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Chem 251 TUT + SOLUTIONS
AUGUST 27 TH 2010
2.4(A)2.4(A)2.4(A)2.4(A)
A sample consisting of 1.00 mol of perfect gas atoms, for which C
=
V,m
3/2R, initially at p 1 = 1.00 atm and T 1 = 300 K, is heated reversibly to 400
K at constant volume. Calculate the final pressure, ∆U, q, and w.
Solution:
ThisThisThisThis isisisis aaaa perfectperfectperfectperfect gas,gas,gas,gas, thusthusthusthus cancancancan useuseuseuse PPPP 1111 VVVV 1111 /T/T/T/T 1111 ==== PPPP 2222 VVVV 2222 /T/T/T/T 2222
SinceSinceSinceSince thisthisthisthis isisisis atatatat constantconstantconstantconstant volume;volume;volume;volume; equationequationequationequation simplifiessimplifiessimplifiessimplifies toto:toto::: PPPP 1111 /T/T/T/T 1111 ==== PPPP 2222 /T/T/T/T 2222
PPPP 2222 ==== (1.00(1.00(1.00(1.00 //// 300)300)300)300) xxxx 400400400400 ==== 1.333333…1.333333…1.333333…1.333333… atmatmatmatm
WWWW ==== 0000 becausebecausebecausebecause theretheretherethere isisisis nononono changechangechangechange inininin volumevolumevolumevolume
∆∆U∆∆UUU ==== qqqq ++++ w;w;w;w; butbutbutbut wwww ==== 0,0,0,0, thusthusthusthus ∆U∆U∆U∆U ==== qqqq
CCCC V,mV,mV,mV,m ==== 3/2R3/2R3/2R3/2R ==== (3/2)(3/2)(3/2)(3/2) **** 8.314478.314478.314478.31447 ==== 12.47170512.47170512.47170512.471705 JJJJ KKKK --1--111 molmolmolmol --1--111
CvCvCvCv ==== 12.47170512.47170512.47170512.471705 JJJJ KKKK --1--111 molmolmolmol --1--111 xxxx 1111 molmolmolmol (from(from(from(from thethethethe question;question;question;question; 1111 molmolmolmol ofofofof perfect)perfect)perfect)perfect)
qqqq vvvv ==== CCCC vvvv ∆∆∆∆TTTT ==== 12.47170512.47170512.47170512.471705 JJJJ KKKK --1--111 xxxx (400(400(400(400 –––– 300)300)300)300) ==== 1247.17051247.17051247.17051247.1705 JJJJ

8/29/2010

1.5
A constant Volume perfect gas thermometer indicates a pressure of 6.69 kPa at the triple point
temperature of water (273.16 K). (a) what change of pressure indicates a change of 1.00 K at this
temperature? (b) What pressure indicates a temperature of 100.00C? (C) what change of pressure
indicates a change of 1.00 K at the latter temperature
SolutionsSolutionsSolutionsSolutions
a)a)a)a)
ThisThisThisThis isisisis aaaa perfectperfectperfectperfect gas,gas,gas,gas, thusthusthusthus cancancancan useuseuseuse PPPP 1111 VVVV 1111 /T/T/T/T 1111 ==== PPPP 2222 VVVV 2222 /T/T/T/T 2222
SinceSinceSinceSince thisthisthisthis isisisis atatatat constantconstantconstantconstant volume;volume;volume;volume; equationequationequationequation simplifiesimplifiesimplifiesimplifiessss to:to:to:to: PPPP 1111 /T/T/T/T 1111 ==== PPPP 2222 /T/T/T/T 2222
TTTT 2222 ==== thethethethe changechangechangechange ++++ originaloriginaloriginaloriginal temperaturetemperaturetemperaturetemperature ==== 1.001.001.001.00 kkkk ++++ 273.273.273.273.16161616 ==== 274.16274.16274.16274.16 kkkk
PPPP 2222 ==== (6.69(6.69(6.69(6.69kPakPakPakPa //// 273.16273.16273.16273.16 k)k)k)k) xxxx 274.16274.16274.16274.16kkkk ==== 6.71449…6.71449…6.71449…6.71449…kPakPakPakPa
ChangeChangeChangeChange inininin PressurePressurePressurePressure ==== 6.71449…6.71449…6.71449…6.71449…---- 6.696.696.696.69 ==== 0.0244911…0.0244911…0.0244911…0.0244911…
b)b)b)b)
PerfectPerfectPerfectPerfect gas,gas,gas,gas, thereforethereforethereforetherefore cancancancan useuseuseuse samesamesamesame equationequationequationequationfromfromfromfrom ppppartartartart (a);(a);(a);(a); PPPP 2222 ==== (6.69(6.69(6.69(6.69kPakPakPakPa //// 273.16273.16273.16273.16 k)k)k)k) xxxx 373.16373.16373.16373.16kkkk
==== 9.139114072…9.139114072…9.139114072…9.139114072… kPakPakPakPa
c)c)c)c)
SameSameSameSame stepsstepsstepssteps asasasas inininin partpartpartpart (a)(a)(a)(a)
PPPP 2222 ==== (9.14(9.14(9.14(9.14kPakPakPakPa //// 373.16373.16373.16373.16k)k)k)k) xxxx 374.16374.16374.16374.16kkkk ==== 9.1644935…9.1644935…9.1644935…9.1644935… kPakPakPakPa
ChangeChangeChangeChange inininin pressurepressurepressurepressure ==== 9.164493…9.164493…9.164493…9.164493…---- 9.149.149.149.14 ==== 0.024493…0.024493…0.024493…0.024493…kPakPakPakPa
2.152.152.152.15
SilyleneSilyleneSilyleneSilylene (SiH(SiH(SiH(SiH 2222 )))) isisisis aaaa keykeykeykey intermediateintermediateintermediateintermediate inininin thethethethe thermalthermalthermalthermal decompositiodecompositiodecompositiodecompositionnnn ofofofof
silicon hydrides such as silane (SiH 4 ) and disilane (Si 2 H 6 ). Moffat et al.
(H.K. Moffat, K.F. Jensen, and R.W. Carr, J. Phys. Chem. 95,95,95,95, 145145145145 (1991))(1991))(1991))(1991))
reportreportreportreport
H O (SiH 2 ) = +274 kJ mol −1 . If ∆
(SiH 4 ) = +34.3 kJ mol −1 and
∆ f
f H O
∆ f H O (Si 2 H 6 ) = +80.3 kJ mol −1 (CRC Handbook (2004)), compute the
standard enthalpies of the following reactions:
(a) SiH 4(g) →SiH 2(g) + H 2(g)
(b) Si 2 H 6(g) →SiH 2(g) + SiH 4(g)
Solutions:Solutions:Solutions:Solutions:
UseUseUseUse equationequationequationequation below,below,below,below, fromfromfromfrom thethethethe slidesslidesslidesslides (see(see(see(see equationequationequationequation 2.2.2.2.34343434 onononon p55p55p55p55 inininin youryouryouryour
texttexttexttext book);book);book);book);
(a)(a)(a)(a)
(b)(b)(b)(b)
[(+274[(+274[(+274[(+274 xxxx 1)1)1)1) ++++ ((0((000 x1x1x1x1 )])])])] –––– [[34.3[[34.334.334.3 xxxx 1]1]1]1] ==== 239.7239.7239.7239.7 kJkJkJkJ molmolmolmol −1−1−1−1
[(+274[(+274[(+274[(+274 xxxx 1)1)1)1) ++++ (34.3(34.3(34.3(34.3 xxxx 1)]1)]1)]1)] –––– [+80.3[+80.3[+80.3[+80.3 xxxx 1]1]1]1] ==== 228228228228 kJkJkJkJ molmolmolmol −1−1−1−1
2.18(B)2.18(B)2.18(B)2.18(B)
FromFromFromFrom thethethethe followingfollowingfollowingfollowing data,data,data,data, determinedeterminedeterminedetermine ∆∆∆∆ ffff HHHH oooo forforforfor
diboranediborane,diboranediborane,,, BBBB 2222 HHHH 6(g)6(g)6(g)6(g) ,,,, atatatat 298 K:
(1)
(2)
(3)
B 2 H 6(g) + 3O 2(g) →B 2 O 3(s) + 3H 2 O (g) ∆ r H O = −1941 kJ mol −1
2B (s) + 3/2O 2(g) →B 2 O 3(s) ∆ r H O = −2368 kJ mol −1
H 2(g) + 1/2O 2(g) →H 2 O (g) ∆ r H O = −241.8 kJ mol −1
Solution:
B 2 O 3(s) + 3H 2 O (g) →B 2 H 6(g) + 3O 2(g) ∆ r H O = +1941 kJ mol −1
2B (s) + 3/2O 2(g) →B 2 O 3(s) ∆ r H O = −2368 kJ mol −1
3H 2(g) + 3/2O 2(g) →3H 2 O (g) ∆ r H O = (3 x−241.8 kJ mol −1 )
+
3H 2(g) + 2B (s) → B 2 H 6(g) = −1152.4 kJ mol −1

8/29/2010