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# Engineering Calculus Peer Led Session Exponentials and Logarithms Reference: Sections 3.1 and 3.

2 Pre-Assignment: Complete questions 1 and 2 below, read the "Why" section, and do question 1 a) of the activity. For help with the pre-assignment questions feel free to go to STEM Mart. 1) Simplify the following: a) 25 2 2) Solve for x. a) e ln( x ) = 4 c) e ln(2 x ) = 12
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b) 64 3

c) 27 3

b) ln(e x ) = 3

d) ln(e x ) = 0

Why? Exponential and Logarithmic functions appear frequently in sciences such as chemistry, biology, and physics. Exponential functions are used to calculate radioactive decay and model phenomena such as the spread of a disease or the growth of a population. With logarithms one can calculate chemical concentration and the intensity of sound. In this activity discover the relationship that exists between the natural exponential and natural logarithmic functions.

Activity 1) The letter e represents an irrational number whose decimal approximation is: e 2.71828182846 The graph below is the graph of the function y = f x = e x . y

a) Use the graph above to approximate the x-value for which y = 100. b) For the y values given below use the graph of the function to find the corresponding x-values. 8 20 50 c) Explain how to use the graph to find an x-value if you are given a y-value.

## d) Use your calculator to compute the following values: ln 8 ln 20 ln 50

ln 100

e) What relationship can you see between the values calculated in d) and the values found in a) and b)?

## Notation: we will denote the x-values found in d by f 1 100

f 1 8 , f 1 20 , f 1 50 , and

## f 1 y for any value y.

3) a) Given the graph of g x = e find 1 g 12 graphically and numerically. Check that both methods lead to the same answer.

0.3 x

## b) Find an expression for g y for any value y.

years Radioactive decay is measured in terms of half-life, the number of years required for half the atoms in a sample of radioactive material to decay. The amount of radioactive material in a substance (measured in grams) is modeled by the equation f t=Ce kt , where C represents the initial amount of radioactive material in grams, t is time in years, and k is a constant of proportionality.

4) What is the value of C in the graph above? Explain how you determined your answer.

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C dating assumes that the carbon dioxide on the Earth today has the same radioactive content as it did centuries ago. The half-life of 14C is 5,715 years. 5) Use the graph above to find out how many years after the charcoal was initially created that there were 50 grams of radioactive 14C left. 6) Rewrite your answer to 4 using the notation given before question 2. 7) You are tutoring a fellow student and showing her how to find the constant k in the equation f t = C e k t . Below is the worked out solution. Justify each step of the solution. 50 = 100 e
.5 = e
k5715

k5715

## ln .5 = ln e k5715 ln .5 = 5715 k ln .5 =k 5715

k = 0.0001213

8) If a piece of ancient charcoal contains 20% as much radioactive carbon as a piece of modern charcoal, find how long ago the wood burned to make the ancient charcoal.

Problem On Friday evening, campus police discover the body of a math professor who had been murdered in her office. The police call the coroner, who arrives at 8:30 p.m. The coroner immediately takes the temperature of the body and finds it to be 90.5. One hour later he takes it again and finds the body temperature to be 89.3 . The coroner can calculate the time of death by using the equation T t =T 098.6T 0 ekt where T(t) is the temperature of the body t hours after death and T0 is the temperature of the room. Suppose the temperature of the room was 72. Use a graphing calculator to estimate when the professor was murdered then use the given information to find the exact time the professor was murdered. Data List: List all of the known and unknown variables and any other useful information.

Analyze: What information are you missing? How could you use the information you have to obtain the missing information?

Solve:

Engineering Calculus Peer Led Session Exponentials and Logarithms Activity Report We verify that we all understand and agree with the solutions to these questions. Group #: Manager: Recorder: Spokesperson: Strategy Analyst: Critical Thinking Questionsto be completed by the recorder. Your peer leader will instruct you on how to fill out this section.

For Instructors Use Only All questions filled out Names and U numbers printed on activity report Critical Thinking fully justified and written in complete sentences Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory

Group #: