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INSTRUCTOR’S SOLUTIONS MANUAL ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS vit Boundary Value Problems Se EDWARDS & PENNEY atin De courled SEN le Raver. NJ 745 Acquisitions Editor: George Lobell Supplement Editor: Jennifer Brady Assistant Managing Editor: John Matthews Production Editor: Jeffrey Rydell Supplement Cover Manager: Paul Gourhan Supplement Cover Designer: Joanne Alexandris, Manufacturing Buyer: Tene Kahn ITZUSTONE © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. eM 2cason Prentice Hall BOccaneMMM Pearson Education, Inc. HEEMEE Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Alll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. Pearson Prentice Hall® is a trademark of Pearson Education, Ine. ‘The author and publisher of this book have used their best efforts in preparing this book. These efforts include the development, research, and testing of the theories and programs to determine their effectiveness. The author and publisher make no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, with regard to these programs or the documentation contained in this book. The author and publisher shall not be liable in any event for incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing, performance, or use of these programs. Printed in the United States of America 10987654321 ISBN O-13-145777-2 Pearson Education Ltd. London Pearson Education Australia Pty. Ltd., Sydney Pearson Education Singapore, Pte. Ltd. Pearson Education North Asia Ltd., Hong Kong Pearson Education Canada, Inc., Toronto Pearson Educacién de Mexico, S.A. de CV. Pearson Education—Iapan, Tokyo Pearson Education Malaysia, Pte. Ltd, INSTRUCTORS SOLUTIONS MANUAL ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS With BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS Fifth Edition C. Henry Edwards ¢ David E. Penney PRENTICE HALL, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CONTENTS ts Ld 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS Differential Equations and Mathematical Modeling Integrals as General and Particular Solutions Slope Fields and Solution Curves Separable Equations and Applications Linear First-Order Equations Substitution Methods and Exact Equations Population Models Acceleration-Velocity Models Chapter | Review Problems 2 22 23 24 25 2.6 2.7 2.8 34 3.2 33 34 LINEAR EQUATIONS OF HIGHER ORDER Introduction: Second-Order Linear Equations General Solutions of Linear Equations Homogeneous Equations with Constant Coefficients Mechanical Vibrations Nonhomogeneous Equations and the Method of Undetermined Coefficients Forced Oscillations and Resonance Electrical Circuits Endpoint Problems and Eigenvalues POWER SERIES METHODS Introduction and Review of Power Series Series Solutions Near Ordinary Points Regular Singular Points Method of Frobenius: The Exceptional Cases 18 27 43 52 64 78 86 ot 97 105 112 122 133 147 154 162 168 180 194 35 3.6 4d 42 43 44 45 46 Sa 52 53 54 55 5.6 58.7 58 61 62 63 64 Bessel's Equation Applications of Bessel Functions LAPLACE TRANSFORM METHODS Laplace Transforms and Inverse Transforms ‘Transformation of Initial Value Problems. ‘Translation and Partial Fractions Derivatives, Integrals, and Products of Transforms Periodic and Piecewise Continuous Forcing Functions Impulses and Delta Functions LINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS First-Order Systems and Applications ‘The Method of Elimination Linear Systems and Matrices ‘The Eigenvalue Method for Homogeneous Linear Systems Second-Order Systems and Mechanical Applications ‘Multiple Eigenvalue Solutions Matrix Exponentials and Linear Systems ‘Nonhomogencous Linear Systems NUMERICAL METHODS Numerical Approximation: Euler’s Method ‘A Closer Look at the Euler Method ‘The Runge-Kutta Method Numerical Methods for Systems 202 210 215 220 229 237 244 257 266 275 296 305 335 346 360 370 378 385 395 405 7 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS AND PHENOMENA 7.1 Equilibrium Solutions and Stability 7.2. Stability and the Phase Plane 7.3 Linear and Almost Linear Systems 7.4 Ecological Applications: Predators and Competitors 7.5 Nonlinear Mechanical Systems 7.6 — Chaos in Dynamical Systems 8 FOURIER SERIES METHODS 8.1 Periodic Functions and Trigonometric Series 8.2 General Fourier Series and Convergence 8.3 Fourier Sine and Cosine Series 84 Applications of Fourier Series 8.5 Heat Conduction and Separation of Variables 8.6 Vibrating Strings and the One-Dimensional Wave Equation 8.7 Steady-State Temperature and Laplace's Equation 9 EIGENVALUES AND BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS 9.1 Sturm-Liouville Problems and Bigenfunction Expansions 9.2 Applications of Eigenfunction Series 9.3. Steady Periodic Solutions and Natural Frequencies 9.4 Cylindrical Coordinate Problems 9.5 Higher-Dimensional Phenomena APPENDIX Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions 413 426 435 452 467 479 484 494 508 522 528 533 541 551 560 572 584 596 597 PREFACE This is a solutions manual to accompany the textbook ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS (5th edition, 2004) by C. Henry Edwards and David E. Penney. We include solutions to most of the problems in the text. The corresponding Students Solutions Manual contains solutions to most of the odd-numbered solutions in the text. Our goal is to support teaching of the subject of elementary differential equations in every way that we can, We therefore invite comments and suggested improvements for future printings of this manual, as well as advice regarding features that might be added to increase its usefulness in subsequent editions. Additional supplementary material can be found at our textbook Web site listed below, Henry Edwards & David Penney hedwards@math-uga.edu dpenney@math.uga.edu www .prenhall.com/edwards CHAPTER 1 FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS SECTION 1.1 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING ‘The main purpose of Section 1.1 is simply to introduce the basic notation and terminology of differential equations, and to show the student what is meant by a solution of a differential equation. Also, the use of differential equations in the mathematical modeling of real-world phenomena is outlined. Problems 1-12 are routine verifications by direct substitution of the suggested solutions into the given differential equations. We include here just some typical examples of such verifications. 3. If y,=cos2x and y, =sin2x, then y/=-2sin2x and y; =2cos 2x so Yi = —4cos2x = -4y, and yj = —4sin2x = —4y,. Thus yf+4y, = 0 and yf+4y, = 0. Cea and y, =e", then y,=3e™ and y,=-3e™ so 0 Wao = 9y, and yz = 92% = Oy, Sly pthen y'set4et so yy = (et +e*)-(e Wr yitdy, = (4e7*)+4(-2e*)+4(e™) = 0 and Mtdyytay, = (4% + dre) 44(e™ 2x07") +4(xe™) = 0. Section 1.1 8 If y,=cosx—cos2x and y, ~cosx+4cos2x, andy inx—cos2x, then y|=~-sinx+2sin2x, sinx+4cos2x. Hence osx +2sin2x, yf = (-cosx +4c0s2x)+(cosx—cos2x) = 3cos2x Wty and Wty, = (-sinx+4cos2x) +(sinx—cos2x) = 3cos2x. i then y'=-2x° and y"=6x", so xy'tSxyltdy = x7(6x)+5x(-22)+4(x7) = 0. If y=y,=x7Inx then y’ -2x"Inx and y"=-Sx*+6x"Inx, so Sy" +Sxyltdy = x2 (-Sx +62" Inx)+5x(x7 2x7 Inx)+4(x7Inx) = (-5x? +5x7)+(6x7-1027 +4x7)Inx = 0. 13. Substitution of y=e% into 3y'=2y gives the equation 3re” = 2e” that simplifies to 3r=2. Thus r=2/3. 14, Substitution of y= into 4y"= y gives the equation 4r’e” = e” that simplifies to 47 =1, Thus r=+1/2. " into y"+y'—2y = 0 gives the equation re" +re™-2e™=0 1 15, Substitution of y that simplifies to r?++r—2 = (r+2)(r—1) = 0. Thus r=-2 or 16. Substitution of y=e™ into 3y"+3y'-4y = 0 3r°e" +3re"—4e" =0 that simplifies to 37? +3r—4 ives the solutions r = (34 V57)/6. s the equation 0. The quadratic formula then The verifications of the suggested solutions in Problems 17-26 are similar to those in Problems 1-12. We illustrate the determination of the value of C only in some typical cases, However, we illustrate typical solution curves for each of these problems. 2 Chapter 1 If y(x) = Ce*= left below. ‘The figure is 20. If y(x) = Ce +x-1 then y(0)= 10 gives C-1 = 10, s0 C= 11 ‘on the right above. = 7. The figure is on the left at the top of the next page. 2. Section 1.1