Filters
with Wael Fathelbab
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
10.2 Singly and Doubly Terminated Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508
10.3 The Lowpass Filter Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
10.4 The MaximallyFlat (Butterworth) Lowpass Approximation . . . . 514
10.5 The Chebyshev Lowpass Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518
10.6 Element Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
10.7 Butterworth and Chebyshev Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
10.8 Impedance and Admittance Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
10.9 Filter Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
10.10 Cascaded Line Realization of Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550
10.11 Richards Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
10.12 Coupled Line Congurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
10.13 Inverter Network Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
10.14 Combline Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
10.15 Parallel Coupled Line Filters in an Inhomogeneous Medium . . 580
10.16 Design of a Bandstop Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
10.17 Alternative Bandpass Filter Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
10.18 Active Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586
10.19 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
10.20 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
506 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
10.1 Introduction
Filters are the most fundamental of signal processing circuits using energy
storage elements such as capacitors, inductors, and transmission lines
to obtain frequencydependent characteristics. Some of the important
objectives of a lter are (1) controlling noise by not allowing outofband
noise to propagate in a circuit; (2) keeping signals outside the transmit band,
especially harmonics, from being transmitted; (3) presenting only signals in
a specied band to active receive circuitry; and (4) keeping a large transmit
signal from the receive circuitry. At RF, a lter can consist solely of lumped
elements, solely of distributed elements, or comprise a mix of lumped
and distributed elements. The distributed realizations can be transmission
linebased implementations of the components of lumpedelement lter
prototypes or, preferably, make use of particular frequency characteristics
found with certain distributed structures. For example, coupled lines have
particular frequency selective characteristics that can be exploited. Loss
in lumped elements, particularly above a few gigahertz, means that the
performance of distributed lters nearly always exceeds that of lumped
element lters. However, since the basic component of a distributed lter is
a onequarter wavelength long transmission line, distributed lters can be
prohibitively large at a few gigahertz and lower in frequency.
Only a few basic types of responses are required of most RF lters as
follows:
(a) Lowpass, providing maximum power transfer, or passing, at frequen
cies below what is called the corner frequency, f
c
. Above f
c
, transmis
sion is blocked. See Figure 101(a).
(b) Highpass, passing signals at frequencies above f
c
. Below f
c
,
transmission is blocked. See Figure 101(b).
(c) Bandpass, passing signals at frequencies between lower and upper
corner frequencies and blocking transmission outside the band. (The
frequency span between the lower and upper corner frequencies
denes the passband.) This is the most common type of RF lter. See
Figure 101(c).
(d) Bandstop (or notch), which blocks signals between lower and upper
corner frequencies. See Figure 101(d).
(e) Allpass, which equalizes a signal by adjusting the phase generally to
correct for phase distortion in broadband circuits. See Figure 101(e).
The above list is not comprehensive, as actual operating conditions may
mandate specic frequency proles. For example, IEEE 802.11a (WiFi)
WLAN systems operating at 2.45 GHz are susceptible to potentially large
signals being transmitted from nearby cellular phones operating in the
FILTERS 507
Lowpass, LPF Highpass, HPF
f
T f ( )
f
( ) T f
(a) (b)
Bandpass, BPF Bandstop, BSF
f
( ) T f
f
( ) T f
(c) (d)
Allpass
( ) T f
f
( ) T f
f
(e)
Figure 101 Ideal lter responses: (a) lowpass network response; (b) highpass
network response; (c) bandpass network response; (d) bandstop network response;
and (e) allpass network response.
1700 to 2300 MHz range. Thus a frontend lter for a 2.45 GHz system
must ensure very high levels of attenuation over the 1700 to 2300 MHz
range while also having low insertion loss inband at 2.45 GHz. Thus, for a
given complexity, the optimumsolution probably will have an asymmetrical
frequency response with high rejection below the passband obtained by
accepting lower rejection on the other side of the passband.
In the 1960s an approach to RF lter design and synthesis was developed
and this is still followed. The approach is to translate the response of the
RF lter (often a bandpass lter) from that of a lowpass lter. A lter with
the desired lowpass response is then synthesized using lumped elements
and the resulting lter is called a lowpass prototype. The lowpass lter is
then transformed so that the new lter has the desired response, such as
highpass or bandpass. In the case of a bandpass lter, each inductor and
capacitor of the lowpass prototype becomes a resonator that is coupled to
another resonator. In distributed form, this basic resonator is a onequarter
wavelength long transmission line.
508 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
(s)
NETWORK
(s)
(s) (s)
LOSSLESS
PASSIVE
2
V
R
S
R
L
V
g
1
I I
2
Z
in,1
1
V
Z
in,2
(a)
PASSIVE
NETWORK
(s)
(s)
(s) (s)
LOSSLESS
V
2 V
1
Z
g
V
2
I I
in,1
1
L
Z
in,2
R
(b)
Figure 102 Terminated networks: (a) a doubly terminated network; and (b) a singly terminated network.
Filter synthesis is the origin of a systematic approach to realizing circuits
with desired frequency characteristics. A lter can also be thought of as
a hardware implementation of a differential equation producing a specic
impulse, step, or frequency response. It is not surprising that a lter can be
described this way, as the lumped reactive elements, L and C, describe rst
order differential equations and their interconnection describes higherorder
differential equations.
The synthesis of a lter response begins by identifying the desired
differential equation response. The differential equations are specied using
the Laplace variable, s, so that in the frequency domain (with s = j) an
nthorder differential equation becomes annthorder polynomial expression
in s. If possible, and this is usually the case, a lowpass version of a lter
can be developed. The conversion to the nal lter shape, say a bandpass
response, proceeds mathematically through a number of stages. Each stage
has a circuit form and each stage is called a lter prototype.
The other aspect of lter design is the identication of particular
structures that inherently have the desired frequencyshaping attributes.
Filter design is both science and art matching synthesis with instinctive
knowledge of physical and circuit structures. However, once a suitable lter
prototype has been identied it can be optimized using optimization tools
incorporated in circuit analysis packages.
Since the beginnings of circuit synthesis, particularly since the 1950s,
it has become common to present circuit concepts using examples, very
often because the steps in realizing a lter may be too difcult to specify
algorithmically and there are many steps which require intuition. This
procedure is followed here.
10.2 Singly and Doubly Terminated Networks
Filters are generally twoport networks and they provide maximum power
transfer from a load to a source over a specied frequency range while
rejecting the transmission of signals over other ranges. Two possible lter
networks are shown in Figure 102. The network in Figure 102(a) is known
as a doubly terminated network, as both ports are resistively terminated.
The network in Figure 102(b) is called a singly terminated network, as only
FILTERS 509
one port is terminated in a resistor. Most synthesis of singly terminated
lter networks requires an analogous procedure to that presented here. It
is just that the doubly terminated network is much closer to the type of
network required at RF where loads and source impedances are nite. A
singly terminated network is applicable in some RFIC applications where
very little RF power is involved and often when feedback is used. In such
cases the output of an RFIC amplier can approximate an ideal voltage
source, as the Thevenin equivalent source impedance is negligible.
10.2.1 Doubly Terminated Networks
The established synthesis procedure for doubly terminated lter networks
focuses on realizing the input reection coefcient, which is related to the
transmission coefcient by the characteristic function. The input reection
coefcient of the doubly terminated network (Figure 102(a)) is
1
(s) =
Z
in,1
(s) R
S
Z
in,1
(s) +R
S
, (10.1)
where the reference impedance is the source resistance, R
S
, and s is the
Laplace variable, so the ideal response in the passband is when the reection
coefcient is approximately zero. There are several other parameters used
with lters and these will be introduced now. The Transducer Power Ratio
(TPR) is dened as
TPR =
Maximum power available from the source
Power absorbed by the load
=
1
2
(V
g
(s)/2)
2
/R
S
1
2
V
2
2
(s)/R
L
=
1
2
_
R
L
R
S
V
g
(s)
V
2
(s)
2
. (10.2)
The transmission coefcient, T(s), of the network is
T(s) =
1
_
TPR(s)
= 2
_
R
S
R
L
V
2
(s)
V
g
(s)
, (10.3)
so that the insertion loss (IL) (or transducer function) is:
IL(s) = TPR(s) = 1/T(s)
2
. (10.4)
Note that this development assumes that the lter is lossless. The
next step in development of the synthesis procedure is introduction of
the characteristic function, dened as the ratio of the reection and
transmission coefcients:
K (s) =
1
(s)
T (s)
=
N (s)
D(s)
, (10.5)
510 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
where N is the numerator function and D is the denominator function.
Ideally the lter network is lossless and so, from the principle of energy
conservation, the sum of the magnitudes squared of the transmission and
reection coefcients must be unity:
T (s)
2
+
1
(s)
2
= 1 (10.6)
or
T(s)
2
= 1 
1
(s)
2
. (10.7)
Dividing both sides of Equation (10.7) by T(s)
2
results in
1 =
1
T (s)
2

1
(s)
2
T (s)
2
, (10.8)
or
1 = IL(s)
2
K (s)
2
. (10.9)
Rearranging Equation (10.9) leads to
IL(s)
2
= 1 +K (s)
2
(10.10)
and so
T(s)
2
=
1
1 +K (s)
2
(10.11)

1
(s)
2
=
K(s)
2
1 +K(s)
2
. (10.12)
It is seen that both the reection and transmission coefcients are governed
by the characteristic function of the twoport network. A milestone has
been reached. In an RF lter, the frequencydependent insertion loss or
transmission coefcient is of most importance, as these are directly related
to power ow. Equation (10.11) shows that this can be expressed in terms
of another function, K(s), which, from Equation (10.5), can be expressed as
the ratio of N(s) and D(s). For lumpedelement circuits, N(s) and D(s) are
polynomials. Sometimes it is better to focus design effort on realizing
1
(s),
but the quantities are interrelated.
10.2.2 Lowpass Filter Response
As an example of the relationship of the various lter responses consider
the typical lowpass lter responses shown in Figure 103. This lter has
a lowpass response with a corner frequency expressed in radians as
c
=
1 rad/s. Ideally T(s) for s j (note s = j) would be one, and for s > j,
T(s) would be zero. It is not possible to realize such an ideal response, and
the response shown in Figure 103(a) is typical of what can be achieved.
FILTERS 511
2 1.5 0
1
1
0.8
0.5
0
3.5 3 2.5
0.2
0.6
0.4
(rad/s)

(
)

T
1.000
0.999
0.998
0.997
0.996
0.995

(
)

T
2
(a) (d)
3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5
1
1
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.2
0
0
(rad/s)
2

G
(
)

(b) (e)
(c) (f)
Figure 103 An example of a lowpass lter in terms of various responses: (a) transmission coefcient; (b)
reection coefcient response; and (c) characteristic function response. Detailed responses are shown in
(d), (e), and (f), respectively.
512 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
( )
( )
( )
( )
s X
t y
s Y
t x
FILTER
INPUT OUTPUT
Figure 104 Generic lter.
With the lter being lossless, the reection coefcient is as shown in Figure
103(b), with the characteristic function K(s) shown in Figure 103(c). If
K(s)
2
is expressed as the ratio of two polynomials (i.e, as N(s)/D(s)), then
it can be seen from Figures 103(e) and 103(f) that the zeros of the reection
coefcient, 
1
(s)
2
, are also the zeros of N(s). Also, it is observed that the
zeros of the transmission coefcient are also the zeros of D(s), as shown in
Figures 103(a) and 103(c).
The rst objective in lumpedelement lter design is development of the
transfer function of the network in the frequency domain or, equivalently
for the purposes here, the s domain.
1
The inputoutput transfer function of
the generic lter in Figure 104 is
T(s) = Y (s)/X(s) (10.13)
and the design procedure is to match this response to a response dened by
the ratio of polynomials:
T(s) =
N(s)
D(s)
=
a
m
s
m
+a
m1
s
m1
+ +a
1
s +a
0
s
n
+b
n1
s
n1
+ +b
1
s +b
0
. (10.14)
Here N stands for numerator and Dfor denominator and are not the same as
those in Equation (10.5) (where they also were just labels for numerator and
denominator). Both N(s) and D(s) are polynomials in the Laplace variable,
s. The lter response using a polezero description can be synthesized so
the design process begins by rewriting Equation (10.14) explicitly in terms
of zeros, z
m
, and poles, p
n
:
T(s) =
N(s)
D(s)
=
a
m
(s +z
1
)(s +z
2
) (s +z
m1
)(s +z
m
)
(s +p
1
)(s +p
2
) (s +p
n1
)(s +p
n
)
. (10.15)
Since only the frequency response is of interest, s = j, where , the angular
frequency, is measured in radians per second, thus simplifying the analysis
for sinusoidal signals. However, the development here is general and s can
be complex, which would correspond to an exotic lter response which is of
no interest here.
1
Care is being taken in the use of terminology as s can be complex with some lter types, but
these lters are generally only realized using digital signal processing.
FILTERS 513
1
(rad/s)
0
1
2
T( )
(a)
0
1
/
(rad/s)
T( )
1
2
3
2
(b)
Figure 105 Lowpass lter response: (a) ideal brickwall response; and (b) response template for a
realizable lter.
The poles and zeroes can be complex numbers and can be plotted on the
complex s plane. Conditions imposed by realizable circuits require that D(s)
be a Hurwitz polynomial which ensures that its poles are located in the left
half plane. N(s) determines the location of the transmission zeros of the
lter, and the order of N(s) cannot be more than the order of D(s). That is,
n m so that the lter has nite or zero response at innite frequency.
Two strategies can be employed in deriving the lter response. The rst is
to derive the polynomials N(s) and D(s) in Equation (10.14). This seems
like an openended problem, but it turns out that in normal situations
there are only a few types of useful responses which are described by
a few polynomials, including Butterworth, Bessel, Chebyshev, and Cauer
polynomials.
10.3 The Lowpass Filter Prototype
Most lter design is based on the synthesis of a lowpass lter equivalent
called a lowpass prototype. Transformations are then used to correct for
the actual source and load impedances, frequency range, and the desired
lter type, such as highpass or bandpass. An ideal lowpass response is
shown in Figure 105(a), which shows a transmission coefcient of 1 up to
a normalized frequency of 1 rad/sec. This type of response denes what is
called a brickwall lter, which unfortunately cannot be physically realized.
Instead, the response is approximated and specied in terms of a response
template (see Figure 105(b)).
The template species a passband response that is between
1
and
2
at
frequencies below the corner radian frequency ( = 1), and below
3
above
a radian frequency
1
) 0,
3
0, (
1) 0. (10.16)
514 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
Several polynomials have particularly interesting characteristics that
match the requirements of the response template. At rst it may seem
surprising that polynomial functions could yield close to ideal lter
responses. However, as will be seen, there is something special about these
polynomials: they are natural solutions to extreme conditions. For example,
the nthorder Butterworth polynomial has the special property that the rst
n derivatives at s = 0 are zero. The other polynomials have similar extreme
properties, and lters that are synthesized from expressions incorporating
them also have extreme properties. As well as the maximally at property
resulting from Butterworth polynomials, lter responses obtained using
Chebyshev polynomials have the steepest skirts (or fastest transitions from
the frequency region where signals are passed to the region where they are
blocked). Usually it is one of these extreme cases that is most desirable.
A streamlining of the lter synthesis procedure is obtained by rst
focusing on the development of normalized lowpass lters having a 1
rad/sec corner frequency and 1 reference impedance. Reasonably simple
transformations transform a lowpass lter prototype into another lter
having the response desired. These transformations, as will be seen, give
rise to symmetrical responses.
10.4 The Maximally Flat (Butterworth) Lowpass
Approximation
Butterworth lters have a maximally at response (Figure 106) which in the
time domain corresponds to a critically damped system. Butterworth lters
have the transfer function
T(s) =
N(s)
D(s)
=
k
s
n
+b
n1
s
n1
+ +b
1
s +b
0
. (10.17)
This is an allpole response. The characteristic polynomial of the
Butterworth lter is
K(s)
2
=
s
2n
=
2n
, (10.18)
since s = j and where n is the order of the function. Thus the transmission
coefcient is
T(s)
2
=
1
1 +K (s)
2
=
1
1 +s
2n

=
1
1 +
2n
, (10.19)
which is often written as
T(s)
2
=
1
1 +K (s)
2
=
1
B
n
(s)B
n
(s)
. (10.20)
FILTERS 515
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
2 1.5 1 0.5 0
n = 4
n = 3
n = 2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

(
)

s
2

(
)

T
s
2
(rad/s) ( ) s j =
Figure 106 Maximally at, or Butterworth, lowpass lter approximation for
various orders, n, of the lter.
In the lter community, B
n
(s) is called the Butterworth polynomial and has
the general form
B
n
(s) =
n/2
k=1
_
s
2
2s cos
_
2k +n 1
2n
_
+ 1
_
for n even (10.21)
B
n
(s) = (s + 1)
(n1)/2
k=1
_
s
2
2s cos
_
2k +n 1
2n
_
+ 1
_
for n odd.
(10.22)
In factorized form the B
n
(s) polynomial is given in Table 101. Further
factorization of the secondorder factors results in complex conjugate roots,
so they are generally left in the form shown.
Insight is gained by examining the characteristic polynomial for a real
radian frequency, (where s = j), at the following frequency points:
at = 0 T (0)
2
=
1
1 + 0
= 1 (10.23)
at = 1 T (1)
2
=
1
1 + 1
=
1
2
. (10.24)
Thus the transmission response of the lter is at half power at the
corner frequency = 1. Another observation is that the transmission
516 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
Table 101 Factors of the Bn(s) polynomial.
n Factors of Bn(s)
1 (s + 1)
2 (s
2
+ 1.4142s + 1)
3 (s + 1)(s
2
+s + 1)
4 (s
2
+ 0.7654s + 1)(s
2
+ 1.8478s + 1)
5 (s + 1)(s
2
+ 0.6180s + 1)(s
2
+ 1.6180s + 1)
6 (s
2
+ 0.5176s + 1)(s
2
+ 1.4142s + 1)(s
2
+ 1.9319s + 1)
7 (s + 1)(s
2
+ 0.4450s + 1)(s
2
+ 1.2470s + 1)(s
2
+ 1.8019s + 1)
8 (s
2
+ 0.3902 + 1)(s
2
+ 1.1111s + 1)(s
2
+ 1.6629s + 1)(s
2
+ 1.9616s + 1)
coefcient at = 0 and = 1 are independent of the degree of the
characteristic polynomial. This is shown in Figure 106, where the responses
of Butterworth lters are plotted for three different orders.
10.4.1 Construction of the Transfer Function
Often the characteristic function, K, is given in the variable , and thus for
synthesis purposes the response must be transformed back to the s domain.
As an example, consider the maximally at function of third order with a
characteristic polynomial equal to
3
(from Equation (10.19)):
K() =
3
and T ()
2
=
1
1 +
6
. (10.25)
Note that the rst six derivatives of K(s)
2
with respect to s are zero at
s = 0. So, from Equation (10.7),

1
()
2
= 1
1
1 +
6
=
6
1 +
6
. (10.26)
At real frequencies (or frequencies lying on the imaginary axis in the s plane)
s = j, (10.27)
and so to transform from to s,
= s/j = js (10.28)
is used. Thus for the example under consideration, the reection coefcient
becomes

1
(j)
2
= 
1
(j (js))
2
=
(js)
6
1 + (js)
6
. (10.29)
That is,

1
(s)
2
=
s
6
1 s
6
=
1
(s)
1
(s) . (10.30)
FILTERS 517
Factoring the denominator polynomial yields
1 s
6
= (1 s) (1 +s)
_
s
2
+s + 1
_ _
s
2
s + 1
_
. (10.31)
By choosing those factors with roots only in the lefthalf plane (required for
a realizable network), the zeros of the denominator are obtained. Now the
numerator of 
1
(s)
2
is easily factored, and since this is third order it only
has three reection zeros at DC. The resulting function is
1
(s) =
s
3
(s + 1) (s
2
+s + 1)
, (10.32)
and so
T(s) =
1
(s + 1)(s
2
+s + 1)
. (10.33)
This example illustrates how
1
(s) and T(s) can be obtained from K(s)
specied as a Butterworth polynomial. This procedure is generalized in the
next section.
10.4.2 nthOrder Reection Approximation
Following the procedure outlined in the previous section, generalization of
the Butterworth response leads to the nthorder response

1
(s)
2
=
1
(s) .
1
(s) (10.34)
=
_
s
2
_
n
1 + (s
2
)
n
=
_
s
2
_
n
n
i=1
(s s
i
) .
2n
j=n+1
(s s
j
)
.
So 
1
(s)
2
has n roots (these are the s
i
s) lying in the lefthalf s plane, and n
roots (the s
j
s) lying in the righthalf s plane. Note that j is used as an index
and j (j, without the dot) represents
1
(s) =
(s)
n
n
i=1
(s s
i
)
. (10.35)
Solving for the roots of the denominator of Equation (10.35) (i.e., nding the
roots of 1 +
_
s
2
_
n
= 0) yields the following roots in the lefthalf s plane:
s
i
= exp
_
j (2i 1 +n)
2n
_
i = 1, 2, ..., n, (10.36)
where exp(j) = cos ()+j sin(). There are also roots in the righthalf plane,
but these are just the negative of the lefthalf plane.
518 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
EXAMPLE 10. 1
Reection Coefcient Derivation for Butterworth Filter
Develop the reection coefcient from the roots of the thirdorder (n = 3) Butterworth
lowpass lter prototype.
Solution: From Equation (10.36) the three roots are
s1 = exp
j
j (2 1 1 + 3)
2 3
= exp
j
j
2
3
(10.37)
s2 = exp
j
j (2 2 1 + 3)
2 3
= exp{j } (10.38)
s3 = exp
j
j (2 3 1 + 3)
2 3
= exp
j
j
4
3
(10.39)
and the input reection coefcient of the lter is
1 (s) =
s
3
s +
1
2
j
3
2
(s + 1)
s +
1
2
+j
3
2
=
s
3
(s + 1) (s
2
+s + 1)
. (10.40)
This is the same as Equation (10.32).
10.5 The Chebyshev Lowpass Approximation
The maximally at approximation to the ideal lowpass lter response is
best near the origin but not so good near the band edge. Chebyshev lters
have better responses near the band edge, with lower insertion loss near
the edges, but at the cost of ripples in the passband. Chebyshev lters are
also known as equiripple allpole lowpass lters. Example reection and
transmission responses are shown in Figure 107 for a seventhorder and a
sixthorder Chebyshev lowpass lter. The general form of the Chebyshev
transmission coefcient is
T(s)
2
=
1
1 +
2
K(s)
2
, (10.41)
where is an extra design parameter and denes the passband ripple
(PBR):
PBR =
1
1 +
2
or PBR
dB
= 10 log
10
_
1
1 +
2
_
. (10.42)
For the nthorder Chebyshev (lowpass lter) approximation the square of
the characteristic function is
K
n
()
2
= cos
2
_
ncos
1
()
, (10.43)
FILTERS 519
N = 7
2 1.5 1 0.5 0
(rad/s) ( ) s j =

(
)

T
s
2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

(
)

s
2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
(a)
N = 6
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
2 1.5 1 0.5 0
(rad/s) ( ) s j =
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

(
)

s
2

(
)

T
s
2
(b)
Figure 107 Chebyshev lowpass lter approximation: (a) seventhorder lter; and
(b) sixthorder lter.
520 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
which can be expressed as a polynomial. For example, with n = 3,
K
3
() = cos [3 cos
1
()] = 4
3
3, (10.44)
and it is surprising that the trigonometric expression has such a simple
polynomial equivalence. From Equation (10.11) the transmission coefcient
is
T()
2
=
1
1 +
2
cos
2
[ncos
1
()]
(10.45)
and the reection coefcient is

1
()
2
=
2
cos
2
_
ncos
1
()
1 +
2
cos
2
[ncos
1
()]
. (10.46)
Factorizing the denominator of either Equation (10.45) or Equation (10.46)
yields the following roots (of the denominator of
1
(s) and T(s)):
s
i
= sin
_
(2i 1)
2n
_
sinh
_
1
n
sinh
1
_
1
__
+ j cos
_
(2i 1)
2n
_
cosh
_
1
n
sinh
1
_
1
__
i = 1, 2, 3 . . . . (10.47)
The roots of the numerator of
1
(s) in the s plane are
s
j
= j cos
(2j 1)
2n
j = 1, 2, .., n . (10.48)
Equations (10.47) and (10.48) may be utilized to obtain the reection and
transmission coefcients directly in the s domain.
10.5.1 Chebyshev Approximation and Recursion
It is possible to obtain the characteristic function of the Chebyshev
approximation from the recursion formula,
K
n
() = 2K
n1
() K
n2
() , (10.49)
with
K
1
() = ; K
2
() = 2
2
1. (10.50)
For example, with n = 3,
K
3
() = 2K
31
() K
32
() (10.51)
= 2
_
2
2
1
_
= 4
3
2 = 4
3
3.
FILTERS 521
10.6 Element Extraction
In the previous two sections the mathematical responses of Butterworth and
Chebyshev lters were derived for various orders. In this section it will be
shown how these lters can be implemented with inductors and capacitors
using what is called ladder synthesis [139]. To obtain the element values
yielding the desired transfer function, an impedance or admittance function
must rst be obtained. The impedance or admittance function can be readily
obtained from the input reection coefcient of a network, but for now the
focus is on synthesizing a given impedance function. A general impedance
function can be expressed as
Z(s) =
a
n
_
s
2
+
2
1
_ _
s
2
+
2
3
_ _
s
2
+
2
5
_
...
b
m
s (s
2
+
2
2
) (s
2
+
2
4
) (s
2
+
2
6
) ...
, (10.52)
where a
n
and b
m
are constants. This can be realized by extracting L and C
elements, provided that the degree of the numerator and denominator differ
by unity mn = 1. The lumpeddomain elements are inductors, capacitors,
and transformers. The poles and zeroes of Z(s) correspond to zeroes of the
transmission coefcient. A pole of Z(s) at DC requires the extraction of a
series capacitor of value
C
0
=
1
sZ(s)
s=0
, (10.53)
while a pole at innity requires the extraction of a series inductor of value
L
=
Z(s)
s
s=
. (10.54)
Another possibility is a pole at a nite frequency (call this
0
), which
requires the extraction of a series parallel LC block, as shown in Figure 10
9(e), with a capacitor of value
C
i
=
s
(s
2
+
2
0
) Z(s)
s=jo
(10.55)
and an inductor of value
L
i
=
1
2
0
.C
i
. (10.56)
The extraction process can also be carried out on an admittance basis.
First,
Y (s) =
b
m
s
_
s
2
+
2
2
_ _
s
2
+
2
4
_ _
s
2
+
2
s
_
. . .
a
n
(s
2
+
2
1
) (s
2
+
2
3
) (s
2
+
2
5
) . . .
. (10.57)
Now a pole at zero requires the extraction of a shunt inductor of value
L
0
=
1
sY (s)
s=0
(10.58)
522 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
i i+1
X
in,
Z
in,
Z
Figure 108 Extraction of a network X to reduce an impedance Zin,i to a lower
order impedance Zin,i+1.
and a pole at innity requires the extraction of a shunt capacitor of value
C
=
Y (s)
s
s=
. (10.59)
Apole at a nite frequency requires the extraction of a shuntseries LC block
(as shown in Figure 109(f)) with values
L
i
=
s
(s
2
+
2
o
) Y (s)
s=jo
(10.60)
and
C
i
=
1
2
o
.L
i
. (10.61)
The extractions are summarized in Figure 109. After the extraction of
an element or a pair of elements an impedance, Z
rem
, or admittance, Y
rem
,
remains which can be similarly simplied. For example, and referring to
Figure 109(a), Z(s) = 1/(sC) + Z
rem
. In general, the synthesis procedure
involves extracting a network X from Z
in,i
, leaving a reducedorder
impedance to Z
in,i+1
(see Figure 108).
Many aspects of lter synthesis can seem abstract when presented in full
generality. Consequently it is common to illustrate concepts using examples.
Following this timehonored tradition, an example is now presented. Very
often a general approach is developed from a specic example. However,
this time a general approach was possible, and this was presented above.
EXAMPLE 10. 2
Element Extraction for a ThirdOrder Lowpass Filter
A thirdorder maximally at lter has the reection coefcient
1(s) =
s
3
(s + 1) (s
2
+s + 1)
. (10.62)
Synthesize this lter as a doubly terminated network.
FILTERS 523
IMPEDANCE BASIS ADMITTANCE BASIS
0
rem
Z
C
Zin = ZC +Zrem
ZC =
1
sC0
Y
L
0 rem
Yin = YL +Yrem
YL =
1
sL0
(a) (b)
L
Z
rem
Zin = ZL +Zrem
ZL = sL
C
rem
Y
Yin = YC +Yrem
YC = sC
(c) (d)
rem
Z
C
i
L
i
Zin = ZLC +Zrem
ZLC =
sLi
s
2
LiCi + 1
i
rem
Y
C
i
L
Yin = ZLC +Yrem
YLC =
sCi
s
2
LiCi + 1
(e) (f)
Figure 109 Synthesis of impedance and admittance functions. Starting with an impedance function
Z(s): (a) extraction of a series capacitor; (c) extraction of a series inductor; and (e) extraction of a series
parallel LC block i. Starting with an admittance function Y (s): (b) extraction of a shunt inductor; (d)
extraction of a shunt capacitor; and (f) extraction of a shunt series LC block.
Solution:
The reection coefcient function (Equation (10.62)) has all its poles located at innity, so
the corresponding network realization must be made of simple L or C elements. Hence,
referring to Figure 102,
Zin,1(s) =
1 + 1(s)
1 1(s)
(in a 1 system) =
2s
3
+ 2s
2
+ 2s + 1
2s
2
+ 2s + 1
. (10.63)
Note that the input impedance approaches innity as the frequency goes to innity, hence a
series inductor must be extracted. The value of this inductor is
L1 =
Zin,1(s)
s
s=
= 1 H. (10.64)
So the lter is developed by extracting one element at a time. Following the extraction of
each element, the stage impedance is left. The stage impedance function here is
Zin,2(s) = Zin,1(s) sL1 =
2s
3
+ 2s
2
+ 2s + 1
2s
2
+ 2s + 1
sL1
524 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
=
2s
3
+ 2s
2
+ 2s + 1 s
`
2s
2
+ 2s + 1
2s
2
+ 2s + 1
=
s + 1
2s
2
+ 2s + 1
.
Note that the stage impedance above, Zin,2, approaches zero as the frequency goes to
innity. However, the stage admittance function,
Yin,2(s) =
1
Zin,2(s)
=
2s
2
+ 2s + 1
s + 1
(10.65)
goes to innity as the frequency approaches innity and thus a shunt capacitor can be
extracted:
Yin,3(s) = Yin,2(s) sC2 =
1
s + 1
, (10.66)
where
C2 = 2 F. (10.67)
So sometimes it is more convenient to consider extraction of an admittance and sometimes
it is better to consider extraction of an impedance.
By examining the remaining stage impedance, it is seen that a pole exists at innity,
implying that a series inductor, L3, must be extracted. The value of this inductor comes
from
Zin,3 =
1
Yin,3
= s + 1 (10.68)
and so the inductor value is
L3 =
s + 1
s
S=
= 1 H. (10.69)
The nal step is to extract a load of value 1 as follows:
Zin,4 = Zin,3 sL3 = 1 . (10.70)
This example synthesized a doubly terminated network. The resulting network, called a
ladder circuit, is shown in Figure 1010. The leftmost 1 resistor is part of the source. This
is inherently behind the conversion, in Equation (10.63), of the input reection coefcient,
1(s), to an input impedance that used a 1 reference impedance.
Note that this circuit has a dual form which consists of two shunt capacitors separated by
a series inductor. The dual would be obtained if the admittance function was obtained from
the reection coefcient and then synthesized. Alternative network extraction techniques
are presented in Scanlan and Levy [139, 140] and Matthaei et al. [141].
Lowpass Butterworth or Chebyshev lters can be realized by ladder
networks of simple series and shunt combinations of individual inductors
or capacitors. Such networks can be used, following a number of
transformations, to realize highpass lters, and symmetrical bandpass and
bandstop lters. Sometimes asymmetric lters with asymmetric responses
are required, for example, to provide additional suppression of a large
FILTERS 525
(s)
1
1
1
H 1 H 1
F 2
Figure 1010 Synthesized maximally at network with a thirdorder lowpass
reection response.
interferer (e.g., a radar), and then it is necessary to synthesize more complex
impedance functions.
The input impedance functions of lumpedelement circuits can be
expressed as the ratio of two polynomials in s. An important property of
the impedance function is that the order of the numerator and that of the
denominator polynomial can differ by at most one [140]. If the orders differ
by one, then a single inductor or capacitor can be extracted, however, the
remaining impedance function may not be realizable. This indicates that
a more complex LC (and possibly R) combination is required. To be able
to extract arbitrarily complex circuits a long list of possible functions, such
as those shown in Figure 109, are required. For most of the circuits of
interest here the series and shunt LC combinations shown in Figure 109 are
sufcient. The next example describes impedance function extraction that
requires an LC combination.
EXAMPLE 10. 3
Element Extraction of an Impedance Function
Realize the impedance function
Zw =
4s
3
+ 4s
2
+ 2s + 2
4s
2
+ 2s + 1
.
Solution:
The order of the numerator is 1 greater than the order of the denominator and this indicates
that a series inductor is perhaps present. The series inductance is
L1 =
Zw(s)
(s)
z=
= 1 H. (10.71)
The remaining impedance is
Zin,2 = Zw sL1 =
4s
3
+ 4s
2
+ 2s + 2
4s
2
+ 2s + 1
s =
2s
2
+s + 2
4s
2
+ 2s + 1
. (10.72)
The numerator and denominator of Zin,2 have the same order and the impedance is not
resistive. Therefore a simple L or C element cannot be used to reduce the complexity of the
impedance function. Thus the extraction must backtrack and an initial series inductor is not
the right choice.
526 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
Figure 109 shows several element combinations that can be used to reduce the complexity
of an impedance function. Insight into which alternative to choose comes fromfactoring zw,
and real roots are required. So consider
Zw =
4s
3
+ 4s
2
+ 2s + 2
4s
2
+ 2s + 1
(10.73)
=
(2s
2
+ 1)(2s + 2)
4s
2
+ 2s + 1
(10.74)
and the denominator of zw does not have real roots. Examining Figure 109, a ready t to
Zw is not found. Instead consider the admittance function
Yw =
1
Zw
=
4s
2
+ 2s + 1
(2s
2
+ 1)(2s + 2)
. (10.75)
So the reduction shown in Figure 109(f) looks like the right candidate. The general choice
for the element is
yx =
as
bs
2
+ 1
. (10.76)
Choosing b = 2 is the best choice for reducing complexity (since part of the factored
denominator of Yw occurs), so
Yw =
as
2s
2
+ 1
+
4s
2
+ 2s + 1
(2s
2
+ 1)(2s + 2)
as
2s
2
+ 1
(10.77)
=
as
2s
2
+ 1
+
(4 2a)s
2
+ (2 2a)s + 1
(2s
2
+ 1)(2s + 2)
. (10.78)
Choose a = 1,
Yw =
s
(2s
2
+ 1)
+
2s
2
+ 1
(2s
2
+ 1)(2s + 2)
(10.79)
=
s
2s
2
+ 1
+
1
2s + 2
(10.80)
=
s
2s
2
+ 1
+Yin,2. (10.81)
So C1L1 = b = 1, C1 = a = 1 F, L1 = 2H, and
Yin,2 = 1/(2s + 2) (10.82)
or
Zin,2 =
1
Yin,2
= 2s + 2. (10.83)
The nal network is as follows:
2
2 H
1 F
2 H
FILTERS 527
+1
( odd)
( even)
g
2
g
4
g
1
g
3
g
n
g
0
V
g
g
n n
g
n n
(a)
+1
( odd)
even) (
3
g g
1
g
2
g
0
g
n
g
n n
g
n n
V
g
(b)
Figure 1011 Chebyshev lter prototypes in the Cauer topology: (a) of type 1; and
(b) of type 2. Here n is the order of the lter.
10.7 Butterworth and Chebyshev Filters
The nthorder lowpass lters constructed from the Butterworth and
Chebyshev polynomials have the ladder circuit forms of either Figure 10
11(a) or Figure 1011(b). Figure 1011 uses several shorthand notations
commonly used with lters. First, note that there are two prototype forms
designated Type 1 and Type 2, and these are referred to as duals of each
other. The two prototype forms have identical responses with the same
numerical element values g
1
, , g
n
. Consider the Type 1 prototype of
Figure 1011(a). The rightmost element is the resistive load, which is also
known as the (n + 1)th element. The next element to the left of this is either
a shunt capacitor (of value g
n
) if n is even, or a series inductor (of value g
n
)
if n is odd. So for the Type 1 prototype, the shunt capacitor next to the load
does not exist if n is odd. The same interpretation applies to the circuit in
Figure 1011(b).
10.7.1 Butterworth Filter
A generalization of the example of the previous section leads to a formula
for the element values of a ladder circuit implementing a Butterworth
lowpass lter. For a maximally at or Butterworth response the element
values of the circuit in Figures 1011(a) and 1011(b) are
g
r
= 2 sin
_
(2r 1)
2n
_
r = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n. (10.84)
Equation (10.84) provides the values of g
1
to g
n
in Figure 1011, with g
0
and
g
n+1
both being 1. Table 102 lists the coefcients of Butterworth lowpass
prototype lters up to ninth order.
528 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
Table 102 Coefcients of the Butterworth lowpass prototype lter normalized to
a radian corner frequency of 1 radian/s and a 1 system impedance.
Order, n 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
g1 1.4142 1 0.7654 0.6180 0.5176 0.4450 0.3902 0.3473
g2 1.4142 2 1.8478 1.6180 1.4142 1.2470 1.1111 1
g3 1 1 1.8478 2 1.9318 1.8019 1.6629 1.5321
g4 1 0.7654 1.6180 1.9318 2 1.9615 1.8794
g5 1 0.6180 1.4142 1.8019 1.9615 2
g6 1 0.5176 1.2470 1.6629 1.8794
g7 1 0.4450 1.1111 1.5321
g8 1 0.3902 1
g9 1 0.3473
g10 1
L L C C
1 2 3 4
1
1
V
g
L1 = 0.765369 H C2 = 1.847759 F
L3 = 1.847759 H C4 = 0.765369 F
Figure 1012 Fourthorder Butterworth lowpass lter prototype.
EXAMPLE 10. 4
FourthOrder Butterworth Lowpass Filter
Derive the fourthorder Butterworth lowpass prototype of type 1.
Solution:
From Equation (10.84),
g1 = 2 sin [/(2 4)] = 0.765369 H (10.85)
g2 = 2 sin [3/(2 4)] = 1.847759 F (10.86)
g3 = 2 sin [5/(2 4)] = 1.847759 H (10.87)
g4 = 2 sin [7/(2 4)] = 0.765369 F. (10.88)
Thus the fourthorder Butterworth lowpass prototype circuit with a corner frequency of
1 radian/s is as shown in Figure 1012.
FILTERS 529
10.7.2 Chebyshev Filter
For a Chebyshev response, the element values of the lowpass prototype
shown in Figure 1011 are found fromthe following recursive formula [141]:
g
0
= 1 (10.89)
g
n+1
=
_
1, n odd
tanh
2
(/4), n even
_
(10.90)
g
1
=
2a
1
(10.91)
g
k
=
4a
k1
a
k
b
k1
g
k1
, k = 2, 3, . . . , n (10.92)
a
k
= sin
_
(2k 1)
2n
_
, k = 1, 2, . . . , n (10.93)
and
= sinh
_
2n
_
, (10.94)
where
b
k
=
2
+ sin
2
_
k
n
_
k = 1, 2, . . . , n (10.95)
= ln
_
coth
_
R
dB
17.37
__
(10.96)
R
dB
= 10 log
_
2
+ 1
_
, (10.97)
where n is the order of the lter and is the ripple expressed in absolute
terms. R
dB
is the ripple expressed in decibels (the ripple is generally
specied in decibels).
An interesting point to note here is that the source resistor, the value of
which is given by g
0
, and terminating resistor, the value of which is given by
g
n+1
, are only equal for oddorder lters. For an evenorder Chebyshev lter
the terminating resistor, g
n+1
, will be different and a function of the lter
ripple. Because it is generally desirable to have identical source and load
impedances, Chebyshev lters are nearly always restricted to odd order.
Thus the oddorder Chebyshev prototypes are as shown in Figure 1013.
Also, for an odddegree function (n is odd) there is a perfect match at DC,
T (0)
2
= 1, (10.98)
while for an evendegree function a mismatch exists of value
T (0)
2
=
4R
L
(R
L
+ 1)
2
=
1
1 +
2
(10.99)
530 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
( odd)
g
2
g
4
g
1
g
3 n
1
n
3
n
2
n
2
V
g 1
g
n n
1
(a)
1
( odd)
3
g g
1
g
n n
1
n
2
n
2
n
3
V
g
g
2
1
1
g
n n
(b)
Figure 1013 Oddorder Chebyshev lowpass lter prototypes in the Cauer
topology: (a) of type 1; and (b) of type 2. Here n is the order of the lter.
so that
R
L
= g
n+1
=
_
+
_
(1 +
2
)
_
2
. (10.100)
Coefcients of several Chebyshev lowpass prototype lters with different
levels of ripple and of odd orders up to ninth order are given in Table 103.
10.7.3 Summary
A Butterworth lter has a monotonic response without ripple but a
relatively slow transition from the passband to the stopband. A Chebyshev
lter has rapid transition but has ripple in either the stopband or passband.
Butterworth and Chebyshev lters are special cases of elliptical lters,
which are also called Cauer lters. An elliptical lter has equiripple (or
equalized ripple) in both the stopband and the passband. The level of the
ripple can be selected independently in each band. With zero ripple in the
stopband, but ripple in the passband, an elliptical lter becomes a Type
I Chebyshev lter. With zero ripple in the passband, but ripple in the
stopband, an elliptical lter is known as a Type II Chebyshev lter. With
no ripple in either band the elliptical lter becomes a Butterworth lter.
With ripple in both the passband and stopband, the transition between
the passband and stopband can be made more abrupt or alternatively the
tolerance to component variations increased.
Another type of lter is the Bessel lter which has maximally at group
delay in the passband, which means that the phase response has maximum
linearity across the passband. The Legendre lter (also known as the
optimum L lter has a high transition rate from passband to stopband
FILTERS 531
Table 103 Coefcients of Chebyshev lowpass prototype lter normalized to a
radian corner frequency of 1 radian/s and a 1 system impedance.
Order n = 3
Ripple 0.01 dB 0.1 dB 0.2 dB 1.0 dB 3.0 dB
g1 0.6291 1.0315 1.2275 2.0236 3.3487
g2 0.9702 1.1474 1.1525 0.9941 0.7117
g3 0.6291 1.0315 1.2275 2.0236 3.3487
Order n = 5
Ripple 0.01 dB 0.1 dB 0.2 dB 1.0 dB 3.0 dB
g1 0.7563 1.1468 1.3394 2.1349 3.4817
g2 1.3049 1.3712 1.3370 1.0911 0.7618
g3 1.5573 1.9750 2.1660 3.0009 4.5381
g4 1.3049 1.3712 1.3370 1.0911 0.7618
g5 0.7563 1.1468 1.3394 2.1349 3.4817
Order n = 7
Ripple 0.01 dB 0.1 dB 0.2 dB 1.0 dB 3.0 dB
g1 0.7969 1.1811 1.3722 2.1664 3.5182
g2 1.3924 1.4228 1.3781 1.1116 0.7723
g3 1.7481 2.0966 2.2756 3.0934 4.6386
g4 1.6331 1.5733 1.5001 1.1736 0.8039
g5 1.7481 2.0966 2.2756 3.0934 4.6386
g6 1.3924 1.4228 1.3781 1.1116 0.7723
g7 0.7969 1.1811 1.3722 2.1664 3.5182
Order n = 9
Ripple 0.01 dB 0.1 dB 0.2 dB 1.0 dB 3.0 dB
g1 0.8144 1.1956 1.3860 2.1797 3.5340
g2 1.4270 1.4425 1.3938 1.1192 0.7660
g3 1.8043 2.1345 2.3093 3.1215 4.6692
g4 1.7125 1.6167 1.5340 1.1897 0.8118
g5 1.9057 2.2053 2.3728 3.1747 4.7272
g6 1.7125 1.6167 1.5340 1.1897 0.8118
g7 1.8043 2.1345 2.3093 3.1215 4.6692
g8 1.4270 1.4425 1.3938 1.1192 0.7660
g9 0.8144 1.1956 1.3860 2.1797 3.5340
for a given lter order, and also has a monotonic frequency response (i.e.,
without ripple). It is a compromise between the Butterworth lter with
monotonic frequency response but slower transition and the Chebyshev
lter, which has a faster transition but ripples in the frequency response.
More indepth discussions of a large class of lters along with coefcient
tables and coefcient formulas are available in Matthaei et al. [141], Hunter
[142], Daniels [143], Lutovac et al. [144], and in most other books dedicated
532 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
K
Z
Z
L
in
K
= K
0
Z
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 1014 Impedance inverter (of impedance K): (a) represented as a twoport;
(b) the twoport terminated in a load; and (c) the twoport implemented as a one
quarter wavelength long line of characteristic impedance Z0.
solely to lters.
10.8 Impedance and Admittance Inverters
Inverters are twoport networks in the prototype networks of many RF
and microwave lters. The input impedance of an inverter terminated in
an impedance Z
L
is 1/Z
L
. Impedance and admittance inverters are the
same network, with the distinction being whether siemens or ohms are
used to dene them. An inverter is sometimes called a unit element (UE).
At frequencies of a few hundred megahertz and below an inverter can
be realized using operational and transconductance ampliers. However,
these are not readily available at RF and microwave frequencies. At RF,
inverters are of particular interest, as they can be approximately realized
by lumped elements, transmission line stubs, and coupled transmission
lines. The transmission line realizations are better approximations; they
have broader bandwidth than the lumpedelement implementations. As a
result, inverters are available in RF and microwave lter design and their
main application is converting a series element into shunt elements and
inverters. It is much easier to realize shunt elements in distributed circuits
than series elements. Similar circuit transformations enable inductors to be
replaced by capacitors and inverters.
RF lter design could be presented using only impedance inverters,
however, admittance inverters are often used as design manipulations
more often involve putting elements in shunt (which is preferred). The
use of admittance simply unclutters the derivations. One or the other, and
sometimes both, are used in various books on lter design and in journals
and conference publications. Both will be used here.
The schematic representation of an impedance inverter is shown in Figure
1014(a) where the distinguishing parameter is K which is in ohms. The
constitutive property of the inverter is that the input impedance of the
terminated impedance inverter in Figure 1014(b) is
Z
in
=
K
2
Z
L
, (10.101)
and so the inverter both inverts the load impedance and scales it. Similarly,
FILTERS 533
K
/4
= K
0
Z
/4
= K
0
Z
in
Z
L
Z
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 1015 Inverter equivalence: (a) twoport impedance inverter (of impedance
K): (b) a quarterwave transmission line of characteristic impedance Z0 = 1/K;
a terminated onequarter wavelength long transmission line of characteristic
impedance Z0.
if Port 1 was terminated in Z
L
the input impedance at Port 2 is Z
in
as dened
above. Equation 10.101 does not fully dene an inverter which is a twoport.
An impedance inverter is fully dened by its ABCD parameters:
T =
_
0 jK
j/K 0
_
, (10.102)
and this is done in the next subsection where equivalence of ABCD
parameters is used.
An impedance inverter has the value K, which is in ohms, and sometimes
K is called the characteristic impedance of the inverter. Sometimes K is
called just the impedance of the inverter.
An admittance inverter is exactly the same element, but now J is used
and is called the characteristic admittance of the inverter, and sometimes
just the admittance. They are related as J = 1/K. At low frequencies they
can be implemented as transformers or using operational ampliers. At RF
and microwave frequencies inverters are of such great interest as they can
be realized using combinations of transmission lines of reasonable length.
Recall that in Section 4.8.4 on Page 218 it was shown that a /4 long line with
a load has an input impedance that is the inverse of the load, normalized
by the square of the characteristic impedance of the line. So an inverter
can be realized at microwave frequencies using a onequarter wavelength
long transmission line (see Figure 1015(b)). For the conguration shown in
Figure 1015(c),
Z
in
=
K
2
Z
L
. (10.103)
One of the principal advantages of inverters in developing networks is
that they can be used to replace series inductors and capacitors by shunt
elements, which are far more easily implemented. This will be seen in the
next few sections.
534 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
10.8.1 Properties of an Impedance Inverter
At lowfrequencies it is necessary to use either transformers or active circuits
based on operational ampliers. In this section the impedance inverter can
be treated as an abstraction. A twoport lossless, reciprocal, and frequency
independent impedance inverter has the ABCD matrix
T =
_
0 jK
j/K 0
_
, (10.104)
where K is called the characteristic impedance of the inverter. With a load
impedance, Z
L
(at Port 2), the input impedance (at Port 1) is
Z
in
(s) =
A.Z
L
+B
C.Z
L
+D
=
jK
(j/K) Z
L
=
K
2
Z
L
. (10.105)
Thus the impedance at the input port is proportional to the inverse of the
load impedance. (Note that K is in ohms.)
Now the ABCD matrix of the transmission line of Figure 1014(c) is
_
cos jZ
0
sin
j
Z0
sin cos
_
, (10.106)
which is identical to Equation (10.104) when the electrical length is = /2
(i.e., when the line is /4 long). The inverter is shown in Figure 1014(a)
as a twoport and implemented as a /4 long line in Figure 1014(c). The
bandwidth over which the line realizes an impedance inverter is limited,
however, as it is an ideal inverter only at the frequency at which it is /4
long and when it is (n/2 +/4) long.
10.8.2 Replacement of a Series Inductor by a Shunt
Capacitor
A series inductor can be replaced by a shunt capacitor surrounded by a pair
of inverters followed by a negative unity transformer (i.e., an inverter with
K = 1). This equivalence is shown in Figure 1016 and will now be shown
mathematically.
From Table 61, the ABCD matrix of the series inductor shown in Figure
1016(a) (which has an impedance of sL) is
T
L
=
_
1 sL
0 1
_
(10.107)
and the ABCD matrix of a shunt capacitor (which has an admittance of sC)
is, from Table 61,
T
1
=
_
1 0
sC 1
_
. (10.108)
FILTERS 535
L
(a)
C
1:1
K K
(b)
C
1:1
K K
(c)
Figure 1016 Equivalent realizations of a series inductor: (a) as a twoport; (b) its realization using a
capacitor, inverters of characteristic impedance K, and a negative unity transformer; and (c) an alternative
realization. C = L/K
2
.
The ABCD matrix of an inverter with K = 1 (generally units are dropped
and SI is assumed) is
T
2
=
_
0 jK
j/K 0
_
, (10.109)
and nally, the ABCD matrix of a negative unity transformer, N = 1, is,
from Table 61,
T
3
=
_
1 0
0 1
_
. (10.110)
The ABCD matrix of the cascade shown in Figure 1016(b) is
T
C
= T
2
T
1
T
2
T
3
=
_
0 jK
j/K 0
_ _
1 0
sC 1
_ _
0 jK
j/K 0
_ _
1 0
0 1
_
=
_
0 jK
j/K 0
_ _
1 0
sC 1
_ _
0 jK
j/K 0
_
=
_
jsCK jK
j/K 0
_ _
0 jK
j/K 0
_
=
_
1 sCK
2
0 1
_
. (10.111)
Thus T
C
= T
L
if L = CK
2
(compare Equations (10.107) and (10.111)). A
series inductor can be replaced by a shunt capacitor with an inverter before
and after it and with a negative unity transformer. The unity transformer
may also be placed at the rst port, as in Figure 1016(c). Thus the twoports
shown in Figure 1016 are all electrically identical, with the limitation being
the frequency range over which the inverter can be realized. An interesting
and important observation is that as a result of the characteristic impedance
of the inverter (e.g., 50 ), a small shunt capacitor can be used to realize a
large series inductance value.
536 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
C
K K
1:1
L
(a) (b)
Figure 1017 A series capacitor: (a) as a twoport; (b) its realization using a shunt
inductor, inverters and negative unity transformer. L = CK
2
EXAMPLE 10. 5
Inductor Synthesis Using an Inverter
Consider the network of Figure 1016(c) with inverters having a characteristic impedance of
50 . What value of inductance is realized using a 10 pF capacitor?
Solution:
K = 50, so L = CK
2
= 10
11
2500 = 25 nH.
10.8.3 Replacement of a Series Capacitor by a Shunt
Inductor
Analogous to the replacement demonstrated in the previous section, a
series capacitor can be replaced by a shunt inductor plus inverters and a
negative transformer (see Figure 1017). The ABCD parameters of the series
capacitor in Figure 1017(a) are
T =
_
1 1/sC
0 1
_
, (10.112)
and here it is shown that the cascade in Figure 1017(b) has the same ABCD
parameters. Choosing the value of the shunt inductor in Figure 1017(b)
as C and using unity impedance inverters, the cascade has the ABCD
parameters
T =
_
0 jK
j/K 0
_ _
1 0
1/sL 1
_ _
0 jK
j/K 0
_ _
1 0
0 1
_
=
_
0 jK
j/K 0
_ _
1 0
1/sL 1
_ _
0 jK
j/K 0
_
=
_
jK/sL jK
j/K 0
_ _
0 jK
j/K 0
_
=
_
1 K
2
/sL
0 1
_
. (10.113)
So the series capacitor, C, can be realized using a shunt inductor, L,
inverters, and a negative unity transformer, and C = L/K
2
. It is unlikely
FILTERS 537
+1
( odd)
( even)
g
2
g
4
g
1
g
3
g
n
g
0
V
g
g
n n
g
n n
(a)
1
V
g
g
1
g
2
g
3
g
4
g
5
1 1 1 1 1 1
1:1 1:1 1:1
(b)
1
V
g
g
1
g
2
g
3
g
4
1 1
g
5
1 1 1
(c)
Figure 1018 Ladder prototype lters using impedance inverters: (a) lumpedelement prototype; (b) rst
stage in transformation using inverters; and (c) nal stage.
that this would be desirable, as much better lower loss capacitors can be
realized at RF than inductors.
10.8.4 Ladder Prototype with Impedance Inverters
The transformations discussed in the previous two sections can be used
to advantage in simplifying lters. In this section the transformations are
applied to the prototype of the lowpass ladder lter shown in Figure 10
18(a). The inductors in the ladder circuit are a particular problem as they
have considerable resistance at radio and microwave frequencies and limit
the frequency selectivity that can be obtained froma lter. Using the concept
of inverters, the series inductors can be replaced by a circuit with capacitors,
inverters, and transformers, as shown in Figure 1018(b). This simplies
further to the realization shown in Figure 1018(c), as the negative unity
transformers only affect the phase of the transmission coefcient. So a
lowpass ladder lter can be realized using just capacitors and inverters.
10.8.5 LumpedElement Realization of an Inverter
The admittance inverter is functionally the same as the impedance inverter
(see Figure 1014(a)) and the schematic is the same (see Figure 1019(a)).
As will be shown, this can be realized using frequencyinvariant lossless
538 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
1
J=
K
_ _
+
y =
jB
y =
jB y =
jB
_ _
j/J j/J
j/J
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 1019 Admittance inverter: (a) as a twoport; (b) generalized inverter
realized using lumped elements (identical if B = J); and (c) lumped equivalent
circuit of the admittance inverter of (a) (the element values in (c) are impedances).
elements (i.e., elements whose reactance or susceptance do not vary with
frequency) using the network of Figure 1019(b). J is generally used with
admittance inverters and K with impedance inverters. If not specied by
the context, the inverter (with value specied by a number) defaults to being
an impedance inverter. Alternatively units can be used to indicate which
type of inverter is being used. The function of the inverter is the same in
any case; both can be realized by onequarter wavelength long lines, for
example. For the remainder of this chapter it will be more convenient to use
the admittance inverter, as many calculations will be in terms of admittances
since it is much easier to realize shunt elements in distributed form (e.g.,
using stubs) than to realize series elements.
Now it will be shown that the lumpedelement network of Figure 10
19(b) realizes an inverter. To do this we must show that the inverter and
the lumpedelement network have the same twoport parameters. First, the
ABCD matrix of an inverter of characteristic admittance J is
T
J
=
_
0 j/J
jJ 0
_
. (10.114)
Referring to Table 61, the circuit of Figure 1019(b) has the ABCD matrix
T =
_
1 0
jB 1
_ _
1 1/(jB)
0 1
_ _
1 0
jB 1
_
=
_
1 1/(jB)
jB 0
_ _
1 0
jB 1
_
=
_
0 j/B
jB 0
_
, (10.115)
where B is the susceptance of the frequencyinvariant elements. Equation
(10.115) is identical to Equation (10.114) if B = J. More practical
equivalents of the circuit of Figure 1019(b) can be derived, as shown later.
For completeness, the lumpedelement equivalent of the impedance
inverter is shown in Figure 1020 (derived fromFigure 1019 with J = 1/K).
FILTERS 539
K
_ _
jK jK
jK
(a) (b)
Figure 1020 Impedance inverter: (a) as a twoport; and (b) its lumped equivalent
circuit (the element values in (b) are impedances).
+
_
L
_
in
y = y
jB y = jB y =
y
jB y =
in 3 2
1
L
y
y
y y y
(a) (b)
Figure 1021 Terminated lumpedelement admittance inverter.
EXAMPLE 10. 6
Lumped Inverter Analysis
Demonstrate that the lumpedelement inverter model in Figure 1019(b) is an admittance
inverter.
Solution:
Terminating the network in Figure 1019(b) results in the network shown in Figure 1021(a).
This is relabeled for convenience in Figure 1021(b) where the elements are admittances.
Then
yin = y3//(y1$(y2 +yL)) , (10.116)
where // indicates in parallel with and $ indicates in series with. These are common
shorthand notations in circuit calculations. Continuing on from Equation (10.116),
yin = y3 +
1
y1
+
1
y2 +yL
1
= y3 +
y2 +yL +y1
y1(y2 +yL)
1
. (10.117)
Substituting y1 = jB, y2 = y3 = jB, this becomes
yin = jB +
jB(yL jB)
yL
=
jByL +jByL +B
2
yL
=
B
2
yL
. (10.118)
Thus the lumpedelement of Figure 1019(b) is an admittance inverter of value B (in
Siemens).
10.8.6 Narrowband Realization of an Inverter Using
Transmission Line Stubs
In this section it will be shown that an impedance inverter can be
implemented using short and opencircuits stubs. The match is good over
540 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
K _ _
jK jK
jK
jK jK
Z
0
Z
0
Z
0
STUB 3 STUB 1
STUB 2
jK
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 1022 Narrowband inverter equivalents at frequency f0: (a) impedance
inverter with characteristic impedance K; (b) lumpedelement equivalent network;
(c) inverter realized by short and opencircuited stubs.
a narrow band centered at frequency f
0
. An impedance inverter is shown
in Figure 1022(a) and its equivalent lumpedelement network in Figure
1022(b). A stubbased implementation is shown in Figure 1022(c), where
there are short and opencircuited stubs of characteristic impedance Z
0
. The
input impedance of the stubs is shown at the inputs of the stubs. The stubs
have an electrical length at f
0
, and the stubs are onequarter wavelength
long (i.e., is resonant) at what is called the commensurate frequency, f
r
.
Now it will be shown that the network of Figure 1022(c) is a good
representation of the inverter at f
0
. This is done by matching ABCD
parameters. The ABCD parameters of an inverter are
T =
_
0 jK
j/K 0
_
(10.119)
and, at frequency f
0
, the ABCD parameters of the stub circuit of Figure 10
22(c) are
T =
_
1 0
1/[jZ
0
tan ()] 1
_ _
1 jZ
0
tan()
0 1
_ _
1 0
1/[jZ
0
tan ()] 1
_
=
_
1 jZ
0
tan ()
1/[jZ
0
tan ()] 0
_ _
1 0
1/[jZ
0
tan ()] 1
_
=
_
0 jZ
0
tan ()
j/[Z
0
tan ()] 0
_
. (10.120)
Thus, equating Equations (10.119) and (10.120), the stub network is a good
representation of the inverter if
K = Z
0
tan () , (10.121)
and so the required characteristic impedance of each stub at frequency f
0
is
Z
0
=
K
tan ()
=
K
tan
_
2
f0
fr
_. (10.122)
FILTERS 541
Special Case f
r
= 2f
0
The most commonly used designs choose the stub resonant frequency, the
commensurate frequency, to be twice that of the center frequency of the
design, f
0
. So with f
r
= 2f
0
:
Z
0
=
K
tan
_
2
f0
2f0
_
=
K
tan/4
= K. (10.123)
10.9 Filter Transformations
So far the discussion has centered around lowpass lters. Filter design
technology has developed so that the design of lowpass lters is the
essential rst step and these are used as prototypes to derive lters with
other characteristics. The three most important transformations are listed
here:
1. Impedance scaling: A lowpass lter prototype is referenced to a
standard impedance. Usually 1 is used, so the reference source
and load resistances are also 1 . To reference to a higher or lower
impedance, scaling of the impedance of all elements of the lter is
required.
2. Cutoff frequency scaling: The cutoff frequency of a lowpass lter
prototype is normalized to 1 radian/s. To reference to another
frequency, the values of the elements must be altered so that they have
the same impedance at the scaled frequency.
3. Filter type transformation: These transformations enable the circuit of
a lowpass lter to be converted to a circuit with a bandpass, bandstop,
or highpass response. The concept is that the response at DC is to be
replicated at innite frequency for the highpass (so capacitors become
inductors, etc.); to be replicated at the center of the passband for a
bandpass lter (so capacitors become a shunt LC circuit); and to be
inverted at the center of the bandstop lter (so capacitors become a
series LC circuit).
The transformations can be performed in any order. The key point is that
the complexity of the lowpass circuit design is minimal since the number of
elements does not grow until the lter type transformation is performed, so
this step is often done last.
542 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
L L x Z
0
(a)
/ C C Z
0
(b)
K Z
0
K
(c)
Figure 1023 Impedance transformations: (a) for an inductor; (b) for a capacitor;
and (c) for an inverter.
10.9.1 Impedance Transformation
The lowpass prototypes discussed up to now have been referred to a 1
system. The system impedance can be changed to any level by simply
scaling the impedances of all the circuit elements in a lter by the same
amount, as shown in Figure 1023. The impedance transformation follows
the same procedure for all lter types (the procedure is the same for lowpass,
highpass, bandpass, and bandstop lters, for example). It should also be
noted that impedance scaling of a transmission line is simply multiplication
of the lines characteristic impedance by the scale factor.
EXAMPLE 10. 7
Lowpass Filter Design
Consider the lowpass lter, with an inverter, shown in Figure 1024(a). This lter
is referenced to 1 , as the source and load impedances are both 1 . Redesign the
lter so that the same frequency response is obtained with 50 source and load
impedances.
Solution:
It is necessary to impedance transform from 1 to 50 . The resulting lter is
shown in Figure 1024(b). Each element has an impedance (resistance or reactance)
that is 50 times larger than it had in the prototype.
10.9.2 Frequency Transformation: Lowpass
Frequency transformations differ depending on the type of the lter. So it
is normal to frequency transform the lowpass prototype before converting
the prototype to another form (such as bandpass). The lowpass prototypes
normally have a bandedge or cutoff frequency at an angular frequency of
FILTERS 543
K 1
1
C
1
C
2
C
3
L
1
g
V
(a)
/50 /50
x50
/50
50 50K
50
C
3
C
1
C
2
L
1
g
V
(b)
Figure 1024 Impedance transformation of an example lter: (a) lter normalized
to 1 ; and (b) impedance transformed to a reference of 50 .
=1
(rad/s)
j
) s=j (
( T s)
2
(rad/s)
c
0
j
) (s=j
(s) T
2
(a) (b)
Figure 1025 Frequency transformation of a lowpass lter from, (a) one normalized
to a corner frequency of 1 rad/s, to (b) one with a radian corner frequency of c.
unity,
2
that is, 1 rad/s. The band edge frequency can be transformed from
unity to an arbitrary frequency
c
, as shown in Figure 1025, by scaling
the reactive elements, as shown in Figure 1026, so that they have the
same impedance at the transformed frequency as they did at the original
frequency. The inverter is unchanged, as are the source and load resistances,
since these are frequency independent.
2
In this book (and in most treatments) the bandedge frequency is normalized to 1 rad/s.
Some books and papers use a 1 Hz normalization, so be wary.
544 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
C
/ L L
(a)
/
C
C C
(b)
Figure 1026 Frequency transformations for (a) an inductor; and (b) a capacitor. The
impedance of the new (scaled) element at the new (scaled) frequency is the same as
it was at the original frequency.
=1
(rad/s)
j
) s=j (
( T s)
2
=1
(rad/s) ) (s=j
j
(s) T
2
(a) (b)
Figure 1027 Lowpass to highpass transformation.
10.9.3 Lowpass to Highpass Transformation
The transformation of a lowpass lter prototype to a highpass lter is shown
diagrammatically in Figure 1027. Mathematically the transformation is
T ()
2
=
1
1 +
2
K ()
2
(10.124)
1
(10.125)
T
_
2
=
1
1 +
2
K
_
2
(10.126)
so that reactive elements are transformed as shown in Figure 1030. Here
inductors are transformed into capacitors and capacitors into inductors.
For example, if the oddorder lowpass lters are of the types shown in
Figure 1013 then the transformation to highpass is shown in Figure 1028.
10.9.4 Lowpass to Bandpass Transformation
Understanding the transformation of the lowpass lter into its correspond
ing bandpass forms requires that the lowpass lter be considered in both its
FILTERS 545
( odd)
V
g
1
1
n n
2
1 3
2
n
n n
n
C C
L L
1 3
C
4 2
(a)
1
( ) odd
V
g
n
1
n
2
n
2
n
3
3
1
1
C
g
n n
L L
n 2
1
C
(b)
Figure 1028 Oddorder Chebyshev highpass lter prototypes in the Cauer
topology: (a) of type 1; and (b) of type 2. Here n is the order of the lter.
positive and negative frequency response, as shown in Figure 1029(a).
This response is shifted in frequency to obtain the bandpass response
shown in Figure 1029(b). Mathematically the radian frequency, , in the
response function is replaced by its bandpass form:
_
_
. (10.127)
This separately maps the 1 and +1 bandedge radian frequencies of the
lowpass response to the bandpass frequencies
1
and
2
:
1
_
1
_
(10.128)
+1
_
2
_
. (10.129)
Solving the above equations simultaneously yields the center frequency
0
and the bandedge frequencies
1
and
2
with
o
=
2
(10.130)
and the socalled transformation constant
=
o
1
. (10.131)
The resulting element conversions are given in Figure 1030.
As an example, a lumpedelement Type 2 Cauer bandpass lter is shown
in Figure 1031. The shunt LC combination and the series LC combinations
546 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
+1
(rad/s)
j
) (s=j
1
(s) T
2
(a)
(rad/s)
w j
) (s=j
2
T s ( )
2
(b)
Figure 1029 Frequency responses in lowpass to bandpass transformation: (a) two
sided lowpass lter response; and (b) bandpass lter approximation.
are resonators resonant at the center frequency of the lter. Here the
lter is normalized to a Z
0
source and load impedances. As these are the
same, this lter topology only applies for an oddorder lter. Combining
transformations, the element values of a lumped bandpass lter with center
radian frequency
0
= 2f
0
and radian bandwidth
BW
= 2(f
2
f
1
) are
as follows:
C
r
=
g
r
BW
Z
0
r = odd
BW
2
0
g
r
Z
0
r = even
(10.132)
L
r
=
BW
Z
0
2
0
g
r
r = odd
g
r
Z
0
BW
r = even
. (10.133)
10.9.5 Lowpass to Bandstop Transformation
Again, consider both the positive and negative frequency responses of
the lowpass lter prototype, as shown in Figure 1032(a). This response is
FILTERS 547
LOWPASS PROTOTYPE TO LOWPASS TRANSFORMATION
LOWPASS LOWPASS REACTANCE TRANSFORMATION
PROTOTYPE ELEMENT
0
= corner frequency
C
0
C
1
C
1
= C
0
/
0
L
0
L
1
L
1
= L
0
/
0
LOWPASS PROTOTYPE TO HIGHPASS TRANSFORMATION
LOWPASS HIGHPASS REACTANCE TRANSFORMATION
PROTOTYPE ELEMENT
0
= corner frequency
C
0
L
1
L
1
= 1/(
0
C
0
)
L
0
C
1
C
1
= 1/(
0
L
0
)
LOWPASS PROTOTYPE TO BANDPASS TRANSFORMATION
LOWPASS BANDPASS REACTANCE TRANSFORMATION
PROTOTYPE ELEMENT
0
= center of passband
C
0 1
1
L
C
C
1
= C
0
/
0
L
1
= 1/(C
0
0
)
L
0
C
1 1
L
L
1
= L
0
/
0
C
1
= 1/(L
0
0
)
LOWPASS PROTOTYPE TO BANDSTOP TRANSFORMATION
LOWPASS BANDSTOP REACTANCE TRANSFORMATION
PROTOTYPE ELEMENT
0
= center of stopband
C
0
C
1 1
L
L
1
= /(C
0
0
) C
1
= C
0
/(
0
)
L
0 1
1
L
C
L
1
= L
0
/(
0
) C
1
= /(L
0
0
)
Figure 1030 Transformations of the elements of a prototype lowpass lter to obtain
specic lter types. The corner frequency of the lowpass prototype is 1 radian/s. In
the transformations to bandpass and bandstop lters, 0 = 1/
L1C1 =
12;
1 and 2 are the bandedge frequencies; and is the transformation constant,
= 0/(2 1). The corner frequency of the lowpass prototype is 1 radian/s.
548 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
1 1
n
L
1
C
1
L
2
C
2
L
3
C
3
C
n
L
n
Z
0
Z
0
L
n
C
n
V
g
1
n
2
n
3
n
2
Figure 1031 Lumpedelement oddorder (nthorder) Chebyshev bandpass lter
prototypes in the type II Cauer topology.
+1
(rad/s)
j
) (s=j
1
(s) T
2
(a)
j
T(s)
s=j ( ) (rad/s)
2
2
0
(b)
Figure 1032 Frequency responses in lowpass to bandstop transformation: (a) two
sided lowpass lter response; and (b) bandstop lter approximation.
shifted in frequency to obtain the bandstop response shown in Figure 10
32(b). Mathematically the frequency, , in the response function is replaced
by its bandstop form:
_
__
1
. (10.134)
The center frequency (corresponding to DC of the response of the lowpass
prototype) is
o
=
2
(10.135)
FILTERS 549
1
1
L
1
L
3
C
3
C
n
L
n
C
1
Z
0
Z
0
V
g
1
n
2
n
3
n
2
n
L
2
L
n
C
2
C
n
Figure 1033 Lumpedelement oddorder (nthorder) Chebyshev bandpass lter
prototypes in the type II Cauer topology.
and the transformation constant is
=
o
1
, (10.136)
where
1
and
2
are the bandedge frequencies. The resulting element
conversions are given in Figure 1030.
Combining transformations, the element values of a lumped bandstop
lter with center radian frequency
0
= 2f
0
and radian bandwidth
BW
=
2(f
2
f
1
) are as follows:
C
r
=
g
r
BW
2
0
Z
0
r = odd
1
BW
g
r
Z
0
r = even
(10.137)
L
r
=
Z
0
BW
g
r
r = odd
g
r
BW
Z
0
2
0
r = even
. (10.138)
Similarly a lumpedelement type II Cauer bandstop lter is shown in
Figure 1033. The parallel LC combination and the series LC combinations
are resonators resonant at the center frequency of the lter. The parallel LC
resonator is an open circuit at the center frequency of the stopband and the
series LC resonators are short circuits.
10.9.6 Transformed Ladder Prototypes
Combining the lter type transformations, and with appropriate use of
inverters, the original lowpass prototype ladder lter and its various lter
type transforms are shown in Figure 1034.
550 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
g
1
g
2
g
3
g
4
R
S
V
g
1 1 1 1
(a)
1/ 1/ 1/ 1/ g
4
g
3
g
2
g
1
R
S
V
g
1 1 1 1
(b)
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
= / / / /
/ / / /
L
C
L
C
L
C
L
C
g
1
g
2
g
3 4
g
g
1
g
2
g
3
g
4
V
g
R
S
1
1
1 1
(c)
=
= 1/ ( )
=
= 1/ ( )
=
= 1/ ( )
=
= 1/ ( ) L
C
L
C
L
C
L
C
g
1
g
1
V
g
R
S
1
g
2
g
2
g
3
g
3
g
4
g
4
1 1 1
(d)
Figure 1034 Ladder prototype lters: (a) lowpass prototype ladder lter; (b) highpass prototype ladder
lter; (c) bandstop prototype ladder lter; and (d) bandpass prototype ladder lter.
10.10 Cascaded Line Realization of Filters
In this section, lters are presented that use cascaded sections of
transmission linerealizing series inductors and shunt capacitors. For
example, a short (less than onequarter wavelength long) line of relatively
highimpedance line behaves predominantly as series inductances. Also, a
very short (much less than onequarter wavelength long) length of relatively
lowimpedance line acts predominantly as a shunt capacitance. So a Pi
network of lumped elements can be realized with alternate sections of low
and highimpedance microstrip lines. Such an inductive line is shown in
Figure 1035(a), which has the two equivalent circuits shown in Figures 10
35(b) and 1035(c). Basic transmission line theory gives the input reactance
FILTERS 551
IMPEDANCE
IMPEDANCE
LOW
IMPEDANCE
HIGH
LOW
l
C C Z
O
( )
C C
jX
L
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 1035 Inductive length of line with adjacent capacitive lines: (a) microstrip form; (b) lumped
equivalent circuit; and (c) lumpeddistributed equivalent circuit.
HIGH
LOW
IMPEDANCE IMPEDANCE
HIGH
IMPEDANCE
( ) C
jX jX
y=jB
(a) (b)
Figure 1036 Capacitive length of line with adjacent inductive lines: (a) microstrip;
and (b) lumped equivalent (the leftmost and rightmost series inductors come from
the highimpedance lines).
of the line of length, (with a lowimpedance load),
X
L
= Z
0
sin (2/
g
) , (10.139)
so that the length of this predominantly inductive line is
=
g
2
sin
1
_
L
Z
0
_
. (10.140)
Previously it was shown that a short length of line having a relatively
low characteristic impedance yields a capacitive element and this is shown,
together with its equivalent circuit, in Figure 1036. The predominating
shunt capacitance is determined by rst considering the susceptance
B =
1
Z
0
sin
_
2
g
_
(10.141)
so that
=
g
2
sin
1
(CZ
0
) . (10.142)
Thus a cascade of lowimpedance and highimpedance lines can therefore
realize (approximately) an LC ladder network.
It is tempting to take lters synthesized in lumpedelement form and
realize them in the above manner with transmission lines. The series
552 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
element realization concept presented in this section could be extended
using shorted and open stubs to better realize shunt elements. The problem
with this approach is that the resulting lters are narrowband and the
response outside the desired operating range is unpredictable. It is far better
to employ the Richards transformation, considered in the next section,
which is a much broader bandwidth technique for realizing lters in
distributed form.
10.11 Richards Transformation
10.11.1 Richards Transformation and Transmission Lines
The Richards transformation is a remarkable scheme that takes into account
the actual properties of transmission lines, yielding broadband transmission
linebased implementations of lumpedelement lter prototypes. Consider
a section of transmission line of electrical length with ABCD parameters
T =
_
cos () jZ
0
sin ()
j/Z
0
sin() cos ()
_
. (10.143)
If this line is terminated in a load, Z
L
, then its input impedance is
Z
in
() =
cos().Z
L
+jZ
0
. sin()
j/Z
0
sin().Z
L
+ cos()
. (10.144)
Now examine two extreme conditions. As the load impedance increases,
eventually becoming an open circuit, the input impedance of a line with
electrical length is dened in terms of a cotangent of the electrical length:
Z
L
Z
in
() =
Z
0
j
. cot() (10.145)
Y
in
() = jY
0
. tan(). (10.146)
As the load impedance reduces to become a short circuit, the input
impedance of a line with electrical length is dened in terms of a tangent
of the electrical length:
Z
L
0 Z
in
() = jZ
0
. tan(). (10.147)
These results lead to the Richards transformation, which replaces the
Laplace variable, s, by Richards variable, S, where S = jtan(). This
transformation is written
s S = jtan(). (10.148)
For now and are constants that can be chosen as design variables. ,
of course, is the electrical length of the line and is not just 90
for a /4
FILTERS 553
line. Also, must have the units of impedance and it is the characteristic
impedance of the transmission line.
Applying the Richards transformation to a capacitor, the admittance of
the element is transformed as follows:
y = sC Y = SC = jC tan(), (10.149)
so that the capacitor is transformed into an opencircuited stub with
characteristic admittance
Y
0
= C . (10.150)
If a lumpedelement capacitor with admittance y = sC is to be realized
using a transmission line, the admittance Y = SC = jC tan() is instead
realized. There are two parameters to select to realize this admittance. The
rst, , is the characteristic admittance of the transmission line (and for
any given transmission line topology there is a minimum and maximum
characteristic admittance or impedance that can be realized), and is the
electrical length of the line.
Applying the transformation to an inductor, the impedance of the element
is transformed as follows:
Z = sL Z = SL = jLtan(), (10.151)
so that the inductor is transformed into a shortcircuited stub with
characteristic impedance
Z
0
= L. (10.152)
Thus the Richards transform converts an inductor into a shortcircuited
stub and a capacitor into an opencircuited stub.
10.11.2 Richards Transformation and Stubs
There is a duality between stubs and inductors and capacitors; they are
coupled by Richards transformation. One of the important quantities used
in the transformation is the commensurate frequency, f
r
, which most often
is just twice the operating frequency, f
0
. Considering stubs that are one
quarter wavelength long at f
r
, the duality is as shown in Figure 1037.
10.11.3 Richards Transformation Applied to a Lowpass Filter
In this section, Richards transformation is used to realize a lumpedelement
lter in distributed form. The design example begins by considering a
Chebyshev lowpass lter with the transmission characteristic
T(s)
2
=
1
1 +
2
K (s)
2
. (10.153)
554 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
s, Laplace variable S, Richards variable
Schematic Equivalence
jX
Z
0
/4
r
Z
0
X = Z
0
f
r
= 2f
0
jX
Z
0
/4
r
jZ
0
Z
0
X = Z
0
f
r
= 2f
0
jX
Z
0 jZ
0
/4
r
Z
0
X = Z
0
f
r
= 2f
0
jX
Z
0
/4
r
jZ
0
Z
0
X = Z
0
f
r
= 2f
0
Figure 1037 Equivalences resulting from Richards transformation. With fr = 2f0
the transmission line stubs are oneeighth wavelength long at f0.
With the Richards transformation
s j jtan () , (10.154)
the response becomes
T (jtan )
2
=
1
1 +
2
K (jtan))
2
. (10.155)
Thus the passband edge at = 1 is mapped to =
1
as
1 tan(
1
) (10.156)
=
1
tan (
1
)
. (10.157)
Recalling that a capacitor is transformed into an opencircuited stub (see
Equation (10.150)), Richards transformation applied to the lowpass lter
prototype results in a lter with transmission line elements only, as shown
Figure 1038, provided that the inverters are realized using transmission
lines.
FILTERS 555
12
K
C
1
C
2
C
4
C
3
K
23
K
34
(a)
i i
= 1/( )
12
K
23
K
34
K Z
3
Z
2
Z
1
C
Z
4
Z
(b)
Figure 1038 Lowpass prototypes: (a) lowpass prototype as a ladder lter with
inverters; and (b) lowpass distributed prototype with opencircuited stubs (the
impedance looking into the stub is indicated).
The implementation of a lowpass lter in distributed form results in
passbands and stopbands that repeat in frequency, as shown in Figure 1039.
This occurs because transmission lines are used to realize lumped elements
and the impedance of a transmission repeats every wavelength (or half
wavelength in some cases). For example, the input impedance of a stub is
the same whether it is onehalf wavelength long or one wavelength long.
10.11.4 Richards Transformation Applied to a Highpass Filter
With reference to Figure 1040(a), the passband edge at = 1 is mapped to
1
, as shown in Figure 1040(b). This means that the passband at = 1 is
mapped to
1
as
1 tan(
1
) (10.158)
=
1
tan (
1
)
. (10.159)
The sequence of steps transforming a lumped lowpass prototype to its
distributed highpass prototype are shown in Figure 1041. As previously
discussed, all the inverters can be approximated by transmission lines of
length /2 at the corner frequency of the lter.
10.11.5 Kurodas Identities
Kurodas identities embody a number of specic manipulations using
impedance or admittance inverters. They are particularly useful in imple
menting Richards transformation as they physically separate transmission
556 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
=1
(rad/s) ) (s=j
j
(s) T
2
(a)
3
2
( ) T
2
(b)
Figure 1039 Lowpass to distributed lowpass transformation: (a) lowpass lter response; and (b)
distributed lowpass lter response.
=1
)
j
T (j
2
(a)
3
)
2
T (j
2
(b)
Figure 1040 Highpass to distributed highpass transformation: (a) highpass lter response; and (b)
distributed highpass lter response.
FILTERS 557
12
K
C
1
C
2
C
4
C
3
K
23
K
34
(a)
L
1
= = L
4
L
2
= = L
3
12
K
23
K
34
K
C
4
1
C
1
1
C
4
1
C
2
1
C
3
1
(b)
12
K
23
K
C
K
34
1 2
C C
3
C
4
(c)
Figure 1041 Ladder prototype transformation: (a) lowpass prototype; (b) highpass
prototype response; and (c) distributed highpass prototype (the input impedances of
the stubs are indicated).
line stubs, transform series stubs into shunt stubs, and can change charac
teristic impedances that are either too small or too high to practically realize.
Kurodas identities are a number of equivalent twoport networks, as shown
in Figure 1042. The proof is obtained by obtaining the ABCD parameters
of the two ports similar to the technique used throughout this chapter. The
identities shown in Figure 1042 are narrow band. With stubs, the Kuroda
identities have broader bandwidths. The Kuroda identities with stubs are
shown in Figure 1043. The major use of these identities is to transform de
signs with series stubs (in addition to possible shunt stubs) into designs with
shunt stubs only.
To see how these identities are used consider the identity shown in
Figure 1042(a). The network on the left has a series inductor which, using
transmission lines, is realized by a series stub. A series stub is difcult to
realize in most transmission line technologies, including microstrip. Using
the identity shown on the right in Figure 1042(a), the series stub is replaced
by the shunt stub used to realize the shunt capacitor. At the same time
impedance scaling can be used. If the impedance of the inverter in the
network on the left is too low, then it can be scaled by a factor n
2
, where
n
2
= 1 +Z
2
/Z
1
.
558 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
(d)
n
2
n
2
1:
n
2
n
2
n
2
:1
n
2
n
2
n
2
n
2
n
2
n
2
= 1 +
(a)
(b)
(c)
/Z
1
Z
2
Z
1
Z
2
Z
1
Z
1
Z
2
Z
2
Z
1 Z
1
Z
2
Z
2
Z
1
Z
2
Z
1
Z
1
Z
2
Z
2
Figure 1042 Kurodas identities. Here the inverters are impedance inverters and
the designation refers to the impedance of the inverter. Recall that an inverter of
impedance Z1 can be realized by a quarterwavelength long transmission line of
characteristic impedance Z1. (As usual, element impedances are indicated.)
10.12 Coupled Line Congurations
The coupled line model of a pair of coupled lines was presented in Figure 9
22 on Page 499. This model is repeatedin Figure 1044. The parameters of the
network model are related to the model impedances as follows, repeating
Equations (9.159) and (9.160):
n =
1
K
=
Z
0e
Z
0o
Z
oe
+Z
0o
(10.160)
Z
0
=
(Z
0e
Z
0o
), (10.161)
Z
01
=
Z
0
1 K
2
, (10.162)
Z
02
= Z
0
1 K
2
K
2
. (10.163)
Various terminating arrangements of the coupled lines result in several
useful lter elements. One arrangement is shown in Figure 1045. Also
shown in this gure is the development of the network model based on
FILTERS 559
n
2
n
2
= 1 +
n
2
:1
n
2
n
2
1:
n
2
n
2
n
2
n
2
n
2
n
2
(a)
(d)
(c)
(b)
Z
2
Z
1
Z
2
/Z
1
Z
1 Z
1
Z
2
Z
2
Z
2
Z
1
Z
1
Z
1
Z
1
Z
2
Z
2
Z
2
Z
2
Z
1
Figure 1043 The stub formof the Kuroda identities with impedance inverters. The
stub impedances shown are the input impedances of the stubs.
1
2
4
3
n:1 1:n
3
4
Z
02
Z
01
1
2
Figure 1044 Network model of a pair of coupled lines.
the model in Figure 922. The nal network model is a transmission line
of characteristic impedance Z
1
in cascade with an opencircuited stub.
Consider what happens at the resonant frequency, f
0
(the frequency at
which the lines are onequarter wavelength long). At lower frequencies,
f f
0
, the Z
2
line is an open circuit and signals travel along Z
1
. At
resonance the Z
2
stub becomes a short circuit and signals do not pass. This
is a crude verication that this is a lowpass structure. The process is visual
560 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
4
3
1
2
n:1 1:n
3
4
Z
02
Z
01
1
2
3
Z
01
Z
02
2
3
Z
02
Z
01
2
Figure 1045 Lowpass distributed network section derived froma pair of coupled lines with Port 1 open
circuited. The open circuit is indicated by a node (open circle) with a line through it. The nal network
model is a transmission line of characteristic impedance A1 and an opencircuited stub of impedance
characteristic impedance Z2. The lines are onequarter wavelength long at the corner frequency.
3
1
2
4
n:1 1:n
3
4
Z
02
Z
01
1
2
n:1
4
Z
01
Z
02
2
n:1
4
Z
02
Z
01
2
Figure 1046 Parallel coupledline section with Ports 1 and 3 opencircuited, and network models.
and is expected to be selfexplanatory. Other examples are shown in Figures
1046 to 1048.
A detailed combline lter design will be considered in the latter parts of
this chapter, so the nal model of a Parallel Coupled Line (PCL) section
FILTERS 561
1
2
4
3
:1 n 1:
4
3
n
1
Z
1
2
2
Z
n:1
4
Z
01
Z
02
2
n:1
4
Z
02
Z
01
2
Figure 1047 Interdigital section and network models.
1
2
4
3
n:1 1:n
3
4
Z
02
Z
01
1
2
n 1:
Z
02
Z
01
1 2
1:n
Z
02
Z
01
1
2
Z
011
Z
022
Z
012
2 1
Figure 1048 Combline section and network models.
562 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
n 1:
Z
02
Z
01
1 2
Z
011
Z
022
Z
012
2 1
(a) (b)
Figure 1049 Equivalent models of a section of combline.
in combline conguration has been taken further in Figure 1048 than for
the other sections, but equivalent reductions can be obtained. The nal
network reduction is repeated in Figure 1049, where it will be shown that
the model in Figure 1049(b) is equivalent to the model in Figure 1049(a). In
the combline lter synthesis the network of Figure 1049(b) is obtained and
this can be related back to the dimensions of the coupled line. As is done
throughout this chapter, the equivalence is done using ABCD parameters
and, as will be seen, the equivalence will not be at just one frequency but will
be broadband. The ABCD parameters of the network in Figure 1049(a) are
obtained by cascading the ABCD parameters of three twoports (the ABCD
parameters of which are given in Table 61 on Page 298):
T
A
= T
TRANSFORMER
T
SERIES STUB
T
SHUNT STUB
(10.164)
=
_
1/n 0
0 n
_ _
1 jZ
02
tan
0 1
_ _
1 0
j/(Z
01
tan ) 1
_
(10.165)
=
_
1/n jZ
02
tan /n
0 n
_ _
1 0
j/(Z
01
tan ) 1
_
(10.166)
=
_
1
n
_
1 +
Z02
Z01
_
jZ
02
tan /n
jn/(Z
01
tan ) n
_
. (10.167)
The ABCD parameters matrix of the network on Figure 1049(b):
T
B
= T
SHUNT STUB
T
SERIES STUB
T
SHUNT STUB
(10.168)
=
_
1 0
j/(Z
011
tan ) 1
_ _
1 jZ
012
tan
0 1
_ _
1 0
j/(Z
022
tan ) 1
_
(10.169)
=
_
1 jZ
012
tan
j/(Z
011
tan ) 1 +Z
012
/Z
011
_ _
1 0
j/(Z
022
tan ) 1
_
(10.170)
=
_
1 +
Z012
Z022
jZ
012
tan
j
tan
_
1
Z011
+
1
Z022
+
Z012
Z011Z022
_
1 +
Z012
Z011
_
. (10.171)
Equating Equations (10.167) and (10.171) yields
1 +
Z
012
Z
022
=
1
n
_
1 +
Z
02
Z
01
_
(10.172)
FILTERS 563
Z
012
= Z
02
/n (10.173)
_
Z
011
+Z
022
+Z
012
Z
011
Z
022
_
=
n
Z
01
(10.174)
1 +
Z
012
Z
011
= n, (10.175)
which has the solution
Z
012
=
Z
02
n
(10.176)
Z
011
=
Z
012
n 1
=
Z
02
n(n 1)
(10.177)
Z
022
=
Z
01
Z
02
Z
02
(n 1)Z
01
. (10.178)
Rearranging these, expressions for Z
01
, Z
02
, and n can be obtained, and from
Equations (9.159) and (9.160) and the coupled line analysis of Section 9.6, the
geometric parameters of the combline coupled line section can be obtained.
10.13 Inverter Network Scaling
A lter that uses transmission lines is nearly always synthesized from
a lter prototype that contains inverters. The synthesis of a lter begins
with a normalized prototype that is transformed to the desired frequency,
impedance, and type. It is the purpose of this section, to enable such scaling
when inverters are present in the prototype. In particular, it is shown that
scaling the admittance of the network of Figure 1050(a), a common inverter
subnetwork, by a factor x results in the network in Figure 1050(b).
The nodal admittance matrix of the network in Figure 1050(a) is
Y =
0 jJ 0
jJ y jJ
0 jJ 0
. (10.179)
Assigning nodal voltages to Terminals 1, 2, and 3 the nodal admittance
matrix equation is
0 jJ 0
jJ y jJ
0 jJ 0
v
1
v
2
v
3
J
1
0
J
3
, (10.180)
and by eliminating Node 2 using network condensation (see Section A.10
on Page 834) this reduces to
_
J
2
/y J
2
/y
J
2
/y J
2
/y
_ _
v
1
v
3
_
=
_
J
1
J
3
_
, (10.181)
564 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
y
1
0
J J
2 3
0 0
1
J
3
J
y
J
3
J
1
0
2 3 1
j/J
j/J
j/J
j/J
j/J
j/J
(a) (b)
1
y
1
x x
y = yx
2
0 0 0
J
3
J
1
J J
1 3
x y = yx
1
y
1
d =
J
3
J
1
0
J
1 2 3
j/d
j/d
j/d j/d
j/d
j/d
(c) (d)
Figure 1050 Inverter network: (a) network with two identical admittance inverters with an inserted
shunt element of admittance, y1; (b) equivalent network using equivalence shown in Figure 1019; (c)
scaled original network; and (d) scaled equivalent network. Element values are impedances except for y
and y1, which are admittances.
and this describes the external characteristics of the subnetwork in Figure
1050(a). The intent is to show that the network of Figure 1050(c), which is a
scaled version of the original network of Figure 1050(a), has an identical
external characteristic; that is, it has the same reduced nodal admittance
matrix. The nodal admittance matrix of the scaled network in Figure 10
50(c) is
Y
0 jJ
x 0
jJ
x yx jJ
x
0 jJ
x 0
. (10.182)
Assigning nodal voltages to Terminals 1, 2, and 3, the nodal admittance
matrix equation is
0 jJ
x 0
jJ
x yx jJ
x
0 jJ
x 0
v
1
v
2
v
3
J
1
0
J
3
, (10.183)
and by eliminating Node 2 this reduces to
_
(J
2
x)/(yx) (J
2
x)/(yx)
(J
2
x)/(yx) (J
2
x)/(yx)
_ _
v
1
v
3
_
=
_
J
2
/y J
2
/y
J
2
/y J
2
/y
_ _
v
1
v
3
_
=
_
J
1
J
3
_
. (10.184)
Thus the original network shown in Figure 1050(a) has identical external
electrical characteristics as the scaled network of Figure 1050(c), with
FILTERS 565
(d)
1 nH
IMPEDANCE OR ADMITTANCE
INVERTERS
y
ADMITTANCE INVERTERS
1
C
= 0.1 S = 0.1 S
1 1
1 nF
C
(a) (b) (c)
1
C
IMPEDANCE INVERTERS
10 pF
x x
y = yx
1
10 10
J J
Figure 1051 Realization of a series inductor as a shunt capacitor with inverters.
the characteristic admittance of the inverters scaled by
2. So the
network of Figure 1052 can be replaced by a network where the shunt
elements have the desired property of being identical.
10.14.2 ThirdOrder Chebyshev Combline Filter
The design of a thirdorder Chebyshev combline bandpass lter is presented
here as an example of the lter design procedure based on synthesis. The
design is presented in steps and brings together many of the concepts
presented in this chapter.
Step 1: Choice of Lowpass Filter Prototype
Design begins with the choice of a prototype that is expected to achieve the
required specications. If the choice is not suitable then another topology
FILTERS 567
must be chosen. Consider a thirdorder Chebyshev lowpass lter prototype,
shown in Figure 1053, with a passband ripple of = 0.1.
1
1
1
C
2
V
g
C
L
1
C1 = 0.85239 F = C2 L1 = 1.10422 H
Figure 1053 Step 1. A thirdorder Chebyshev lowpass lter prototype.
Step 2: Replace Series Elements
The next step in the transformation of the lowpass prototype in Figure 1053
is to replace the inductor by a shunt capacitor in cascade with admittance
inverters, as shown in Figure 1054. This step uses the series inductor
transformation shown in Figure 1016.
1:1
C
1
L
1
C
3
1
1 1 1
(a)
C
1
C
3
L
1
1
1 1 1
(b)
C1 = 0.85239 F = C3 L1 = 1.10422 F
Figure 1054 Step 2. Prototype lter with inductor replaced by a capacitor and
admittance inverter combination: (a) with unity inverting transformer; and (b) with
the transformer eliminated as it has no effect on the lter response. Note that L1 has
the units of farads.
Step 3: Bandpass Filter Transformation
Now the prototype can be scaled to the bandpass circuit. The lter has
10% bandwidth with approximate corner frequencies at f
1
= 950 MHz and
f
2
= 1050 MHz. Using the lter type transformations in Figure 1030, and
0
= 210
9
and =
0
/(
2
1
) = 1/fractional bandwidth) = 10, the rst
568 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
V
g
1
1 1 1
L C C L C L
1 1 2 3 2 3
C
1
= 1356.6272 pF = C
3
L
1
= 0.018718 nH = L
3
C
2
= 1757.435 pF L
2
= 0.014444 nH
Figure 1055 Step 3. Bandpass lter prototype with inverters derived from the
lowpass lter prototype of Figure 1054.
 /
/  /
/  /
/  /
/  /
/  /
/
L
1
L
1
C
2
C
2
L
3 3
C
50
50 50 50
C
1
= 27.1325 pF = C
3
L
1
= 0.9359 nH = L
3
C
2
= 35.1487 pF L
2
= 0.7224 nH
Figure 1056 Step 4. Bandpass lter approximation where the inverters are now
impedance inverters.
capacitor in Figure 1054, C
1
, is transformed to
C
1
=
C
1
0
= 1356.6272 pF and L
1
=
1
C
1
0
= 0.018718 nH. (10.185)
The other capacitors are transformed similarly and the bandpass prototype
becomes that shown in Figure 1055.
Step 4: Impedance Scaling
The systemimpedance is nowscaled from1 to 50 , leading to the prototype
in Figure 1056.
Step 5: Conversion of LumpedElement Resonators
Each lumpedelement resonator in Figure 1055 comprises a lumped
capacitor and a lumped inductor. The inductors are particularly difcult to
realize efciently and have high loss. The idea here is to replace each lumped
resonator (e.g., C
1
and L
1
in Figure 1055) with a network comprising a
lumped capacitor and a transmission line stub. The resonator equivalence is
shown in Figure 1057. The equivalence is developed at the center frequency
of the lter passband by making sure that the circuits have the same
admittance at the lter center frequency. A broadband approximation is
FILTERS 569
L
1
C
1
C
0 Z
1
Z
01
, Z
01
1
Z
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 1057 Resonator equivalence: (a) lumped resonator resonant at radian
frequency ; (b) mixed lumpeddistributed resonator containing a resonant short
circuited stub of characteristic impedance Z0 resonant at radian frequency r; and
(c) shortcircuited transmission line stub resonant at radian frequency r. In (b) and
(c) Z01 is the characteristic impedance of the transmission line and Z1 is the input
impedance of the shorted transmission line.
Z
Z
1
01
At r, = 90
, Z1 =
At = r, = 45
, Z1 = jZ01
Figure 1058 Shortcircuited transmission line used as a stub resonator in a
bandpass lter. The line is resonant at the radian frequency r and so the electrical
length of the line is = 90
2
LC 1
_
L
, (10.186)
with frequency derivative at resonance of
dY
in
d
=
j
_
2
LC + 1
_
2
L
. (10.187)
Now consider a shortcircuited stub that is resonant at a radian frequency
r
; that is, the shortcircuited stub is onequarter wavelength long at
r
.
Thus the input impedance of the stub at
r
is innite. FromEquation (4.139),
the input impedance at is
Z
1
= jZ
01
tan
_
r
_
. (10.188)
570 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
Since resonant frequency of the stub, f
r
, is twice the center frequency of the
passband, Equation (10.188) becomes
Z
1
= jZ
01
tan
_
4
_
= jZ
01
. (10.189)
Thus for the lumpeddistributed element in Figure 1057(b), the input
admittance is
Y
in
=
j
_
C
o
Z
01
tan
_
r
_
1
_
Z
01
tan
_
r
_ , (10.190)
where
r
is the resonant frequency. The frequency derivative at resonance is
dY
in
d
= j
1
2
_
2C
o
Z
01
_
tan
_
r
__
2
r
+ +
_
tan
_
r
__
2
_
Z
01
_
tan
_
r
__
2
r
. (10.191)
For the lumpedelement and distributed lters to be identical at the center
frequency and approximating each other at nearby frequencies, Equations
(10.186) and (10.190) are equated:
Y
in
= Y
in
(10.192)
and Equations (10.187) and (10.191) are also equated:
dY
in
d
=
dY
in
d
. (10.193)
Specic Design Choice
r
= 2
0
At this stage a design choice must be made regarding the relationship of
0
to
r
; that is, the resonant frequency of the stubs in relation to the passband
center frequency. Here a shorted stub is considered which will present an
open circuit at its input when it is /4 long. The specic design choice is
that the resonant frequency of the stubs, f
r
, is chosen to be twice the center
frequency of the lter passband, that is,
r
= 2
0
. The frequency f
r
is
generally called the commensurate frequency to avoid confusion resulting
from the resonant frequency of the lter resonators being different from
the resonant frequency of stubs. The stub design proceeds as follows. The
equivalence of Equations (10.192) and (10.193) are established at the center
of the passband, 1 GHz, and so = 210
9
at the center of the passband
and
r
= 2(2 10
9
) denes the stub resonant frequency as 2 GHz. Now
=
1
2
r
, so Equations (10.192), (10.186), and (10.190) become, with
r
= 2,
j
_
_
r
2
_
2
LC 1
_
r
2
L
=
j
_
r
2
C
0
Z
01
tan
_
2
r/2
r
_
1
_
Z
01
tan
_
2
r/2
r
_ . (10.194)
FILTERS 571
That is,
_
2
r
LC 4
_
2
r
L
=
_
r
2
C
0
Z
0
tan
4
1
_
Z
01
tan
4
. (10.195)
Since tan
4
= 1,
_
2
r
LC 4
_
2
r
L
=
_
r
2
C
0
Z
01
1
_
Z
01
, (10.196)
and rearranging,
C
0
= C
4
2
r
L
+
2
r
Z
01
. (10.197)
Another relationship comes from equating derivatives. From Equations
(10.193), (10.187), and (10.191), and with =
1
2
r
and tan(
1
2
r
) = tan
4
= 1,
_
2
r
LC + 4
_
2
r
L
=
1
2
_
2C
0
Z
01
2
r
2
+ +
_
Z
01
r
2
=
_
C
0
Z
01
2
r
+ 2
_
Z
01
r
. (10.198)
Substituting for C
0
from Equation (10.197) and rearranging, the characteris
tic impedance of the stub is
Z
01
=
r
L
4
_
1 +
2
_
. (10.199)
In the passband, which is at half the resonant frequency of the stub because
of design choice, the input impedance of the stub in the passband is
Z
1
= jZ
01
tan = jZ
01
. (10.200)
Now consider the rst resonator in Figure 1056 with L = 0.9359 nH and
C = 27.1325 pF. With
r
= 2(2 GHz), then from Equation (10.199),
Z
01
= 7.558 , (10.201)
and from Equation (10.197),
C
0
= 21.123 pF. (10.202)
This process is repeated for each lumpedelement resonator in Figure 1056,
leading to the prototype shown in Figure 1059.
Steps 6 and 7: Equating Characteristic Impedances of Stubs
The stubs in Figure 1059 can be physically realized using transmission
line segments. It would be ideal if the impedances of the stubs (i.e., the
impedances looking into the stubs) are identical. To achieve this, the method
of nodal admittance matrix scaling described in Section 10.13 on Page 563
is used with the inverters scaled by
_
Z
1
/Z
2
and the admittance, C
2
//Z
2
,
572 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
/ / / /
/ /
1 2 3
1
C Z
02 2
C C
3
Z
03
Z
01
50 50
50
50
C
1
= 21.123 pF = C
3
C
2
= 27.363 pF
Z01 = 7.558 = Z03 Z02 = 5.834 (10.203)
Figure 1059 Step 5. Bandpass combline lter with impedance inverters. The
transmission line stubs present impedances Z1 = jZ01, Z2 = jZ02, and Z3 = jZ03
since the resonant frequencies of the stubs are twice that of the design center
frequency.
/ / / / / / /
/
Z
01
Z
02
Z
03
2
C
1
C C
3
56.9102 56.9102
50
50
C
2
= 21.1204 pF and Z
02
= 7.558 = Z01 = Z03
Figure 1060 Step 6. Bandpass combline lter with impedance inverters. Again
Z1 = jZ01, Z2jZ02, and Z3jZ03 are the input impedances of the stubs since the
resonant frequencies of the stubs is twice that of the design center frequency.
56.9102
j j
j
56.9102 56.9102
56.9102
j 56.9102
j 56.9102
j 56.9102
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 1061 Inverter translation used with the combline lter design: (a) impedance inverter; (b)
realization as a lumped element circuit; and (c) realization using shortcircuited stubs resonant at twice
the passband center frequency.
scaled by Z
1
/Z
2
. This step scales each inverter impedance to 56.9102 and
also sets the impedance of all the shunt stubs to 7.558 . The combline lter
is now as shown in Figure 1060.
On Page 540 it was shown that a good narrowband model of an inverter
comprises a pi network of stubs. So the inverter in the current lter design,
shown in Figure 1061(a), is modeled by the lumped element circuit in
Figure 1061(b) and the stub circuit shown in Figure 1061(c).
FILTERS 573
j
j
Z
01
= 56.9102
Z
x
7.588 56.9102
= 7.588
j j 7.588 56.9102
j 8.7161
j
Z
01
= 8.7161
8.7161
C
2
= 21.1204 pF and Z
2
= 7.558 = Z1 = Z3
Figure 1062 Step 6b. Bandpass combline lter with impedance inverters. Again
Z1, Z2, and Z3 are the input impedances of the stubs
Stub Impedance When f
r
= 2f
0
The most commonly used design choice is to choose the resonant (or
commensurate) frequency of the resonator to be twice the center frequency
of the design. The resonant frequency f
r
= 2
r
of the shorted transmission
line stub is the frequency at which the length of the stub is onequarter
wavelength long.
3
So the common design choice is that f
r
= 2f
0
. Then
Equation (10.122) becomes
Z
0
=
1
J tan
_
2
0
20
_ =
1
J tan
_
4
_ =
1
J
= K. (10.204)
Equation (10.204) denes the characteristic impedance of the transmission
lines stubs realizing an inverter. Then the elements of the subnetwork in
Figure 1061(b) have the parameters
J = 1/K = 56.9102 = 17.5715 mS (10.205)
3
Of course there are resonant frequencies at every multiple of onequarter wavelength. The
rst resonance occurs at fr, as then the input impedance of the shortcircuited stub is an
open circuit.
574 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
/ / /
/
/ / / / / / /
Z
03
C
3
Z
02 2
C
1
C Z
01
Z
012
Z
023
50
50
C
1
= 21.1215 pF = C
3
C
2
= 21.1204 pF Z
02
= 10.2915
Z
01
= 8.7161 = Z
03
Z012 = 56.9102 = Z023
(10.207)
Figure 1063 Step 7: Bandpass lter approximation where Z
01
, Z
02
, Z
03
, Z012, and
Z023 are the characteristic impedances of the stubs which are resonant at frequency
frtwice the center frequency of the bandpass lter.
t t t
t t
2
C
Z
0 23
Z
0 12
C
3 0
Z
t 1 0
Z
t 2 0
Z
t 3
C
1
388.6681
388.6681
Ct1 = 2.7171 pF = Ct3 Ct2 = 2.7171 pF
Z0t1 = 67.7535 = Z0t3 Z0t2 = 80 Z0t12 = 442.3836 = Z0t23
Figure 1064 Step 8: Bandpass lter approximation.
Z
0
=
1
J tan ()
=
K
tan ()
=
K
tan
_
r
_
=0
= 56.9102 . (10.206)
At this stage there are several pairs of stubs in parallel. Figure 1062
illustrates how a pair of parallel stubs is realized by a single stub. Finally,
the prototype in Figure 1063 is developed.
Step 8: Scaling Characteristic Impedances of Stubs
In Figure 1063 the shortcircuited stubs have characteristic impedances of
8.7 and 10.3 , which is low, and will result in wide microstrip lines.
These will be scaled to a different impedance level to raise the characteristic
impedances of the shortcircuited stubs. Note that the characteristic
impedance of the middle shortcircuited stub can be raised to 80 if the
system impedance is raised from 50 to 388.6681 . This leads to the
element values complying with the bandpass circuit of Figure 1064.
Step 9: Scaling to 50 System Impedance
For the lter to operate in a 50 system, input and output impedance
inverters are required to scale the source and load back to 50 . The
FILTERS 575
t t t
t t
139.404
139.404
Z
0 23
Z
0 12
C
3 0
Z
t 1 0
Z
t 2 2
C
0
Z
t 3
C
1
50
50
Figure 1065 Step 9: Bandpass lter approximation.
K
R
L
R
L
/4
0
Z
(a) (b)
Figure 1066 Inverter equivalence: (a) terminated impedance inverter; and (b) its
equivalent transmission line form where Z0 = K. The equivalence is exact at the
frequency where the transmission line is onequarter wavelength long.
K R
L
R
L
Y
in
Y
in
C
C
a
b
Figure 1067 Equivalence of an inverter and a capacitor section. Note that one of
the capacitors must be negative.
resulting circuit is shown in Figure 1065 with input and output inverters
of impedance
0t2
= 80 Z0t12 = 442.3836 = Z0t23
Figure 1069 Step 10: The bandpass lter approximation combining the capacitive
equivalent of the inverters with the rst and last resonators in the circuit of Figure
1065.
Thus, equating the real parts of Equations (10.208) and (10.209),
(Y
in
) =
R
L
2
C
2
b
R
2
L
2
C
2
b
+ 1
=
R
L
(Z
0
)
2
, (10.210)
and equating the imaginary parts yields
(Y
in
) =
_
C
a
2
C
2
b
R
2
L
+C
a
+C
b
_
2
C
2
b
R
2
L
+ 1
= 0. (10.211)
Solving Equations (10.210) and (10.211) enables us to replace the inverters
shown in Figure 1065 with the capacitive networks as shown in Figure 10
68. This capacitive network is not a general replacement of an inverter. It
only works when the inverter is terminated in a resistor. Note that C
a
is
negative, and this is absorbed in the rst and last resonators so that the nal
lumpedelement realization is as shown in Figure 1069.
10.14.4 Interresonator Coupling
A conguration that can often occur in combline lter design is
interresonator coupling, occurring as illustrated for a pair of capacitors
separated by an admittance inverter
FILTERS 577
12
J
in
Z
C C
1 2
Figure 1070 Bandpass lter approximation with an admittance inverter.
C
Y
in
L
Figure 1071 Bandpass resonator.
A lowpass lter section is shown in Figure 1070, where, for a bandpass
lter, each capacitor is replacedby a resonator, as shown in Figure 1071. The
inverter therefore provides interresonator coupling. The input impedance of
the circuit in Figure 1070 is
Z
in(s)
=
1
sC
1
+
J
2
12
sC2
. (10.212)
With s = +j, the poles of Z
in
occur when
J
2
12
2
C
1
C
2
= 0, (10.213)
thus the radian frequencies of the poles are
=
J
12
C
1
C
2
. (10.214)
Applying the bandpass transformation (so that the capacitors are replaced
by the resonators of Figure 1071), the frequency is transformed as
=
_
_
(10.215)
and the poles of the bandpass lter occur at
1
_
= +
J
12
C
1
C
2
(10.216)
and
2
_
=
J
12
C
1
C
2
. (10.217)
578 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
The bandwidth of the bandpass lter is
2
=
J
12
C
1
C
2
. (10.218)
Solving the above equations yields
f
1
f
2
=
J
12
o
2
C
1
C
2
, (10.219)
which is called the coupling bandwidth. The coupling bandwidth for the
rst pair of resonators in the lter of Figure 1069 is shown in Figure 1072.
This is a measure of the coupling between the rst and second resonators
when the source and the third resonator are eliminated from the circuit.
Since the lter is physically symmetrical, the same plot is valid for the
coupling between the second and third resonators.
10.14.5 Input Coupling
Figure 1071 shows a bandpass resonator with input admittance
Y
in
(s) = SC +
1
SL
(10.220)
and a reection coefcient in a 1 system of
(s)
=
1 Y
in
(s)
1 +Y
in
(s)
= a +jb, (10.221)
where a and b are the real and imaginary parts. With s = j, the phase of
is
() = tan
1
_
b
a
_
(10.222)
and the group delay function is the differential of the phase as follows:
Group delay =
d
d
=
d
d
_
tan
1
_
b
a
__
. (10.223)
The peak of the group delay occurs at the resonant frequency of the
resonator. Figure 1072 shows the typical response of a bandpass lter.
10.14.6 Implementation
The physical layout of the lter designed in the previous sections is shown
in Figure 1073 where there are three parallel lines forming two pairs
of coupled lines. The lter synthesis accounts for the effect of parasitic
capacitances and the inductive effect of vias among other nonidealities.
FILTERS 579
0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 0.80 1.20
40
30
20
10
50
0
40
30
20
10
50
0
FREQUENCY (GHz)
S
2
1
(
d
B
)
S
1
1
(
d
B
)
m1
(a)
(b)
0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 0.80 1.20
1
2
3
4
5
0
6
FREQUENCY (GHz)
G
R
O
U
P
D
E
L
A
Y
(
n
s
)
m1
(c)
Figure 1072 Interresonator response with two resonators: (a) magnitude of
transmission and reection responses; (b) phase of transmission response; and (c)
group delay.
580 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
INPUT OUTPUT
1 2
C
b
C
b C
1
C
2
C
3
50
50
PORT 2
w
1
w
2
w
3
s
2
s
3
s
4
s
5
5
w
6
w
s
1
PORT 1
(a) (b)
Figure 1073 Physical layout of the combline bandpass lter designed in Sections 10.1410.14.5: (a) with
discrete capacitors; and (b) with integrated capacitors.
The bandwidth of the lter is particularly sensitive to the strength of the
coupling of the parallel lines. Coupling can be thought of as a second
order effect, with the single transmission line propagation on the lines being
rst order. It is therefore not a surprise that small thirdorder effects can
signicantly impact lter performance. Following the synthesis outlined
in the previous subsections, the lter layout is typically modeled in an
electromagnetic simulator and the lengths adjusted and spacing of the
transmission line segments adjusted. However, dimensions are usually only
adjusted a fewpercent for lters with center frequencies of a gigahertz, with
greater adjustment at higher frequencies. An exception is the separation of
the lines, which can change signicantly as small perturbations can result in
additional (parasitic) coupling so that even EM simulation is not sufcient
to x the design of a lter. Iterative design, fabrication, and testing is usually
required to meet specications, especially if the lter bandwidth is relatively
narrow (say less than 5%). The emphasis placed on the inverters having the
same impedance translates into each of the coupled lines having the same
length, about onequarter wavelength at the center of the passband. It would
not be possible to realize inverters of different impedances using the layout
of Figure 1073.
10.15 Parallel Coupled Line Filters in an Inhomogeneous
Medium
An additional complexity arises when this lter is realized on an
inhomogeneous transmission media due to the inequality of the even and
oddmode phase velocities. This effect can be investigated by utilizing the
full ABCDmatrix (see Equation (9.150)) of each PCL section in a lter for a
known even:oddmode velocity ratio. The inhomogeneous medium results
in additional spurious passbands centered approximately at even multiples
of f
0
[145159].
FILTERS 581
2
C
1
C
3
C
1 1 1
1
C
1
= 0.85239F = C
3
C
2
= 1.10422 F
Figure 1074 Bandpass lter approximation.
1
1
L
1
L
2
L
3
1 1
L
1
= L
3
=
1
C1
=
1
C3
= 1.1743 H L
2
=
1
C2
= 0.9064 H
Figure 1075 Bandstop lter prototype.
2 1
1
L
1
C
2
C
L L
3
C
3
1
1 1
L
1
= L
3
= 1.868 nH C
1
= C
3
= 13.587 pF
L
2
= 1.442 nH C
2
= 17.601 pF
Figure 1076 Bandstop lter following transformation fromthe lowpass prototype.
10.16 Design of a Bandstop Filter
Design of the bandstop lter begins with the lowpass lter prototype shown
in Figure 1074. To the lowpass prototype, the highpass transformation is
applied to obtain the highpass prototype of Figure 1075. Picking a center
frequency of approximately 1 GHz and corner frequencies of f
1
= 950 MHz
and f
2
= 1050 MHz, corresponding to a bandwidth of approximately 10%,
the bandstop transformation is now applied. This results in the prototype
of Figure 1076. Finally, scaling the system impedance to 50 leads to the
prototype of Figure 1077.
It can be seen that the difference between the capacitor and inductor
impedance values is very large. The impedance inverters must remain set
at 50 in order to obtain broad match. In fact, approximating the inverters
by sections of transmission lines will have virtually no effect on the response
in the bandstop region. In the passband, energy will pass at all frequencies.
582 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
50
50
50 50
2
2
L
1
C
1
L
C
L
C
3
3
L
1
= L
3
= 1.868 50 = 93.448 nH
C
1
= C
3
= 13.587/50 = 0.2717 pF
L
2
= 1.442 50 = 72.1362 nH
C
2
= 17.601/50 = 0.352 pF
Figure 1077 Bandstop lter after impedance transformation.
L
C
C
1
L
1
C
0
(a) (b)
Figure 1078 Transformations of the resonators in the bandstop lter to obtain
realizable values. The series LC resonator in (a) is transformed to the form in (b).
In Figure 1077, the inductor values are relatively large and the capacitor
values are relatively small so that it will be difcult to realize the lter in
either lumped or distributed form. These values must be scaled to obtain
realizable values. One possible transformation is shown in Figure 1078. To
establish that the lefthand and righthand networks are equivalent, at least
near one frequency, the impedances and derivatives must be matched. For
the circuit in Figure 1078(a),
Z
1
= j
2
LC 1
C
(10.224)
dZ
1
d
= j
2
LC + 1
2
C
, (10.225)
and for the circuit in Figure 1078(b),
Z
2
= j
2
L
1
C
1
1 +
2
L
1
C
0
C
0
(1
2
L
1
C
1
)
(10.226)
dZ
2
d
= j
4
L
2
1
C
2
1
2
2
L
1
C
1
+
4
L
2
1
C
0
C
1
+
2
L
1
C
0
+ 1
2
C
0
(
2
L
1
C
1
1)
2
. (10.227)
FILTERS 583
~_
~_
1.1838 pF
5 nH
(b) (a)
5 nH
1.3461 pF
72.1362 nH
0.352 pF
(c) (d)
5 nH
5 nH
(e)
3.8942 pF
0.2717 pF
93.448 nH
3.7322 pF
50 50
50
50
5 nH
1.1838 pF
3.8942 pF 3.732 pF
1.3461 pF 1.1838 pF
3.8942 pF
Figure 1079 Intermediate bandstop lter prototype.
_~
0
(a) (b)
Z
L C
Figure 1080 Equivalence of shunt bandpass resonator to shunt shortcircuited
stub.
Equating the above equations enables C
0
and C
1
to be found for a chosen
value of L
1
. This results in the circuit of Figure 1079.
At this stage the bandpass resonators are then equated to shortcircuited
stubs (see Figure 1080) through the following relationships:
Y
1
= j
_
2
CL 1
_
L
(10.228)
Y
2
=
1
jZ
0
tan
_
r
_. (10.229)
584 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
f
r =
r
2
=1.1026 GHz
f
r =
r
2
=1.1182 GHz f
r =
r
2
=1.1182 GHz
(e)
1.1838 pF
50
50 50
20 20 20
50
1.1838 pF 1.3461 pF
(a)
5 nH 3.8942 pF
5 nH 3.7322 pF
(b)
20
(d)
20
(c)
Figure 1081 Bandstop lter prototype using stub approximations. The stub in (b)
is the transmission line approximation of the parallel resonant circuit in (a). The stub
in (d) approximates the circuit in (c).
The above equations can be solved to obtain
r
for a selected Z
0
. The
impedance, Z
0
, is selected so that the frequency,
r
, is not too far away
from the upper bandedge frequency of the lter, in this case 1.05 GHz. This
results in the bandstop lter prototype with stubs shown in Figure 1081.
The nal physical layout of the bandstop lter is shown in Figure 1082 with
the response shown in Figure 1083.
10.17 Alternative Bandpass Filter Topologies
In the previous sections it was seen that the essential structure of a bandpass
lter comprises resonators that are coupled to each other. The combline
lter considered previously is one of the commonly used lter topologies
and here the coupling is the coupling of parallel lines. Many other types
of coupling structures can be used. Figure 1084 shows another distributed
bandpass lter topology utilizing endcoupled microstrip resonators. For
these endcoupled resonator lters the coupling must be as strong as
possible, so the gaps are usually much smaller than the substrate height.
FILTERS 585
through line
0
/4
0
/4
0
/4
_
~
gap capacitor
resonator
CIRCUIT
FILTER
COUPLED LINE UNCOUPLED LINE
OUT
JINVERTER
EQUIVALENT
1/4 1/4
1/2 TANK CIRCUIT
IN
LOW PASS
NEGATIVE RESISTANCE
Figure 1089 An active coupled distributed lter: (a) schematic; and (b) equivalent circuit. After Chang
and Itoh [166].
bandpass, lowpass, and highpass lters, and the notch frequency is
z
for
the bandstop lter. Biquadratic lters are an important class of lters as they
are the basic building block used in active lters. Even when they are used
as passive lters, they describe secondorder lters which are about the best
that can reasonably be obtained using lumped elements at RF.
10.18.3 Distributed Active Filters
At high microwave frequencies, good results can be obtained by combining
distributed elements with a gain stage. Commonly the active devices are
used as coupling devices. A negative resistance can be produced using
the active devices that can compensate for the losses associated with
the transmission line elements or lumped passive elements in the lter.
The concept uses a resonant tank circuit formed by a transmission line
or lumpedelement resonator with a negative resistance coupled into the
tank circuit by the active devices [164166]. This concept is illustrated in
Figure 1089. Here a onehalf wavelength resonator forms a resonant circuit
(commonly called a tank circuit in this context). A negative resistance is
coupled into the tank circuit to compensate for losses in the resonator and
the result is effectively a lossless tank circuit.
An active resonator circuit is shown in Figure 1090. The design of the
lossless resonator is based on the negative resistance obtained when the
capacitor is connected at the source of the MESFET. This element in the
source provides a feedback path between the output of the circuit, the
draintoground voltage, and the input gatetosource voltage. An increase
in the drainsource current leads to a voltage at the source that changes
FILTERS 591
C
FB
G
V
OUTPUT
SOURCE BIAS
DRAIN BIAS
Figure 1090 An active resonator circuit. After Karacaoglu and Robertson [167].
the gatesource voltage. This induces a negative resistance that is adjusted
through device selection and feedback capacitance, C
FB
, to compensate
for inductor losses. An additional inductor, L
P
, is added at the gate. The
inductor resonates with the series combination of C
FB
and C
GS
. C
FB
can
be implemented using a varactor diode to enable electronic tuning.
10.19 Summary
Radio frequency and microwave lter design combines the synthesis of
required performance and the intuitive realization that particular structures
have a desired frequency selectivity. The synthesis approach provides
design insight and exploitation of all parameters of a transfer function
leading to optimum network topologies. Synthesis can be time consuming
and specialized, but it is the only way to develop lters with optimum
performance. Insight gain during design identies yield issues. The other
aspect of lter design is identication of particular lter topologies that
match the function of the lter being realized. The popular combline lter,
for example, exploits the properties of coupled microstrip transmission
lines. Once a lter with appropriate topology has been designed, the
physical realization is optimized in a circuit simulator to account for
parasitics and higherorder EMeffects. The same procedure applies to active
lter designs where particular circuit topologies, for example, the biquad
network blocks, are exploited.
10.20 Exercises
1. Consider the design of a fourthorder lowpass
Butterworth lter. This problem follows the
development in Section 10.4 on Page 514.
(a) What is the magnitudesquared charac
teristic polynomial, K(s)
2
, of the Butter
worth lter?
(b) What is the magnitudesquaredtransmis
sion coefcient (or transfer function)?
(c) What is the magnitudesquaredreection
coefcient function?
(d) Derive the reection coefcient function
(i.e., (s)). Write down the reection co
efcient in factorized form using up to
secondorder factors.
(e) What are the roots of the numerator poly
nomial of the reection coefcient func
tion?
(f) What are the roots of the denominator
polynomial of the reection coefcient
function?
592 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
(g) Identify the conjugate pole pairs in the
factorized reection coefcient.
(h) Plot the poles and zeros of the reection
coefcient on the complex s plane.
2. Synthesize the impedance function
Zx =
s
3
+s
2
+ 2s + 1
s
2
+s + 1
.
That is, develop the RLC circuit that realizes
Zx. [Parallels Example 10.2 on Page 522.]
3. Synthesize the impedance function
Zw =
4s
2
+ 2s + 1
8s
3
+ 8s
2
+ 2s + 1
.
That is, develop the RLC circuit that realizes
Zw. [Parallels Example 10.3 on Page 525.]
4. Develop the lowpass prototype of a fth
order Butterworth lowpass lter. There may
be more than one solution. That is, draw the
circuit of the lowpass lter prototype with el
ement values.
5. In Section 10.8.2 on Page 534 it was seen that
a series inductor can be replaced by a shunt
capacitor with inverters and a negative unity
transformer. If the inverter is realized with
a onequarter wavelength long transmission
line of characteristic impedance 50 :
(a) Derive the ABCD parameters of the cas
cade of Figure 1016(c) with 50 invert
ers.
(b) What is the value of the shunt capaci
tance in the cascade required to realize a
1 nH inductor?
6. In Section 10.8.3 on Page 536 it was seen that
a series capacitor can be replaced by a shunt
inductor with inverters and a negative unity
transformer. Consider that the inverters are
realized with a onequarter wavelength long
transmission line of characteristic impedance
100 .
(a) Derive the ABCD parameters of the cas
cade of Figure 1017 with the 100 in
verters.
(b) What is the value of the shunt inductance
in the cascade required to realize a 1 pH
capacitor?
7. A series inductor of 10 pH must be realized
by an equivalent circuit using shunt capaci
tors and sections of onequarter wavelength
long 1 transmission line. Design the equiv
alent circuit. [Hint: The onequarter wave
length long lines are impedance inverters.]
8. A series inductor of 10 nH must be realized
by an equivalent circuit using shunt capacitors
and sections of onequarter wavelength long
50 transmission line. [Hint: The onequarter
wavelength long lines are impedance invert
ers.] Design the equivalent circuit.
9. A 0.04 S admittance inverter is to be imple
mented in microstrip using a single length of
transmission line. The effective permittivity of
the line is 9 and the design center frequency is
10 GHz.
(a) What is the characteristic impedance of
the transmission line?
(b) What is the wavelength in millimeters at
the design center frequency in free space?
(c) What is the wavelength in millimeters
at the design center frequency in mi
crostrip?
(d) What is electrical length of the microstrip
transmission line in degrees at the design
center frequency?
(e) What is the length of the microstrip trans
mission line in millimeters?
10. A50 impedance inverter is to be realized us
ing three resonant stubs. The center frequency
of the design is f0. The resonant frequency of
the stubs is fr = 2f0.
(a) Draw the circuit using shorted stubs.
On your diagram indicate the input
impedance and characteristic impedance
of each of the stubs if fr = 2f0.
(b) What is the input impedance of a shorted
oneeighth wavelength long transmis
sion if the characteristic impedance of the
line is Z1.
(c) What is the input impedance of an open
ended oneeighth wavelength long trans
mission if the characteristic impedance of
the line is Z2.
FILTERS 593
(d) What is the length of each of the stubs in
the inverter in terms of the wavelengths
at the resonant frequency f0?
11. At 5 GHz, a series 5 nH inductor is to be re
alized using one or more 75 impedance in
verters, a unity transformer, and a capacitor.
What is the value of the capacitor?
12. This problem considers the design of a But
terworth or maximally at bandpass lter at
900 MHz.
(a) Design an LC secondorder Butterworth
lowpass lter with a corner frequency
of 1 radian/s. (The secondorder Butter
worth polynomial in s is c2s
s
+ c1s + c0,
where c2 = 1.000, c1 = 1.414, and c0 =
1.000 .) This lter is known as a lter pro
totype because of the normalized 1 Hz
corner frequency.
(b) Using the above lter prototype, design a
lowpass lter with a corner frequency of
1800 MHz.
(c) Design a secondorder Butterworth
bandpass lter at 900 MHz using the
above lowpass lter prototype. Use a
transformation constant a = 0.1. What
is the 3 dB bandwidth of this lter?
13. Design a thirdorder maximally at bandpass
lter prototype in a 50 system centered at
1 GHz with a 10% bandwidth. The lowpass
prototype of a maximally at lter was devel
oped in Example 102 on page 522 The lowpass
prototype is shown in Figure 1010. The prob
lem will parallel the development in Section
10.14 on Page 566 and the end result of this
development will be a bandpass prototype l
ter with the form of that in Figure 1063. Note
that there will be differences as the lter is a
different type.
(a) Convert the prototype lowpass lter to a
lowpass lter with inverters and capaci
tors only; that is, remove the series induc
tors.
(b) Scale the lter to take the corner fre
quency from 1 rad/s to 1 GHz.
(c) Transform the lowpass lter into a band
pass lter. That is, replace each shunt ca
pacitor by a parallel LC network. This
step will establish the bandwidth of the
lter. (The circuit will now be in a form
similar to that in Figure 1055.)
(d) Transform the system impedance of the
lter from1 to 50 . (The circuit will now
be in a form similar to that in Figure 10
56.)
(e) Replace the parallel LC circuits by short
circuited stubs in parallel with lumped
capacitors. (The circuit will now be in a
form similar to that in Figure 1059.)
(f) For each inverter, derive the three
lumpedelement equivalent circuit as in
Figure 1020. Do not update the lter pro
totype yet, but instead draw and label
the lumpedelement equivalent circuits
of each inverter.
(g) Replace each inverter in the bandpass
lter prototype by the lumpedelement
equivalent circuit derived above, but
now update the stubs with their new
impedances. The nal prototype will
now have the form of that in Figure 10
63.
14. The lowpass prototype of a lowpass Butter
worth lter is shown below.
L L C C
1 2 3 4
1
1
V
g
L1 = 0.765369 H C2 = 1.847759 F
L3 = 1.847759 H C4 = 0.765369 F
Based on this, develop a fourthorder Butter
worth bandpass lter prototype centered at
10
9
rad/s with a fractional bandwidth of 5%.
(a) Scale the lowpass prototype to have a cor
ner frequency of 10
9
rad/s. Drawthe pro
totype with element values.
(b) Draw the schematic of the lumped
element fourthorder Butterworth band
pass prototype based on the above low
pass lter prototype.
(c) Derive the element values of the lumped
element bandpass lter prototype.
594 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH
15. Design a thirdorder type 2 Chebyshev high
pass lter with a corner frequency of 1 GHz,
a system impedance of 50 , and 0.2 dB rip
ple. There are a number of steps in the design,
and to demonstrate that you understand them
you are asked to complete the table below. For
each stage of the lter synthesis you must in
dicate whether the element is an inductance or
a capacitance by writing L or C in the appro
priate cell. Other cells require a numeric value
and you must include units. The X element is
identied in the prototype below. A Cauer 2
lowpass lter prototype is shown with c be
ing the corner radian frequency, fc = c/(2)
being the corner frequency, and Z0 being the
system impedance.
X
1
X
2
3
1
1
X
(a) Complete the LPF (lowpass lter) column
of the table with c = 1 rad/s, Z0 = 1 .
(b) Complete the HPF (highpass lter) col
umn of the table with c = 1 rad/s, Z0 =
1 .
(c) Complete the second HPF column of the
table with fc = 1 GHz, Z0 = 1 .
(d) Complete the third HPF column of the ta
ble with fc = 1 GHz, Z0 = 50 .
ELEMENT LPF HPF
c = 1 rad/s, Z0 = 1 c = 1 rad/s, Z0 = 1
L or C Value (units) L or C Value (units)
X1
X2
X3
ELEMENT HPF HPF
fc = 1 GHz, Z0 = 1 fc = 1 GHz, Z0 = 50
L or C Value (units) L or C Value (units)
X1
X2
X3