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## SECTION NO 6.1 , 6.2 , 6.3,6.4,6.5 AND 6.6 ONLY , FROM BOOK :

ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS 7TH EDITION by ERWIN-KREYSZIG.

21/FEB/2013

LAPLACE-TRANSFORM
[NOTE: I SOME TIME MISTAKELY TYPE CAPITAL S INSTEAD OF SMALL S SO BE CARE-FULL.]
BOOK : ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS 7th EDITION by ERWIN-KREYSZIG. [ENGINEERING-MATH-3,LAPLACE-TRANSFORM, CH-6,IN BME]BY SIKANDAR-LODHI Page 1-OF-109

## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

(6.1 START HERE) .......................................................................................................................................... 2 PROBLEM SET 6.1 .................................................................................................................................... 11 [ 6.2 ] [ START HERE ]. ................................................................................................................................ 42 Problem-set 6.2....................................................................................................................................... 61 [ 6.3 ] [ start here ] ...................................................................................................................................... 70 Problem set 6.3 ....................................................................................................................................... 77 [6.4 ] [ start here ] ....................................................................................................................................... 87 Problem-set 6.4 : ..................................................................................................................................... 90 [6.5] start here ............................................................................................................................................ 94 Problem set 6.5 ....................................................................................................................................... 96 [ 6.6 ] start here ........................................................................................................................................ 100 Problem set 6.6 ..................................................................................................................................... 105

CH-6( START-HERE ): ON LAPLACE-TRANSFORM: (6.1 START HERE) LAPLACE-TRANSFORM,INVERSE-TRANSFORM,LINEARITY: If f(t) is the given function defined for all *t0+, then we taken the laplace-transform, of f(t), then if the resulting value is exist [(i-e) has some finite value + , its the function of s, also called F(s) in frequency domain. FORMULA OF LAPLACE TRANSFORM[LT]:

Where : t=time and s=frequency Remember that => the given function f(t) depends on t and the new function F(s)[ its laplace-transform + depend on s .

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

So, F(s) is the Laplace-Transform of given function f(t). FORMULA OF INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORM[ILT]:

----------------------EXAMPLE#1 LAPLACE TRANSFORM Let,-> f(t)=1, when *t0+ FIND: Note: the interval of integration in (eq-A) below is infinite, therefore we called it as Improper-integral. FORMULA: (A)

## Above equation is called as eq-A,

{:.when ( S>0 ) }

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Henced proved _---------------------------------finished _-----------EXAMPLE#2: Let -> f(t)=eat, when *t0+ Where [ a=any constant ] Find-> Solution:

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## -------------------------finished------------ THEOREM#1:[LINEARITY-OF-LAPLACE-TRANSFORM] The laplace transform is a linear-operator Or linear-operation.

-------------finished--------------Proof # 1:

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Solution:

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-------------------finished-----------

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--------finished-----------

------------finished-------6.1

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-----------finished----------

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Solution:

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Solution:

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Solution:

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## -------------finished-----------Q19 ) find laplace transform=? Given:

FORMULA-OF-STRAIGHT-LINE-EQUATIONS:

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[ [ ]

].

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=0

=0 2}] ]

[ [ [ [ [

] ]

] ]

2] =0 = ] ] ]
--------------------Now put the value of eq-k in eq-G, we get, [

2] =0 = ].
[ [

] ]

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## [ [ ---------finished-----------6.1 Q 20) Find laplace transform=? Given:

] ]

FORMULA-OF-STRAIGHT-LINE-EQUATIONS: [ Solution: [ [ ] [ ] ] ]

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[ So, where: [ [

] , and ] ]

## We applying laplace transform on eq-A, [ ]

[ [ [ [ [ . . [ ] ] ] ] ]

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-----------finished----------6.1

Given: [

. ]

## Time domain Frequency domain

Solutions: . . . . ---------------------------------. [ [ ] ]

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--------------Now put the value of eq-S into eq-P, we get. . . . Answer. --------------finished----[ 6.1 ] Q 29) find f(t)=? Given Solution: . . . --------------Formula:(eq-1). (eq-2). .

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----------Now by using the formula of eq-1 then eq-P becomes, . . Answer. ------------finished-----------6.1 Q 31) find f(t)=? Given-> F(s)=[1/S4 ]; Solution: . . . ------------Formula: [ -----------------Now just applying above formula on above eq-P , we get, ] . .

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. . . . Answer . ----------------finished-----------[ 6.1 ] Q 33 ) find f(t)=? Given-> Solution:-> . . Using Partial Fractional Method we consider P: . . . . from above eq. .

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Let,-> [A+B]=0; . We get, A=1, B=-1 . Answer. --------finished--------[ 6.1 ] Q 30 ) find f(t)=? Given:-> F(s)= [4/(S+1)(S+2)] Solution: . . Consider [4/(S+1)(S+2)] : So, . . . .

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. . . Let:-> . ] we get,

So, by placing the value of { eq-i } in [ eq. . . . Now, ------. ---------For B:-> When . . . . . . . .

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For A:-> . . . . . When [ ] [ ] . . . Now by placing the value of [ eq-G ] in [eq-j ] then [ eq-j ] becomes. . . Now simply solve it, . ------------Formulas:-> . [:. . ]

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Consider

:-

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For B:. . . Now, by placing the value of [eq-1 & 2] in [ eq-N ] we get. . ---------. . -----------. Now by placing the value of [ eq-N ] in [ eq-B ] we get the f(t). . .

. .

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. Answer. -------------finished-----------[ 6.1 ] Q 36 ) find f(t)=? Given-> Solution:-> . . . . -------------Formulas: . . ------------. Answer. --------finished---------. .

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[ 6.1 ] Q 38 ) find f(t)=? Given:-> Solution:-> . . . . . . Answer. -------finished-------------[ 6.1 ] Q 32 ) find f(t)=? Given:-> Solution:-> . . . . .

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. . . . . Answer. ----------finished-----------[ 6.1 ] new-topic. EXISTENCE OF LAPLACE-TRANSFORMS:Its suffices to require that f(t) be Piece-wise-continuous on every finite interval in the range [ ] That is :

By the definitions, a function f(t) is a piece wise continuous on a finite interval [ ], if f(t) is defined on that interval and is such

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subdivided into finitely many sub-intervals, in each of which f(t) is continuous and has finite limits as time(t) approaches either, endpoint of interval of subdivision from the interior, it follows from this definitions that finite Jumps are the only dis-continuities that a piecewise continuous function may have, these are known as Ordinary discontinuities. ------------------[ 6.1 ] THEOREM-2 [EXISTENCE-THEOREM-FOR-LAPLACE-TRANSFORMS+:Let, f(t) be a function that is piece-wise continuous on every finite interval in the range [ ], and satisfies below [ eq-2 ]. .

And for some constant [ ] and [ ]. Then, the laplace-transform of f(t) exists for all [ ].

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Proof:->since f(t) is piece-wise continuous, [ over any finite interval on t-axis. From [eq-2], Let, we have a conditions [ ], we get,

], is integrable

. . . . . . . . . . . . OR .

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Where : [

## ] is need for last integral.

------------FINISHED----------[ 6.2 ] [ START HERE ]. TRANSFORMS-OF-DERIVATIVES-AND-INTEGRALS:THEOREM # 1: LAPLACE-TRANSFORM-OF-THE-DERIVATIVE-OF-f(t):Suppose that f(t) is continuous for all [ ], where the derivatives of f(t) is [f(t)] which is pice-wise continuous, on every finite interval in the range [ ], then laplace transform of derivatives of function [f(t)] is exist when there is a conditions is [ ]. So, taking laplace transform on its derivatives [f(t)], That is: o PROOF: . [ ] . Let consider . .. .. .

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];

];

[ ];

And
[ ];

## Then [ THE GENERAL-FORMULA OF THEOREM-2:Where:- [

[

];

= No of derivatives on f(t) ]
];

Or

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1.
Or

1 (0)];

Where the eq-z is the laplace transform of nth derivative of functions f(t). --------------finished-----------[ 6.2 ] DIFFERENTIAL-EQUATIONS, INITIAL-VALUE-PROBLEM[ IVP ]:Let,
system

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## Above [eq-T+ is called the subsidiary-equation. . . . . Answer. --------------. Answer. WHERE:->[ ].

Transfer-function is often denoted by H(s), but we need H(s) much more frequentely for other purposes. . Answer. . .

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-- IVP:GIVEN:-> [ --If [-> y(0)=y(0)=0], . . . . . Than, this is simply [-> Y(s)=R(s).Q(s)]. Thus the transfer-function is Q(s) THE GENERAL-FORMULA-OF-TRANSFER-FUNCTION: ] and [ ].

NOTE: Q(s) depends only on a and b, but neither on r(t) nor on the initial-conditions. Last step: we reduce [ eq-7 + ,usually by partial fractions, as in integral calculus} to a sum of terms whose inverse can be found from the table, so that the solution [ ] of [eq-A] is obtained.

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--------------------finished---------[ 6.2 ] Example # 5 : [Initial-value-Problem[I.V.P]]: GIVEN: [ Initial-value-Problem[I.V.P]: [ REQUIRED: [ And solve it by I.V.P , So, STEP-1: To make eq-A as y(t) [ or to find the solution of eq-A ] by using Laplace-Transform, [ ]. ]. ]. ].

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## [ [ [ ---------By using Initial-value-Problem[I.V.P]: [ ----------Than we get. [ ]. ].

]. ]. ].

].

[ [ [ [ [ ]. ]. ]. ].

].

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[
[
let

]. ].

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

So,

[ [

] ] ].

[ So,

{:.[eq-i] -> 0=A+B; [eq-e] -> A=-B ; } For B: When [ [eq-e] -> A=-B ; -1=-B ; B=1 ; So, When [ Than,
[ [

].

] and B=1 :-

] ].

## So, by placing the value of eq-Z in eq-D than eq-D becomes,

[ENGINEERING-MATH-3,LAPLACE-TRANSFORM, CH-6,IN BME]BY SIKANDAR-LODHI Page 50-OF-109

## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

[ [ [

]. ]. ].

Above eq-S is the solution of subsidiary-equations. Now by taking the inverse-laplace transform on eq-S, we get the solution of given problem.

[ [ [
[ [ [

]. ]. ].

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

In practice, instead of justifying the use of formulas and theorems in this method, one simply checks at the end whether y(t) satisfies the given equations and initial conditions. Gains in the method, as compared to that in Ch # 2, and illustrated by the example, are as follows: 1. No determination of a general solution of the homogeneous equation. 2. No determination of values for arbitrary constants in a general solution. Shifted data problems is a short name for initial value problems in which the initial conditions refer to some later instant instead of [ t=0 ]. We explain the idea of solving such a problem by the laplace-transform in terms of a simple example. ---------Section # 6.2 : Example # 6 :- [ shifted-data-problem=Initial-value-Problem]:Solve the I.V.P Given:-

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

[ Initial-Condition: [

];

];

Given-General-Solution-Of-Eq-A :[ Required:* y(0)=? ; y(0)=? +; Solution: FOR-SUBSIDIARY-EQUATION:[ By apply laplace transform [ [ [ equation. FOR-SOLUTION-OF-SUBSIDIARY-EQUATION:[ equation. [ ]; ]; its subsidiary ]; ]; ]; its subsidiary ]; ];

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];

];

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[ For B:- [

]; [ ];

]; [

];

## [ A+B=0]; [ 1+B=0]; [ So, [ [ [ [ B= 1 ]; ]; ]; ]; ];

By placing value of eq-z in eq-E we get; [ [ For y(t) :By apply Inverse laplace transform on eq-k; [
[
[
[ [ ];

]; ];

];
];
];
];

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

[ Let, [-> [ [ I.V.P ]; ]; ]; so the eq-T becomes ];

[
[ [ [ [ [-> 0=[A+B]/ [A+B=0]; ];

];
]; ]; ]; ];

[B=- A ]; its not suitable value for A and B; So, we try different I.V.P [ So, [ By differentiating w.r.t t. [ ]; ]; ];

[ Let,

];

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[A=y(0) , B= When: I.V.P -> [ [ [ ]; ]; ]; ];

];

];

];

[ [ ];

];

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For y(t) :[ [ [ A = +1 ]; [ ]; ]; ];

## Placing value of A abd B in eq-SS we get ; [ [ [ ]; Answer ]; ];

-------------finished-here------------

----------- LAPLACE-TRANSFORM-OF-THE-INTEGRAL-OF-AFUNCTION: Since differentiation and integration are inverse processes, and since, roughly speaking, differentiation of a function corresponds to the multiplications of its transform by s, we expect integration of a function to correspond to division of its transform by s, because division is the inverse operation of multiplications: [ [ Theorem # 3 : [ Integration of f(t) ]: If f(t) is piecewise continuous and satisfies an inequality of the form eq-2 from sec.6.1, that is, ] ]

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[ {:. }.

];

Proof: suppose that f(t) is piecewise continuous and satisfies [eq-2 from sec # 6.1+, for some and . Clearly, if *eq-2 from sec # 6.1] holds for some negative [-ve+ , it also holds for positive *+ve+ , and we may assume that is positive [+ve]. Then the integral [ ] is continuous, and by using [eq-2

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[ [ ] {:. ( )}

] , [:.

This shows that g(t) also satisfies an inequality of the form [eq-2 from sec # 6.1]. Also, ->[ ], and the graph of f(t) and g(t) are same,

## ->[ ->[ ->[ {:. ->[ ->[ ->[ For g(t):

]; ]; ]; , -> ]; ]; ]; }

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## ->[ ->[ Or ->[ ----------------finished ------------{:. M and are constant }.

]; ];

];

LAPLACE-TRANSFORM [ ]:- [ define ] The laplace-transform replaces operations of calculus by operations of algebra on transforms . ----------------Problem-set 6.2 Q-1 ) using equation-1 and 2 from book , then find Laplace of f(t) ? Given: [ Required: [F(s)=?]; Formula:
[ .];

];

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1 (0) ;];

## By placing the value of eq-J & eq-K in eq-1 we get,

[ [ [ [ [ [ .]; .]; .]; its a correct Answer .]; .]; .];

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

--------------finished ----------[ 6.2 ] Q 11 ) using theorems 1 and 2 , derive the following transforms that occur in applications ? Given: [ Solution: Let, [ ]; ];

[ [ Formula:
[ For f(0) :-

]; ];

.];

[ [ [ [ ];

]; ]; ];

## By placing all required value in eq-1,

[ENGINEERING-MATH-3,LAPLACE-TRANSFORM, CH-6,IN BME]BY SIKANDAR-LODHI Page 63-OF-109

[ [ [

.];

## Let [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ]; By placing the value of eq-B in eq-Z, then eq-Z become,

[ [ .]; [ .]; .];

]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ];

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[ . .. . [ ]; hence proved,

.];

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.. [ L.H.S = R.H.S --------------Finished ---------[ 6.2 ] Q 19 ) Application of theorem-3 , find f(t) or inverse-Laplace-transform ? Given: [ Solution: ]; ]; hence proved

[
Let [ [ Now, [ [ ]; ]; ]; ];

];

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];

];

]; ];

]; ];

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[ [ [ ----------------finished --------------

]; ];

Initial value problem [I.V.P ] using laplace transform , solve: Q 27 ) INITIAL-VALUE-PROBLEM [ Initial condition : [ Solution: [ I.V.P [ [ Apply laplace transform [ [ ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ];

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[ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ For y(t) :[ [ [ [ [ [ [ ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ];

];

]; in frequency-domain;

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[ --------------finished ------------

## ---------------- [ exercise no 6.2 finished here ] -------------

[ 6.3 ] [ start here ] s-SHIFTING, t-SHIFTING, UNIT-STEP-FUNCTION:Two very important properties concern the shifting on s-axis and the shifting on the t-axis, as expressed in two shifting theorems [ theorems 1 and 2 of this section ]. s-Shifting: Replacing s by (s-a) in F(s) : Theorem-1 (first-shifting theorem: s-shifting ): {THEOREM-1 (1st shifting theorem) :[ define] -> it concerns shifting on the s-axis: the replacement of s in F(s) by (s-a) corresponds to the multiplication of the original function f(t) by [ e+a.t ] . } If f(t) has the laplace-transform of F(s), where [ s > ] , then [ ] has the laplace-transform F(s-a) where [ ], thus , if [ ];, then [ ];

Key-> hence if we know the laplace-transform F(s) of f(t) , we get the laplace-transform of [ + by shifting on the s-axis *i.e by replacing s with [ ] , to get F(s-a) ].

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];

## Proof of theorem 1 .by definition, [ therefore ,

[ ];

]; and

[ --------------finished----

]; its theorem 1 .

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## Formula: replacing { s[s-a] } f(t)

-----------------[new-topic] -> t-Shifting: Replacing t by [ t-a ] in f(t) : we shell now state the 2nd shifting theorem [ theorem-2 ], which concerns shifting on the t-axis: the replacements of t in f(t) by [ corresponds roughly to the multiplication of the transform F(s) by [ ], the theorem-2 given as follows. THEOREM-2 [Second (2nd ) Shifting Theorem; t-shifting ] : If f(t) has the transform F(s), then the function
[ ];

With arbitrary [

## ] has the transform [

].

Hence if we know that transform F(s) of f(t), we get the transform of the function in eq-2 , Whose variable has been shifted * shifting on the t-axis ), by multiplying F(s) by [ ].
[ ];

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If [ [ ], then ];

By taking the inverse laplace transform on both side of eq-4, and interchanging side we obtain the companion formula. [ ------------Proof-of-theorem-2: Show that : -> [ from the definition we have [ [ ]; ]; ]; ];

];

Let,
[ ];

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

For new upper limit, when [ [ Put these values in above integral in
[ [ [

]: ];

]; ]; ];

## Fig-92-a): f(t)=cos [t] and fig-92-b): f(t-a).u(t-a)=cos(t-2).u(t-2).where a=2.

We can write this as an intergral from 0 to infinity if we make sure that the integrand is zero for all t from 0 to a . We may easily accomplish this by multiplying the present integrand by the step function u(t-a), thereby obtaining eq-4 and completing the proof:
[ ];

Its fair to say that we are already approaching the stage where we can attack problems fro which the laplace transform method is preferable to the usual

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method, as the examples in the next section will illustrate. In this connection we need the transform of the unit step function u(t-a), [ the definition because. [unit-step function: ]; ]; this formula follows directly from

## TABLE OF VALUE FOR ABOVE FIGURE-92-b : Any value of 1 0 AT

AT

];

Further application follow in the problem set and in the next sections. --------------finished UNIT-STEP-FUNCTION [or HEAVISIDE-FUNCTION ] Define : Unit-Step-Function u(t-a) : [ ]; :

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Fig-90 [at a

0]

fig-91 [at a

0]

The unit-step-function u(t-a) is a basic building block of various function, as well shell see, and it greatly increase the usefulness of laplace transform methods . At present we can use it to write

## in eq-2 in the form f(t-a).u(t-a),

that is ,
[ ];

Figure 92 is the graph of f(t) for t>0, but shifted a unit to the right. ------------Some concept beyond this text book advance engineering mathematics 7th edition are given below .

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JUMP-DISCONTINEOUS:- Any function is discontinuous for at any single point where any one limit is exist . this Unit-step function u(t) is applied on a jump-discontineous functions only . also by shifting algument u(t) the function translate u(t-a) at * a greater then or equal to zero+ . By multiplying by a constant M we can change the height *or Amplitude+ of the unit-step function.-> [ Therefore: ];

---------------Problem set 6.3 Q 9) find laplace transform ? Given : -> [ Solution: Let , [
[

];

];
];

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Let, -> [ [ [ [ ]; ]; ]; ];

So,

[ ];

];

];

]; ];

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];

## Apply laplace transform [

[

];
];

[ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ];

];

## ]; its a formula to memorized or learned .

--------------finished---------------

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Q 21 ) representing the hyperbolic function in treams of exponential function and applying the first shifting theorem? Show that : Given: [ Solution: -----------------Formulas: [ [ ]; ]; ];

[ ];

];

];

[ . .

];

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.. [ -------------finished-here--Q 26 ) represent the given function into Unit-step function and find laplacetransform ? Given : ]; henced proved , its correct answer.

[ ];

[ ];

{:. [

] };

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[ ];

];

.. .
[ ];

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[ [ -----------finished here-----------

Q 33 ) sketch the given function and find laplace transform ? Given: [ Solution: [ Let, [ Let , [ So, [ [ {:. [ Apply laplace [ --finished------Q 41) in each case sketch the given function , [which is assume to be zero outside the given interval and find the laplace transform ? ]; correct Answer }; ]; ]; ]; ]; [ ]; ]; ]; ];

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[

];

];

];}
];

Graph-sketching:

So,
[ [ ]; ];

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## [ [ For V(s) :- When [ t 1 ] : [ For V(s) :- When [ t 2 ] : [ Apply laplace on eq-A

[ [
[

]; ];

];

];

]; ];
];

We take L.H.S [ [ correct answer . --------------finished -----------Q 47) sketch and find inverse laplace transform ? Given : -> [ Solution; [ [ [ ]; ]; ]; correct-Answer . ]; ]; +; answer its the

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---------finished------Q 51) [Initial-Value-problem(I.V.P)] , use laplace and solve ? Given:-> [ Initial-condition [I.V.P]: [ Solution: [ Apply laplace [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ]; its correct answer ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ];

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## [6.4 ] [ start here ]

FURTHER-APPLICATIONS, DIRACS-DELTA-FUNCTION [ ] :Introduction: In this section we consider some further applications and then introduce Diracs-delta-Function , which greatly increase the usefulness of Laplace-transform in connection with Impulsiveinputs. * note : I do not cover any further example on 6.4 over the application but this example cover by the question 1 below on 6.4 ]. SHORT-IMPULSES.DIRACS-DELTA-FUNCTION [ + :] };

{DIRACS-DELTA-FUNCTION [

]=UNIT-IMPULSE-FUNCTION [

Phenomena of an impulsive nature, such as the action of very large force [or voltage ] over very short intervals of time , are of great practical-interest, since they arise in various applications. This situation occurs for instance, when a tennis ball is hit , e.t.c and so on . Our present goal is to show how to solve problems involving short impulses by laplacetransforms. In mechanics, the impulse of a force f(t) over a time interval, say , [ ] is defined to be the integral of f(t) from a to *a+k+. Of particular practical-interest is the case of a very short k * and its limit k0 (k approaches to zero ) ], that is , the impulse of a force acting only for an instant . To handle the case, we consider the function that is : [ Fig # 102 [ the function in [Eq-1] :];

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## Where, Ik is the rectangular area of the Impulse fk (t) .

[ ]; its the area of

the Impulse [or rectangular]; We can represent in terms of two unit-step functions * section # 6.3] namely,
[ ];

From eq-5 in section# 6.3 , we get laplace-transform. [ [ [ . . .. [ ]; The limit of as [k0], is denoted by its called the Diracdelta-function. The quotient in [Eq-3] has the limit equals to one as [ k0], as follows by lH pitals-rule. Differentiate the numerator and denominator w.r.t k. [ ]; ]; ]; ];

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

We note that is not a function in the ordinary sense as used in Calculus, but a so-called Generalized-function because *Eq-1] and [Eq-2] with [k0] {k --approaches to-> 0 } imply. [ a . And [ ]; ]; infinitely long magnitude of impulse at point

Graph:

## is a very short impulse with

its an ordinary function which is every where zero  except at a single-point [ t=a ] on above graph , must have the integral is zero  .

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## Graph-The Following function: 1. 2. 3. So, . . .

Nevertheless, in impulse problems its convenient to operate on as though it were an ordinary-function. -----------------Problem-set 6.4 : Q 1 ) Find the current in the RC-series-circuit, with Given: R=100 , Ohms. C=0.1 F, farad. v(t)=100 volts if [ 1<t<2 ] and zero  otherwise. Required :-> i(t)=? ; Solution:

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];

[ ];

[
[

]; ]; ];
];
];

## applying laplace transform on both side of eq-B , so then ,

[ [ [ ]; ]; ];

[ ----------Formulas: [

];

];

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

------------[ [ . .. [ [ Let, [ [ {:. [ [ So, For f(t-1) :[ [ [ For f(t-2) :[ So, ]; ]; ]; ]; }; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ];

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

[ [ [ [ [ unit step function . Graph this answer i(t) if possible. ---------------finished here--------6.4 , Q 7 ) Find y(t)=? Given: [ I.V.P ; [ Solution: [ By applying laplace transform. [ . [ ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; Answer , we can represented i(t) in terms of ];

.. [ [ [ ]; ]; ];

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

[ --------I.V.P ; [ --------[ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ -----------finished-here-----------------Ex # 6.4 finished here-----------]; ]; ]; ]; correct Answer. ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ];

## [6.5] start here

DIFFERENTIATION-AND-INTEGRATION-OF-TRANSFORMS:DIFFERENTIATION-OF-TRANSFORMS:It can be shown that if f(t) satisfies the conditions of existence theorem in section No 6.1, Then the derivative of its transform with respect to s can be obtained by differentiating under the integral sign wwith respect to s, thus , [ Apply derivative w.r.t s. [
[ . .

];

];
];

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

[ ];

Consequently, if F(s)= [

,then, ];

--------Some concept beyond this text book->eq-1, can also re-write in this way as follows,
[ {:. -> n = any real-No }; ];

----------Differentiation of transform of a function corresponds to multiplication of function by -t . Equivalently, [ ]; This property enables us to get new transforms from given ones, as we show next. Serial No for formulas [Eq-2]-> [eq-3]-> [eq-4]-> [eq-5]-> [eq-B]beyond this book->

## Learn the above all 6 or 7 formulas: ---------------- INTEGRATION-OF-TRANSFORMS:-

Similarly, if f(t) satisfies the conditions of the existence theorem in sec # 6.1, and limit of f(t)/t , as t approaches to zero  from the right, exists, then, [ ];

In this manner, integration of transform F( ) of a function f(t) corresponds to the division of f(t) by t . Equivalently

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

[ [ --------------Derivations [ un-important]: In fact: [ ]; ]; ];

And it can be shown that under the above assumptions we may reverse the order of integration, that is [ [ {:. [ [ Hence proved. -----------------------}; ]; ]; ]; ];

## Problem set 6.5

Q 19 ) find f(t) by using eq-6 or eq-1, ? Given: [ Solution: [ Applying log properties. [ ]; ]; ];

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

--------------------Re-view the Formulas :
[ ];

[ [

]; ];

[
[

];
];

];

--------------------So, FOR F (s) :[ Apply derivatives w.r.t s. [ [ [ [ [ We required f(t). [ For f(t) :]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ];

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

[ [ [ {:. [ So, let, [ So, [ So, formula: [ So, [ {:. [ [ [ ] }; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ] }; ];

[ [ [ [ [ ]; ]; ];

];

];

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

[ [ [ ]; ]; ];

By placing the value of [eq-GG] in [Eq-G] we get, [ ]; }; [ [ ]; +; its the correct answer .

## -----finished here------[ 6.5 ] Q 5) find F(s)=? Given -> [ Solution: Let, [ [

[ n=1 ];

];

]; ];

Formula:
[ So, ];

[ For F(s) :[ [ ]; ];

];

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[ Formula:
[ [ ]; ];

];

{:. [
[

], n=1 };
];

];

];

## [ 6.6 ] start here

CONVOLUTION. INTEGRAL-EQUATIONS :-

INTRODUCTION: Another important general-property of Laplace-transform has to do with is products of transforms. It often happens that we are given two transforms F(s) and G(s) whose inverses f(t) and g(t) we know, and we would like to calculate the inverse of the product H(s)=F(s).G(s) , from those known inverses f(t) and g(t) . This inverse h(t) is written (f*g)(t), which is a standard-notation, and is called the Convolution of f(t) and g(t). How can we find h(t) from f(t) and g(t) ? this is stated in the following theorem. Since the situation and task just described arise quite often in applications, this theorem is of considerable practical-importance.

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

*Convolution of f(t) and g(t) = h(t) = (f*g)(t)+; its a standard-Notations. THEOREM # 1 :- [CONVOLUTION-THEOREM]:-

Let f(t) and g(t) satisfy the hypothesis of existence-theorem [sec # 6.1 ], then the product of their transforms F(s)= , and G(s)= is the transform H(s)= , of the convolution h(t) of f(t) and g(t) , written [ ] and defined by [Eq-1] below. [ Given-> f(t),g(t),G(s)= So, -> [ [ , F(s)= ]; = convolution of f(t) and g(t) = ; ]; PROOF-OF-THEOREM # 1 :- by the definition of G(s) and the second[2nd ] shifting theorem, for each fixed * tau + * ] we have , ];

{:. From 6.3, 2nd shifting theorem [eq-4], -> [ So, [ [ [ [ ]; {:. , ]; ]; ]; }; ]; ];

[

]; ];
];

Where {:.

};

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

Here we integrate over t from * ] to , and then over from 0 to ; this corresponds to the colored wedgeshaped-region extending to infinity in the -plane, shown in fig-105, Fig # 105 :- Region of integration in the -plane, in the proof of theorem-1,

## Shaded region is the region of Integrations. Thus,

[ Interchanging the integral we get; [ [ {:. This complete the proof . And }; ]; ]; ];

Our assumptions on f(t) and g(t) are such that the order of integration can be reversed.

[
{:.

## ]; = its the standard notation for convolution -;

-----------finished--------

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

1. 2. 3. 4. PROPERTIES-OF-CONVOLUTION :f*g=g*f ; -> [ Commutative-Law ]; f*(g1+g2 )=f*g1+f*g2 ; -> [ distributive-Law ]; (f*g)*v = f*(g*v); -> [ Associative-Law]; f*0 = 0*f = 0; but [ f*1 f ] in general, as Ex # 2 shows Another un-usal property is that, [(f*f)(t) 0 ] may not hold, as we can see from Ex # 1, very useful applications of convolution occur in a natural-way in the solution of differential-equations, as we shall now discuss. DIFFERENTIAL-EQUATIONS:-

From sec # 6.2 we re-call that the subsidiary-equation of the differential-equation [i-e] [ Has the solution.
[ ];

];

Where, [ [ ]; ];

## Hence for solution y(t) of [ EQ-2], satisfying the initial condition, [

[ [ [ [ [ [ [ ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ];

];
];

Convolution-Theorem:
{:.[

## ]}; +; its the solution of Eq-2 ;

[
---------------finished----------------

INTEGRAL-EQUATIONS : Convolution also helps in solving certain integral-equations, that is equations in which the unknown function y(t) appears under the integral [ and perhaps also outside of it].

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

This concerns only very special ones [those whose integral is of the form of a convolution], so, that it suffices to consider a typical example and a handful of problems, But we do this because integral-equations are practically important and often difficult to solve. Ex # 5 [ INTEGRAL-EQUATION ]:Solve the integral-equation Given : -> [ Solution:1st Step : [ Equation in terms of convolution] We see that the given equation can be written [ ]; ];

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

[ [ {:. ]; +; its a correct answer , but check your self. };

-------------finished-here-----------

## Problem set 6.6

Q 3 ) find convolution=? Given-> [ Solution: Formula:
[ ];

];

[ Let,

];

## By placing the above value in eq-D, so,

[ [ [ [ [ [ [ -----------finished here-------------]; answer . ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ];

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

6.6 Q 17 ) f(t)=? By using convolution Theorem? Given-> [ Solution: [ [ [ [ ----------]; ]; ]; ]; ];

Formula:
[ ];

[
-------------------Apply convolution [ [ ]; ];

];

--[ [ [ [ [ [ ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ];

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

[
[ [

];
]; ];

.. simple integrations used here .. [ --------------finished here-----------[ 6.6 ] Q 31) using convolution theorem on I.V.P , solve: Given-> [ I.V.P : [ Solution: [ Apply laplace transform [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; Answer

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

[ [ [ [ [ Apply convolution theorem on eq-B : [ [ ----------------]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ];

Formula:
[ ];

[
-----------[

];

];

[ {:. [
[ [ [ [ .. ]; ]; ];

]; }; ];
];

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## Note: I some time mistakely type capital S instead of small s so be care-full.

X
MUHAMMAD-SIKANDAR-KHAN-LODHI OWNER OF MY PERSONAL NOTES

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