.000 1.000 1.300 1.300 1.000 1.000 0.700 1.300 1.000 1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

8 Calculations of Vertical Loads on Abutment Well Cap, Moments & Shearing Forces under Limite State Condition (USD) :

i) Philosophy in Computation of different Loads (DL & LL) upon Well Cap: a) Since the Well Cap will have to receive all Vertical Loads both from Live Load Elements & Dead Loads from the Superstructure & Substructure Components, Soil Load, Surcharge Load and its Self Weight, thus computation of these Loads should done accordingly. b) Loads from Superstructure will act upon Well Cap through the Abutment Wall & its Position is in X-X Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic), thus all Loads from Superstructure & Loads of Abutment Wall including Components resting on it will be Computated as Uniformly Distributed Load in X-X Direction having its Unit in kN/m. Value of these Uniformly Distributed Load will compute by dividing the Total Load in these respect by the Total Length of Well Cap in X-X Direction. c) Since Loads from Wing Walls, Countrforts, Soil & Surcharge upon Well Cap are on Heel Side, thus Loads will also considered as Uniformly Distributed Load but the Unit will be kN/m2. Value of these Uniformly Distribued Load will compute by dividing the Total Load in these respect by the Total Surface Area of Well Cap on Heel Side. Action of these Loads will be on Heel Side only.

2 d) Self Weight of Well Cap will also be an Uniformly Distributed Load having its Unit in kN/m . Value of these Load will compute by dividing the Total Load in these respect by the Total Surface Area of Well Cap. These Load will be active over the Wall Cap Total Surface Area.

e) For Calculation of Moment & Shear Total vertical Loads are considered be to an Uniformly Distributed Load over the Total Surface Area of Well Cap for which the Unit of Pressure will kN/m 2. The Value of these Load will be compute by dividing the Total Vertical Loads upon Well Cap by the Total Surface Area of Well Cap. These Load will be active over the Total Surface Area of Well Cap. ii) Imposed Vertical Loads (LL+ DL) on Well Cap from Superstructure, Substructure, Self Weight of Well Soil & Surcharge : a) Superstruc