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Table

I. Preface

of Contents

1 3 6 16 26

II. Panch Yatras in the Cultural Heritage Landscape III. Jati Yatra: The Path of Community Development IV. Jal Yatra: Water Trail V. Parikrama Yatra: Pilgrim Path VI. Puratatviya and Sanskrutik Yatras: Archaeological and Landscape Heritage Trails VII. Conclusions Illustration List and Bibliography Acknowledgements

36 51 52 53

Preface

Fig 1.1 Karan Grover at Sadan Shah Gate

The year 1987 saw the first international intervention in heritage conservation at Champaner-Pavagadh. Encouraged by Sir Bernard Fieldon, a noted world authority on conservation, an extensive workshop took place in collaboration with the ASI (the Archaeological Survey of India), INTACH (the Indian National Trust for Art, and the Heritage Trust). Sixtyseven experts from across the globe and India charted a future direction for the Heritage Trust. Dr. Jokiehto from ICCROM, Rome, concurrently conducted a workshop on Heritage Conservation Education addressing faculty and staff of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. For three days the medieval erstwhile capital of Gujarat came alive with its magnificent monuments hosting 150 delegates of both the conferences in twelve venues for their deliberations. A major outcome of this international meeting was the realization that Champaner-Pavagadh had been protected and would remain fairly protected because of the strong administration of the Forest Act which controlled over eighty percent of the site. The idea of a Nature Education Sanctuary status for the site under the existing legislation of the Forest Act would subsequently influence the direction of several activities of the Trust. Twelve years of often frustrating responses by the Government, both Central and State, pushed the Heritage Trust into an activist role. It took the existing quarries, numbering

The five plateaus of Pavagadh were explored and connections were established between them cutting across centuries, religious beliefs and architectural and archeological typologies.

over a hundred, to the Supreme Court of India, resulting in the abrogation of their permits overnight. ChampanerPavagadhs selection for the prestigious New Yorks World Monuments Watch List for Endangered Sites in the first year of this Millennium further brought world attention to this archeological site. The Archeological Survey of India resisted seeing this site as anything more than a group of 38 monuments that they protect. A great many more significant buildings existed at the site, excavated in the 1960s by my mentor, Prof. R.N. Mehta, but they lay buried below the ground, unseen and not comprehensible to the visitor. Thus, the Heritage Trusts thrust to make the site read as a city remained a challenge. Extensive efforts were made to produce a city plan with drawings of the individual buildings excavated and then later covered by earth by Prof. Mehta and his team of students of the Department of Archeology, M S University of Baroda. This plan was then superimposed with the plan of the 114 monuments documented by

the Trust above the ground, within the regional context of 91 villages onto a Survey of India map. Prof. Kasturirangan, Chairman of ISRO the Indian Space and Research Organization -- helped obtain a remote sensing image of the site. Meanwhile the Department of Landscape Architecture at the University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign was making its presence felt in India with its path breaking work on the sites at Sarnath and the Taj Mahal at Agra. Their perspective on landscape as a tool to read a site, and their research on landscape as an extension of heritage conservation put these two sites in a new context. For the new project at Champaner, the first workshop of a dozen students from Urbana-Champaign and an equal number from the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda took place in the year 2000. Led by Professors Gary Kesler and Amita Sinha, and assisted by Sumesh Modi, Ghanshyam Joshi and Karan Grover, the initial concepts were fine tuned by the team back in the United States and a handsome

2/3 Preface

Fig 1.2 Sumesh Modi, People for Heritage Concern, Surat, with
students in Champaner

monograph documented this process. The focus at the workshop was the reading of the 14th-century capital at the base of the sacred hill of Pavagadh as a city, reviving old routes, avenues, and connections and the detailed landscape interventions around selected monuments. Buoyed with the success of the first workshop, a second workshop was conceived under the leadership of Profs. James Wescoat, Jr., Amita Sinha, Gary Kesler and D. Fairchild Ruggles in 2002. The Heritage Trust had by then realized that Pavagadh hill was integral to the site and that the Kalikamata Temple at the top of the hill, visited by two million pilgrims annually, was a unique example of the integration of tangible and intangible heritage the latter being the focus of direction of the New Japanese Director-General, Matsuurasan, of UNESCO. Meanwhile documentation towards getting Champaner-Pavagadh nominated as Indias World Heritage Site at UNESCO was being prepared. The second workshop focused on the pilgrim route and the sacred hill. The team from India included recent grad-

uates from Schools of Architecture in Surat working for People for Heritage Concern. The five plateaus of Pavagadh were explored and the connections between them that cut across centuries, religious beliefs and architectural and archeological typologies were established. The team flew to Delhi on the last day and presented the concepts to the then Minister for Tourism and Culture, Shri Jagmohan. The ensuing monograph highlighted computer-generated three-dimensional images of Champaner as an additional feature. The Heritage Trust converted the two workshop explorations into lavishly illustrated exhibition panels that were widely displayed across the country. This display was given a special section in two elaborate exhibitions in Delhi and Mumbai that were inaugurated by the Secretary of Culture, Government of India Smt. Neena Ranjan and Mrs. Tina Ambani, wife of billionaire Anil Ambani, in the two cities respectively to celebrate ChampanerPavagadhs inclusion in UNESCOs World Heritage Sites subsequently. Shri Amitabh Kant, Joint Secretary for Tourism of the Government of India, was so impressed with the work that he proposed a Central Government Grant equivalent to one million US dollars to implement the outcome of these two workshops at the site. Simultaneously, the Heritage Trust presented the dossier for nominating Champaner-Pavagadh as UNESCOs World Heritage Site for 2004. Karan Grover was requested to be part of the Indian delegation at the 28th Session

of the World Heritage Committee at Suzhou, China, and he was given the unprecedented honor of accepting the award on behalf of India in June 2004. The two monographs from the University of Illinois were an integral part of the nomination dossier and appreciated by representatives of over 100 countries at the meeting in China. With world attention and focus on Champaner-Pavagadh, the idea of the third workshop with students and faculty from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign materialized. The focus and strategies differed significantly from the earlier two workshops, and the net of participants, both students and expert, also widened. In addition to students from D.C. Patel School of Architecture, Vallabh Vidya Nagar, a contingent of six students participated from Bhausaheb Hiray College of Architecture, Mumbai University. The earlier ideas of landscape design for individual sites and unidirectional routes had to be expanded, and so the new workshop was devoted to a holistic study of interconnected trails at ChampanerPavagadh. These yatras or pilgrimages of many kinds reflected the complexity and plurality of the site. The idea of developing and extending these routes and evolving a new genre of interpretation would provide a unique insight into the understanding of this site and other such medieval sites. The workshop concluded with a detailed presentation to the press and prominent citizens of Baroda and Champaner Pavagadh, the Member of Parliament from Baroda, and the

visiting Vice-President of South Asia of the World Bank in Washington. At the time of writing this preface, we have just heard that a grant from the Government of India has been released to the Tourism Corporation of Gujarat. The High Power Task Force on Champaner-Pavagadh, chaired by its new Chairman Shri Sudhir Mankadji, the Chief Secretary of the Government of Gujarat, has met and has agreed to convene three more times this year. In its vision statement, ChampanerPavagadh 2020, the Heritage Trust has identified the Department of Landscape Architecture at the University of Illinois UrbanaChampaign as its Strategic Partner in its effort to showcase this precious site as a world example of best practice for sustainable development. We seek a long and meaningful relationship together and hope that these two institutions will set path-breaking protocols on landscape initiatives at World Heritage Sites.

The earlier ideas of landscape design for individual sites and unidirectional routes had to be expanded.

Karan Grover PresidentHeritage Trust

Panch Yatras
in the Cultural Heritage Landscape
Fig 2.1 School children in Shehri Masjid, Champaner

The 2004 designation of ChampanerPavagadh as a World Heritage Site heightens the need for sensitive development of its public infrastructure. The site urgently needs improvements to its accessibility so that its rich architectural and landscape heritage may be fully appreciated by the local, regional, and international communities. While archaeological research and site documentation has resulted in a listing of 114 historic buildings, the site is simply too vast and too diverse to be treated solely as an archaeological or architectural precinct. An appreciation of its drama and splendor must take into account the fact that it is both a natural and humanly constructed environment. Some of its most enduring material character is non-architectural: natural basins that were used for catching and storing water, views from precipices that gaze into densely

The site is simply too vast and too diverse to be treated solely as an archaeological or architectural precinct. An appreciation of its drama and splendor must take into account the fact that it is

forested valleys, the contrasting colors of blue sky, red earth, and green vegetation. Moreover, the people who lived there through timeand who reside and visit there todayattribute a range of different meanings to those places and structures. For some medieval residents, the site was a powerful stronghold against enemy attack; for others it was a productive landscape that yielded crops, forest produce, minerals and livestock for hunting; and for yet others, it offered a path to an encounter with the Goddess Kalika and enlightenment of her presence. Today the site is valued for its historic structures and sacred landscape as well as the intangible heritage that is encapsulated in ephemeral shrines, festivals, and pilgrimage. A landscape management plan for the future must be guided by this multiplicity of human experience and acknowledge these diverse past and present ways of valuing the place. Currently there are inadequate provisions for the over two million pilgrims who visit Kalika Mata temple annually; for example there are not enough rest rooms or seating places along the pilgrim path. Furthermore, although the pilgrims experience of the landscape may be profoundly satisfying in spiritual terms, there are significant educational and cultural opportunities for enhancing the appreciation and understanding of the archaeological and environmental heritage that have been overlooked. Pilgrimage can be

augmented by other journeys (yatras) that will take the visitor to the yet unexplored areas and experiences in Champaner-Pavagadh. Additionally, a variety of other interest groups can be attracted to the siteamateur historians and archaeologists, hikers and tourists both from the local region and further afield, school children on educational field trips, and special interest groups such as yoga clubs. For these, the idea of going on any or all of the five journeys (panch yatras) described in this report will be a huge draw. The Panch Yatras include parikrama (pilgrimage), puratatviya (archaeology), sanskrutic (culture), jal (water), and jati (community) yatras, which separately and together can lead visitors to the interconnected series of sacred sites and archaeological sites, landscape wonders, historic water systems, and community settlements respectively.

The key to an understanding and appreciation of the multi-dimensional cultural heritage of ChampanerPavagadh through yatras lies in developing a systematic network of trails. A vast network of dirt tracks, paths, streets, and roads already exist at the site and their conditions vary considerably. The roads in Champaner, which are on level ground, offer enclosure and focused vistas, while those up on Pavagadh Hill reward steep climbs with panoramic vistas. The historic pilgrim path above Machi Plateau has recently been repaired, while the segment lower down is in ruinous condition.

Fig 2.4 Visitors at Lakulish Temple, Pavagadh

Fig 2.2 Pilgrims in the courtyard of Kalika Mata Temple

both a natural and humanly constructed environment.

in Pavagadh

Fig 2.3 Dede Ruggles and Manoj Joshi


at Amirs Manzil, Champaner

Fig 2.6 Visitors at the entry gate of Jami Masjid, Champaner

4/5 Panch Yatras in the Cultural Heritage Landscape

Fig 2.5 ASI office in the Royal Enclosure,


Champaner

The earlier fabric of ChampanerPavagadh was knit together through a more complex spatial and cultural network of trails

In general, the present circulation system is fragmented, lacking connectivity, continuity, and coherence. Certain locations such as the Jami Masjid and South Bhadra Gate of the Royal Enclosure in Champaner, and Machi Plateau on Pavagadh now act as distribution points for visitors. However they fail to function effectively as hubs of a comprehensive trail network due to the absence of interpretive/visitor centers, inadequate parking, and confusing circulation pattern. There are very few signs to orient the visitor, and these are limited to the ASI signage placed at individual protected monuments and the Forestry Departments display of local wildlife. Nothing tells a person what he or she can anticipate seeing, how long the tour will take, and the direction to be taken. Clearly, an integrated series of signs offering both interpretive explanations of historical and ecological significance, together with practical

information about the trails themselves, would greatly aid all the visitors to Champaner-Pavagadh, regardless of the purpose of their visit. The Panch Yatra (Five Trails) design concept for Champaner-Pavagadh has important theoretical and practical dimensions. It arose from the observation and concern that Champaner and Pavagadh are currently divided culturally and spatially. In cultural terms, Champaner is associated with the medieval Muslim capital city of Mahmud Begara that lay on the road from Gujarat to Malwa, whereas Pavagadh Hill is commonly associated with the pilgrimage ascents to Jain and Hindu temples, culminating in the summit temple of Kalika Mata. Spatially, the modern state highway has reinforced this perceived cultural separation between Champaner and Pavagadh. The perceptual divide deepens as the highway is widened, metalled, and devoted to truck traffic. A central proposition of this workshop is that the historic fabric of Champaner-Pavagadh was formerly knit together through a more complex spatial and cultural network of trails. The highway was an important but narrower and less divisive road. Other roads entered city gates from the north

Fig 2.7 Poring over a map in Pavagadh

and northwest, crossing the highway in ways that linked the Royal Enclosure, Pavagadh Hill forts, and upper plateaus. A finer network of footpaths connected settlements on the plains with those on the hill. Likewise, an interconnected system of fortifications built by Rajput and Muslim patrons on the slopes of the hill connected the hill with the city walls that encompassed the town. Marvelous waterworks cascaded from hillside pools to wells and irrigation tanks on the plains. Trails, broadly defined, connected Champaner and Pavagadh in ways that were complex, yet integrative, establishing mountain and city as a unified place. The Panch Yatras thus provide a conceptual framework that restores the historical fabric and identity of Champaner-Pavagadh.

Fig 2.8 Visitors at Kevda Masjid,


Champaner

Panch Yatras as a Material Framework for Landscape Design


The Panch Yatras entail a material as well as conceptual framework for landscape design at ChampanerPavagadh. Each trail has distinctive origins and destinations with horizontal and vertical alignments of varying widths and slopes, visual and kinesthetic experiences, resting spots and shopping areas. Each trail has physical paving and steps made of stone, gravel, and earth; edged with forbs, lined with shrubs, and covered in the forest with a canopy of branches and leaves. Each of these material aspects of a trail requires sound design and construction. Toward that end, the workshop drew upon the extensive international literature listed in Appendix A that focuses on the physical design, construction, and maintenance of

Fig 2.10 Heritage Trail in Historic Champaner

Fig 2.9 Pilgrim Path on Pavagadh Hill

6/7 Jati Yatra: The Path of Community Development

Jati Yatra:
The Path of Community Development

Champaner-Pavagadh has a population of nearly 5,700 with 2,000 residents in Champaner village inside the Royal Enclosure, between 1500 and 1700 residents on Machi Plateau, and 2,000 on Mauliya Plateau. The current community living in Champaner village settled there about 150 years ago as pilgrimage to Pavagadh began to increase. On the Hill along the pilgrim path, ribbons of settlements have developed to cater to pilgrim needs. While the requirements of the pilgrim for food, water, and entertainment are partially met by these vendors, the residents themselves are badly in need of better housing, schools, medical care, and other basic services. Thus, community development should be an integral part of heritage management of the site. It may seem unusual to describe community development as a yatra, but we envision economic

development as a path that is of fundamental concern to the population of Champaner-Pavagadh. We speculate that visitors to the site who help build this trail will also be interested in its direction and progress in the years ahead. A variety of shops and dharmashalas on Machi and Mauliya Plateaus meet the pilgrims needs for food, water, boarding and lodging. Donkeys owned by the grazers community are the primary mode of transportation of goods from Machi to Mauliya where there is no vehicular access and infirm people are carried on litters by young men. Below, in Champaner village the resident community farms the land in and around the Royal Enclosure and also provides boarding and lodging facilities. There is a small scale but nonetheless brisk economy based

on the interactions between the visitors and the community and this is an integral part of the site experience. Any improvements to ChampanerPavagadh should embrace an integrated conservation approach that combines conservation measures with sensitive community development.

Fig 3.4 Jain Dharamshala in Champaner

We envision economic development as a path that is of fundamental concern to the population of ChampanerPavagadh

Fig 3.3 Pilgrim being carried on a palanquin

Fig 3.2 Water and food in Fig 3.1


Settlement on the Pilgrim Path the shopfront on the Pilgrim Path

Fig 3.5 Grazers community on Machi Plateau Fig 3.6 Shop house

Fig 3.8 Vendors on Machi Plateau

Fig 3.7

Shops along Pilgrim Path

Fig 3.9 Community well on the banks of Chassiya Talao

Site Assessment
Presently the major road from Halol passes through Champaner and separates the historic ruins of the city from those on Pavagadh Hill. For most visitors this is the major point of entry into the World Heritage Site and forces them to make an instant choice between heading uphill to Pavagadh or making a tour of the archaeological monuments in Champaner. On the north side of this road is the fifteenthcentury Royal Enclosure with its Islamic mosques, gateways, other historic structures, and cultivated farmland; and on its south are relatively new Jain and Hindu temples, festival grounds, and the state bus depot. Unauthorized shops frequently spring up (recently ASI removed them from the north side and erected an iron fence on a low cement wall to protect the Royal Enclosure wall) and together with haphazardly parked vehicles, produce the worst congestion at precisely the point where the pilgrim path begins. In Champaner village, which nestles between the South and East Bhadra gates of the Royal Enclosure, a

major problem is inadequate public infrastructure. Proper drainage and garbage disposal are lacking, creating unsanitary living conditions and giving an untidy appearance to the main street. In addition to these basic services, the villagers have repeatedly expressed a need for a community center and an open marketplace. Halfway up the Hill, the Machi Plateau is a major hub for a second community where the roadway from Champaner ends and the pilgrim must either begin climbing on foot or take the cable car. At the entry are the remains of the historic Machi Haveli dating to the Maratha period. There is a school, police chowki, and the zilla panchayat office. Shops large and small, hotels and dharamshalas, and vending carts create a lively but chaotic atmosphere. Cars, buses, jeeps, scooters and motorcycles are parked in a disorganized fashion adding to the confusion. The choices for how to make the ascent to the top of the Hill are not immediately apparent, nor is it clear how one proceeds to the pilgrim path, the cable car, or the historic sites. This

lack of organization creates confusion and tension between locals and visitors. The community in this area needs a functioning health clinic, a grade school for the children who live there, public toilets and a dependable potable water supply. The grazers community is in particular need of help. They live in kutcha (temporary) houses with no electricity, water, or access to toilets. They have no legal rights to the land they inhabit and are squatting, but they need these land reserves for their livelihood. Overall, excessive litter and lack of general waste disposal resources result in a severely degraded environment in which the ugliness of the debris detracts from the natural beauty of the place. Similarly on the Mauliya Plateau, the community lacks local and renewable water supply. Waste disposal is totally lacking in some areas and inadequate in others. All along the pilgrim path are small shop-houses made of temporary building materials and the living standards of their residents are very poor. They have no access to public toilets, health facilities, or community open

spaces. The residents of these shops live on the Plateau for part of the year during the peak pilgrim season, but move elsewhere during the monsoons. As at Machi Plateau, they have no legal rights to the land on which they squat. By changing the legal structure of these premises (through long term leases, licenses, or bonafide ownership), the inhabitants would be given more incentive to make capital improvements to their shops and their living conditions.
Fig 3.11 Chassiya Talao community settlement

Fig 3.10 Champaner Village

8/9 Jati Yatra: The Path of Community Development

Fig 3.12 Land use map and planning issues in Champaner Village

Fig 3.13 Land use map and planning issues in settlements on Pavagadh Hill

10/11 Jati Yatra: The Path of Community Development

Fig 3.14 Chassiya Talao embankment

Site Design
Design interventions can be made to improve the community infrastructure and facilitate visitor movement through the site at the base of Pavagadh Hill, at Machi Plateau and along the pilgrim path from Machi to Mauliya Plateau. Currently access to the site is from the highway that runs between the Royal Enclosure and Pavagadh Hill. A bypass is proposed that will divert non-local traffic from the site, sending most of the traffic to north of the city. The extant roadway can then be redesigned as a medieval pathway, reducing the width of the vehicular lane, creating a pedestrian-friendly thoroughfare, and replacing the first ten meters of paving at each entry gate with traditional paving materials. On the northern side of the road, the ASI fence can be removed and replaced by a shallow swale, lined by a shaded narrow walkway, that will collect waste water runoff from the road and Royal Enclosure, channeling it to a public orchard on the east. On the south side a shaded and broad walkway can lead to the proposed main Pilgrim Center, located opposite the South Bhadra Gate of the Royal Enclosure and where the pilgrim path starts ascending. This will have a vendors plaza, parking lot, festival grounds and various amenities including rest rooms, information and first aid center, gift shop and restaurant. Residents of the main street in Champaner village should be eligible for loans to add storefronts to the faade of their houses, unifying the streetscape and activating the local economy. Out-of-town tourists could buy locally crafted objects and snacks here. A vacant and rundown dharamshala should be restored as a community center and the open area in front of it developed as a farmers market for buying and selling fresh food for local residents. For the visitor, an interpretation center for historic Champaner is proposed north of Jami Masjid. Nearby will be the community agricultural cooperative for growing flowers and fruits for worship. Storm water runoff from the settlement inside the Royal Enclosure should be collected and diverted to the existing openings in the Fort Wall and then conveyed through channels for absorption into the orchard and agricultural co-operative. A community water facility is proposed with public restrooms for men and women with leech pits for waste treatment, bathrooms and washing area with water draining to fields/gardens. Wastewater is to be separated from sewage, resulting in a more economical and sustainable solution as compared with carrying waste over long distance to a centralized treatment plant. The proposed design interventions at Machi Plateau aim at clarifying it as a major junction for pilgrims as they prepare to climb to the top of the Hill for Kalika Mata darshan. The parking area for buses, van, cars, jeeps, scooters, and motorcycles should be relocated west of Champaner Hotel. This will reduce congestion at this node on the pilgrim path, and make the improved vehicular drop-off and pedestrian circulation patterns more legible. A pilgrim welcome center is proposed next to the historic Machi Haveli wall with gallery/exhibition space, giftshop pilgrim traffic. A modular and cheap vending unit is proposed using local building materials and construction techniques. A variety of structures can be created by using combinations of the basic triangular bamboo frame. The frames can be simply connected with rope or plastic zip ties and covered with locally available material depending on the intended use. The smallest unit is for selling water only, but with additional wings the unit can include storage space. Larger units can function as residential shops with a limited amount of living space. The units should be raised above the ground for free movement of air and water and separated from each other for ventilation.

or bookstore, public telephones, information kiosk, and a first aid station. The two water bodiesTeliya and Annapurna Talaoshould be developed as major attractions. Along Teliya Talao, the ghats can be extended with picnic and resting areas designed on the southwest. At Annapurna Talao a bird sanctuary is proposed for attracting visitors to the site by converting the mostly empty water body into a marsh planted with native (and thus sustainable) species. The talao will retain its flood storage functions. A small information kiosk and a couple of observation decks for the visitors are suggested. Presently the water channel connecting the two Talaos is strewn with garbage and is not easily visible. To educate the visitor about the water management at the site, such as the way Teliya collects the excess water from Annapurna, we propose that the channel be desilted, cleaned up and lined with a boardwalk that leads to a trail on the pilgrim path. These interventions will clarify and organize visitor circulation and will draw attention to the historic and environmental aspects of the site. Vending on the pilgrim path between the Machi and Mauliya Plateaus should be organized and aided by a building program that leases flexible and lightweight vending units to the vendors every year when they move to the site to engage in commerce with the

Fig 3.15 View of Chassiya Talao

Fig 3.18 Visitor facilities in Champaner Village and on the Pilgrim Path

Fig 3.17 Medieval Pathway: a pedestrian friendly thoroughfare that complements the sites heritage

Fig 3.16 Development of commercial space on main road


in Champaner

12/13 Jati Yatra: The Path of Community Development

Fig 3.7 Redesign Layers Fig 3.19 Vegetationof Machi Plateau visitor sites

Fig 3.20 Pilgrim Welcome Center and Bird Sanctuary on Machi Plateau

14/15 Jati Yatra: The Path of Community Development

Fig 3.21 Waste water management in the Champaner-Pavagadh

Fig 3.22 Proposed vending units on the Pilgrim Path

16/17 Jal Yatra: Water Trail

Jal Yatra:
Water Trail

Historically, water management at


Champaner-Pavagadh was a marvel of complexity and comprehensiveness. Medieval settlements survived on the hill and its base by harvesting rainwater in an elaborate catchment and conveyance system, using a range of water structures from talaos to kunds, vavs, and kuans. The waterintelligence that characterized the medieval communities appears to be lost now because the historic water structures in the lower plateaus of the

hill and in Champaner are defunct and/or in disrepair, while those in the upper plateaus barely suffice for the local communities daily household needs. In the preceding section on community development, we proposed improvements to this hydraulic system. Additionally, an explanation and visual articulation of the water system and its richly ornate water architecture would be of interest to many visitors who could first walk upstream, refreshed by water flowing past them and then

follow the movement of water downstream from the top of the hill as it flows through the processes of being caught, stored and diverted for human needs, and delight.

Path Segment Wada Talao to PP

Trail Type Vehicular

Trail Conditions 3

Safety 1

Views 2

Rest Spots 3

Amenities 1

Shade 1

Dist. In M 3000

Comments Paved road good for cars, unsafe for walking/ biking. Potential for resting spot/recreation No obvious path, potential to run path north of school along drainage channel. Narrow dirt road unsafe for pedestrian use. Dangerous to walk or bike along main road, okay within Champaner. Main road difcult to walk, road to Helical is unpaved and difcult to nd. Shady at beginning, less through Royal Enclosure. Long walk (1 1/2 miles). Start of trail easy to traverse, then becomes very difcult. Medhi needs a path to move around it. Trail difcult, confusing to nd at times. Good resting spot at water bodies. Steep trail, recently paved. Many views. Challenging hike. Mauliya potential for large gathering. Main trail paved, many community trails that could be improved. Main trail paved, west side has more challenging trail option and great views.

PP to Gavan Shah Stepwell Main road to Gavan Kasbin to Amirs Manzil Medieval settlements survived on the hill and its base by harvesting rainwater in an elaborate catchment and conveyance system. Teliya/Annapurna to Mauliya Mauliya to Chassiya Chassiya to Dudhiya Medhi to Teliya/Annapurna Amirs Manzil to PP PP to Medhi Kasbin to Helical

Pedestrian Vehicular Vehicular, Pedestrian Vehicular, Pedestrian Vehicular, Pedestrian Pedestrian Pedestrian Pedestrian Pedestrian Pedestrian

1 1 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 3

2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 to 3 1 to 3

1 1 2 2 1 2 2 3 2 1 to 3

3 1 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 1 to 3

1 1 3 1 3 1 1 2 2 3

1 1 1 1 1 to 2 3 3 2 1 2

150 300 1500 600 2000 1200 1200 1500 300 400

Water Trail Site Assesment (1 - Low; 3 - High)

Fig 4.4 Irrigation system in the Forest Department Nursery in Champaner

Site Assessment
While there are dirt tracks and community paths (some of them barely discernable) that lead to the water bodies from the pilgrim path, there is no continuous trail that can take the visitor from one water structure to another. As a result, there is a lost opportunity for revealing and explaining the vital role of water in shaping the historic settlement pattern. There is no navigable path around Kasbin and Medhi Talaos, and the Dudhiya, Chassiya, and Teliya Talaos which are heavily used by the community have broken shorelines and unclear borders. The Helical and Gaben Shah Vavs (stepwells) are away from the pilgrim path and receive few visitors. A paved road leads to Wada Talao but with no safe way for pedestrians and bicyclists to approach the water. Although there are many historic sites in Champaner with beautiful water architecture, including the Amirs Manzil, Zar-e-Zamin, and the Jami and Shehri mosques, there is no explanation of historic water management at these sites. The water system at Amirs Manzil, the mansion of the nobleman Baba Ghulam Ali, was revealed through archaeological excavation. It is a very elaborate network with rooms lined with channels for keeping the interiors cool, four hauz (tanks) and two wells as well as other intriguing water elements such as the twin spiral channels leading to what may have been a childrens pool. Located at the city gate of Champaner, the Kasbin Talao has Champaners Fort wall on it east bank, a tunnel that fed it from the west, and Shakkar Khans Tomb on its north-west. The Talao was edged with ghats and included ramps for animals. Abutting the Talao is a nature preserve and wild life sanctuary managed by the Forest Department. The section of the pilgrim path leading to the Medhi Talao is rocky and heavily eroded today, but the sixteen-sided Talao was the mainstay of the Rajput settlement on Atak Plateau with ghats all around it and an island temple. Today its edges are overgrown and strewn with boulders and the tower on its bank is crumbling. Between Medhi and Teliya Talaos, the pilgrim path has fallen into such complete disrepair that it is difficult to traverse except by a few dedicated pilgrims. Closer to the Teliya Talao there is no trail at all, forcing the pilgrims to walk along the edge of the road. The Annapurna Talao is not visited or used by the community (except perhaps for grazing) because it is dry most of the year. One has to follow the pilgrim path to see the water catchment system in the Naulakha Kothar area at the west end of the Mauliya Plateau. Although there are dirt tracks weaving through this open landscape, there is no defined trail as such. This extensive and seemingly arid landscape has
Fig 4.1 Medhi Talao

Fig 4.3 Gaben Shah vav

Fig 4.2 Kund in Jain Masjid, Champaner

water catchment basins at a higher level from where the descending water is channelized into three rockcut water cisternsthe Ganga and Jamuna Kund (each 21mx 8m) and the Saraswati Kund (16mx16m). The cisterns are located dramatically on the edge of the cliff offering panoramic views of Champaner city, Wada Talao, Saria Vakaria Hill, and the surrounding agricultural landscape. Beyond is the Naulakha Kothar, or the granary, an L-shaped domed structure perched vertiginously on the edge of the cliff. From here one can see a dramatic view of Kalika Mata temple on the sheer vertical summit of the Pavagadh Hill above as well as seasonal waterfalls during the monsoon. The experience of walking on this stark and rocky landscape with uninterrupted panoramic views and meandering walking circuits stands out in sharp contrast to the congestion of the pilgrim path with its bright colors, mingle of sounds and smells, and throngs of people, animals, and objects. To get to the Chassiya Talao from here, one could reconnect to the path that abuts its edge. On its other edge is the communal path that women use to fetch water and to wash. This edge is lined with large boulders and is prone to erosion. It leads to the historic eleventh-century Lakulisha Temple that is in ruinous condition but protected and preserved by the ASI. The pilgrim path continues uphill until it reaches the Dudhiya Talao. Here the Path abuts less than half of the Talaos perimeter and for the large part its banks are degraded, although there are some attempts to stabilize their slopes with stone riprap and embankment walls. The small shrine known as the Ghat

Temple lies directly on axis with Kalika Mata Temple where ritual tonsure of children is done. It has ghats leading to the waters edge although the water is too polluted for the ritual bathing that is prescribed before darshan of Kalika Mata. The visual and physical linkage between the pilgrim path and Dudhiya Talao that is presently obstructed because of shops and houses should be re-established. The water quality of both the Chassiya and Dudhiya Talaos is extremely polluted with visible signs of eutrophication. These must be cleaned not only for aesthetic reasons but also from the point of view of public health.

16/17 Jal Yatra: Water Trail

Fig 4.5 The two watersheds of Champaner-Pavagadh shown here and on the facing page

20/21 Jal Yatra: Water Trail


Fig 4.7 Dudhiya Talao

Site Design
The Jal Yatra has two major design themes that guide and enhance the travelers experience. The first design theme is a journey to the source. The traveler, or resident, begins on the plains at a distance from water and begins the journey through the city, up the hill, with some refreshing water and a bath. Each of the major entries to Champaner-Pavagadh had a large talao that served those purposes for humans as well as animals. For example, the Kasbin Talao has a ramp for wildlife and domesticated animals down to the water, as well as ghats along its edge for humans, and the Wada Talao has a waterfront pavilion and a surface large enough for fishing. The progression uphill is greatly enhanced by the cascades of water that ease ones climb and tanks that provide a cool resting spot. The water traveler first follows the water from its sink to its source on the highest and purest tank, known as the Dudhiya (milk) Talao on Pavagadh Hill. This journey uphill, against the flow as well as the slope, has much in common with both the pilgrimage experience and the everyday work of life. But the Jal Yatra does not end at the summit. Its second theme begins there, on the roof of the Kalika Mata temple where one feels the circulation of cooling breezes and, in the monsoon season, drenching clouds. On that summit the first raindrops reach Pavagadh Hill; the historic traces of runoff and streamflow can be visually traced through the network of channels, tanks, and watersheds that lead out onto the plains. The spiritually fulfilled pilgrim or weary worker

then follow the water downhill going with the flow, feelings its rhythms, and resting where it does on each plateau. These two Jal Yatra themes define the overall narrative of struggle and release that is expressed in each of the specific site designs described below. The trails designed for the Dudhiya and Chassiya Talaos would accommodate existing community activities and address erosion on unstable slope condition through ghats and washing platforms, riprap walls, and amphitheaters for pilgrim gatherings and garba dances. At Dudhiya Talao, a circumambulatory path for the pilgrims around the talao is proposed and ghats are extended to allow the pilgrims and the community to get down to the water. An open air stepped court is designed for pilgrim gatherings and garba dances. At Chassiya Talao, vegetable gardens are proposed in the area next to the paved space of the well courtyard, a potential social space for women as they gather to wash and dry clothes. Adjacent to courtyard and gardens, a community bathing facility is proposed. Soak pits on the washing platforms would treat the water before it drains back into the talao, and aera-

tion fountains would keep the water clean. The meandering trails on the Mauliya Plateau allow the landscape to be experienced as a meeting of sky and bare earth with a feeling that time and space are suspended. The addition of rest and view stops would use the existing language of the sitevolcanic rock and water. The boulders would be arranged in circles and lines and either roughly cut to form seats or scooped to hold water, a reference to the stone cisterns in the plateau. The trail to Medhi Talao is rocky and slippery because of erosion by ephemeral water streams. The runoff ought to be diverted so that water is retained inside and further erosion is prevented. The trail will be restored by removing large boulders, installing steps where necessary, designing a rest stop on the road, clarifying the entry point with paving and signage, and restoring the three-tiered retention walls and walkway around the talao. In Champaner city, Kasbin is a dry basin most of the year, filling up with water during and after the monsoons. A trail is designed around this talao,

This journey uphill, against the flow as well as the slope, has much in common with both the pilgrimage experience and the everyday work of life.

and the animal ramps on the north and south sides as well as the ghats on the northern side will be restored. Downstream from Kasbin, the Amirs Manzil was built at a short distance from a nearby stream. The many channels running around and through the footprint of this site should be restored and filled with water on special occasions to demonstrate how the water system functioned once upon a time. Wada Talao is the largest water body in the area, capturing rainfall and runoff from the surrounding hills, but because of its distance from the city, it is reached by vehicles or bicycles only. The proposed trail follows the existing road, loops around the talao and follows an existing water channel to the proposed Pilgrim Welcome Center at the base of the hill. A dual trail system, one for bicycles and the other for walking, will pass around the talao and lead additionally to the historic Khajuri Masjid and Kabutarkhana pavilion. Other attractions include orchards for picnicking and docks for fishing and boating.

Fig 4.8 Redesign of Trail on Mauliya Plateau

22/23 Jal Yatra: Water Trail

Fig 4.9 Redesign of Trail around Dudhiya Talao

Fig 4.10 Redesign of spaces around Chassiya Talao

224/25 Jal Yatra: Water Trail

Fig 4.11 Redesign of trails around Medhi Talao, Kasbin Talao,

Fig 4.12 Dudhiya Talao

Rest Stops and Interpretive Signage


Rest stops are recommended along this water trail since several of the talaos are at a distance from the proposed Pilgrim Welcome Centers. These will have rest rooms and provide information about the water systems of Champaner-Pavagadh. The central paved courtyard slopes so that gray water from the wash basins and stormwater from the roof can be collected and recycled to a pool next to the information kiosk. A seat wall ramps up to make a play area for children. Three types of interpretive signage are suggested: A) A copper mandala set on the horizontal or vertical face of a rock in the talaos that have fluctuating water levels. The rising and falling water levels will be marked as the copper oxidizes. B) Fabric signs displaying the water logo, name of the water body and a site-specific image will hang loosely on wooden poles and flutter in the wind. Placed around the talao at 20 meter intervals, they accentuate it from afar. C) Stone markers for identifying water trails and encouraging exploration. The marker will include the water logo and the name of the site.

Fig 4.13 Pavilion on Wada Talao

Fig 4.14 Typical Rest Stop and Signage on the Water Trail

26/27 Parikrama Yatra: Pilgrim Path

Parikrama Yatra:
Pilgrim Path

The historic pilgrim path leading


to the Kalika Mata Temple on the summit of Pavagadh Hill is the oldest trail on the site. A much traveled path, climbing it constitutes the essence of pilgrimage. The experience is varied, however, and not easily summarized. As the spine of the major movement pattern, it offers rich possibilities for further explorations of the historic and sacred features of the site. The majority of pilgrims climb this portion of the path from Machi Plateau since there is no vehicular access available above that point. Parts of this trail were restored and repaved in the last decade by a private benefactor. Its complete restoration and connection with secondary trails will make it the primary path from where the entire landscape is experienced. Temples, both Jain and Hindu, dot the present-day landscape, and are visited by pilgrims in varying numbers. Each temple is a node in the mesh of the sacred landscape of the hill and its foot, a point of concentrated holiness. Shrines, mostly found on

Fig 5.1

Entry to the Pilgrim Path on Machi Plateau

The historic pilgrim path leading to the Kalika Mata Temple on the summit of Pavagadh Hill is the oldest trail on the site. Climbing it constitutes the essence of pilgrimage.

the pilgrim path, are smaller replicas of temples and their existence adds to the aura of holiness that envelops the entire hill. Besides the Kalika Mata temple at the top, there are numerous Devi templesa Kali temple is inside historic Champaner and at the base of the hill, and a Khudiyar (a tribal goddess) Devis shrine is located where the pilgrim path begins. Devi temples at the foot of the Hill serve those who are unable to climb to the top. Ambaji temple is located on the lower Machi Plateau, a shrine to Khappar Jogini, Bhatiji and to Bahachur Devi is near the upper reaches of the pilgrim path, and Bhadrakali (elder sister of Kalika Mata) temple is on Bhadrakali Plateau. In addition, small shrines to Kali are housed in the many ashrams functioning in Pavagadh. Bhadrakali temple is built at the edge of steep elephant valley in the vicinity of Rajput palace ruins. Bahachur Devi is housed inside a natural cave, just below the top. While Kalika Mata temple is the primary destination, Devis other manifestations find a home in the

Fig 5.2 Bhadrakali Temple

landscape for their worship to take place. Not surprisingly, Shiva temples abound. The oldest, known as Lakulish (another name of Shiva), was built in the 10th century on the edge of Chassiya Talao. It is now in ruins and no longer a site of active worship. Ruins of another Shiva shrine are found inside the royal enclosure of historic Champaner and a new temple has been built adjacent to the old one. Champaner has another Shiva temple near the Maratha fortification walls, where the linga is said to have been svayambhu (self-manifested). At Gomukh, where the river

Fig 5.3 Kali Mandir in Champaner

above the Kalika Mata temple, attracts both Muslim and Hindu devotees. There are a great many historic Muslim mosques as well, such as the handsome Jami Masjid, Shehri Masjid, Kevda Masjid, Nila Gumbad mosque and tomb, and Kamani Masjid in Champaner as well as the Babaman Masjid on the lower slope of the hill. They are very large and architecturally important, but they are not in active use any more and stand as archaeological monuments (protected by the ASI) the community is partly therestill, although many fled in 2002. Islamic worship, when it occurs, is informal and spontaneous and the mosques are not maintained or staffed with that purpose in mind. The most imposing group of temples is those devoted to the Jain tirthankaras (prophets). Historically in the 14th century, temples were built on

Fig 5.5 Shiv Mandir in the Royal Enclosure

Vishwamitri originates, is a shrine to Gupteshwar (Shiva) and below that is one to Khuneshwar Mahadev. On the pilgrim path, Shiva is worshipped as Dattashreya in a cave shrine and as Mahadev Annapurna in a built one. There is only one temple to Krishna, known as Ranchor-raiji Mandir on the pilgrim path. There are shrines to Bhairva who protects the site and to local deities such as Tithariya Dev on Bhadrakali Plateau. A mausoleum to the Sufi saint, Sadan Shah Pir, built

Pavagadh Hill by Jains whose wealth ensured them a favored status in the Rajput court. The hill is considered to be one of the four Siddha kshetras (sacred regions) where moksha may be obtained. There are three Jain complexes at the base of Pavagadh Hill with temples, dharmashalas (rest houses for pilgrims), and even an oldage home, and on Pavagadh Hill itself there are seven Jain temples. The group on Mauliya Plateau, built on the remains of historic structures, offers a striking composition against the hill and the sky. Like the Jain temples, Hindu ashrams also offer pilgrim serviceslodging, food, and rest rooms. The ashrams are built and run by holy men of various sects who were attracted to Pavagadh because of Devi. By building ashrams, they promote their sect and participate in the economy gener-

ated by the large influx of pilgrims. At the foothill, Kabir Sahib ka Mandir has a samadhi (memorial) to Dhoonawali Darbari Bapu who cured infertility and ailments. Adesh ashram was founded by Baba Balaknath, who distributed medicinal herbs found at the hill to the afflicted. Free food is given to the poor and there are dormitories for the pilgrims in the ashram that also has his samadhi and that of his successor. Khareshwar Maharaj was inspired to stand on his feet for a dozen years as an act of sacrifice until the Devi gave him darshan in a dream and asked him to build an ashram at Mauliya Plateau. The ashram offers overnight lodging to two hundred pilgrims at nominal rates.

Fig 5.4 Jain Mandir on Mauliya Plateau

Fig 5.6 Gomukh on Pavagadh Hill

Fig 5.7

Statue of Jain Tirthankara in Champaner

28/29 Parikrama Yatra: Pilgrim Path

Fig 5.8 Pilgrims on Pabiya Pul

It is apparent that this landscape has evolved to enable visualization of Devi, the goal of the largely self-organized system of pilgrimage. Temples and their ashrams function as self-organized systems by meeting the needs of over two million pilgrims each year. Established spontaneously in association with a myth or a renowned person, their upkeep is supported by the pilgrim economy. During the nine days of Navaratri (nine nights) festival to the Devi held in September-October every year, the pilgrim flow reaches a peak. Each ashram functions autonomously but in ways very similar to others, and together they meet the immediate requirements of pilgrims. Pilgrims describe their beliefs about Kalika Mata in terms of shakti, remover of obstacles, fulfiller of wishes, one who rewards hard work. They believe that whoever comes with faith, his work is done and say she draws peoplethey walk as far away as 300 kms, singing garba (folk song) and carrying a ratha (chariot) as they walk, shraddha (faith) brings people here, at one time all representatives of the government were women and Kali was at the head the last quote from a female devotee. A few described Kalika Mata as their kuldevi, and that their belief in her will make all their work successful. Many were familiar with the myth of the hill being Satis toe and Kalikas displeasure with the Rajput ruler, Jaisingh/Patai Rawal. Dudhiya Talao acts as a threshold to the temple, and pilgrims voiced regret that in its present dilapidated and unhygienic condition, it was difficult

to bathe in its waters for physical and moral cleansing. The devotees vision is shaped by his beliefs and conditioned by the prevalent Devi iconography. The hill appears like a yantra, conch, coconut, or even a boat to those who visualized other forms of Devi on the hill. Devi iconography in the many pieces of folk art displayed in shops on the pilgrim path show her as she is seen by the devotee in her hilltop temple (gavashka, yantra), and also render her as a young, attractive seductress of Patai Rawal. The video Pavagadh darshan, sold in many pilgrim shops, though refuting this myth, illustrates othersSatis body carried by Shiva, sage Vishwamitris penance, Mahakali, a horrific form of Kali, standing on Shivas supine body, and Kali surrounded by the ten Mahavidyas. A pictorial map of the hill prominently displays Kalikas and Bhadrakalis temples while the sites other attractions are shown much smaller.

The landscape experience of the pilgrims is shaped by movement and vision. At Pavagadh, the hill lends the experience a dynamism that makes the journey to the top a pilgrimage in the true sense of the word. The long arduous climb from one plateau to the next along the historic 5.28-kilometer pilgrim path with its historic gateways, burlap-covered vendor shops, occasional shrines, views to the valleys and plains below and hill above, is a fitting preparation for the darshan of Devi both an inner and outer vision at the same time. Visionary experiences during the ascent and at the pinnacle include the phenomenal forms of the Devi that the eye sees everywhere in the landscape and for which the minds eye is prepared as well.

Fig 5.9 Shrine below Budhiya Gateway

Fig 5.10 Adesh Ashram in Champaner

Site Assessment
Travel along the existing pilgrim path, however, is often perilous, frequently laborious, and seldom comfortable. For example between the Medhi Talao and Machi Plateau the path is unpaved and cuts across some of the steepest and most heavily vegetated terrain, sometimes altogether disappearing from view. Above Machi, it is paved and cleared of vegetation. While the path passes through historical gateways,
Pilgrim Trail Site Assessment (1 - Low; 3 - High)

it seems to ignore their presence; nor does it link up with other trails leading to the other historic structures on the hill. The heavy pilgrim traffic and kutcha shops built on the path for selling essential goods pose a hazard to fragile gateways which, though built of stone, are in some cases derelict and in a fragile state. Stepping off the pilgrim path is not safe because the adjacent terrain is steep

and rocky. Often there is traffic congestion with large crowds of pilgrims and herds of donkeys shuttling goods to the summit. Typically carrying large, heavy packs and moving slowly, the donkeys reduce the amount of usable path width and push, crowd, and hinder the movement of humans. This in combination with steep slopes and sudden drop-offs causes major safety concerns. While the repaving has made movement less arduous,

the stone surface neither diverts nor collects water from seasonal rainfall and the ensuing runoff contributes to the serious erosion of the surrounding landscape. There is a lack of public amenities, especially rest rooms and drinking water. There is not enough shade or places to stop and rest.

Path Segment Royal Enclosure to Machi

Trail Type Vehicular Pedestrian

Trail Conditions 3 1

Safety 3 1

Views 3 2

Rest Spots N/A 1

Amenities N/A 1

Shade N/A 2

Dist. In M 2500 1700

Comments The road is narrow but of good quality. The path is rough, dilapidated and needs repairs. Pedestrian trafc is somewhat unsafe and frequently intersects with the road. A formal rest spot with shade, seating, informational signage and some basic ammenities is necessary. The path is very steep, informal and quite arduous. The path is paved and well built, but sheer edges along the path present an obvious safety concern, especially when sharing the path with donkeys carrying goods. Makai Kothar is well suited for a formal rest spot, complete with seating, shade, drinking water and restrooms. The diversion to Bhadrakali temple is not clearly shown. The path itself is neither paved nor unsafe, however it could be improved with paving. A formal rest spot, some shade or seating would be welcome. The bridge to Patipul is narrow and represents a point of congestion for animals and pilgrims. A rest area near thr bridge would allow pedestrians to wait and let other pilgrims or donkeys pass. Gateways would benet from removing all shop within a 25 M radius. Doing so would create space for formal rest areas with seating and shade. In most places, the path is double loaded with shops. Moving some shope to one side would open up the path and allow for rest areas and view spots. Edge conditions are poor - most edges feature a steep drop and would benet from some form of railing or seatwall. There are aalso no rest areas. Shops line both sides of the path and obscure some sacred shrines and adjacent pathways. Most of this segment of the path is covered overhead with plastic. The talaos are used by the community for wasking, but not for drinking water or sacred rituals. This segment of the Pilgrim Path is primarily a steep staircase leading to and from Kalika Mata.

Machi to Bhadra Kali Machi to Makai Kothar Makai Kothar to Bhadra Kali Makai Kothar to Patipul

Pedestrian Pedestrian

1 3

1 2

3 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

1200 600

Pedestrian Pedestrian

2 2

2 2

3 3

1 1

1 2

1 1

800 400

Patipul to Tarapul Tarapul to Nakkarkhana Nakkarkhana to Chassiya Talao Chassiya Talao to Dudhiya Talao Dudhiya Talao to Kalika Mata

Pedestrian Pedestrian Pedestrian Pedestrian Pedestrian

2 2 3 3 3

1 1 3 3 2

2 3 1 1 3

2 1 3 3 1

2 2 3 3 2

2 1 3 3 1

700 200 600 400 100 4700

Total Distance in M

30/31 Parikrama Yatra: Pilgrim Path

Fig 5.11 Signs of Intangible Heritage: Ephemeral Shrines and Religious Practices shown here and on the facing page

32/33 Parikrama Yatra: Pilgrim Path

Site Design
Zoning is proposed to regulate the shops along the pilgrim path between the Machi and Mauliya Plateaus. A nodevelopment zone with a fifty-meter radius is proposed around the historic gatewaysMakai Kothar, Patia Pul, and Naqqarkhana Darwaza. Beyond this, a low-density commercial zone is proposed with shops restricted to only one side of the pilgrim path with a density of no more than 25 shops per 100 meters. This will result in less crowding near the historic structures and more space for unobstructed view of the surrounding landscape. Between the heritage sites, short stretches of high-density commercial areas are proposed on both sides of the pilgrim path with approximately 45 shops per 100 meters. At the three historic sites themselves, removal of shops would make space for shaded seating and a brief widening of the path so that the pilgrim can step aside when there is a high volume of traffic or a pack of donkeys crowding the path. The planting of trees and shrubs provides shade and also helps maintain soil steep embankments. Also proposed are seat walls or railings where the path curves dangerously, French drains to carry the runoff and collect it in cisterns, and informational signs. The latter would display information about historic and sacred sites, and directional signage would give the distance and time required by each route. Signage is also proposed for amenities such as rest rooms, rest stops, and parking.

Fig 5.12 Trail to Kalika Mata

Fig 5.13 Zoning Map and Rest Stops on the Pilgrim Path

34/35 Parikrama Yatra: Pilgrim Path

Fig 5.14 Redesign of the Pilgrim Path

Fig 5.15 Interpretive signage on Pilgrim Path

36/37 Puratatviya and Sanskrutik Yatras: Archaeological and Landscape Heritage Trails

Puratatviya and Sanskrutik Yatras


Archaeological and Landscape Heritage Trails

Both Champaner and Pavagadh


have an archaeological and landscape heritage of great beauty and antiquity. But at present, visitors who arrive at the bus depot opposite the Royal Enclosure typically turn away from Champaner and its many historic monuments, in order to embark on the climb to the top of Pavagadh Hill. In part this reflects a lack of knowledge and interest in Champaners historic precinct; but it also reflects the fact that, at present, only a few tourists come to explore the archaeological and landscape heritage of ChampanerPavagadh. A well structured heritage trail system would induce many pilgrims to explore the historic monuments set in magnificent landscapes. Champaner city and Pavagadh Hill at first sight may be perceived as two distinct cultural landscapes shaped by Islam and Hinduism, yet on closer look one sees that they are united by a continuous system of fortification, supplemented by hydraulic infrastructure, that made the area impregnable in its time. The buried city of medieval Champaner was excavated and mapped in the seventies and then once more succumbed to the jungle. It is the only extant fifteenth-century city in the Indian subcontinent whose foundations are preserved, and this is largely because it was abandoned to growth. Pavagadhs fragmented ruins are lesser known, spread as they are over a large area of the hill at different elevations. Neither Champaner nor Pavagadh are easily comprehended as a cohesive pattern of settlement, and

Fig 6.1 Sadan Shah Darwaza

they are rarely experienced together. The only clues to the once magnificent Champaner are the walls and gateways of Royal Enclosure where the sultans lived, the domes and minarets of a few remaining mosques and mausoleums, the excavated Amirs Manzil, and remnants of the outer fort wall. Only when viewed from the vantage point of Pavagadh Hill does the urban layout of Champaner come into focus. The once bustling streets connecting the Royal Enclosure and the adjoining Jami Masjid to the nine city gates are lost to the jungle although there are a few trails, built upon the historic streets, made by the Forestry Department that take one to the archaeological sites. The first segment of the pilgrim path is a gradual climb up from base of the hill to the Atak Fort on the lowest plateau, and through the gate bearing its name. Pavagadhs steep slopes were well suited for defensive settlement since there is only one slope with a gradual incline that could be safely negotiated on foot or horseback and thus only one ingress point that required vigilant surveillance. This access (now used by pilgrims on foot) led up an exposed slope at the base of the mountain and snaked back and forth in the steeper upper parts. Its natural defenses were enhanced by thick rubble and ashlar walls that cut across the valleys, effectively blocking them and funneling human movement through a succession of mighty gates piercing the imposing fortifications. The forts were built over a long period of seven hundred years and represent the highly

sophisticated building and military technology of their time. The fort architecture was fairly elaborate, consisting of labyrinthine gateways to trap the enemy, catapults, and thick tapering walls with merlons and bastions on which canon were mounted. The width of the walls permitted movement along the top and sometimes within. Gateways had watchtowers and a network of secret passages to facilitate surprise defensive maneuvers. Atak Forts ten-meter high walls were reinforced with eighty-seven catapults from where stone missiles could be hurled at the enemy below. Above Atak Fort, the path becomes steeper and arrives at the formidable Budhiya Darwaza. The towering walls of this gate complex are set upon the natural bedrock with the steps of the path cut directly into the rock. Whereas the Atak Fort relied on stone catapults and cannon (during the sultanate period), the design of Budhiya gate exploits the natural topography to impede easy access and enhance the abilities of the stationed garrison to observe, interrogate, or attack anyone climbing up. Atop the arched gateways are guardrooms with balconied windows that look down on the ascending visitor whose vision is occluded as he turns the corner of the gates bent entrance. The gateways had heavy wooden doors, as evidenced by the drilled holes: one set, set in the gates threshold, provided sockets for the shafts on which the doors pivoted, while another, drilled deeply in the jambs of the gates, held

Fig 6.3 Entry to Sadan Shah Darwaza

It is the only extant fifteenthcentury city in the Indian subcontinent whose foundations are preserved, and this is largely because it was abandoned to growth.

Fig 6.2 Detail of Sadan Shah Darwaza

Fig 6.4 Detail of Budhiya Darwaza

to fifteenth centuries. The sacred and defensive character of the site commingled-- the fortified wall of the Bhadra Kali Killa blocked the Elephant Valley and another set of fortification walls traversed the northeastern and northern sides of the Mauliya Plateau. There are many ways to explain the settlement and development of Champaner-Pavagadh in the Rajput and Sultanate periods, as well as its continued importance under the Mughals and Marathas as a center for regional administration. The sacred significance of the mountain continued unabated over the centuries and was no doubt the principal attraction for most visitors, but there was also a military rationale to its architectural development as a series of thick walls, elevated ramparts, gateways surmounted by guard posts, and hidden doorways intended to mislead and confuse the enemy. The architecture responded to the natural topography of the mountain, exulting in the

proximity to the heavens while at the same time exploiting steep cliffs and projecting plateaus as places from which to survey the landscape and detect the approach of enemy troops. The Rajputs, in order to be close to Kalika Mata, resided on Pavagadh Hill itself in the Atak Fort and in fortified enclosures at yet higher elevations, surrounding themselves with walls, catapults, and gates that could repel hostile outsiders. The Sultans likewise understood the importance of a secure fort, but they resided on the low ground of Champaner city at the base of the hill. For them, the fortifications of Pavagadh did not provide a residential retreat to high ground, but rather a strategic garrison and guard station for visual surveillance of the large landscape and a refuge in times of danger. With such a sophisticated and extensive defensive architectural apparatus of surveillance, one may well ask how the Mughal Emperor Humayun managed to penetrate and conquer

the sturdy round beam that barricaded them at night or when an attack was imminent. From here the path winds in a serpentine manner to Sadan Shah Darwaza that marked the second barricade. A diversion leads to Sat Kaman, a structure with crenellated ramparts and magnificent views. The structure curves along the face of the cliff with its cut stone walls merging into the vertiginous face of the mountain. The stunning views to Atak Fort and Champaner city had important defense value but were also enjoyed for recreation. The structure wrapping around in a half circle was spanned by at least seven arches that in comparison with gateway architecture, seem slender and fragile. These arches do not appear to have supported stone or brick vaults; instead they may have served as rigs for tent fabric, and there are visible grooves on the outer surface of the arches where the fabric could have been secured or held by weights. One can imagine the effect of this breezy terrace on festive occasions when colorful tenting was erected and brilliant banners flew in the wind. Textile is no protection against attack

evidently this was a terrace form where elite residents of Pavagadh enjoyed the panorama of landscape. Passing through the Sadan Shah Darwaza, one reaches the fairly flat Machi Plateau that has been considerably built upon in the recent era with just a short segment of the Machi fort wall remaining. Leading from the plateau are the retaining walls of the Ulan Jhulan Killa that support a narrow trail to Malik Nagar Ki Haveli. This path was a digression for anyone climbing up the hill and would have been primarily used by guards seeking a good lookout point at the edge of the plateau. From the Machi Plateau the path climbs up and through a gate to Makai Kothar, a granary or storage structure built by Mahmud Begarha in the fifteenth century. Here the path divides with one branch leading to the lonely spit of the land that is Bhadra Kali Plateau. The paths other branch-or rather its main stem--proceeds upwards to the Mauliya Plateau. From Bhadra Kali to Mauliya Plateau, the sacred character of the landscape becomes more pronounced with temples that date from the eleventh

Fig 6.5 View of Budhiya Darwaza

38/39 Puratatviya and Sanskrutik Yatras: Archaeological and Landscape Heritage Trails

Fig 6.6 Detail of Budhiya Darwaza

Champaner-Pavagadh? He seems to have avoided the fortified access to Pavagadh altogether, and under the cover of thick bramble, climbed up the western face. From a point west of Kasbin Talao, just outside Champaners city walls, he and his men bushwhacked their way and scaled the steep face to reach the western extension of Machi Plateau where the Nagar Haveli is perched, moving horizontally to the so-called Hindu Darwaza and from there climbing to the Mauliya Plateaus western edge. He then launched a surprise attack on fortifications at the lower level, with the distinct advantage of approaching from above and moving against the inner face of the various gates, rather than from without, as was expected. The guards were looking in the opposite direction, down to the valley where the ascent was less steep and considerably easier, and thus he caught them unaware. He also bypassed all the false gates that led to traps where his troops could have been cornered and slaughtered. It was a brilliant and

daring ruse that led to the collapse of the sultanate of Champaner. This is one of the many stories that would bring the past alive to the visitor as he or she walks, climbs, and views the landscape. Traversing the trails is the best way to vividly capture the sense of the history of the place, but explanations are also needed to provide historical narratives of the battles waged, and the mythological and religious meaning of the hill itself. The archaeological sites, especially those on Pavagadh Hill, are interesting not only for themselves but also because they offer exhilarating and breathtaking views. Visiting the remains

of forts, palaces, mosques, and mausoleums would be of interest not only to historians, archaeologists, and scholars of the medieval era but also to the average tourist, a category which could include the visiting pilgrims. Many of the pilgrims are already familiar with the mythology of the site, and providing them with a sequential tour that reflects the stories and symbols would expand their knowledge of historical facts. Thus their journey to archaeological sites would be an extension of their pilgrimage into Puratatviya and Sanskrutic yatras.

Fig 6.7 Ulan Jhulan Killa

Fig 6.9 Detail of Sat Kaman

Fig 6.8 Fort Bastion on Pavagadh Hill

Site Assessment
Trails to archaeological sites exist but they are not well used primarily because of the lack of interpretive signage, poor and inconsistent trail conditions, and weak trailheads. There are no interpretive centers from where one can get maps, find a guide, and get information on how to plan a visit to the sites. Therefore we have identified six potential grouping of archaeological sites that can be connected with trails. 1) In Champaner city, the Royal Enclosure can be visited on foot or by car. The path is paved and shared by pedestrians, all types of vehicles, and animals.
Path Segment Jama Masjid to Nagina Masjid

2) North of the Royal Enclosure, narrow existing dirt roads lead to major monuments such as the Kevada, Iteri, and Nagina Masjids and the Amirs Manzil. They should be connected to form a continuous loop that should be extended to monuments in other parts of historic Champaner such Lila Gumbaz, Rani No Mahal, and Sarai ki Masjid, as well as to Kasbin Talao, Helical Stepwell, and Ek Minar Ki Masjid. 3) Although Atak Fort is accessible from the roadway on the hill and the pilgrim path, there is no trail for exploring the catapults (which, with explanation and perhaps a reconstruction,
Trail Type Vehicular Pedestrian Trail Conditions 2 2 Safety 3 2

would fascinate the children in particular). Jai Singhs palace is covered with dense overgrowth and the Medhi Talao is accessed with difficulty. A trail local to Atak Plateau would enable an understanding of the lowest Rajput settlement on the Hill. 4) Sat Kaman, Sadan Shah and Budhiya Gateways, Tankshala, and Khapra Zaveri No Mahal, all at higher elevation, can be connected with a continuous trail. Presently the first three are accessed by the roadway and short local trails lead to the last two. 5) There are two trails to Bhadrakali Plateau. For the adventurous, there

is a fairly challenging walk from the Machi Plateau along the north, while there is an easier trail from the pilgrim path, just past the Makai Kothar. The adventurous trail has rough footing and can be steep at places with large boulders crossing the path and loose sand making for a slippery footing. The trail from the pilgrim path is flatter and easier, but the trailhead is poorly defined both in location and signage. 6) The trail to the Ulan Jhulan Fort wall is not clearly defined and is rather intimidating because of its steepness. From Machi Plateau it leads along the fort wall to Malik Nagar ki Haveli and Sau Thamba No Mahal.
Comments Dirt road is straight and at, but narrow enough to be considered one-way. The dirt road is at and safe, but there is no seperate sidewalk for pedestrians if vehicular trafc became more prevolent. There are no rest stops and little stimulation along the trail. Also, more views would be possible if there were selective clearing of trees. Dirt road is straight and at, but narrow enough to be considered one-way. The dirt road is at and safe, but there is no seperate sidewalk for pedestrians if vehicular trafc became more prevolant. There are no rest stops and little stimulatin along the trail. Also, more views would be possible if there were selective clearing of trees. The road is comparable to those in other towns of Inda. Trail direction is not clear. Sharing the road with vehicles is somewhat safe because pedestrian travel is the dominant form of transportation through this little town. The road is narrow but of good quality. The path is rough, dilapidated and needs repairs. Pedestrian trafc is somewhat unsafe and frequently intersects with the road. A formal rest spot with shade, seating, informational signage and some basic amenities is necessary. Fairly steep and not well dened. Railings and more formal steps could assist the traveler in getting to their destination. Entrance to path is not well dened, but path is beautifully constructed with blue stone. The trail is lined with trees not found on many other trails in Champanere and it provides a nice compliment to the expansive views it is approaching. The trail is rst a back track, then walks along the main road. There are no clear markings on where to go and it is very dangerous to be walking along the road with trafc and no sidewalk. The path is paved and well built, but sheer edges along the path present an obvious safety concern, especially when sharing the path with donkeys carrying goods. Makai Kothar is well suited for a formal rest spot, complete with seating, shade, drinking water and restrooms. The diversion to Bhadrakali temple is not clearly shown. The path itself is neither paved nor unsafe, however it could be improved with paving. A formal rest spot, some shade or seating would be welcome. The most dangerous trail of all, it is not well dened, very overgrown, steep and travels along cliffs. It is for the adventurist, but could still provide some rest spots and amenities along the way, as well as stable footing and clear denition of trail direction. Main road is dangerous to walk, road to Ek Manir Ki Masjid is unpaved and difcult to nd. Main road is dangerous to walk, road to Ek Manir Ki Masjid is unpaved and difcult to nd. Paved road good for cars, unsafe for walking/biking. Potential for resting spot/recreation.

Fig 6.10 View of Gateway of Jain Masjid in Champaner

Views 1 1

Rest Spots N/A 1

Amenities N/A 1

Shade N/A 3

Dist. In M 1150 1150

Amirs Manzil to Delhi Gate

Vehicular Pedestrian

2 2

3 2

1 1

N/A 1

N/A 1

N/A 3

600 600

Delhi gate to Southern Enclosure, Royal Enclosure

Vehicular Pedestrian Vehicular Pedestrian

2 2 3 1

3 3 3 1

2 2 3 2

1 1 N/A 1

2 2 N/A 1

1 1 N/A 2

500 500 2500 1700

Fig 6.11 Rauza of Nagina Masjid, Champaner


Royal Enclosure to Machi

Machi to Sadan Shah Darwaza Sadan Shah Darwaza to Khapra Zaveri No Mahal Khapra Zaveri No Mahal to Budhia Darwaza Machi to Makai Kothar Makai Kothar to Bhadra Kali Machi to Ulan Julan Killa Royal Enclosure to Ek Manir Ki Masjid Royal Enclosure to Khajuri Masjid

Pedestrian Pedestrian

1 3

1 3

2 2

1 1

2 1

1 3

225 275

Pedestrian

175

Pedestrian

600

Pedestrian Pedestrian

2 1

2 1

3 2

1 1

1 1

1 3

800 1400

Vehicular Pedestrian Vehicular

2 2 3

1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

1 1 1

1 1 1

2500 2500 2900

Heritage Trail Site Assessment (1 - Low; 3 - High)

40/41 Puratatviya and Sanskrutik Yatras: Archaeological and Landscape Heritage Trails

Fig 6.12 Existing Trails in Historic Champaner (shown here and on facing page)

42/43 Puratatviya and Sanskrutik Yatras: Archaeological and Landscape Heritage Trails

Fig 6.13 Existing Heritage Trails on Pavagadh Hill shown here and on facing page

44/45 Puratatviya and Sanskrutik Yatras: Archaeological and Landscape Heritage Trails

Site Design
In Champaner heritage trails, a typical intersection should be made legible by placing white stones 1-1.5 meters apart (beginning 10m before the intersection in all four directions) that will indicate the approach to a transition point. For visibility and safety, brush should be removed from within 5m of all intersections. Directional signage should be placed at an angle, facing the most heavily traveled approach to the intersection. Overlooks should be opened up along heritage trails in certain locations that allow the visitor to see hills, the surrounding agricultural land, and the larger landscape. Rest spots as indicated in the map will be located at a natural curve in the trail. A typical stop is designed as a circular patio (approx. 3m in diameter and 35 cm high) made of rough hewn stone and seating up to six people. Entrances to heritage sites should be redesigned to provide a better sense of entry. For example, the entrance to the Delhi Gate of the Royal Enclosure will be indicated by 10 meters of white marker stones placed at regular intervals approaching the gateway. Vegetation should be cleared within 3m of the wall and the intersection so that view of it is unobstructed. Stone paving for a distance of 6m will indicate entry. Within the Royal Enclosure, the metal fence that now runs along the path obstructs views to the great enclosure wall. This fence should be removed and replaced by a low retaining wall with vegetative ground cover filling the space between it and the wall. The current entrance to Mandavi is not clearly defined because the approaching road is parallel to the structure. At Mandavi, the road then veers away and the visitors line of sight is directed in the opposite direction. A circular seat wall built around a shade tree should be built to serve as a distinctive node in the triangular approach to the site. At the Nagina Masjid, the existing approach is by way of a curved path that first obscures and then reveals the mosque. The proposed trail will restore the more historically accurate axial alignment with the front entrance to the mosque so that its facade remains unobstructed. Finally, to give the visitor an idea of the urban fabric of medieval Champaner, building footprints along an historic street (now a heritage trail) should be re-excavated and opened up to public view. The outline of the buildings could be recreated in cloth or simply marked by overhead banners erected. This would add color and interest to the heritage sites on special occasions such as the annual Champaner festival. On the main road leading up the hill to Machi Plateau, there are no pedestrian lanes and the result is that pilgrims on foot are always at risk from the vehicular traffic especially at the curves where there is no direct line of sight. Sidewalks should be added for pedestrians to safely walk along the fort walls. Additionally a shuttle service could be provided to take the visitors to a designated sequence of heritage sites. The proposed shuttle stop has been designed with seat walls that are an extension of the circular chabutras under the trees nearby. The ground plane is textured and distinctly different from the road to remind the drivers that it is a space to be shared by pedestrians and vehicles alike. Wherever the asphalt road crosses an historic trail, the paving should be replaced with stone. Similarly, wherever the road cuts through an historic wall, the paving should be replaced as wide as the historic wall to help the traveler better perceive the walls and walks of the historical landscape. At Atak Fort the trail around the wall and catapults should reveal the story of historic military defense and movement. Vegetation that compromises the structural stability of the fort walls

Fig 6.14 Tankshala

Fig 6.15 Trail to Sat Kaman

should be cleared away, graffiti should be removed, and telephone poles relocated out of the line of sight. When direction of the trail is unclear, white stones should guide the path of movement. At Sat Kaman the entrance lies at an oblique angle to the road and the site itself is overgrown. White stones would clarify the entrance, vegetation should be cleared away to open up the view, and soil stabilization along the crumbling wall is proposed. The typical ASI sign could be replaced with signage on the ground plane. A seat wall could also be placed at the entrance for the visitor to stop and rest before or after viewing the site. At Budhiya Killa, directional signage should be added on the trail on the fort wall. The steps leading to the gateway are steep with no hand support, and therefore a stone retaining wall, perhaps with a handrail, should be added to the side with the steep drop.

Plant growth ought to be removed from these sites. The trail to Khapra Zaveri No Mahal reaches a fork in the road with no signage to indicate what lies ahead. The trail should be widened and a directional sign be added to point the way to Khapra Zaveri. At its entry, which is unclear, the path should be cleared and informational signage added. The adventure trail to the Bhadrakali Plateau is only for the more daring trekker, although certain segments ought to be made safer, especially since the steep slopes can become quite slippery during the monsoons. Large stones embedded on the trail will allow for a better footing grip, and wooden poles on the side would provide handgrips on the steep path. Echo Point on the Plateau can be redesigned as a lookout with a wooden deck to allow the visitor to step out over the valley below with an enclosing

railing to ensure visitor safety. Here a sign that represents the surrounding panorama could be provided to point out the significant features of interest in the landscape. Interpretive and directional signage is an important component of trail restoration and redesign. Directional signs should be set closer to the ground plane on the trails for those on foot while informational sign should have vertical prominence. For visitors interested in seeing forts, mosques, gateways, and palaces, directional signs should display their logos (incised on a stone tablet), direction and distance. Informational signs should be erected at the heritage site entry area and should display the location of the site on a map, its plan, or a mural visualizing a mythic event.

Fig 6.15a Panorama of Royal Enclosure

46/47 Puratatviya and Sanskrutik Yatras: Archaeological and Landscape Heritage Trails

Fig 6.16 Trail redesign in Champaner (shown here and on facing page)

48/49 Puratatviya and Sanskrutik Yatras: Archaeological and Landscape Heritage Trails

Fig 6.17 Trail redesign in Pavagadh Hill (shown here and on facing page)

50/51 Puratatviya and Sanskrutik Yatras: Archaeological and Landscape Heritage Trails

Fig 6.18 Interpretive Signage on Puratatviya Trail

Conclusion

Fig 6.19 View of Patai Rawal Palace on Bhadrakali Plateau

Every visitor comes with unique expectations, most seeking darshan of the deities, others to enjoy the long steep climb and exhilaration of reaching promontories with dramatic views, and others to visit the historic mosques. Our proposal for developing the trail system improves these experiences while amplifying the full potential for other interests including architectural history, hiking and hang gliding, landscape and environmental exploration. The trail restoration is guided by an interpretive program that explains the site through linked sequences of sites, buildings, and views. The rich cultural heritage of Champaner-Pavagadh deserves recognition as a high point of medieval Indian history and demonstration of a living tradition of faith. This can achieve its full expression through landscape planning and design of a comprehensive trail system, interpretative and welcome centers, and a community development program.

52/53 Illustration List and Bibliography

Illustration List
Fig 1.1
Karan Grover at Sadan Shah Gate Concern,Surat, with students in Champaner 1

Bibliography
Fig 4.5 The two watersheds of
Champaner-Pavagadh 18 20 21 22 23

Fig 1.2 Sumesh Modi, People for Heritage


2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 9 10 10 11

Fig 4.7 Dudhiya Talao Fig 4.8 Redesign of Trail on Mauliya Plateau Fig 4.9 Redesign of Trail around Dudhiya Talao Fig 4.10 Redesign of spaces around
Chassiya Talao

Bayley, E.C. (1886) The History of India as Told by its Own Historians. The Local Muhammadan Dynasties, Gujarat. London: W. H. Allen. Commissariat, M.S. (1938) A History of Gujarat Including a Survey of its Chief Architectural Monuments and Inscriptions. Vol. 1. Bombay: Longmans, Green, & Co. Ltd. Goetz, H. (1949) PawagadhChampaner, Journal of the Gujarat Research Society, vol. XI, no. 2, pp. 1-67. Gold, A. F. (1988) Fruitful Journeys: The Ways of Rajasthani Pilgrims. Berkeley: University of California Press. Laul. A. (2005) The Last Element, Architecture+Design, vol. XXII, no. 5. Laul, A. (2004) Appropriate Human Settlement Design: Vedaville, JamaicaA Partnership between Man and Nature, Architecture+Design, vol. XXI, no. 9. Mehta, R.N. (n.d.) Champaner: A Medieval Capital. Baroda: Heritage Trust. Miles, W. (1819) Account of the Hill-Fort of Champaner in Guzerat, Transactions of The Literary Society of Bombay, vol. 1, reprinted at the Bombay Education Society Press, 1877, pp. 150-156. Modi. S. (2004) Impressions of a Forgotten City: Architectural Documentation of ChampanerPavagadh. Baroda: Heritage Trust and Archaeological Survey of India. Modi, S. M. (2002) Water Intelligent City: Champaner-Pavagadh, Landscapes of Water: History, Innovation, and Sustainable Design, edited Umberto Fratino et al. Bari: Uniongraphica Cornelli Editrice, pp. 103-110. Modi, S.M. (2005) Intangible HeritageTales of Yore, Architecture+Design, vol. XXII, no. 2. Modi. S.M. (2005) Myths and Legends of Champaner-Pavagadh. Baroda: Heritage Trust. Saxena, A. B. (2003) The Making of Pavagadh-Champaner City Complex: A Gaze into the Historical Geography from the Earliest Times to the Nineteenth Century,

Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Kolkata, 63rd session, pp. 336-52. Sinha, A. and G. Kesler (2001) Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, Gujarat, India. Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign and Heritage Trust, Baroda. Sinha, A., G. Kesler, D.F. Ruggles, J. L. Wescoat Jr. (2003) Champaner-Pavagadh Cultural Sanctuary, Gujarat, India. Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Heritage Trust, Baroda. Sinha, A. (2004) ChampanerPavagadh Archaelogical Park: A Design Approach, International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol. 10, No. 2, May, pp. 117-128. Sinha, A., G. Kesler, D.F. Ruggles, J. L. Wescoat Jr. (2004) Champaner-Pavagadh Gujarat, India: Challenges and Responses in Cultural Heritage Planning and Design, Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 29, pp. 75-78. Sinha, A. (2005) Cultural Landscape of Pavagadh: The Abode of Mother Goddess Kalika, Journal of Cultural Geography, Vol. 22, No. 3. Thakur, N. (1987) Champaner: Draft Action Plan for Integrated Conservation. Baroda: Heritage Trust.

Fig 2.1 School children in Shehri Masjid,


Champaner

Trent University, John Marsh, Trail Studies Unit, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8 -- (705) 748-1419 -- (705) 748-1801 fax Trent University Trail Resource Centre. U.S. Federal Highway Administration. Recreational Trails Program. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ environment/rectrails/index.htm. Database; http//wwwcf.fhwa.dot.gov/ exit.cfm?link=http:// www.funoutdoors.info/rtphome.html University of Minnesota, Forestry Library, College of Natural Resources, [see app. 2 bibliography]. http: //forestry.lib.umn.edu/bib/trls.phtml Documents U.S. Forest Service 7/28/2004. Trail Accessibility Guidelines. Director of Recreation, Heritage, and Wilderness Resources Staff, Mail Stop 1125, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20250-1125. U.S. Forest Service. Technology & Development Program. July 2002. Floating Trail Bridges and Docks. 0223-2812-MTDC. U.S. Forest Service. Technology & Development Program. 2004. Trail Construction and Maintenance Handbook. 0223-2812-MTDC. U.S. Forest Service. National Trail Drawings and Specifications. Online edition. http://www.fs.fed.us/ database/acad/dev/trails/trails.htm U.S. Forest Service. Engineering Staff. 1996. Standard Specifications for Construction and Maintenance of Trails. EM-7720-103 and EM7720-104. Moore, Roger L. 1994. Conflicts on Multiple Use Trails. www.fhwa.dot.gov/ environment/conflicts/index.htm. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. U.S. Forest Service. 1996. Standard Specifications for Construction and Maintenance of Trails. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Fig 2.2 Pilgrims in the courtyard of Kalika Mata


Temple in Pavagadh

Fig 2.3 Dede Ruggles and Manoj Joshi at


Amirs Manzil, Champaner

Fig 4.11 Redesign of trails around Medhi Talao,


Kasbin Talao, Amirs Manzil and Wada Talao 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 27

Fig 2.4 Visitors at Lakulish Temple, Pavagadh Fig 2.5 ASI office in the Royal Enclosure,
Champaner

Fig 4.12 Dudhiya Talao Fig 4.13 Pavilion on Wada Talao Fig 4.14 Typical Rest Stop and Signage on
the Water Trail

Fig 2.6 Visitors at the entry gate of Jami Masjid,


Champaner

Fig 2.7 Poring over a map in Pavagadh Fig 2.8 Visitors at Kevda Masjid, Champaner Fig 2.9 Pilgrim Path on Pavagadh Hill Fig 2.10 Heritage Trail in Historic Champaner Fig 3.1
Settlement on the Pilgrim Path the Pilgrim Path

Fig 5.1

Entry to the Pilgrim Path on Machi Plateau

Fig 5.2 Bhadrakali Temple Fig 5.3 Kali Mandir in Champaner Fig 5.4 Jain Mandir on Mauliya Plateau Fig 5.5 Shiv Mandir in the Royal Enclosure Fig 5.6 Gomukh on Pavagadh Hill Fig 5.7 Fig 5.8 Pilgrims on Pabiya Pul Fig 5.9 Shrine below Budhiya Gateway Fig 5.10 Adesh Ashram in Champaner Fig 5.11 Signs of Intangible Heritage: Ephemeral
Shrines and Religious Practices

Fig 3.2 Water and food in the shopfront on Fig 3.3 Pilgrim being carried on a palanquin Fig 3.4 Jain Dharamshala in Champaner Fig 3.5 Grazers community on Machi Plateau Fig 3.6 Shop house Fig 3.7
Shops along Pilgrim Path

Statue of Jain Tirthankara in Champaner 27 28 28 28 30 32 33 34 35 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 40

Fig 3.8 Vendors on Machi Plateau Fig 3.9 Community well on the banks of
Chassiya Talao

Fig 5.12 Trail to Kalika Mata Fig 5.13 Zoning Map and Rest Stops on
the Pilgrim Path

Fig 3.10 Champaner Village Fig 3.11 Chassiya Talao community settlement Fig 3.12 Land use map and planning issues in
Champaner Village

Fig 5.14 Redesign of the Pilgrim Path Fig 5.15 Interpretive signage on Pilgrim Path Fig 6.1 Sadan Shah Darwaza Fig 6.2 Detail of Sadan Shah Darwaza Fig 6.3 Entry to Sadan Shah Darwaza Fig 6.4 Detail of Budhiya Darwaza Fig 6.5 View of Budhiya Darwaza Fig 6.6 Detail of Budhiya Darwaza Fig 6.7 Ulan Jhulan Killa Fig 6.8 Fort Bastion on Pavagadh Hill Fig 6.9 Detail of Sat Kaman Fig 6.10 View of Gateway of Jain Masjid
in Champaner

Fig 3.13 Land use map and planning issues in


settlements on Pavagadh Hill

Fig 3.14 Chassiya Talao embankment Fig 3.15 View of Chassiya Talao Fig 3.16 Development of commercial space on
main road in Champaner

Appendix A: Trail Design Sources


Organizations and Websites American Trails. 2005. http://www.americantrails.org/. Canadian Trail Bibliography & Resource List. Go for Green, PO Box 450-Stn A, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 -- (613) 562-5313 -- (613) 6135314. Professional Trailbuilders Association, Inc. http://www.trailbuilders.org/ [formerly Western Trailbuilders Association] National Park Service Trails. http://www.trailcenter.org/links/ links-us.htm

Fig 3.17 Medieval Pathway: a pedestrian friendly


thoroughfare that complements the sites heritage 11 11 12 13 14 15 17 17 17 17

Fig 3.18 Visitor facilities in Champaner Village


and on the Pilgrim Path

Fig 3.19 Redesign of Machi Plateau visitor sites Fig 3.20 Pilgrim Welcome Center and Bird
Sanctuary on Machi Plateau

Fig 6.11 Rauza of Nagina Masjid, Champaner Fig 6.12 Existing Trails in Historic Champaner Fig 6.14 Tankshala Fig 6.15 Trail to Sat Kaman Fig 6.15a Panorama of Royal Enclosure Fig 6.16 Trail redesign in Champaner Fig 6.17 Trail redesign in Pavagadh Hill Fig 6.19 View of Patai Rawal Palace on
Bhadrakali Plateau

Fig 6.13 Existing Heritage Trails on Pavagadh Hill 42


44 44 45 46 48

Fig 3.21 Waste water management in the


Champaner-Pavagadh

Fig 3.22 Proposed vending units on the


Pilgrim Path

Fig 4.1 Medhi Talao Fig 4.2 Kund in Jain Masjid, Champaner Fig 4.3 Gaben Shah vav Fig 4.4 Irrigation system in the Forest
Department Nursery in Champaner

Fig 6.18 Interpretive Signage on Puratatviya Trail 50


51

Acknowledgements
Project credits
Heritage Trust, Baroda
Karan Grover, President Sandhya Bordewekar Gajjar, Secretary Sumesh Modi, Member Ghanshyam Joshi, Member Manoj Joshi, Member

Workshop Credits
D.C. Patel School of Architecture, Vallabh Vidya Nagar, and Bhausaheb Hiray College of Architecture, Mumbai University Vimal Chawda Viral Desai Smruti Mahapatra Jugul Mistri Suril Patel Rohan Sirpotdar Sivangi Vichare Omkar Bhat Piyush Khandewal Manu Dev Lohia Sonal Patankar Abhijeet Sikchi Renny Verghese

University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign


College of Fine and Applied Arts Department of Landscape Architecture

Faculty
Amita Sinha, Co-ordinator D. Fairchild Ruggles James L. Wescoat Jr., Head

Students
*participated in site visit and workshop David Akiyama* Sarah Butler Anthony Deprima Carolina Garcia* Emily Hamilton* Michael Kritzman* Lobsang Chodon* Swetha Gowri* Kathleen McQuiggan* Heather Zalkus

Report Credits
Text:
Amita Sinha D. Fairchild Ruggles James Wescoat Jr.

Production Coordinator:
Chuck Nivens

Graphic Design:
Chuck Nivens Haley Nivens

This project was funded by:


Ryerson Funds, Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Flora and William Hewlitt International Travel Grants, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Max van Berchem Foundation, Geneva, Switzerland Heritage Trust, Baroda

2005 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign