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additive bilingual education n also additive bilingualism a form of BILINGUAL EDUCATION in which the language of instruction is not the

mother tongue or home language of the children, and is not intended to replace it. In an additive bilingual education programme the first language is maintained and supported. For example, the bilingual programmes in French for English-speaking Canadians are intended to give the children a second language, not to replace English with French. When the language of instruction is likely to replace the childrens first language, this is called subtractive bilingualism. ambi-bilingualism n the ability to function equally well in two or more languages across a wide range of domains. bicultural adj biculturalism n a person who knows the social habits, beliefs, customs, etc. of two different social groups can be described as bicultural. A distinction is made between biculturalism and BILINGUALISM. For example, a person may be able to speak two languages, but may not know how to act according to the social patterns of the second or foreign language community. This person can be described as bilingual, but not as bicultural. bidialectal adj bidialectalism n a person who knows and can use two different DIALECTS can be described as bidialectal. The two dialects are often a prestige dialect, which may be used at school or at work and is often the STANDARD VARIETY, and a non-

prestige dialect, which may be used only at home or with friends. bilingual adj a person who uses at least two languages with some degree of proficiency. In everyday use bilingual usually means a person who speaks, reads or understands two languages equally well (a balanced bilingual), but a bilingual person usually has a better knowledge of one language than another. For example, he/she may: a be able to read and write in only one language b use each language in different types of situation or DOMAINS, e.g. one language at home and another at work c use each language for talking about school life and the other for talking about personal feelings The ability to read and write a second or foreign language does not necessarily imply a degree of bilingualism. bilingual education n the use of a second or foreign language in school for the teaching of content subjects. Bilingual education programmes may be of different types and include: a the use of a single school language which is not the childs home language. This is sometimes called an IMMERSION PROGRAMME. b the use of the childs home language when the child enters school but later a gradual change to the use of the school language for teaching some subjects and the home language for teaching others. This is sometimes called maintenance bilingual education.

c the partial or total use of the childs home language when the child enters school, and a later change to the use of the school language only. This is sometimes called transitional bilingual education or early exit bilingual education. When the school language is a STANDARD DIALECT and the childs home language a different dialect (e.g. Hawaiian Creole, Black English) this is sometimes called bidialectal or biloquial education. bilingualism n the use of at least two languages either by an individual (see BILINGUAL) or by a group of speakers, such as the inhabitants of a particular region or a nation. Bilingualism is the norm in the majority of the countries of the world. compound bilingualism n the theory that a bilingual person relates words to their meanings in one of two ways. Compound bilingualism means that the bilingual has one system of word meanings, which is used for both the first and the second language. For a French/English bilingual, the French word pain (bread) and the English word bread have the same meaning. Co-ordinate bilingualism means that the bilingual has two systems of meanings for words; one system is for the words the person knows in the first language and the other is for the words he or she knows in the second language. For a French/English bilingual the French word pain and the English word bread would not have exactly the same meanings. This theory was an attempt

to show how the different conditions under which people become bilingual could lead to different systems of meaning. The distinction between compound and co-ordinate bilingualism has been used in studies of vocabulary learning, but has not been found useful as a general model of bilingualism. developmental bilingual education n also late-exit bilingual education bilingual education programmes for language minority students who enter school with limited or no proficiency in English but who are proficient in other languages. Such programmes are intended to maintain the students proficiency in home languages while promoting effective development of English. early-exit/late-exit bilingual education programmes n a term to distinguish two kinds of Transitional Bilingual Education programmes. Early-exit programmes move children from bilingual classes in the first or second year of schooling. Late-exit programmes provide bilingual classes for three or more years of elementary schooling. immersion programme n a form of BILINGUAL EDUCATION and used to describe programmes which serve language majority students and which use a second or foreign language to teach at least 50% of the curriculum during the elementary or secondary grades. For example, there are schools in Canada for English-speaking children, where French is the language of instruction. If these children are taught in French for the whole day it is called a total

immersion programme, but if they are taught in French for only part of the day it is called a partial immersion programme. submersion programme n a form of BILINGUAL EDUCATION in which the language of instruction is not the FIRST LANGUAGE of some of the children, but is the first language of others. This happens in many countries where immigrant children enter school and are taught in the language of the host country. two-way immersion education n a type of mainly US bilingual education in which students learn through two languages in programmes that aim to develop dual language proficiency along with academic achievement. Both minority and Englishspeaking students acquire a second language. Instruction is provided both through the L1 of the minority students and through English. Such programmes integrate language minority and language majority students and provide content area instruction as well as language development in two languages. Students from the 2 language backgrounds are in each class and they are integrated for most or all of their content instruction. community literacy n Reading skills associated with nonschool-related reading, such as those required to participate in neighbourhood or community activities and the reading of signs, advertisements and documents. computer literacy n computer literate adj having sufficient knowledge and skill in the use of computers and

computer software to be able to live in a computer-orientated society. critical applied linguistics n an approach that applies the theories and methods of CRITICAL THEORY to problems in language education, literacy, discourse analysis, language in the workplace, translation, and other language related domains. critical literacy n an approach to the teaching of literacy which seeks to show how social identities and power relations become primary goals of analysis, critique, and study. Critical reading in such an approach seeks not only to develop the ability to interpret texts but also the ability to perceive the connections between social conditions and the reading and writing practices of a culture, to be able to analyze those practices, and to develop the critical and political awareness to take action within and against them. cultural literacy n familiarity with cultural and other types of knowledge (e.g. literary, historical, political, artistic) regarded as necessary for informed participation in a nation or culture. Cultural literacy may or may not be something possessed by a person who is bilingual. empowerment n the provision or development of skills, abilities, knowledge and information that could help someone improve his or her conditions. Empowerment is often viewed as a goal to assist people with low status, influence and power increase their chances of prosperity, power, and

prestige. In some contexts second language courses seek not merely to teach language skills but to empower students to seek action to redress injustices they experience. Literacy and biliteracy are major means of empowering individuals and groups. heritage language learner n also heritage learner a term that is sometimes used to refer to learners who acquired a particular language as their first language at home and subsequently study that language. Special courses are sometimes designed for such learners, for example, Spanish for Spanish speakers in the US, whose verbal fluency in Spanish is often more advanced than their literacy-related skills (because their education has been in English). Other writers use the term more generally to refer to any learner of a language who considers that language to be part of his or her cultural heritage. literacy n literate adj the ability to read and write in a language. The inability to read or write is known as illiteracy. Functional literacy refers to the ability to use reading and writing skills sufficiently well for the purposes and activities which normally require literacy in adult life. An inability to meet a certain minimum criterion of reading and writing skill is known as functional illiteracy. A person who is able to read and write in two languages is sometimes called (a) biliterate. In recent years, several different approaches to the study of literacy have

developed in education and applied linguistics, including a linguistic approach which focuses on oral written language relationships, language variation, and genres; a cognitive approach which focuses on PERCEPTION and reading, writing and comprehension processes; and a sociocultural perspective which treats literacy as social practice and deals with issues such as socialization into literacy, the sociocultural context of literacy, and the authority of written discourse. literacy practices n culture-specific ways of utilizing literacy in everyday life, related to peoples social roles and identities.