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Introduction

Often when a part is being machined, is it least likely that we will get an exact size as required in the design. We will get an accurate but not precise dimensions. For example, the diameter of a shaft in the design is 2.000 but when the machinist machined the shaft, the diameter may not be 2.000, it could be 2.002 or 1.998. If the machinist were to machine multiple shaft of the same diameter (2.000), we will have a series of dimension that ranges from 1.998 to 2.002. These ranges are called tolerancing. Most of the time tolerances are determined by the resolution of the machines that produce the parts. i.e a laser cutting will have better precision than an oxycutting. Depending on the application, some application may require a higher precision and some may not. A fan blade that is being used in the turbine may need a higher precision than the fan blade used in normal household fan. Higher precision would mean lower tolerance and better machines are needed to manufacture the parts and thus, this will increase the cost to manufacture the parts.

Mechanical Tolerancing
Tolerance is a key factor in determining the cost of a part. As mentioned earlier lower tolerance will results in a higher cost of producing the parts. The relationship between tolerance and manufacturing cost is shown in the figure.

Cost Manufacturing Cost

Scrap Cost

Machining
Tolerance

The manufacturing cost is divided into machining and scraps cost. - The machining cost is the cost of first producing the part. - The scrap cost is the cost encountered due to rejecting some parts that fall outside the specified tolerance range.

In this chapter we will look at the concepts of tolerance and how geometric tolerancing is applied to manufacturing. 1. Tolerance Concepts 2. Geometric Tolerancing

Tolerance Concepts

Basic size: theoretical size from which limits of size are derived by the application of allowance and tolerances. Tolerance: is the total amount by which a dimension might vary Tolerance can expressed in either two ways:

Bilateral tolerance:

is specified as plus or minus deviation from basic size. Example: 1.75 0.002 in.

Unilateral tolerance:

variation is permitted only in one direction from the basic size Example: 1.750

+ 0.004 0.000 0.003 0.004

1.750

Fits between mating parts can be identified as:

1. Cylindrical fits: shaft and hole 2. Location fits: location of mating parts

Both cylindrical and location fits can be divided into three types of fits: 1. clearance fit: One part is always loosed in relative to the other. 2. Interference fit: One part is force tight into the other during assembly 3. Transition fits May result in either a clearance or interference condition.

System for calculating the limits and tolerance dimensions: 1. The basic hole system (most widely used) 2. Basic shaft system Both systems assume unilateral tolerance h and s for the hole and the shaft In the basic hole system, the minimum hole is taken as the basic size.

dhma h

Basic size

dhmin

ANSI has established eight classes of cylindrical fit that specify the amount of allowance a, the hole tolerance h, and the shaft tolerance s as functions of the basic size (diameter) d.

d hmin = d d hmax = d + h d smax = d a d smin = d a s

In these equations the allowance a is an algebraic value; it is positive for clearance fit and negative for interference fit. The tolerance h and s are always positive: a = d hmin - d smax For each IT number there is a tolerance value d and for each shaft class there is a fundamental deviation F Based on those two values: h = dh s = ds

a=

F F + ds

Example: Fil class RC2, basic size is 3.000 in. H6 / g5


IT number IT number for shaft

ANSI the rearranged this table and extended it to include location fits: The result: five classes of fit with several grades The five classes are: 1. running or sliding fit 2. location fits 2.1 2.2 2.3 location clearance location transition location interference LC LT LN RC

3. force or shrink fit

How to read the table: H ; describe the classes of holes Small letters ( g, f, e, d, k, n ) describe the classes of shaft.

Example: grade Class Location Clearance fits LC1 LC2 : ISO symbol Hole Shaft H6 h5 H7 h6 : :

IT number (tolerance grade number)

Geometrical Tolerancing

Conventional tolerancing is capable of controlling all aspects of the shape of a part, (straightness, flatness, parallelism or angularity of specific portions of a part) Types of geometric tolerances: 1. size 2. location 3. from tolerance Geometric tolerancing permits an explicit definition of datums.

ANSI symbols for Geometric Tolerancing There are five categories of geometric characteristic symbology

1. Form:

Flatness Straightness Not related to datum Circularity Cylindricity

2. Profile:

Profile of a line Profile of a surface

3. Orientation:

Perpendicularity Parallelism Angularity requires a datum

4. Runout:

Circular runout Total runout requires a datum

5. Location Controls :

Position Symmetry Concentricity requires a datum

ANSI modifying symbols

1. Maximum Material Condition meaning and uses:

Maximum material condition is the condition of a feature where in the feature contains the most material. It is often thought of as the heaviest feature. It is the smallest hole or the largest shaft. The MMC concept is usually used for mating features. If a shaft is to be inserted into a hole, the shafts geometry, orientation or location is need not be as perfect if the shaft is made at a smaller size. Just as the holes geometry can be less perfect if the hole is produced at a larger size. This additional geometric tolerance based on size departure from maximum material condition is often termed bonus tolerance.

2. Least Material condition Meaning and Uses

Least material condition is the condition of a feature where in feature contains the least material. It is often thought of as the lightest feature. It is the largest hole or the smallest shaft. The LMC concept is usually used for features when preservation of material is great importance. It is used when wall thickness is thought to be endangered and the holes stand a chance of approaching a breakout condition.

3. Regardless of feature size conditions

RFS

or

This condition implies that geometric tolerance is to remain the same no matter what size hole or shaft is produced. The
RFS

concept is often used where balance is important.

For example: Spinning parts could be functionally endangered if tolerance of location, such as centering, were allowed to vary with a size of the feature.

How to read a feature Control Frame The symbol in a feature control frame can be read as one would read a sentence to describe how a part is to be made.

0.250 0.260 B C 0.87

0.010

0.75 1.500 + 0.005 - 0.005

1.750 + 0.005 A

0.625 + 0.005 - 0.005

Interpretation:
0.250 0.260

The axis fo the hole May be out of position a diameter of if the hole is produced at maximum material condition (diameter of 0.250) to datum A for perpencularity and B for location (holding the 0.875 dimension) and C for location (holding the 0.750 dimension)

:
M

: :

A B C

: : :

The complete sentence reads: The axis of the hole may be out of position a diameter of 0.010 if the hole is produces at a diameter of 0.250 while holding perpendicularity to datum A, and location to datum B and C.

Example:

5x 0.570 0.590

0.020

1.600 2.990 2.960 0.004 M

0.625 + 0.005 - 0.005

0.001